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INA I N- 2 COMPUTER GRAPHICQ AND ART Ma l976 GRACE c_ HER]-LUN, [dim'. THE MAGAZINE OF INTERDISCIPLINARY COMPUTER GRAPHICS FOR CN"' State Univu Chico GRAPHICS PEOPLE AND COMPUTER ARTISTS. JUDY CALLAHAN, Editorial Asst. BARBARA WOLMER, Production Asst. ART BERKELEY ENTERPRISES, INC., Publisher conwibutin Editors l - FRON;yCg\;:;;E;C;ré1:\i`na'§gggl Ergrrrzigcrk of the Ordinal TS" ALFRED BORK, Univ. of Calif., Irvine CHARLES CSURL Omg State UML) A - EDITERIASL - TEE STATE OF THE ART OF COMPUTER ART HEBBERTNFIUSFRNNRE Munich Germany y(C;?N;§YiS0nSV¤FEd:rly computer art and todays ABRAHAM MOLES, univ. Af Sémvanag, ggggr gpg; .g··~·;;gg··s= NAM Is M *·· ¤°·"¤·**" France ‘ ‘ NIC¥2|gQ?_"§§:,g$?g;;; M"' °f 6 - INEXPENSIVE_|GRAPHI(;S_FREl;1 A sgcgxxge {uga M _ mc TEIcHOLz, Harvard Univ., NY C"' “.U· Img? a" ESI · °""‘“· Cambridge, Mass. Tulane Univ., New r eans, a.‘ g [Illustrations and photographic techniques used Advisor Bmw Newby; to achieve graphics from a storage tube CRT.) ~ 6 - AN INVESTIGATION OF CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING COMPUTER ART EDMg2E1$ghgE$K§;;:én$?]lg? QQ;} néhrganaa 2. Linehan, onia State Univ., caiunaus, “"T~TN$"ITTT‘?"I¤TNA¥??S’ Tsam.:€2:::*1z.°;.;Nz:;".:;;.N2:**2:.:.. FRANK MALINA. Editor, "Le0nard¤"A . . . ’ . ’ paris, France tmnalist doctrines for evaluating art.) FRI§E;5,EgAKEg,:;;,;' °f mma"` 9 - Pcivuurw · NOTICES, ANNOUNCEMENTS, conuems JACKIE Pom, Social Security Adn., Um" IU C”'"I’““' ’U*‘“S namnnra, rd. Q NET; TT? ’*“'U‘°” NSEEZ ‘.$C$§2..$.;F‘Z'A..§35°¥§?¥Z.2. Ness N Eogmcm Flushing, New vevk $YTT¤T" Nee ed io . Nc; *76 ART EXHIBITION - NEW YORK CITY, JUNE 7-l0 MATERIALS SUBMITTED FTIR PUBLICATION Inrarnnmn on the funn distinctive exnnmaans SHDULD BE IN ENGLISH (WITH AN ABSTRACT), gf computer art to be shown at the NCC `76. with TYPED DOUBLE SPACED ON STANDARD LETTER— Jagkie Pqtgg ag Arts Chairman. COPIES OF THE NCC ARTISTS AND THEIR COMMENTS AND WORK: EDITOR, compurzn GRAPHICS Ann Am ll - MANUEL BARBADILLG Berkeley Enterprises, Inc., Chim Branch l2 - HIROSHI KAHANO g:?CXTlgT¥;?S§gg§g5 13 » KENNETH KNOWLTON (Ph : 9l6)343-27lZl ILLUSTRATIONS ARE ¤ssIAAm.e WITH IA · MANIRED NUNTT I5 - GEURG NEES Ne are applying to the U.S.P0stal Sew/Tee T¤r sewnd Class M¤ITI··¤ I6 - JOHN mv and EDWARD msc SUBSCRIPTION RATES, BILLING OFFICES, 17 . ZDENEK Symp;} and RQGER VILDER ADVERTISING RATES AND OTHER BUSINESS QUESTIONS $N°U'·'T BE SENT T°= is - nmmi. cumvumz susan scuwiumz convcsm or cmouncn Business Office ELEMENTS COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND ART by Lawrence I. Nazieck, Univ, ar aneipn, Ontario, Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. Canada ATE N¤5NT'*9T°” $***9* (Three—dimensi¤nal eniaur patterndevelopvnent Newtonville, Mass. 02lSD using a Cgiiuiar growth concept is explored, COPVMGHY 1976 b-Y Bgrkewy Ente,.pr.iSEs_ resulting in sculpture - heavily illustrated.) I"°" N€`"l°""m°’ Mmf _ 25 - or SHOES AND smvs AND SERPENTS COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND ART 1s published by Colin Evrmett, London, England Iwrterlv. A Issues ver vw- Printed (Illustration and eannents on the Avark uy cna in une U,S.A. artist.) ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION RATES 26 — VDRE FROM NCC ‘76 P€'$°"°T» U·$· A CT”‘¤‘T°· $TU PET Year by Jean-Claude Marquette, Paris, France and PE’$°"¤T· F°"€T9"· N3 RRI WAT Sture Junannesson and Sten Kallin, Malmo, Sweden Library, Departmental, SI5 per year (Illustrations and brief comments.) SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE ON A PREPAID BASIS. 2 COMPUTER GR/1l'II!C.S` and ART jar May. l976

COIYIPUTCR GRAPHICS APID ART , .l\, . . <`,__ ,/.;‘· ,§ \ THE MAGAZINE OF INTERDISCIPLINARV COMPUTER GRAPHICS FOR r;>,», I GRAPHICS PEOPLE AND COMPUTER ARTISTS. (/.5 ·‘_{’ I ` `\ I, f/ { · TABLE OF CONTENTS · CUNELUDED J, /V/_/{/;; I ‘\?·— · ' _ / rl/;7", jj; I/. , \* Arg ’ ‘ 28 - Conciusicn, DIGITAL COMPUTEILBASED SCULPTURE ,,,;"/ Y.; ".{};,·' g Q V; ` ` _ ` _ COMPUSEU OF CULUUPED ELEMENTS, L. MAZTAQR, 4,;//yi/I L, jj { _» ` _ — .·' .* » :~ ,I*r I Nin I . V »··· ¢¢;" ‘!'¤‘.·.· . · 29 - MORE FROM NCC `76 4} ' gy 'I {I//'4/Iéryiyg r‘\_Y·l_’§ ~ _· _ A`IOHabcticaI hating or participating purses · v·$%;·'»j.< ·, ,_ , from ICCH/2 (InternationaI Conference of ·4_· ·,_=, .L;,_%>, /;_/\;~ },*.‘,_ j canpuuerg and me rmnranmes Exmnmun). r. /q·._-/,’ ‘Q»;, ‘ I 30 - Ani Rarrzooumons » THE rmsr sm y *_;‘,r Z - , (ITIustrati¤ns and coupon for Bonus Purchase 4_,·? ··_7`._. U ~gQQ»·_._—,~f·f-_—Q,-_·,‘-,~·,~_ r ~ , ` uf art: graphics by Grace C. Hertiein.) · *.5 ‘r A · j ’;· I _· 32 — C¤m;Ius1¤n, GRAPHICS FROM A STORAGE CRT. C. Tritcnie . ·' ,· _·_-’ -}.*,33 .4,Z.j *.1 D R. Murriss. " {RL ‘.`_"-.",'.' /.’j»f·"/'»`~ ·· .‘`~.` ~ ’‘.··‘‘ . --i»1·f·- if 33 - ANNOUNCEMENT — COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND ART : 4r//'_‘.`i*;’·v-;·`T*,"_`,`\ \"/_j-';}·?,>},*C{' gy .`\<_·, =_" ‘ _*‘$If,`§` '/H '.{ /2/I, yy 34 — ANr—10uNcEMsNi » c0MPui£R$ AND r>L0r>Lr . j ‘ _j‘ yyig;. Q 61;;%.; Q ,·; ’·,j··7 _ _ _ . , r -.\_·;‘ ir ;yfI #4 36 — BACK COVER, "TH&0r&ticaT Space Projection" nf _· s.‘.,j\_' ’ ',·v,;/.· /0 /,_, hy Manfred Mohr, Paris, France . . ~¤_»‘¤_¤Q¥; j j•,»'·l/'»_ \ I »»_~_\y_'r1,/// 4_·4'r/ `~.\ » ·.\, , .l[.{ ry 4*/ AT RIGHT: "Froin me Cube Serics", by Huward Fegarsky. \ I CaIif0rrria State Univ.. Chico, Caiifornia, * { an BCIVBYICEG graphics Studént of G. HQr‘(TH1¥\. ._' I I _'/ 2(THTS 1S DUE of B SEVTSS of ZS YGIBCEG WGFKS A i_ l/` by Hmfa Fegarsky.) I5 SHORT COURSES POR THE PROFESSIONALS WHO SHAPE OUR ENVIRONI’IENT APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION: j§§§Q§j,g,, E " Q§,§,“§,,‘§i'I‘_,§f,§$ wgigm $$2 pigmaumpieeelmsawnamanwimueposal4$s¤,wpm¤urse.¤r.m¤»m¤¤ay Farms order payable in UScurrsn¤y) drawn In Iris order or lhs HGSD Asscciallun \¤ lu¤e2s» ] z aunaingunaerqmunu rumen :250 .Iuna30.1S75 Msusnais S 25 Mrs Ruben McManus _m,,°x_ D 3 A,,ph¤m¤,wmc|,,_ Tumm SMU C¤¤rdIr1a10r,C0nIinuing Edu¤a\i¤rrPr0grar1r luiyzqam ¤¤m»EIam¤¤¤¤re»aln Mamie. S es. Harvvm Gr¤¤¤¤¢¤Scr·¤¤¤¤lDe5¤¤r¤ Analysis LVSW, Gund HaII .lune2B— j 4. The Develcpmanlulrleai Tumnn $:75 Cambridge,MassacrulsstIsU213B .luIy 2,1976 Prupeny Marenzus S 25 TeIspH¤ne (6104952575 Jury 17 E s. woman aenznarana muon szru .luIy E~ j 6 Pinnneu Lana Develop ruiqmn 3255 ` ` ¤l.¤w¤n»—: ` Sesto Current Issues TITLE »luIv1$,1?75 Design Prolessrcnar Mayeuaie 5 eu )—~— )" MI IB, Im .,..§.,,.fIi$.,,ZL@i'" L;{;jg,sv $2 ¤usIn;ss¢ELE»»n¤nE . .) JHIYWY Q10. Inlenurbesignlnrrluleis mmun. $275 JPWA *976 Malanans. s 25 I-lcsnnumnusv ,, +,3 .luIY2B. I,]12 Evzluat1ngScIarHaa\ing Tumcn $22D fZ§l§P?£,m. `]'“‘ 35??$.Z°°“°”`“"”’"°'°’ $$2;,. ii? ; ¤..........m..nm¤¤..r......, EU¤¤.Mi...¤..r...rk...,....... ggggggggjms L"- j;;_*g;;¤;§*=;g·=g$= Lg;;;`s ygg ;may»¤u.W¤¤mm¤.¤.·.¤¤S Nw..,..¤·,;§;n.r¤r»¤uri A lg;. C°"‘P“‘B' _ ima HOH¤ayInnIparl¤¤¤pan1s¤I1heManaqemen1 Aagg;¤2¤.¤9r¤l4¤¤ys> mm `M°R°°T”"""“°°“"° ,Q‘§,‘{Q?j}§T“"'°" YE ¤¤¤rs=¤¤w> ri¤¤m¤e»0»pmmv¤rv¤urz cumwm wv lj may HSI mamma ?D“‘° Auquslzz V is :we.¤ayruiI.¤¤ sales COMPUTER GRAPHICS uml ART/br' Muir, 1976 I

THE STATE OF THE ART OF COMPUTER ART: PHASE TWO IN THE BEGINNING It was a great satisfaction to see the movement "back to art". In Phase One of computer art, a new art form arose naturally (but inevitably) as scientists used In Phase Two, computer art is taken from the computer. Phase One began with the exhibition output devices, and is an intermediate step beorganized by Jasia Reichardt titled "Cybernetic fore implantment in art media. Photography is Serendipity". The exhibition featured experiments often the means by which computer art output is in art and technology, in which scientists explored taken into silkscreening, etching, and lithovaried art forms and the computer. This happy graphy, Graphics explorations using overlays, accident was not an accident, for it was preceded Diazochrome acetates, photographic combinations, by the Bauhaus experiments in mathematics and art, etc. are but a few new experiments. and the artistic world was populated with prophets who sought, via mathematics, to find new art forms. But there will be other explorations-â&#x20AC;&#x201D;they These people found computers, and gave us a new are inevitable. And these new experiments, in art medium that is now implanted in many art forms. Phase Three will he in heuristic programming that is aesthetic in final form._ Thus far, the ideas In Phase One, a great many of the practitioners and programs are interesting, but generally the of computer art were scientists, mathematicians, output leaves very much to be desired. Artifiand individuals with strong programing backgrounds. cial intelligence may give way to aesthetic inEven in these early stages of Phase One, some clas- telligence and output! And this new art will be sical works of computer art were created. A great one in which we come full circle: mathematics, many works of early computer art were merely visu- science, integrated with art. alizations from computer science, science, and mathematics. They possessed some charm, with moire, CAN NE DEFINE ART? or interference patterns dominant in final works. Many of the artists in Phase One continue their There are measurable elements of art. See computer art: Charles Csuri, Ken Knowlton, Duane the May, 1974 Qgmgnterg and People, "Computer Art: Palyka, Manfred Mohr, Georg Nees, Herbert Franke. Towards a Measurable Analysis", by the editor. John Whitney. Michael Noll, and many others. Art often possesses some of these qualities: Randomization was very popular, along with l. A new vision, which may be engendered by new decrementing, rotating polygon forms and trans- ideas from other worlds other than art. formations of patterns. 2. The microcosm and the macrocosm are revealed. THE TRANSITION 3. New materials and new tools give rise to new Artists began collaborating with programmers. art forms. Braver souls learned programming and worked alone. Eventually a new breed of artist emerged: one 4. The new medium is sufficiently learned so that with training in the fine arts, with new experi- the artists freely express themselves in varieties ences with computers. of highly personal products. Many of these new artists became so profiâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5. The "leap of the imagination" is the most imcient, that they worked entirely alone, and de- portant element of art, in which the mind and eye fected from the manual arts, to embrace the in- absorb and synthesize tools, materials, ideas, terdisciplinary areas of art and technology, with and life experiences. highly varied media experimentations, with highly diversified styles and products. Then art is born anew. This art moves the viewer and elicits an emotive, visceral. gutPHASE TNU level response, as well as an intellectual reaction. Art is a total experience. And computer In coordinating the ICCH/2 Exhibition that art is becoming such a total experience. will be shown at the NCC '76, I could strongly perceive a great difference between this new art In the very near future, computer art will and that of Phase One. The viewers agree also: become a common, accepted art form that many this new art looks more like art. It is a more people will enjoy and practice. Computer art mature art form. It is more pleasing. It has applications will be implanted in many useful, more color, more form, more emotion, more poetry. everyday functions as well. It is often a game. "esoterica mathematica", as one of my ln Phase Two, computer art has been implanted friends put it recently. May it grow in beauty. in art. In Phase Une, computer art output was May it grow freely, without dogmas. from cathode ray tubes, animated systems and static plotters. There was an artistic war between the animated practitioners and those who desired mm mms. Slight aagnas arose and fell with time. Didactic persons claimed that race C. Hertlein certain forms of computer art were more "pure" Editor than other forms. I was criticized back in l968 and l969 for using too many art materials, and using computer art as an "art" medium. 4 COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May, 1976

BY CHARLES J. FRITCHIE, PROF. OF CHFMISTIQI Sr ROBERT H. MBRRISS, PROF. OF PHYSICS TULZQE UNIVERSITY Many institutions do not have plotter capabilities, but NEW ORLEANS, IA. 70118 can afford the inexpensive and reliable Tektronix 1B" storage tubes. The techniques used by Professors Fritchie and Norriss are helpful in attaining finished, film output from these storage tubes, and the film output may then be taken mto other art media. /` ({y. ?•"%,` Musee L! » ,_».»Y»_r ~|4," V e •$ R <- 1**;* ·»`i$<£?\\ - ` J er- c:¤·’¤=s>6~:>:e:<¢·.. Q T. Veg ‘ iuyjyew e ·.—', ,‘ __} J, `_ iS;h, _f“_ _.’ fits ‘,_i · »—.e¢Y'5.`=® * / \“· """M"' ’° ` " ’ •$?§;&·'EV'i·e ` R `§*¤,!:Y? » ' y' .r' . ‘ ~" `, ` ' l. §”·r \ \$§*e;, pl P ‘ yl, \é,.4g » xt 0 . \ gig ,,,•`w · gl`. / t »_·~-a ll. l ,6 ,¢§F%»¤,» 1 4 ` \ # 7 ,— kg :·.,;···E;%a ’ (A ` “\ \» hun »·>"~ ~= ‘~• 4\`\w ‘\ q;··¥ ·\\!'El!s"~‘··` ` QW, V`) \ \`\"’*’ " " ·¥ 5gv <Q·*f_a». yuh M? * " .¢§¤$* “\“c=‘€$* ` A V »,.,..·`e;aa 47 YP * \ \ / \ x{> my 7 —·* he \Vqm2ve.? r::§'*¤s?•g4¢) a l 4 . i ’ - kw · I ree}; .~·t,< ' ~•e é yl #*5} Q¤*°*‘*$sW*‘< e `; '»"" eL' ; l sem · w ·» r » e.= T1 [ \( 0 K1., <¥£<1l‘=- 2A§`®·_/¢\ M r\¤* ,;¤:1»3) 'F‘ -51** ‘ ·£ { . ·i' » t anew Figure 4, above: White images on a black background, typical of CRT (and microfilm) output. (For nnre examples of graphics by Professors Frimhie and Nbrriss, see page 32.) we have been cxperinenting mm graphics on Figure 5 wes prcduced by e seperete PURYRAN a Tektrenier ls" ateraee eatharze ray tube ter ee vrecrsm tust drews segments cf eclyccns inscribed plorations in eur teaching et chenietry and within concentric circles. Physics. The cmmputtur used in our work is an . Interdata 7/16, and programs are written in PHOTOGRAPHING CRT GRAPHICS FORTRAN. The qraphics were photographed with a Figures l through 7 were produced by a pm- Mirends directly fren the CRT, usinc hisn ¤¤n— qran that crave one or more sides er a polyqon trest ccpy film- lest were snct at t=4. usinq inscribed within a circle, then randomly picks eu e><l>¤su¤re tim cf ehcut one second and dee a new circle tanarmtial re the earlier ene, and velcped in D-19. Prints were then made using ,313,,,5 pag Of H pclyucn L,-scribed wjthm the ng., high contrast Agfa Brovira (Grade 6) for ficircle. Ln figures 6 and 7, each curve produced curee l—5, 7. B, and medium contrast Kodak this way ia repeated after ehert hetizenral and ivvdshrcnide (F—3) For flqure 6, all developed vertical trenelatiene. in Dektcl. COMPUTER GRAPIIICS mh! ART jbr Mhy N76 5

FDR EVALUATING COMPUTER ART EY THOMAS E. LINEHAN "In its brief history, computer art has stretched the DEPARTMENT OF ART EDUCATION i\1ll breadth of the continuum from static art object to dynamic OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY ’real-time', including interactive displays, ..Is the work of art COLUMBUS, OHIO 43210 the computer-generated object, the generating program or both?" CHANGING CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THE AESTHETIC IDEA THE MACHINE PROCESS AND SEARCH FOR AN AESTEETIC As the aesthetic object moves on a continuum Th k d _ from a stable, non-changing piece of material to e eeee wer e evpeere te te ¤e111¤s ette¤ti¤¤ changing, progressively uenaterieiiring expression te the unique new $1¤r>e¤e1¤¤ ¤f_the pmeeee by_wh¤eh of an aesthetic ieee, criteria for the evaluation they were mede- Mteheel M1 ¤¤ feet eteted m of the aesthetic object-ieee must change as well, thie reserdr "The ertiet'e 'i¤eee’ end net Me techAs Physical structure dematerializes into comtep- Iiicel Hbility ih manipulating media could be the imtual structure, there ere inherent problems for Perteet feeter 1¤ ¤ete¤·um¤s ertletw ¤·e¤t·"3 the critic. What is to be criticized, the fading , _ ghost of matter, or the emerging aura or concepty N vHB1l;°ld H‘;;€“bE’gi"'Bi_l€d t° TT?’k mttee ew cor er, " e insp ra ion of mac ine ar is EARLY (ggmppmga ART/AEg»ypLETI¤S problem-solving; its chief aesthetic principle is the logical adjustment of means to end." In its brief history computer srt has stretched BOW P°?i*€°¤E S$P¤‘-me the ?"§‘l‘;‘“*°i°" M "jdgs" the full breadth of the continuum from static art ite HE B Principle i`°°“S fm? °““°“S"» ject to dynamic, real-time", interacti di l . Several fine books by Jesia Reichardt,VI?Ierb;5tEys Jmk Bumhm °1Ei‘“$ thet the °°““’“P°““'Y Franke, and Douglas Davis detail this progressive Systéms Ernst hee b"°“€ht “$ *0 a "!’°“"`°T"‘“` mOv@m€nt_3 new esthetic], This "post—formalist esthetic" is a "systems aesthetic? Computer prints made from CRT displays or *7ri 7 i;‘§Z' V mechanical plotters first raised the issue for the elrggee ,·/if ji V critic as to whether man or machine were to be cre- ;¥$,;€>€§\/gd ‘ » ee dited with this new type of "artirsotw Another $;gZ;§‘@*‘»$"`*;ji* i 4-`fe»¤·,_ _ question raised was, "Is the work of art the core 6 <' 2 X puter-generated object, the generating program or J fri] ` ,}?;·,`i , uoth·2u Early computer art objects also demone y N L3 ,,§>e, ,'./ strated a certain playfulness in regard to re- R g '}\_ \\ ` Nui ."‘\ /wJ spected historical ert work, (Charles Csuri, {agri ug \ >,y/ * "Vitruvius Man," by DaVinci; Michael Noll, */ ij \g;/JVariations on "Currenz" by Bridget Riley and uvitruvius Manu by Chang; (jguri "Compositicn with Lines," by Nondrian, etc. ). l, "Real-time" pertains to the performance of a computation during the acpual time th?. the related physical process the display transIEE I E. gs , Q, DCA;] pires ih oreer that the results or the come n-EEE Flalulzlgl! __ putatieh csh he used in guiding the physical ;_E!p;¤Mp: d;;:!=··. ,:E¤ - ¤F°°9“· qE»e·¤us e-uma ·“|I| ans; ¤ se:--ujullll! I I-- :1 ,, . ,, . e . 1 l I r!-|;, !!-[$*.5..:; ;_ Interactive describes-the inter- sy, the wg §l!E"!.;=§E;’..,.;7;I1q|.|l communica zion, the reciprocal stimulation that ei E:§+;?:isis=·mu .'· geee er between are or more reactive organn=E;E!,!§§'E!§E!IE!: law!. isms. In this context, the organismshar; ihed .=. · nail! —is.1;i ,h I pereer.<e> ee the eereeie, cn the one an , er lei;] agi-.uE:§a.EL!! I., Eau- the progranmec computer(s) on the other. i§§ B? 5E 2. Jaais Reiohardt. The Computer in Art. New '-sz: ' Qwiqiwe :ji#g§lé'§§§§ yerk; ven Nostrand neihhole, l9'7l. H '1`.!§¤d§~QhL-*!~¤•?=·!¤ Herbert Franke. Computer Graphics - Computer H; -e!.usjI’n.`!i ,.!§:ll].lIe! ' AI., ·—·—··—— .5 ggg:·:*!-il wie n·‘h:~s·;· ¤u··a I <· _ _ ' Ea ·* lh] rgllg oeugies Davie. Art and the ruture. New York: Dm E.: “ nm. n :I. no I- Praeger, 1973, - 3. A. Michael Noll. "The Digital Computer as A Creative Medium," in Computers and Man, Richard C. Dorf, Editor. San Francisco: H Boyd and Fraser, l9’74, ` Random Squeres" by Herbert Franke, from the ` §,g;§§B§"Q;E$;;°“é °v"'°fIklfE]·B‘·°d “° the 2.. Jack Burnham, "Systems Esthetics," in ceeeepts S Y ·°’ ~· in art Education, George Pappas, Editor. 6 COMPUTER GRAPHICS uml ART for MMV. 197b

"J. sgrszers aesthetic presumes that Charles L7s‘..ri ’s e>;j;l:rin; tai; eiajnificznco one jzetzerzis o1' advanced technology with what hc calls ihe "iw~=il-time art r>\:_`cc1." snould not be abandoned For simpler li(‘e patterns. Machines and informa- "Kea'L—Lime coyrputer art objects are Zinn syszeyrs are not alien to hureli en inteileciual concept which can be vielfare, but appear to be comzaziblc ·:i:1;all;.* a>;;~c*·i:—ncc4E refer :;.2; as a extensions of iz. '.2'iLEiir· anis context finalized raaterial object. This kind tie place of the artist becomes less cf` o:>m:·; art exists for tie zine, precisely defined. He is rc: so nruch tris participant and the compmcr with an artisan Forming handcrafted arti— ine CET iisplay are interactina a facts lr the tradi1’onal sense, but zrccess. Ina art ahject is not che srrxecne suprereljs sensitive tc the ccrzdter cr tie éisjznlay, kai 2:c ac— e1·>l·:Er.¤ ezrxfrcrgeni."7 tiiitg: L? brim interictin: with ire participant. ln acditicr to it: arBurnhrun newer explicetes the criteria no be fieaizv "mraneiers. the oontenv of this usod ir this proposed "sjrstews aes;hot?c." Ha gy-; {‘;,y;y in tieuuexhiard. upon the ¤1,~’u5J“i2& does, however, gc on no ooint oai that rruck s' of ; real-Zine nrcezoss vbixh rivas t·i~ contemporary art appear: tc ke calling for the i;lit;: arc li’a to he rienal #:i.¤rla;,‘ : J? T·rnalis: criieritz, Yircuyz. arirazisn and user·iciicr."` “The snccific i'unc*ion of nndern dicaccic art has hcen to shaw that ari docs not reside in material en— tisies, txt in relation: Eietvxeev pearle and =:,e ccrtrrnenis in their a·.—1»m·m¤ . **6 miie earl; computer art graphics tends; no i create problems For the critic, and c<>!\'pute1‘— y enmami rms cempmeami are pmnem, Jack # ‘ ivxrlcy at Lees?. had the touersicne of ine ‘a~ ,// " . serial ckject as ine point ci` reference. Right- ` '/ ` fully or rot, the graphic work and the animated Film could at least be subjected to criteria onwvzxxnly used For worka hemrging cc these classes. ‘ However, computer artists have raised distinct prcxhlows for the critics as their work de¤ciez*i— ' I elizce and zzoves on whe continzzuw progressively closer ta: pure "i:.ea" expression, l}ITE?AC`L`l‘.'L., ?ll1AI—Tl}]J EXPEFlE\IQES/OBJECTS namcdé qa}, whe with Lighh pgn _ _ V , hy Charles Fszuri Peceni ccrnuier sjzrnplncs researcz; c;'i`er: :;:e (Emrhic bafore mmimlléticn of Fhlwx) capamiliijz for 11.e first nine in niszory, for iize BZLDQE Charles psuriy y_;Cdu—,E $,3 FCTL human Fein; to interact with an icoric represey- T,_.Sr;U,Lj,',€]}, ;jB:,j],,_lHa.E,:' *at`mtn in "w—eal—tirm." Unlike film which is v"rnzen in a static, periodic sequence, the "resle time" iconic: representation is respozzsive tc various :~r:icx·i:;gs Z;r sirucixre, surface q.e— liiies, ami :~o'.‘c*·en1.> at huran cniimxs siven r zhmugh cenypumr me\1;a<s¤¤. The si-aerinqe can ` I be mac szuiiject to may; whim, 1·;.¤¤1¤waes, or . gf \ eiqnamme aigaaizme. Ucrnmzer med-mzim pm- \\ l vides tne capability (`~r an iconic rcp~essnta— / `iw . I zicr ee be e;;ee;;;· ;ee:;—1ce¤1 a sjmcclic were- mn Semasen {**a;i;c·¢a;icaZ code) and rar E sprbeiie representation tc he e:-ioctl; cescrikeri as an iconic reprczcniation.7 'V'l.ese representatiors can be made subject to motion, manipulations, and transformations, ami maintain descriptive accdr- _ soy of one another. [ite linkirg weather 2i` ‘____;0 these owe separate vccoe cf represehtaiicn Rnould ‘ j;l'· _ appear to have area`. sianificance for art. ` _ .*3; 5, Jack Burnham, "Systens and Art," in Synergr V :·· tar. Systems enc Art. Research Study and De- I n'_ ‘ { )j· Yelcjnment in the Arts, University Extension, ` , * z¤;·»m·¤my oi Tfisconsin, Vaziison. /7 · `}1 6. Jack Burnnsou, "Syste1rs Esthetics," page 377. / 7. "Exact description" here means the capability of reproduction cf one representation based N_ _ _v__ __ on the code of the other, They clearly are 8- LNHNES (fS111“1» > §Z¤¤'»P¤i·€1' ;:l"HY>i-llie anu ~e HC/t exact descriptions of one another in a Proceedings oi tne IEEE, dol. 64, ic, .., pempmai msc. ¤¤¤1» -9% P~ 51% COMPUTER GRAPHIC? uml ART fbi Mar, I976 7

In this context, the traditional aesthetic ob- FORMALIST CRITERIA VS. I/EMIS END CRITERIA ject is not a "finalized material object," but rather a "visual experience," This experience is It might appear that aesthetic systems decharacterized by an "interactive quality" which signers have lead the critic to the .point where has fixed "artistic parameters." It would appear formalist criteria can only be applied in a sethat the artist in this case is acting like an condary way, and that means-end criteria become "aesthetic manager" or an "aesthetic systems en- the primary touchstone for analysis and evaluagineer." He determines the outside limits for the tion, Such criteria as utility, economy, effiexperience but permits a wide latitude of partici- ciency, instrumentality, conservation, etc. are pant action within the set confines. While the traditionally conceived of as extra-aesthetic. "real-time computer art objects" may have qualities However, the continued application of formalist which visually resemble the traditional aesthetic criteria to shrinking forms appears illogical. object, these are in fact lists of coordinate data which are subject to constant change and manipula- Figure l depicts the progression of the tion. These lists of coordinate data are like computer art object from material object to physical pictures in only an analgous way. expressive idea, and demonstrates the corresponding change in emphasis from formal criteria to The serious problem for the critic is that means-end criteria, Essentially this sets up a formalist criteria which might look for such things system which accommodates at one extreme the evalin the aesthetic object as unity, complexity, bal- uation of the systems artist’s idea or concept. ance, tension, expressiveness, etc,, can only be In current methods of phenomenological art criapplied t¤ expressions of ideas or experiences in ticism, this would be seen as committing the inan ancillary way. When these are applied to li- tentional fallacyr It is argued by proponents of terature, for example, the verbal components and this method, that the artist's idea or concept structural organization are criticized, and these may never be known, and that criticism should only are seen as the aesthetic object. be based on the work itself, However, the systems artist works in a fashion different from his more In this sense, the "real-time computer art traditional counterpart. A systems design method object" may be seen as akin to a work of litera- demands an elaborate plan - one in which goals, ture and its components and structural organization objectives and anticipated outcomes are clearly subjected to atformalist criticism. A model of specified, Options within the system are clearly criticism taken from drama might appear more ap- delineated, and the interaction of components is propriate in that it could also account for spatial specified. The systems artist leaves "tracks" and temporal organization. Models for film cri- throughout the planning process in the form of ticism would appear to account for the periodic flow charts, computer programs, and testing renature of the "real-time computer art object} but sults, Consequently there is data on which the none of these can account for the crucial component design process can be determined and evaluated. of "interactiveness . " AEST]-[ETH; DBJEQT CDNTINUUM Apsramxc ronx Static object embodiment I I of aesthetic idea I I Object moving or changing but under I static control of aesthetic idea I I Object in motion modified in time by I forces outside the aesthetic idea but subject to set parameters of the I aesthetic idea I I I Non-material expression of | | aesthetic idea Computer graphics Compu‘%er generated films Interactive! art objects Computer paintings Compuper controlled video "Real-time'% computer art objects Computer sculpture | | Conceptual art l\/DEANS-ENDS CRITERIA CONTINUUM FORMAL CRITERIA mmnni vrnnivrmnmllrrnml Hmmm lrml MMM wm F I G U H E l. 8 COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART f0r Mu}', 1976

While ultimately it is the "aesthetic outcome" which needs to be evaluated by the critic, a systems view would argue the necessary interconnectednesa of outcome with the design and planning proOFFER TO O(1VFPLI'1`EF ARTISTS Such a position is essentially consistent with hhe conception of` the artistic process as Artdists wishing to sell their work by direct qualitative problem-solving. This is a methc- nail to CGM-\ readers may send an illustration, a dological conception 0i` the a1·tia‘Lic process. description and price material, to be published in Ecker has developed this view in much 0i` his this maqazine. (See page 25 for exaxrple.) There writing. is no cost fm: this service. ".. .It may be said that qualitative As this develops, we may have a section de· problem solving is a mediation in voted to this service, ard reader feedback on this which qualitative relations as means is invited. are ordered to desired qualitative ends. Thus to choose qualitative A NOTE '10 AIITHORS ends is to achieve an artistic problem. Whenever qualitative problems Flowchaitts and Tables: Please send otiqinal are sought, pointed out to others, or and mhles with your materials. Otherwise a great solved, therein do we have artistic deal 0€ time is spent by the staff in redcinq Xerox endeavor —— art and art edu¤aLion."9 tables and Hmvcharts. Or yuu may send phot¤·ready (offset, mt: Xerox) Xmherials that are copy ready The term "quznlity" has been used to refer to a for the canera. standard 0i` excellence and to an attribute of some— thing; however, Chmnplin and Villemainla argue for Illustrations for Articles, Papers: In a methudcdological definition as well. Tn the or- graphics magazine, 1t appears desirable to mt dering of qualitative means, auch as lines, colors, nexely refer to specific qraphic mes and audwrs textures, the artist applies a "method" which in writimn material, but where feasible, to irclude searches for zi pervasive quality which may be com- illustrations related (Dr Closely related) to the mon to his previous work or consistent with a de- wnritten text. If a picture is worm a thousand sired style. This pervasive quality acts as a words, then illustrations accompanyinu a text speak "c0ntrol" or directive criterion in the process mare fully. Alan, the research described should of ordering qualitative means to qualitative ends. have sure illustrations of the final product. In the case of the "real-time computer art ]oAl?ject" a qualitative end might be described as a WE ` SUPEPIOR mm PFVIHAFRS WOR (Em`, igh degree of xnteractivaneas between the pru- , , . . . . (Mrrent reviews of literature, films, new texts Can gram and the participant. The computer artist . lua-bl rt. f hh, .06-i I The in mg context, must Emer all "qualitative be iT" ““’“ E PO mn ° *55**1 . Citi .1 Se ...E....·· (EEEE.E.m.EEg E..tEE.E> EE EEEEEQE the ewes my be me OY 1¤¤¤· ¤¤. my lm we alesdesima end. The EE-ust has eiected to give up ““%°“s· Bxcguent mdsl? ee L“‘ * . . . the Satuxda Feview ard Leonardo. me 0bgect’s stable form my a· fluidity ¤r ram ’J r ...L — which is to be characterized by its "responsiveness." Consequently, it is subject to criti- Pichascd Speer of Bvemreen College, Olympia, cism using responsiveness as 21 criterion within Washi.nqton_is our Film Peview Editor. a "means-ends" evaluative system. We invite someone to becme our Book Review In such a conception uf the artistic process Editor. This deparhlenh is one we wish to build it is impossible to criticize the "qualitative up quickly as a reader service. ends" apart from the "meth0d" and "means" and the problem solving process employing them, This conception more closely approximates che processes in which the systems artist engages and should be» FOR'11-IODMDIG ISSUES gin t¤ provide a context in whiéh to criticize his work. We would like to follow the thelle format for successive issues. The third and fourth issues of In summary, we are moving away from tradi» (ESA are in process. Theiles for these issues are: tional, formalist criteria for evaluating computer ` art, as the meditun of the computer becomes a l. GWUPS —· I*’¤.ny superior qroups of people are larger territory in which greater numbers of working toqehher. Typical qroups are: CAYC, Btenos artists explore the spectrum of a free cuntinuum. Aixes; the Archi.teCture Machine Group, MIT; AK), We are fortunate that this new field has not yet Kansas City, Vdssouxiy GAIV, Paris, etc. There is solidified within dogmas. We are yet free to a qreat; benefit in the colleague/group approach to explore the continuum. research and creativity. We invite your participation in this GROUP ISSUE. 9. David ll'. Ecker, "The Artistic liroceas as I 2. APPLICATIONS _ All disciplines are requestej Qualitative Problem Solving, Readin s in ——E——· . . . . AE. Education EEEEEE E EE.E.-l-i*E EEVEE E CO Sed mqhlv wed Meeals M this wml ——?—' ` . ' APPLICATIONS ISSUE. Sure |l\ateti.als have been reEcker, Editors. Waltham, Mass.: Blaiadell . . . .f_ mbiishug, 1966, p_ 6g_ ceived. Emphasis mu been B mst Og Vsxy dl ferent: applications, of diverse materials. l0. F. T. Villemain and N, L. Champlin, "Frontiera for an Experimentelist Philosophy of Educa~ EaE.E,~ Headings in Art Euummn, Ep. :.4472.52. bw Class mstsd m COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART fur May, 1976 l \ `

HCC 76 ART €><HIB|TIOI`i-NEW YORK CITY , Four distinctive art exhibits heve been gathered by Jackie Potts for NCC '7é - the largest and most international exhibition of computer art shown in the U. S. to date. Here are notes on the four exhibits, and comments by the artists in the SDL Collection. (Comments by the artists are from the SDL Portfolio, the ICCH/2 Exhibition Notes, end correspondence mom me euimwg cues.) NEW YORK HILTON SITE OF ART EXHIBITION THE TUURING EXHIBITION OF COMPUTERS AND THE HUMANITIES ICCH[Z Four distinctive exhibitions of computer art have been gathered together For the l976 National This is a large exhibition of invitational, Computer Conference to be held in New Vork City international computer art, containing over l5U from June 7-l0. This particular exhibition re- works by Fifty»si>< artists and groups. It is presents the largest showing of computer art under circulated in the United States in honor of the the sponsorship of one organization and reflects Tenth Anniversary of COMPUTERS AND THE HUMANITIES, a tendency of groups to share and disseminate a scholarly journal that reports on the entire works for the benefit of a larger audience. spectrum of computer applications in the humanities. The Journal, (CHUM), is edited by Dr. The NCC '76 ART EXHIBIT is chaired by Ms. Joseph Rahen, Queens College, Flushing, New York. Jackie Potts of the Social Security Administration, Ealtiniore, Maryland (and Advisory Board The {CCH/2 ART EXHIBITION was organized by Member of CG&A). Grace Hertlein For the Second International Conference of Computers and the Humanities, held at This very large and distinguished exhibition the University of Southern California in Los of computer art will be shown at the New Vork Angeles in April of l9`/5. Additional c0ordina~ Hilton in the Rhinelander Gallery from June 7-l0 tion for preparation of the exhibition was by in adjoining galleries (Rhinelander North, Center, Dr. R. Hirschmann of USC, in conjunction with and South). the Faculty Colloquia on Technology and Man. Grace Hertlein. CGM Editor, will give daily Many of the works are quite large, and reflect gallery tours of the exhibition from lll:00 A.M. to_ a very new trend in computer art: one in which the 4:00 P.M. at the Hilton in the galleries. computer is used as an intermediate device, and the final art forms are taken back to fine art in varied Included in the NCC '76 ART EXHIBITION are media. Sculpture, painting, etching. lithography, four groups of works: textile design, photography, are a few examples. The resultant art work looks more like art, yet - The Systems Dimensions Limited Collection reveals the unique characteristics of computer art. » The Touring Exhibition of Computers and the Humanities (ICCH/Z) Fifty~six artists and groups from Spain, - The Henry Christiansen Collection Germany, Yugoslavia, France, Canada, the United - Juried works from individual artists States, Sweden, Brazil, Austria, Italy. Israel, and Russia are represented in {CCH/2. THE SYSTEMS DIMENSIONS LIMITED COLLECTION An alnhahetical index of artists is given The SDL Collection of computer generated art on page 29. was cornnissioned by Systems Dimensions Limited, a leading Canadian—owned company in the information THE HENRY CHRISTIANSEN COLLECTION industry. The collection contains one of the firsts in computer art: a series of important interna- Another "first" in computer art will be the tional computer artists' work in serigraphy (silk- East Coast showing of the Henry Christiansen screening) in iimited, numbered. signed editions. Collection, entitieu "cmnputers for People who The SDL Collection marks a trend towards editions Can‘t Read but Love to Look at Pictures." Dr, of computer art works, in which a very limited 9di- Christiansen, Professor of Civil Engineering at tion of superior graphics are printed and signed Brigham Young University, will exhibit thirtyby the artist, as in manual fine art printmaking. nine mounted color photographs of continuous coEach numbered, signed work is considered as an lor tone images which are shaded drawings (rather original print. The SDL Cvllection is e very than line drawings) of finite element systems. striking. handsome series of such prints. Represented in the Collection are works by: OTHER ART DETAILS Manuel Barbadillo, Spain The Bicentennial theme will be carried out Hiroshi Kawano, Japan with two 7 feet by 9 Feet scanchrone reproductions Kenneth Knowlton, USA of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln produced Manfred Mohr. France by a process called Blockpix. These images are Georg Nees, Germany made with an electro-optical processor which is John Roy. USA part of an optical computer system, in which the Zdenek Sykora, Czechoslovakia output of the processor is recorded by photography. Roger Vilder, Canada Ed‘”“"d Z°~l°°’ Italy oourr mmm 10 mmm Ann em on me ART AUCTION. (See NCC "/G PUBLICITY EUR DFDAIIS.) I0 COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for Mar, 1976

"Aeleana," Serigraph hv M. Ilarbadillo, from the SDL Collection "Starting with these modules, I try to express myself as the poet does with words: hy combining them, or establishing relationships between them, so as to create a rhythmic pattern. Basically, my painting is a research on the problem of space, which in my work is an element hierarchically equal to form, like a complementary form or anti-form, in the same way that silence - pauses — in music is a modulating element as important as sound, with form being neither one or the other, but the result of com— binations between them. In my pictures, space, rather than being a neutral emelent — a mere support for form — is a participating one, and the paintings, better than of form and background are composed of positive modules (black nn white) and negative ones (white on black). This prin— ciple of opposition: and opposites complementarity is essential in my work, where it is present from the level of independent modules to that of very complex compositions. I believe it to he a statement on the hipolari ty or dual nature of things, a notion antiquity held as the golden rule of the Universe. The computer has been a great help to me. Properly programmed it will produce a great number of designs to study and compare, to choose or to get a stimulus from. It has revealed compositional rules l had been using in my pictures without really being conscious of them and has allowed a great deal of systema» tization in my research. Since I am more interested in speed than in perfection of drawing, I prefer a line printer — with asterisks roughly filling in the shapes — to a plotter. The final versions of my works I usually produce by hand.`* (Comments by the artist from the ICCH/Z correspondence with the editor.) (`O.iIIPU7`1;'R GR/XPIIICY and ART lor Ainy, 1976 U

. ! ' 1- F ' ., r- " My computer art is not only fine art, but I- I; V is also the result or aesthetical studies, through · ., ` · .I which 1 uisn to throw light on the logic or human ¤— I- I _ r I * art by using the information processing model of " lf ‘ I the computer. I think that computer art should not be mere I L'- ' computer—aided art, which is now becoming popular , as a device which adds eccentricity to human art. It must be the creative activity of the computer . which thinks freely, like a human beings The - 1 problem of the computer is not its human-like - 1 -I'al * behavior. but its non-human behaviour. My com- a I puter art is only the beginning of scientific I - , studies about art, and so the works have not yet I such an artistic value as human art has. But I I think that this is caused not by the crudity of I _ the digital computer, but by the unripe reasoning “ P tl of the aesthetician thinking about art. In the Q future, excellent human-like computer art will y I* perhaps be produced as scientific aesthetics make . I lf further progress. ‘ , . . . . ¤|.~ I I Now, I call a computer's imitating human acti» ' ’ vity and creating a work of art art simulation, The I V _ _ H computer must recognize the algorithm a¢"art in or- S¤n~·1¤==¤€¤¤{¤r,l*¤;r$¤ by ¤¤¤5*¤ *<er¤r·¤· der to simulate human art. The art algorithm des- T°‘* Qs a_“"“¥’· , treoes a method to solve art problems; that is, _ Wwe ¤an describe this ¤r<>¤$ss ¤f ar; swhcw tu create such and such a work or art through lation in computer language and give that escrioa tomoutaole rennula. Ne need to build a mathe- tw ¤¤ the ¤<>m¤¤t¤r_¤5 ¤ ¤r°9*”*?¤*· the °°'"¤¤°E* matieal model or artistic activity in order to will l9¤I< M the Verma dm·P’¤°¤r9$» QBPFUFE describe me art aigorithm as 3 p,.0g,a,,,_ I have their image, andsubsequently create an infinite built this art model by means or the theory or variety of new pictures Lfgom thelimages it has information aha the mhnkov-oroeess theory. grasped- (Fm thc SD mfelle heres] - rt! . I .J. r. ‘ il" [I meek ana unite illustrations or eemputer printouts by inreshi hahaha - ln the lccll/2 chlllialllou. The upper strip reveals tho prlalemte output, uhile the loner portion is nltereu through en trnustormhtiou tetluianue. E- .u<,a¢i1 *41‘· I'oJ • .JAL /1 ¢‘0.l11¤o1·1;/2 cnnruzrls unu Akrjul May, 1976

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GEQBG NEES \ "The Future of the computer as an art medium $2 ri will very much depend on whether some pieces oF f computer art will gain and reveal depth. This may take place by stratifying and structuring computer F * ;§§;—-‘i."i 1 ii drawings end sculptures in both e here natural end {gym *2;;; h i gg {ii ` ~ more intricate way than this is done NOM Thi! Uh- HI - Ji i jects generated can be abstracta or they may repre- -5.%; \ Wl i .. i sent visueiizetiens er concepts ea: er other fields $.23}; ` i oF thinking and experiencinq. i ` ·· . * isieeeiw :-1:5.2;-; ...But there is guise another viewpoint, which I Il .:¢;;i;@¤:—· ' e V. c holds that computer art should he absbrbed, as early as possible, by the purely Functional struc- §h»r· / —,~/w w tures 0F technologies oF the Future, which allow ·· s / A" ,_ 9/ _ " nien to convert inte reality his pdeentieiities rar _»’ 7 / ,_ rr’’ » /§i§%i/ s, nduiaing matter in every pdsieiyeiy synthesizing A; 7// M · g wey conceivable. it is certain that more sephis- ( V / ticated computers will then oe the agents, 0F rs E / //5 Z s , Hi ' secondary priority only to man. Vet I think that / /“ _ { - fr/_)» . i\ 4 computer art. as a consequence oF such a phase of // ./ ; / y , absorption, will display a tendency to Free itselF { 4/ /7, ,,r” 7 we ' again and take a step Forward, in order to be able to function as an independent source of innovation.“ G. Nees, "Vlax Bense Museum" - from the SDL Collection. DESIGNS FOR THE HANOVER FAIR l97D izeigw. the Siemens»Stand at the Hanover reir. TWUJND THREE DWENSIONAL DESIGN by G· Mess The line drawinos at the bottom explore various parameters e- to Find dirrerent solutions, re- "*’*·il¤ the use of Cqnvmrs in r€S¤¤r¤h» techsuicing in e deeisibn to choose the bottom left ¤¤l¤9y and ¤dministrati¤n has lens Since become araphir as the ring] {umm standard procedure, its application in the various fields of design is still in its incipient stage. r,;},_ ...AFter l969, when the First computer sculpr ,é.p_Q.;`_ tures had been displayed in the Siemens stand at thethgnoverlfair, thebcomputerivs aid was also en— wil l Nr; is e or esiqn pro ems. e computer was now du ,/.>_ /g~_ confronted by the necessity DF solving the practiL . ir.: .‘. eeigprebieins of industrial design. In structural _ lg;} . . ‘ ;_{,·4f£; design, however, the multiplicity oF Forms is wk, · -~ ··' _ir~} limited by practical requirements. /4.. rrr; — ·,’ ,.Z .s { , Lgt V E" » -; nesigning with eenbnsers has barely begun. / /_F_;;;r_ .*“ 3 ...Most oF the spheres which do beyond daily rou” yy At _r_ _ _' tine phenomena must still be explored. /L /Q r' Y Nan nnst still define his position and Function in the sphere of informatics. The future still holds a lot oF surprises in store for us — and For the experts to¤." The find) design, model and graphic. _ (From NOVUM Gebrauchsgraphik, Heft 8/l97Z, Nees.) iii gg, " as- .1 ·< ‘ a- ,, , · xm ' · i 4..<;¤~..&~L·` jg vpsha\`h§—“, \ " . · . r [ Mime eigz·g;i·~pne¤o= nge? _ , ‘s‘<~:i·**.i ·· We im S@k .`T'$)‘§?1;.>T." · . '“-»e.&.A.,.A&0sA“L wi 1!ee~·;.esei=·eesiaeerieeiyeora=¤.==ei—.·¤¤e , I}%?M¤n.v»¤uuvs¤m¤h"igg;;· .. ... iw !m镧,§A?l2'3“'““i*%:3ii\" "’ ) c si ., . ~·eee.w;~*“"'* “‘ . *~t!!¢@5r4ndY wi -~i ‘»*—~ i- F ·*¤.N•®'i¤ · ’* · ··~, pw--·».» -i Ae.;;,..,,.rse*s·.~e,e·»%.kLe¤.e...r: e·:s*seq-ie..;}L.ire.;esé:.e,esegiissgg or e ...., \Wl£ r 0*/ *w:;;¢‘$;s:%t¥¥r€ r2·1`~e"@-.·n€ Wi¤.··.*'i·*1·r··:»ri=*—%?>’-<¤· ` J ~ · -· ·. . ··~*—·v4;¥2:•··rYy . Hows.o.i..¤&e.:5;.;t·’;.s-'is..¤'2¤.·Jt··..··‘32.fP.2:$z¢}—*w.~::¢s’Z COMPUTER GRAPIIICY mu! ART mr May. 1976 [5

"l“|_|_i_l_l_|_|_I_l_|'I_l_|"I‘I_| y y fjlililililililililililililililifi % A l= IEWEWEWEHSTH=WEWEWEWEWEWEW;W:W7T : / & lé 2/ A LnLTLnewgint?Lntntntntmtwtntitnm 5 / 1- ..— ..—-E LTLTLTQFWEWEEWEWEWEW W§lEE?§MLT 5 / E : FT L.L=lE@§ ! @l@ll@l@\l@l@ M§@El=L. / I- II= Msg _: _' J. L7 I I _, E@=UI— II I 5 E r 5 r Lwtitnen ¥nliLiLw h ’@ h =———% Lil l@ll@li@vi@il@iii,,@li@ll$¥ QELTLTLT _ %T% igignliglll,lini...?n,.glll,@ll@ V ‘7TiiEiE @‘@é""? ``'``` `````` ``''`` ?“"@‘?-é §@T@T“T7 f L7=TET§m _@g‘i@gligig~·llg·li@g‘*@H4?_¥ E@;§=i—i }7%T%T%@ @[‘@"@"@"@"@"@"@ %E%E%?i* T |T v@g@ @H@|@l@l@ Ewgul l “7=7W=W§W§lllléllllgllllglllléllllslllléllllzllI|§llIl;WEW=j`7 I -I| ==H|Ellllillllillll511IIiillléIilIélllléllilélllléllilillllélllEU zi · IIE lllz IIl= HF lllé lll; IRE IIIE lllillilllz llli lllElll= ll` 1 , Lii;ititititiii!-i&iiililililili'eiLw A L.l¤L;h_iLiL7L7(l_7LiL7LiLjLiLTLTL7L7 Imrn The cove.- Thevne and Variation Series, E. Zaioc {il ll il `I -| -| -| -| -I -| -| tl tl -| -| -| - men sol. and {call/2. ‘*sepi~sn*‘ bv John Roy, fron the sul. collection. _ . "The impact of the computer al ag artfmedium lu f 'lt l eady in the gradue s i t rom an e;seitia?ll;» static, ionteisolativetand intgogrt ,, . . t d, E a `c, in erac lve. ex rover e » e*" **29 wml me we *5 ¤ leidmy P0 liénil uEe2ee’2J?;nn art te A oriented J consider che computer generated product as being _ l themselves solely the only reletien between art and the computer. °"€- ’*'°‘$*$ “° °“9" C°“"°'“" . . . 1 eelieve, however, that as eer experience with with ***9 SWlimi¤"t:"¤f***¤”§l?"l;;e§”;;Te;’€g the use of the computer in art develops, we will l:E'”“"1 “"“991‘é$a;;‘n in gg/‘E?¤ lx; pmcessgs ‘ ],;;g:,;;;,2l;;:§ lm wl ¤¤~$l¤m**¤~ W the d:i;Zil;°l$$§lCnen€ an pnnEnen.n nn ` the spectator, V It is with this view in mind that an appro; 5 / _ priate answer can be given to the very relevant ; 5 5 and etten posed question of ghet eenheeceene wmh t ; = { ‘ t aeenle not be one wi eh i. i /*' = 2 2§3`E,‘3ie‘§€ 32 can eeeente an eennnnieete ne / A A 7 organization,-structure and dynamics of any qlyerl Y message, ical/lrlg lt upen at the sameltlme to dlf» 1 —_ V oi ferent interpretations and modifications, or eettert _ f only with e computer can we untie_t[§ é` Z V aspects of an idea from its materia ea uresl an E e e tie lete them in time through dlrect — ?ni;;$t?;n.BrThl;, for now, is the most important ‘" contribution, the meanin which the theory of in% e e rernetien and the 'Jse er eenentere nine ereught to M aesthetics." Iilnard Zaiec uxiulnres t·r:4n=fm·meations nl` forms. in A series of relaxed works. Tho Forms yield varied grcrccurious, us in on art. demmdimz uiiou the Focus of the viewer, rxnmnlee from the 1Ccl·l/z rshihitien. 7; 5 ’ J V / ’ 5 e gg §¢ " f F ‘ / W 5 = ·’ e 55 ge? J Q ’ ; 7 , néiaf r A éfgfg 57 V5 CV! ‘ ’% % E 55; § -# % AJQ wr ; 5 ” ? ei e e;/2 E . §_ ,5 it me In (Y}\/I’l,'T[Ii GR/1l’lI!('S tml! .—;IIT im- lfur. /076

" . Ao, o ” to r Vi ( { I:} VQ 'i “ I ** .,**7*Ii ~— 4 IIi~ L ‘ A ~`*li_r_r_f_i__ ,_ . LJ - JJ M I` V; `III I lt! ¢ -| IIN V1 I . IMI , ______ I , I i “ . rr, | i — “ .1. V si. - »—I LL II · rrr `III ` FL4 I.I.?.... 3. . l l IE ~.rZ¢=%·%§ Q JA) j fw I 4 I c I n. {L , _,L’ —~_ . ` . .. J ’ i ` "’*‘=’*A” Il‘~ I - er I ` `l III ;,;;—,;;t I II \ `idd * VL} \ i 1lIII I JLIi.IY`` ` r L ` Z Z.i`.;. "' ' "' A"' TZ'.ZTT'T' ` _ V . ee YWV l<¤§19l“ Viltlcr, "\'arint10u oii ‘l Sqiinrt:5." . WW {mi me sm caiieaiiiia, JJ .t LJ . 'VV When I began to work with computers, my L First reflex was to recreate on the cathode— W ( ray tune most of the visual phenomena 1 had Y - - created by mechanical means. Soon, I realized t the amazing potential of the computer and peqan Y . D to expand my ideas into more graphically oriented YW work. As a result, I produced some short animaT JJ tea riiiis. CL4W J t I foundlmygelf very much at ease wighta tomé . ing within a well defined system, with the con— .I ii . — . . straints of mechanics. Yet, there is a great dif$"“°""° "‘ *· S’*“"‘ ference between computer art and other iieaia we exchange while the process of creation is haapair ` ' f 't ' t t `t . “l been- II l%l» ¢¤ IM renting M ¤ }Cgi$SiEZ£°Y?IEWLEEEZCZ"$$i€ei§§iLZSIIWZSLJ ¤%¤IIs¤ri¤¤l— ¤*¤$¤r¤¤t kind i¤ rmi We ¤¤··I¤¤5I· one from vinci»iIi..ig visual emits. img tion results from the repeated use of one or more Very aspect M mg C¤,,,pUtE,,_ aiung with HS €X_ me ETEIIM ¤I¤r¤¤¤€r*$€¤ by ¤ umm SIM M tmraiiary speed of Mami, is what I appre— by specific internal qeometrical patterns. I soon Naw most when Wwkmg thmugh this m€dIu,,—_·· realized that I was runnino into combinatorial com— plexities that might be easily resolved by means of Q,§§§§f‘§',,,,f§Q§°§,Q{,§f’}”“‘°°”*"’" ""‘” “°“’““ Iaaiaw, the mist swims wiatiaie on a _ theme of the nine squares. The computer works "B1¤¤kr*~l·1¤¤ $m·¤¤¤‘¤" I-W #» ’ixl¤T¤» bear a Strong, familial resemblance to the iunnnai from thc SIIL lollcctirm. gqu'[p¢grg5_) ·{'$ V niiiiiiivii ii I , iff;} {I _ lllllllilllliggl .` I it _ WIw` » + i CCLIQEIIIQEII Le; Il ll F2' I. . iF:;‘I Eg? s Ii I ”**! ” V $ *¢ _IE§NII]EI$IIFiIiIl . . ll .III1I 4 * I!!_JI!!d!U;*!!· e I IIllIvieee I , miie ‘:iiiI";iI """ __ -`== ’I I I 5 IIIIHHIIEQII Mill {H1 MI I • ugglguéglue - l c, `iéil `M" I I > ir YA-; |!!!!!!!!| |!!*!!“ COMPUTER GRAPHICS mm ART for May, 197h 17

Digital Computer Based Sculpture Composed Of Coloured Elements BY £“$iwi°$i¥¥iaJhilti“iii?€i$iraiaon stoinat ."m*· li im im *0 be el im *¤r·l···T¤iS UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH paper descrxbes a pmgect that explores the distanctxcns Gu.ELP1_1’ ONTARIO CANADA between math and art, and media art as meth." ABSTRACT . . . . , . . — Potential utilitarian applications are in the This rw ¤€S¤r**=¤$ i went research ¤r¤· Ztiii Si {EZ'}Etgiili§`ti'$isKiiltZ¥`"tSil`Z`¢;`Ein pghe lm °" *”'"‘dl"‘°"“°"“l °°l°“” ”“”"" d“El°°’ dynamicall ex lored On a less utilitarian basis ';'§"Ee;'S;1';91g tlQEm;;€"' the derinilionpor what art is, and the question of, ‘l p Y Y whether or not it can be completely mathematically commonly used form of computer generated colour defined W111 be MHB.11 111um1nated pattern development, i.e., line development by P Y · function tracing with post pattern development colouring. The method under consideration produces rectilinear colour patterns which are TMS Project 1S ESSEnt1a11y an Marche in "grown". The growth technique is similar to th 1; . . . 1 1 tt 1 d 1 t F d e_use of compu ers in the creative vlsua arts. §o$i§' €{it$¥°Z§iei¥it2°!i3 tit Zr€Z?.iSZ$'r $¤ lg ls gms *¤¤g<=;g·¤l¤ ig ek;1 **hir¤1t~¤ rg given coloured area is machine generated by a °"° °"l‘“ "S °"“ “ V "S° ‘“ E °'“°° '"E " $· combination of random, statistical and artistic Computers are Used in many p1aCEs in the techniques. 4 . creative arts. They are most used in the arts }—’"l““°U°l‘°" ECQELEZQ E? §3§il£3§“‘ii;2Ei§§i§ ZEJEZELSLP . ` ' l art both static and moving. Most computer determined colour patterns, '““$‘° “"“ "‘$"° · . . tt may commercially or esthetically oriented, we me bm Cmruter new ¤¤n=¤i*¤¤¤¤ <5l trntist of graphical art pt (artwork cartoons ind iwrl ¤¤~¤~*ir to sxhlblts Wl- Wil 111duStr1a1 prawn g ’ ’ areas such as the dance (E-ll) are also investig, etc. and are based upon the tm 1} 1 at tn an . .f. a 1; t t use or functions, whether singularly or repe- ga = “ ” Y S‘?"" ‘° " EX °" · titively performed, Colouration has generally . . been introduced after tnr initial pattern genera- Mgghlleg tgp gm ··g¤¤.·¤ th€.¤rgStf¤r rurtion. This paper reports on a computer based °°$“ l"‘ '“ l° · ?"° WS: '“‘*""’" H ‘“"·, - . - - performance, and creation. This proposed project technique for generating three dimensional trans- 1 th t B. f d t. lucent structures composed or elements or varying S ""€ ° °°"‘ "‘“ p" °"'"’"°‘* a" Cm ‘°"· colours. These structures are generated by non- F . h. t . 1 t. 1 d h r,.crn,..i pattern construction with construction ,,,,,,,2* ;§§li"§..‘i,§'L§2 iti‘§Z§t`§3ga?2g 5ai2"° time colouration. . .’ . . . ' tlorlship with computers. So, in examining the The constructions are rectilinear patterns “°° ”l C°"'i’“F°‘"$ a"d ’““"°· ‘”" Ca" get A i'°°“ mia of varying colours. ire colour patterns are gg the ¤¤{sl=;i‘ Mh and breadth fr ¤¤h¤~*€ri l¤ developed by a growth technique utilizing a pre- ° V‘$““ °' ‘· cedence ordering nf the matrix points being colourem MUSIC AND COMPUTERS · The utilization of computers in music has Tl°.‘"°‘l‘"'E'"E"* f°'“ ‘*'?€.g‘""“’“” °f ‘* °°l?““ been very deep and broad. on a relatively simple pattern is thought to he slmllar to the require- 1 1 1: 11 1) d t 1 tr 1121 ments tor the growth or a crossword puzzle in a EV? — °‘?'"l°‘; ***5 ta"?13§€” fi ° SE it h°*’°”°$ f letter by letter mode. The author nas had consi- ::6 we "‘$ ;“'"?“ i i" f°ta°°°'“° li, $°'1'§1‘; deraple successful experience in machine develop- S g9'°1'““1§g‘°1’61“$*’€° S ° ‘”““’*’°$‘ "’" ment of crossword puzzles (l,2). Additionally, °“ lip BY · · there are similarities to the growth pattern of Conway‘s (3) life game. A great deal of work has been done in connection with the utilization of electronic music The entire area of rectilinear colouration synthesizers, including their programing (l7). is relatively unexplored; "colouring" has been However, synthesizers are inherently analogue utilized by Strong and Rosenfield (4) to define machines, and hence a discussion of them is not c oud regions. However, this "colouring" limi- appropriate here. ted itself to grey scale differentiation and did not deal with non—grey colours. Additionally, MUSIC CREATION most rectilinear investigations of coloured patterns have usually been grey scale investi— However, it isn't really gw news that a gations, and_have dealt with picture cleaning computer can be used to analyze almost anything and edge definition. that can be quantified, and the question really is, "Can it be used as a creative tool?" In I8 COMPUTER GRAPHICS uml ARTjw May, IGM

' ¤ ' ** G 5 es mum, creativity is displayed in Escher per- Deslgm fm www b” mg °° forinance or in composition vv ` Music verzmnnnncs gg =;1} ,,n§ _Q IFF}; N ·1¢·i’*,-_.»' .3- \ '»\~·j..’» v/— ··r·‘ $:740 » ·— From the earliest days, computers have been ’,i|i?;»fu§,g{%;,` used in musical permmanpe, often by ampiirying ·.·_, egg; 2·. ,i.<~>`_P»’ @·j,i<_\.|;, ! the RF noise from the ma<:hines' registers. we- »='·i; . `. liu ~ ‘;· ·-:.. 5 may macninas are ma as instruments (26,27). `VPIV '~¥-9‘ - €&'§-·l lo what extent that this is a creative activity dxf, .,:!(.2*._ _.¢&‘i__ by a computer is open to question. _·&er;§·.• P- '¤i.·¤;*· . lg; _ < x¤;v,€·lA._ 'T· *· *1;% if- _ ‘ 3v* `r·. *¤n>·f‘=·»•*hi=· ·l(iie•!¥v=n‘é2?l»~‘ w .;#i.:‘_ 1. _,\_<__ "»`§.{;i, _' - ·I\,·,I Q { < Composition is a much richer area of ihvesti— g!,;$;% Il' IEE ;@YL·éI#’ ‘f."'_-€_'N*. C! gaxion for computer input into the creative pro- ` 7*1*3 `· ` !_\'l¥ . '· *!'l~‘ ·» cess. Various approaches have been made. Some `Q/$ QI $5 §'*i;" workers have attempted to define the musical pro- _ { G W _, h V . l . perties or instruments (22) aaa cm to use these *s"“~ “"* EU"; 1*“”"B*" _“°`°l°l"G“ Dy "· are aemau properties in aamposman. cams have md ~“’Y€SS°F ’*“S€"‘¤¤¤attempted to use a knowledge of information VISUAL ARTS AND COMPUTERS theory (29) in the composition process. Hith the rich depth of computer use in music, In general, most compositional efforts have one would expect to see an equally rich developnot been tied to any rigid mathematical analysis ment of computers in visual art. Computer visual (30), and have instead attempted to apply general output is at least equally suitable for the protheories of musical composition. Both general duction of creative works as are the audio capapurpose computer languages (3l,32), simulation bilities of a computer. Starting then, at least languages (33) and special composing languages equal, in terms of direct computer output, it (34) have been used in composition attempts. would not be surprising if computer visual art were at least as successful as computer music. CRITICAL RESPONSES But this is not the case. in my opinion. There have been some successes. notably the art films Often, an indication of the viability or of Knowlton and Schwartz, the interactive carimpact of a technique is critical discussion. tooning supported by the NRC (Al), and |<unil's Discussion by musical reviewers has been intense fashion design application (A2). and varied. It is difficult to categorize the criticism. However, computer visual art (created, aided, or implemented) has not become an important part Other than critiques of individual pieces of the visual art scene. of work, the discussions often have been conducted on a highly emotional basis, with com- COMPUTER VISUAL ART IN MOTION puter music enthusiasts and detractors often doing battle. However, only the randomists Video (Cage (35), Xenakis (36) have attained real acclaim. Instead, what computer music has Video art would seem to be a natural node of triggered is a considerable discussion on the expression for art projects utilizing the conputer, definition of music as art (37,38) and the as even SK mini-czonputqs can have a oolour gra— question of the nature of esthetic perception phic capability. Yet, although video art itself (39,4D), is important oo the art world, even having special issues of art magazines devoted to it (43) , very SUMMARY - MUSIC little (44) has been done in the area of czxnputeraided video art. In summary, it can be seen that there is a considerable body of experience in using the Animation computer in the art of music. This experience extends throughout the field — in its mechani- The area whue cmpoteraided visual art has cal, performance, and compositional aspects. had its greatest impact is in Lhe area of animaIt is an accepted part of the music scene open tion (45). Generally, the process has been interto the normal forms of critical analysis and active (46). In the case of animation, I feel discussion. the compute: is strictly a cartooning aid. Score bv Hubert Ku¤oez‘. Dusseldorf g’,¤:¤·g; 2},jeu ' ·‘ gguter Nbvies ag. .:. . 3 li ,,-3; sl'. ir _ ' [ i*‘ ‘ ·· Y. Seveml artists have created ocrputeraided WPT ;i{2’?L`§?i§;;=. ,,· iw filns. The best known are the works of Kruoltcm ‘“ 3.; — ··- ,.. `·—€a— and Schwartz (47) ana those of vmimey (aa). ‘¤... _ ’ _ ‘%;::fLEE§§=:. .—- ,. - ' ’ .’i"Isl\ ., ‘~»· » » . ~ . ". **6 .f/Fa Y ‘c " ’~i~<?:¥ ·5;-*1 -—.. -` . · é5¢l’$s-1;.2 e=;»:>tvr— ·3 ‘·.~-·.°a ii ·a.» Y1-i1— —- · —=: §;F--:_-:; ui ` ` A. ' . . `;..:€ `~¤;¥ 2 ?¥; 1·' , —.g_; »€Q}§i == .. ‘ A e , ‘ =*~ ` ““ \i I 4 ·*`4`_ ` A Detail, M. Steph€l\$ COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May, 1976 19

STATIC TWO DIMENSIONAL VISUAL ART Likewise, a colour pattern generator finds it useful to occasionally reorder the determination In my opinion, static visual art is presently of the colours with all solution point ordering not very developed. In drawing, there are some being placed on a precedence list or stack. plotter demonstration routines, and a few attempts to use the machine as an artistic drawing instru- Iffwewcgnsider a crossword puzzle to be a ment 49 . matrix i e by symbols of varying densities _ selected by a non—arbitrary process, it is now Rectilinear colour pattern generation usually possible to relate crossword puzzles to rectihas resulted from attempts to simulate natural linear colour patterns, Rectilinear colour patpatterns (50) or as the result of the display of terns may be thought to be a matrix filled with mathematical functions. Creatively, the machine varying lines selected by an arbitrary process. has been used in support of a painter (El] and in textile design (52). Colour selection in pattern by local area expansion is very similar to the construction of THREE DIMENSIONAL VISUAL ART crossword puzzles by a letter by letter process. Of course. puzzle construction by the non-local yhree dimension] Computer aided art fans method of whole word selection would probably not into two areas, the illusionary objects of holo- V"`°Vld€ 6 VEYY 900d ¤’lal°9¤V$ teciwlque fof €¤l¤W graphy (sand) and tnosa of sculpture (as-sa). Patton ¤*¤V¤l<>¤·¤¤¤¢· Neither area is very rich in examples of pieces _ _ _ DF WON} The technique of colour selection contains the following major areas of interest: ordering SUMMARy_ VISUAL ART of matrix point development. heuristic machine 1 ordering of the initial solution point precedence ina only present aaaiitatian of computer and 5<>i~¤¤r ¤¤l¤¤r ¤¤l€¤¤¤¤· visual art that is at all significant is the narrow area or computer assisted cartooning, in my opinion. The areas of static two and three , dimensional art are almost uarran. The barren- There ¤$€_*w¤ different ¤¤»2r¤¤¤¤¤S FB we ness can be seen by the almost total lack of qU€$$‘?"_°F mltlél $¤l“'¥l¤” Fmlllt ¤V<l€YlN9€ mfr critical examination of tna question of oontputars gnjecgggfmnig initial Emerin visual art. · l" " 'iulfe mr cycles to attain a solution, but the final results ciiosswcizu Puma Gwinn AND coiouia PATTERN '““Y “"““‘ll’ be Said *° be '"°'€ pi”$l"'i· GENERATION Constrained initial ordering may be due to ina autnor davaiopad a taonnioua nar tna $¤vs*¤',¢i·*·¤S¤ 16** AS geared pi osdstgmne construction of crossword puzzles based on €°'l‘€.°° "‘” WMS l" t E l"? S° ‘!“°"· t E statistiaai letter by iattar word construction wm? ¤r¤¤o¤¤ ¤* na 5¤‘~*i¤¤ ¤¤**·*i amid operating through a tasking technique, The task- we mg"' ¤'°*°?‘*€"°E F° *05** was **“Ja°s“° ing concerned itspir witn tna ordering of tna *¤.*i€.¤*¤¤¤*¤*·¤·r·€d tori; timid ¤ new ¤f letter spaoas to be filled, The sdiutian order- “’?""‘°‘”9 Phe °‘?$‘”?blll*Y °‘ "¤‘”‘°“S ¥’°“"* $°‘“‘ ina was initiaily aatanninaa by a heuristic or- tim- i¤iS.W¤i¤*i¤¤¤ mid be ht-Sed ¤¤ a me daring onion was natnina awpandad rran. an ini- owl ”€l“*‘°"S“‘P berm the ¤*¢¤s*€m*¤¤¤ tiai partial list or the letter spaces to be '"mlx *’°"‘° °‘" °"‘"*$= iid the ”°‘"*S *° @9 riiiad to a Final ordarino of tna iattar spaces, ¤¤*¤·i*€¤t or SX¤¤·¤*¤·fi¤vr¤ 2 Sago adsmpls ina ordaring list akpanaaa as tna solution ak. nig"; on M Pom imiilly ¤¤ we <<2·2> panded, usuaiiy, several partial lists wara i" ( Jilproduced before the final list was developed. In addition,,the ordering of the solution list varied according to a machine learning technique. Normally. the puzzle constructor requires a certain amount of heuristic restructuring of the initial solution ordering. For example, Figure l shows the initial and final ordering of a puzzle that was successfully built by the constructor. Fi ure Z. Matrix with two precoloured points. is —`i—— ll N Figure a snows a possible linear wei ntin Z 2 l, 42 Ji it sonarna to be used for tna initiai solutiog pre? l ” i 7 1* J6 oadanto ordering for tna sim le recoloured maii e H 2 .. trix snown in Figure 2. suoii a Einipia weighting JU _ A 6 9 V scheme does not take into account things such as 4 . C sx other praooiourad areas, tha colour or tiia preii V V _ 1* *5 coloured area, and geometrical factors, such as QQ. edge nearness, center nearness, and momentslof U 5/ *’ ju :3] inertia, A non-linear weighting function might jx; U, T. be preferable, especially if more than one point U { ·* _ is to be precoloured. so on ; si 5,; 2.1 72 23 29 34 33 26 Fig ge 1. Reoxderino of initial solution ordering. *0 <'!1.lII’[/TL`R IJRAPIIICS uml ART [hr Muy, 1970 Y

TTBTITET IA1JEASELP T T T T T T I T II 772J 33¤T T T O T III VARE.ART Figure 3. Linear precedence weighting radiating from precoloured spaces. I F L K The weignting of tne uncolored matrix paints . ,. ¤ R would eventually produce a precedence stack of the Form er Figure 4. The precedence stack would de— - ,., A I l I P I termine the solution order of the uncoloured paints. The precedence ordering between equally A g weighted points was arbitrarily selected. The initial colouration points would not be pj u e 5_ V - ,;· - f- 1 d ·, subject tp change as coloured pattern was devel- —9—' ,,§§}?Xl°"§,,}Qt,,§Qadg§”i§$¥§; uggzéf oped by the constructor (just as the initial words dgfrepem Stattstgcai SubS€tS_ in the puzzle constructor were not subject to ` change), __ _ _ bimilarlv, colours in a pattern may be PRECEDENCE NATMX POINT selected according to combinatorial rules, The RANK LOCATION WEIGHT rules for crossword puzzle construction were de— veloped from existent letter patterns called 1 1,1 1 words. As a result. the results were constrained 2 1,2 1 by past experience, but not in an attempt to re3 1,3 1 create past patterns (which is reouired for word 4 1,4 1 formulation). Likewise, the colour choices 2 $,1) 1 should he on past artistic experience, 7 3i1 2 The knowledge of compatible colour selection 5 gr? g is well advanced. A maior item for the colour r pattern generator is in the choice between com10 3,4 2 peting colours which are each individually com— 1% 2,5 g patible or acceptable in a given local area. The r machine can make this choice by first composing a 13 4,3 Z list of suitable colours for a matrix space and 14 4,4 2 then choosing between them by a weighted random15 5,1 3 izing technique. This technique is similar to the 16 5,2 3 ones used in composing stochastic music (60-65). 17 5,3 3 Stochastic music is probably the most successful H 5,4 3 of all the cdnrputer based arts, -¢ T- T*TT¢T;;¢T iT;T;fTi Tgi TTTTTT ut, ,EZ§il2i§Elf$$321$a°2l?t;i,§°""é.1”§l§i§,s Wm mg ° `g"" ‘ red may be added to the potential colour list for TTTTTT STTTTTTTT i.@:iT2:,2:1QT· ii;;TTT~‘,EJ; °°TTi°L*TLi,"‘°“ti" -—— - · 1V Tl |T\l§ 9 QXC U S V¤|T1 9 In filling the crossword puzzle matrix, “'“$d11“f§’?°Q“‘? i"°"l€'.“°°9"'°"°€ °f Tim" various statistics regarding tne permissible W°“ °°" ‘°f W"'? “ 1‘”“ml°" °" The ”“'“*T" TTF letter pattern for legitimate wards were de- °°°“"E"°€$ ° TT 9‘V*" °°1°‘T”veloped. These statistics were both combina» Th 1 . . h . torial and positional in nature, A necessary h . E °§d°g' WWE W9 T°°°°"$ ”E‘°*?’€·'°"“°m minimum set of statistics was determined. or Q TTTT mf tz €‘*t?*ta‘"F‘;* ZW T°°"l"E ‘*“E1”F’€“interest to the colouring problem is the dif- °‘”d°WiW*’ it E ai lid ’”l9 T EWG *° ¤'°d“°€ a ferent patterns developed with the use ar dif- PTE °'“l“°Qh Y QTHEQ ij; b*{1“E W“**<· ami **195 W°"1d ferent statistics. Figure s shows same pt tne ‘"§'E“$. te flg Ob, We j""/““ Wm "‘ Y". variations due to differing statistics used in °°,°"‘" is W €‘“"W?‘" ie TW g'”E°” "E pefmlsslble tne construction of tne same crossword puzzle. °? °‘"S °‘" ? '“?""‘ p°l"*· Fu" E"?"’p1€· if We (SEE Fi We 5 abuve M ht ) list of permissible colours for•a given point is Q = T q · shown in Figure 6, a triple weighting for blue, , and double weight for green would result in the list of Figure 7. Then, when a random colour selection would be made from the list of Figure 8, a greater weight would be made toward blue and green. The weighting process does not actually require the generation of an actual expanded list as shown in Fgggre 7, The weighting can easily be accom' p is e functionally. COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May. 1976 21

blue The resulting linear weighting of the matrix paints green fur Figure 9 is(sh0i;v¤ in Figure l0. Note that the yellow border colours "0" do not contribute to the weighting, nor are they weighted, The first four . iterations can he seen in Figure ll. Figure 5. List of permissible colours for a OOOOOOOOOOOD point. 0 G 00 blue S 5 3 blue 0 0 blue D D green U 0 yellow 0 U 00 —i· O00O00000000 Fi we ’· heiehted list ¤i teh1i=Sil=le ¤·>l¤¤*S ti 9. xnitiai aaiutian matrix win mia eh ¤ We ¤¤·¤*· —g— iimiwd pain A SIMPLE EXAMPLE 3222223455 3Zlll23455 A simple, unsophisticated example of colour 32l0l23456 pattern generation Follows, This example is in- 32i·|]23455 tended tu illustrate the growth process, and does 3222223456 not describe a developed colour combination de- 3333333455 finition. Colour compatibility was based on a ngqgqnggg,5 simple colour wheel. A l0 x l0 matrix of points 5555555556 was Coloured, A "white" or Zero colour border 6555555656 was] spegified. A simple matrix point was pre- 7777777777 F` l0. ` ht f ' ' ` l t ` h ' COLOUR COMPATIBILITV Jg@___ hleigigareoruinitia ma rix s own in In a simple c¤l¤ur wheel, a given culuur, its 0000000000oo 000000000000 000000000000 adjacent neighbours, the opposing colour and OZGHGZZBOO G GZOBGZZMTO G C2OB¤?2b0olO "white" are all mutually acceptable. The colour oiiiozscnos 0 01u01>000s1n 01u0e00os1¤ campatibility matrix used is shown in Figure B. csisssius n csxssasbssuo 0s155n5<>$500 0l0555b5$ O Ol055$b55‘5bO O10555h555o0 Do5OI•5l>‘3b 0 0O50li5b5bO00 005055655000 0 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 osoaossss 0 osunosssssm osoeusssssio ¤5004o45b 0 05004045oO 0 050060456000 0 l l T l T l l 1 l 0 0 01104040ez 0 ¤l1B4U40l>Zb¤ l l 2 2 0 0 2 U 0 2 0 0 0 0 cxusnslisszzc O 0 O D ¤Bl84é05<>ZXO M¤'Kri>< 2 1 2 Z 2 0 0 2 D D OOOGODDDOOOO OOOODOOOOOOU UOGOOOOOOOOO point 3l0Z220020 "’l°“' 4 1 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 2 ri 11. Fmt three iizmratrims as the example ji 5120022200 F"°b1°"· 5 T 0 2 Q 0 0 2 2 Q The selection of subsequentlcolours was made by forming a combined list of weighted colours. 7 l 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 This pracisihcandigewiusgrixeiifiiy iaaniaiing Erie the solution, First, it was determined that the Figure 5_ Qqlcuy compatibility magy—·§X_ immediateli adjacent colours were l,O,5. gecond, by using t e colour compatibility matrix o The use ar the caiaun canpatiiiiiity matrix Figure 8, the weighted henhlsslhle tvlvur llet allows for both the specification ar simple colour ¤1‘ Figures l2 was ¤evel¤1>ed· Theh. the rehden weighting factors and the aetenninatiun of allow» number of B was_generated. Thus, the Fourth able colour cumbinations. The use ar the compa- colour on the list, or Svwas seleczed,_as can tihility matrix can produce hath the iist of be seen in Figure ll. Figure 13 contains the paniissim caiaurs illustrated in Figure s, and final s¤lut1¤¤. as well as three ether intermetna waigntaa iist of parnissitie colours i11us» dlete Svlutwhstrated in Figure 7. The mechanisms involved are very similar to the process of "best" letter see 0 lection in the crossword puzzle constructor and l will be demonstrated iieiaw. gi THE COLOURING 5 F` l2,W`htd l l`ttdt ` th I _ The initial cnlcured point, and the matrix’s BL rggthecaigugutu li; adgedetgrtiige B ‘wh1te or number zero border is shown in Figure 9. s6·|uH¤"_ ZZ COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May, 1976

Oopooooooooo 0000000000on The weighting factors for the initial precedence ozonozzaoo 0 0200022000 0 weiuhtings were: 0Tl\O€¤ooo5 0 oillobooobio C5l55l>5ls$ 0 0515565055oTl D10555e55 OIOSSGTJSSSMJ COLOUR Z O T 2 3 4 5 oosoesaia 0 9999999119999 oosowssaonm HEIGHTS = 1.33 1,32 1.25 1.18 1.10 1.00 050405555 0 OZOBNZAOOU1 0504055555iG 050040450 O Uulobnousln o5OOT·045a0 0 COLOUR Z 6 1 8 9 10 11 4 ° osissasassnu °TT”’·°“°*·? 0 wamms = 1.00 1.00 1,10 0,90 l.25 1.22 0 ° ¤10ssse,sssa0 ° 0 D 0 Do 5045656000 0 0 COLOUR = T2 T3 ’1°°°°°“°°°°" usoeosssssm °°°°¤¤¤¤°¤¤° wtmms = 0,90 9.90 ° O50o6045T>ooo 0l1BGG40b2bD ClBB4345e>22o The resulting precedence weighting can be illustra_ oaiassosczio ted by Myer ll: OOUUGOOOGOOO Figure T3. vamms aaaimnai guages of the 1g 1g 12 1Q example pattern colour development. 19 15 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 111 T9 T5 Tl 7 7 7 7 7 ll T5 T4 lglilliiiiilllglé sevmi two and three aimmimi pieces S 2 g E Q Q 7 were completed and exhibited. The two dimen- 12 9 6 3 3 3 6 9 11 12 19 sional pieces were composed of coloured opaque 12 9 6 3 3 3 6 9 12 12 19 elements, both rectangular and circular. The 12 9 5 3 3 3 6 9 12 12 19 pieces were arranged according to the pattern in- 12 9 6 6 6 6 6 9 19 12 10 dicated in a rectangular mold made For the occa~ 12 11 9 9 9 9 9 9 11 11 19 sion, and then were cast into clear plastic, 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 7 7 The three»dimensionaT pieces were ramen lg 1j 7 3 using 9/T6" clear glass marbles of up to sixteen 22 22 22 22 19 15 16 111 11 7 3 different colours. The marbles were placed in an 25 25 29 23 19 15 16 111 11 7 7 empty plastic box made for the occasion, and then 28 29 25 23 19 15 15 111 11 11 11 cast in clear plastic. When removed from the 32 29 26 23 19 16 16 111 111 111 111 mold, the finished piece was illuminated from the 33 .29 96 23 19 19 18 19 19 19 111 bottom to provide interior illumination, 33 29 26 23 29 22 22 22 22 22 Z9 These pieces, especially the three-dimen- NOTE: Because of space, the above is the left sional cases, were judged to be aesthetically portion of the weighting of layer TT , Below is satisfying. They were works which werle truly the right portion of layer TT: three-dimensional. Most sculpture is essentially two-dimensional and designed for execu- T4 T4 T4 T4 T4 T4 T4 T4 T8 22 Z5 tion from a single perspective. The computer TT TT TT TT TT Tl TT T4 TB 22 23 pieces were not executed from a specific per— Tl 7 7 7 7 7 Tl T4 T8 2O 20 spective. In addition, they were translucent. TT 7 3 3 3 7 Tl T4 TB T8 T8 TT 7 3 0 3 7 ll T4 T5 T5 TB FULL SCALE EXAMPLE Tl 7 3 3 3 7 TT T2 T2 T5 TB T0 7 7 7 7 7 TO TO T2 T5 T8 One piece developed was composed of a ZZ x 22 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 TO T2 T5 TB x 22 matrix of coloured points. The initial co- 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 TO T2 T5 T8 Toured points were: 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 TO T2 T5 TB 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 T0 T2 T5 TB LOCATION COLOUR 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 TO T2 T5 TB 5,5,9 9 7 5 5 5 5 5 7 T0 T2 T5 T8 1 lT,l5,T3 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 T0 T2 T5 T8 T6,l2,TT 2 3 3 7 TO TO T0 T0 TD T2 T5 T8 5,T5,Tl T2 O 3 7 TT T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T5 T8 T0.5,l2 TZ 3 3 7 TT T4 T5 T5 T5 T5 T5 T8 ’ T5.ll.6 T2 7 7 7 TT T4 T8 T8 T8 TB TB T8 2,20,20 O TT TT TT ll T4 TE 20 20 20 20 20 T4 T4 T4 T4 T4 TB 22 Z3 23 23 23 The precedence weighting for each point was obtained TB TB T8 T8 T8 T8 22 25 25 Z5 25 by: 22 22 22 Z2 22 22 22 25 28 28 28 welghtj = min(c1d11,c2d2·1...c1d1j...c11d1,1) where j = uncdloured point being weighted n = number of initially coloured points cj = weighted factor colour i dj = distance from colour i to point i COMPUTER GRAPHICS und ART for May, 1976 23

The ¤¤7¤ur c¤mPet7b777¤y matrix Mes= (4) Strung, James P. and Rasenfieid, Azria1, ·*A Region ca1aring Technique rar Scene Ana1ysis". 7 2 3 5 5 5 7 5 6 7 7 0 9 Communications nf the AcM, Apri1, 1973, ve1, 1340009000ZNO i6,N,,_a_ 72462DU900020 7 7 6 4 6 2 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 (5) IFIP cangress ·e.5 Computer campased Music 7 0 2 6 4 6 2 0 0 0 9 0 0 campetitian Musical events 23:73 July 1960. 1001s4s290000 7 9 0 0 2 7 4 6 2 7 0 7 0 (0) 1nternatiana1 Symposium and sxhibitian on 7 0 9 0 0 2 6 4 6 4 7 0 0 camputer Graphics 1970; 7 pp., uxbridge, 7 0 0 0 0 9 2 6 4 6 2 0 0 Midd7esex, :na1and; Brunei university ras, 7 0 0 7 0 0 0 2 6 5 6 2 0 uxbridee 14-16 Apri1, 1970. l20¤90002646U 7 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 4 0 (7) cyeernAPT, Toronto, 1974. 0111111111110 7 7 7 7 7 7 77 7 7 7 7 7 7 (9) Null, A. Mithaei, "chareagraphy and camputersr 0 nee, v. 41111, .45-57, .1 ,7957. The resu1ting colour distribution was: ——a pp °"""’ 9 P ‘ 1,.1.,0; `t1D ·*,Th cniisnwwn msi ( ) n$§$lX? Times, iT$?Z§'YeGaZuar§':°$9iz. ° 2276 of c¤7¤>ur number 0 (10) Sagasti, F. and Page, M., "campurer chareae 775 ef ¤¤7¤ur number 7 araphy; An Experiment on che Interaction se7097 bf ¤¤7¤ur number 2 tween Dance and the Computer", Qing. stm. 942 ¤F ¤¤7¤ur number 3 Humanities vg. Behgy., January, 1970; 5(1); 9s9 of ca1eur number 4 a6.a_ 465 of ca1aur number s 308 bf c¤7<¤ur number 6 (11) Lansdowne, .1., "writing Programs To Dance Ta" 470 of c¤7¤ur number 7 Proceedings ar zvracamp canrerence, May, 1974. 7073 uf colour number 11 7799 bf ¤07¤ur number 9 (12) Nagosky, .1. P., ucamputerized Opera", ig.); 7057 6; ¤¤7¤ur numlger 70 Musical g, 1:40-10 11.1, 1972. 4 ef e<>7<¤ur number 72 (73) Pisset, .1. c. a Matthews, M. v., "Anaiysis The number ar unres07veb7s matrix goints is 5. ar Musieai Instrument Tones". wxsjscs lam . 0nresa1vab1e matrix paints are assigned 0 as a v_ 22, n,,_ 2_ ,,,,_ 23.32, F,,,,,,,a,v_ me culour at construction time. (14) 9er1ind, 0., ··An Algorithm for Musica) Transéww pasitianu, came. Stud. M g._Verba7 Behav., v. 2, 11 . 2, .102-100, A t, 1970. Computer driven graphics are defined, in the ° W ugus eina1 analysis, by mathematical statements. Math (ie,) vnawimw, p, 11,, ·~cspe.,ra r. nispisy or Key. is arten said ta be an art farm. Many media ar- aaa)-a 14usic~·, uatamatian. v. 78, N0. 5. bv. tists be1ieve that what they do may be ultimately ;,6.6n_ Mm (mei-daantiriabie. Some uf mauern art, such as the w¤r7<s_¤f Mendriene w¤u7d ¤PPenr_t¤ be re¤0i7y (76) Linca1n, 1). 0. a Freiman, c. v., "Tdnard A ¤1uent1F1¤b7e· 7711$_Pe1ger eescribes e ¤re.1e¤f camputer Typaaraphy fur Music Research: A that explores the distinctians between math and p,,,g,€Ss REp,m·»_ .7; p,,,c,,Ed;,,gs of the art and media art as mach. rm canaress 1971. A7tn¤u97¤ evmbuters ere w7¤e7y used 7n tre (17) Mathews, M. v. a Madre, F. 1.., rmziiuva, A art of music, their use in the visualiarts (ex- p,,,9,a,,, for my Hm cO,,t,°1 of 3 Sound ceptjar cartaanina) is very sparse, in my synthesize, by a Compumm Awww &_ opinion. ag niyersity L0.mmLe.r;z,4:27L31, 19s9. The praject utilizes rectilinear ca1aura- ,_ _ _ tian af a paint matrix. mst existent recti- 776) Ledeep 7*··_ Cempufer 4¤e7¥51S 06 Music 1inear applications have been in the area of Fermi ¤.IM§££Q 26¤33. Octbbers 7968. scene ana1ysis and edae e1ariricatian. Man- ,_ _ _ V _ eunetianai machine shape definitions is a 1aree1y 7797 0009*0 N·- 0¤m1>u¢er1Ze¤_77177_b177y 015unexp1ared area, as in the whole area at ea1aured eeereehr the 6e¤i·e¢¢ 7’r0Je¤t » unanimmachine pattern qeneratian. bn 30*02-93 n3· 7977· (20) Lieberman, F., "camputer Aided Ana1ysis ei igggnese Music", Comguter gMusie, isi-92, (1) Maz1ach, 1.. .1., "Man and Computer C0nstruc— _ _, _ U tian Techniques for the aeneratian at crass- (27) ·7¤1¤er» 9» E»» 0re99r1en Kbenfe » wnrd 1>uze1es··, Proceedings of the 1975 $073 Verb¤7 _7ee71ev· <Ne¢7·er7¤n¤e . V·2» systems, Man and Cybernetics cenierencei W 77- 2 3 (December- 7969% (2) Mazlack, t. .1., *·Macra vs. Micro Pattern 0e— (22) Sac:) &(?xEE$1gmzK" Mi t'11· 1 t~·,s dJC Ptt P *t· , 9 , cine ne iXjg§Q'Q‘$"m,,_E°°" °" ° E"` E°°°"` ""` aw 5) 11. Meitzer 1. 0. Mic;-(—hie sds'.),'Am.' msevier Pub. ca., New var)., 221-241, 1971, (5) Gardner, Martin, *·canway*s tire name", @'$1fi$ · °°*°"9‘"· wm- (P1.:Ass TURN YU PAGES 20, 29 F012 CONCLUSION.) Z4 comumt c1e71P111cs and ART rar May, me

sci? em] ships eml serrpentsm · s ~ · 7 7 ) ,9}) I . s · l. L 4 ··-·* 9,5 +< I jig? ihulilliiqgq JA * 4* ¢‘\‘° ·‘~i'€€€EE W » . *0* Qiivi ¢.:·.· —ga¤» M ~ *§‘~»‘:`$°` egéévp ‘%`4 · * . , G ~¥ I =• ‘ ~@ &:$»’>2%i%$*~*¢, ·?¤Y * · . mag ;,~ \` };,•; lm {la} $.;-,5 ,. - 1 :;;:2 3,. ‘ f;§g»g‘§‘.u- .,·¢§g\;{g;’§Lw=.· ~'¥¤"‘€» U"p * ` ·? .\·;_‘A », —’3·. v,, .¤¤=¤ we >·>s¢n"1” 'v’¤5,*·:.·¢/.4 »· * . magv 0%% {K ly $7;%% ·,·;1;.; { 5*3 géa Jééh . ;¢>.§* 7:%, ‘•·7·( +< ~ ~b *4 »J·*<’/ ~¤ ‘s a .,»s-¤-bw; Mw yrs. 1% tw ,_*5.<*4’,p, U ‘;, ‘><" ¢»;_;;•.#s s lbf ‘n%‘~€€§§— *1`?*$*§¢ %*:°¢°?‘¥£t;si'*"‘§•W·>‘$x aka: &*?,?e%¤ gk `:x*'% b¢ 6 `“~'D·—.?!’g¤ 1·‘°¥’}<‘\,Z*%·“S’s3€·’*i%?$;$&a‘·a »!"7 4,yy:p2?7o<:‘;Lf§$:¥&§ "V}T::,E!_£;`•-:`)·> ;6i;‘},;:;§,s,v~"•U;"g;?;g¢'%X‘} }u9:':; ~° < ¢ ‘* Q W +< · #2 iv 5%;; * · gi}, mfg; gjiiéiz sw, ,_ * W; Pa W MMU 3 · M ·* : s '?—‘¤%?;, §»€·?;~ ~ -¢+%ZZ/? + ?§·?'¤+ %Q$',.,, ,?¤~,%{ Z_·§g,/65/;,, §Q1s¤{,§g‘ ,·’§:;,Q# gmac ##2% · ”;;%’?, JK dg, wt Mi $@0/ , " %‘§¤@€<~*, ***16*% é’°¤/4,-* #¤°""!€P, *"?'* , - %»*$*° ?§é6‘·‘? °fE•¥°”E. .»@"¢C” i *“$$,§. ’$°$~¥r>¤¤¤¤» § *°*€*€€€@=$*2»'·?!P2€$€5€é%%‘¢} ¤>V*N`v. $»g&‘,g&qn;;_*<§. ik . i U Q, `*¤§§@ , , wew s it igigggqz ~5’.~*” v _ M ‘ wx, k_4J,¤ . s @@3 mf +< , `, ‘·.+ on ‘ w ya #4 wt ¢§$sss;sz¤,’¢# · M * ‘ MW]. $3:}:}: , * ~< ( wei =* n v , sym . §?+°:ea,=%i% ,;»~:~ · ,'~¤,·.-s Q ssilsgégy _ .,»»7//·' 4 . nsiiiéii **5%% · \%*§g;¤j.J >:‘·‘$7’>AisL@y3;," `%¢M$=s¤ss~; 4 $ `$’"1§¤$·%$%¤~ ¤**"§¢%%*·2" *=sss‘“gss;5%¢m¤ 4 $~¥:¤¤¤§¤¤¤¤?w~*%n* ¤¤%22w£¥>¤* 1 THE ECI; Q Ovlin Ekmett, London, Ehgland "The actual print is silk-screened, the background being dark blue, and the white areas in this picture are qold. The patterns on the snake, which represent the year, are printed as is spectrum of colours usinq ms ·¤is¤¤· effect possible in sukscxssmss. ms print wsssuxss zs·· X aw. The cost of the print is $30 for each print. It is published in a limited edition of 10U. Each print is signed and numbered. Only 100 copies of this version will ever exist, and as such they will retain their value as cyriqinal wurks of axt." Readers interested in this work may ountact Colin Bmett at: Flat 4, 73 Anson Road, Lcyndcn NF GAT, England. COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ARTf0r May, 1976 25

MORE NCC '76 I. ...a\ left, W acrylic on linen, _ ,s*»'f by .l.C. Marquette ’ _ > Faonéda series uf five · ,· Y Licilng %Z.q€§S Q? . subtIB Variations . ly, -V,. I . ·— l v·_..; ,v I M3 ‘<‘2 _ W - , jj, i·Ll llE.A - -» ¢-i *· Uuarmgnac smry·· by Jean-claude Marqum., vans "°§,E“j[[{f`°,,'{‘,,,`Q§'Q§§'§"V" "Topographic Form" by Sture Jcrhannesson and Stem Kallin, Malmo, Sweden -—, — —- " .,· L ___ \\ \ I T . %; ...../ %»——-L *"""»;? " .==`»< "’§ \ _"l°°' . 7.. //` "\\\ `\ "Serigraphv in three colors 26 COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART far May, I 976

NCC '76 Because of the number cf artism represented The works on pages 26 and 27 illustrate very in the ICCH/2 (International Conference of the clearly the highly personal, hiqhly varied apCunputer and the Humanities), the reaier is re- proaches and final presentations of international ferred to the August Annual Art Issue of uters computer artists. The works by Franke and Kallin and People for many other illustrations fran this ard Johannesson are silkscreeninq, while the exhibition. 1*/hrquette final works are canvases. -· V I A , I ,/ " r ; Y1 r · _ _ . , Y ` ¤ · ; i»· · s \ . ’ _ _ [TA_r:·.· `‘»’x.. ‘ ~ $· 1 { V \,_ , · ’ · *•• J · \ "knalog Graphics" `by Herbert Franke, Munich ll-\bove, Herbert: Franke eqolcres we "<;n>¤Sit¤" In the seven graphics of me *·1<¤bus»sens··, egmshly walled, mee ¤¤¤e¤¤er q¤¤1>1¤<;S W rm me rccu/2 exmmsmn, msus Basset presents gsm a grained screw m d¤vs1¤¤1{¤<2_¤h¤ fmel s series of permutations based on me subs. me images used m ms 5U§<s¤r-eensd Sd}¤<>¤S· The works of Basset also reesu ms early Bauhaus works recall the earlier constructions of Naum consuuctions -~ yet are reminiscent of the transs Gabo, and the Constructivist Manifesto. fomations in the recent Scientific Anerican. Below: "Kubus—Serie" by Klaus Basset, Stuttgart §,”3 x>%"°“sssssss* "“’<°°°°°‘ss>O¤¤OssOs<"“°°“°°°‘s»¤<s** Oi}<x>ccrm—»<< ¥R: l{l$ Q ;‘”°‘<m_*,$;°§;sms’°°<rm0¤’?“’§ %€$¥ i¥?i¥¥ I » ¤>¤m~ °°°"‘;' ‘ ‘ ‘ ;“‘“**,,,,,,,°°°‘*”’“**‘*““‘*’m ‘**""‘,s"=`§‘? » >¤¤¤OO¤¤¤o<xx>r¤<¤rxw— §,§ZZl,;_,,_,_,,,,,1,,,,,c_,,,,,,,{; <.<. <><><>·»»·»»¤ u-»-··•-·»•$r.1r»-·-·-·-•»»-»» j ' "" ‘;2I"‘ " Y ‘· :;,3;;; ····· Z"' ""‘ ' oco<>•·••·»<»»•-•+•-•~e»1·z•+ —· `tZ2ZZZ‘Z2Z;.21ZZZ 2222:;.; . ;ZZZ2.2:ZZ:2;,IZ22Z2222. • me ······ .:::2:::;:: :::2::::: rr‘r ·:::::::::=&:::::::::.: ··..Es..... ........2§' '~........-;........... sOsa+°°“°»»+»H.+..».+sH+•s+»H+»~ 2222222;i:f§.ZZ§§Zff?fZT?2‘?2Ef;Zi§‘;Z .... E -;ss¤·;Z'Z· ....·iss...s ..... .·.......... ssss...s s.....•..... " " """"""`”""" "" "‘°“"‘"‘ “""" "'= ‘ ‘" ' · ZZZZZZ2:.:s;.:ZZZ1 $21221:1212 as 1:s;;;:Z:2ZZ22Z:Z' ···*+*··" '''''''' """"’ 222222222222 j; 22222;-;:22222222 °°°°*’*’** 22222222222Zs22;=s 2222222222Z2__; 2222222222-s‘222Z2 ;mc,,_,,,,,°°< i:§Z§§ZZZ22=:§Z22:; ——— ~rr/r~r~·rr/r— %--- '1s2Z22 ·:: ::::*:::2:;::::;: 21;siiiiiiifiiiiiiiiiJ..::::: ;;;;§a ; ¥ ; ::;:12:::::::;::: **¥·s *i’= ¥=¥ ·r·· ’· ·;·r·· ······· _=‘;:::.;f::::::::::: .............., .=.......... s s 2;;:cggggggggggggggggggggg2;ggagggggggjgggggggggg :::::::::;::::::::5 ·s:::: COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ARTfur Muy, 1976 j7

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 23) (23) Jackson, R., "Harmony Before and After 1910: (39) Patrick, P. H., "Composer, Computer and AudiA Computer Comparison", he Computer; Music, ence", Composer (London), n35, Spring, 1970, 1970, pp. 132-46. pp. 1-3. (24) Lincoln, H. B., "A Computer Application in (40) Strang, G., "Ethics and Esthetics of Computer Musicology: the Thematic Index". Proc. IFIP Composition", The Computer agi M sic, 1970, Congress, 1957--Hardware 2, Booklet E, pp. pp. 37-41. B5-89. (41) Mein, M. and Burtnyk, N., "A Computer Facility (25) Mendel, A. "Some Preliminary Attempts at for Film Animation and Music", Natl, Res. Computer Assisted Style Analysis in Music", Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Canadian Compgterj @Humanities, Vol. 4, #1, pp. Computer Conference Session, 1972. -5 , (42) Kunii, Tosiyaso, "A Relational Data Base (26) Matsuyama, T.; Imai, T.; & Vukimoto, A,. Scheme for Describing Complex Pictures with "Real Time Automatic Music Composition and Colour and Texture", Proceedings of the 2nd Playing", First USA-Japan Computer Conference Intl. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Aug. 13Proceedings, Tokyo. Japan, 3-5 October. 1972, I5, 1974. (Montvale, N.J.:AFIPS, 1972), pp, 116-23, (43) The Issue or Video Art (Special Issue), Ag; (27) Clough, J. J., "IRMA: An Interactive Real Canada, October, 1973, Time Digital System for Electronic Music". 1971 IEEE Intl. Convention Digest, N.V., (44) Whitney, J. H., li Freiman, C. V.. "A Computer pp. 40-41. Art for the Video Picture Wall". Infomation Processing 71, Proceedings of the IFIP Con(28) Hiller, "Synthesizing Musical Sounds by gress 1971. Vol. 2, 1972, 陇P路 1382-6. Solving the Nave Equation for Vibrating Ohjects", J. Audio gg. E., Vol. 19, I6, (45) Kallis, S. A., "Computer Animation Techniques", pp. 452-70. J: Society Motion Pictures wi_'Q/,_@., Vol. 80, #3, March, 1971. Pp. 145-8. (29) Lewin. D., "Some Applications of Communication Theory to the Study of Twelve Tone (45) Csuri, C., "Real Time Film Animatiun",IEEE Music", Journal Q Music Theory, Vol. 12. Intl. Convention Digest, New York. lll, 1968, pp. SO-84. owl kneumm, 1<. c.. "The Problem of Software (30) Pulfer, .1. K., "The Computer as an Aid to the for Computer Art", 196E IEEE Intl. ConvenComposition and Production of Comercial Mu- tion, NVC, N. V., 18-21 March, 1968 (N. V. sic", Natl. Res. Council of Canada, Ottawa, Inst. Electrical & Electronic Engineers 68) Prog. of the 42nd Convention of the Audio p. 124. Eng, Soc., 1972. (48) Whitney, .1. H., "A Computer Art for the Video (31) Morton, Ian and Lofstedt. J., "FORTRAN Picture Wall", Info. Proc. 71, Proc. of IFIP Music Programs Involving Numerically Re- Congress, 1971, Vol. 2, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, lated Tones". Eg Computer @ Music. 1970, 23-28 August. 1971 (Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 153-62. North Holland Pub. Co., 1972) pp. 1382-6. (32) Maclnnis, D., "Sound Synthesis hy Computer: (49) Tuchman, M., "Three Behaviors for the PartiMUSIGOL, A Program Written Entirely in Ex- tioning of Space: Harold Cohen: Machine tented ALGDL", Perspectives Q @ Music, Generated Drawings and Paintings", Art hVol, 7, #1, Fall-Winter, 1958, pp, 66-79. ternational, Vol. 16, May, 1972, PPT24-5, (33) Alio, A. C.; Lavoie, D_ C.; a Paprocki, J. N,. (50) Cowe, R. J., "Simulati0n of Sea Shell Pigment "MUSIM: Simulation of Music Composition Patterns Using an Interactive Graphic System", Using GASP", 1974 Ninter Simulation Conf., Com uter Bulletin, Vol. 15, #8, August, 1971, Vol, II, Washington, D.C., 14-16 'January, pp. 290-94. 1974. Pp. 585-91. (51) Briones, Florinto, "Computer Painting with (34) Clough, J., "TEMPO: A Composer's Pro- some subjective Data", Proc. 1974 IFIP Conf., gramming Language (Transformational Music pp. 856-860. Process Organizer)", Perspectives Q @ Music, Vol, 9, #1, 1970, pp. 113-25. (52) Velderman, P., "Computer Generated Overshot Variations", Handweayer ag Craftsman, Vol. 22, (as) Mos Dice ana nin", Time, vui. 93, May 30, #4, Fa11,197 . vp. 10-111969, pp. B5-6. ? (53) Appel, A.; Stein, A.; E Gilvey, J. P., "Com(36) Butchers, C., "The Random Arts: Xenaxis, puter Generation of 3-D Pictures". @@Mathematics and Music", Tempo, #85, Summer, closure Bulletin., Vol. 15, #3, Aug., 1972, 1968, PP路 2-5. W. 334-99. (37) Nnes, V. M., "Nhat is Music?", Journal Q (54) Brown, B. R. and Lohmann, A. bI.. "Computer Aesthetics g &gCriticism, Vol. 26, #2, Generated Binary Holograms", IBM J. R. and D., 967. PD- 241-9, V. 13, #2, March, 1969, pp, 160-68. (38) Clark, R. C., "Total Control and Chance in (55) Ives, Roger, "Computer Aided Sculpture", Musics: Reflections on Criticism and Judge- Computers @ Automation, Vol. 18, #9, Aug,, ment? Journal Q Aesthetics gd @ Criticism, 1969, p. 33. Vol. 29, #1, pp. 43-6. (Concluded on the next page.) 28 COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART [or May, 1976

(ss) Mallary, iz., ·*inAN 2; A Computer Graphics era- ,76 gram to Make Sculpture", Proc. AFIPS l97O Fall Joint Comp. Conf., pp. 451-SO. ( ] LISTING OF COUNTRIES, AND ARTISTS REPRESENTED 57 Metzger, G., "Five Screens with Computer Graphic Aspects of a Sculpture Project", Alexanco, Jose Luis - SPAIN Intl. Symposium and Exhibition on Computer Alton, Lawrence - USA _ · Graphics, Middlesex, England. Arveiller, Jacques - FRANCE , ‘ Audoire, Louis - FRANCE . (SB) Resch, R, D., "The Topological Design of Barbadillo, Manuel - SPAIN _ ° Sculptural and Architectural Systems", Basset, Klaus - GERMANY 7 AEIPS Conf, Proc., Vol. 42, l973, Natl. Beckmann, Otto - AUSTRIA Computer Conference E Exh., NYC, A-B June, Bonacic, Vladimir - ISRAEL " · _ l973. Britton, Tom - CANADA , ‘ Cohen, Dan - USA ' Q (59) Ihnatowicz, "Art and Cyhernetics", Proceedings Cordeiro, Analivia - BRAZIL _ of EVROCOMP Conf., May, l974. Cordeiro, Waldemar - BRAZIL Delgado, Gerardo - SPAIN _ (60) Childs, B., "Indeterminancy and Theory: Dunker, Kenneth - USA E some Notes", Composer, Vol. I, #l, l969, Dupre, Fanie - FRANCE Q pp. l5-3A. Dupre, Jacques - FRANCE — ) Dvizenije Collective Movement - RUSSIA (6l Gabura, G, J., "Analog and Digital Techniques Etra, Bill - USA _ V V for Producing and Controlling Randomness in Etra, Louise - USA l Electronic Composition", Ciamaga, Canadian Franke, Herbert - GERMANY ' Com uter Conference Session, l972, Montreal, Garrison, David - USA _ _ S P Quebec, l-3 June, l97Z. Greussay, Patrick - FRANCE _ Groupe Couleur de Belfort - FRANCE __ (62) O`Beirne, T. H., "QAO, 369, 969, l52 Dice- Halgand, Jean—Claude - FRANCE - ‘ Music Trios", The Musical Times, V. lD9, Harvard Spatial Analysis Group - USA · October, l969, pp. 9 2-l3. Hertlein, Grace — USA Holzhauser, Karl - GERMANY E (G3) Olson, H. F. and Belar, H., "Aid to Music Huitric, Herve - FRANCE _ ,_ Composition Employing a Random Probability Johannesson, Sture - SNEDEN j System", Journal g @ Acoustical E. of Kallen, Sten - SWEDEN - A _j America, Vol. 33, l96l, p. l 63. Kawano, Hiroshi - JAPAN ‘ Land, Dick - USA ' (54) Reynolds, R., "Indeterminancy: Some Consi- Leavitt, Ruth - USA ; derations", Perspectives y @ Music. Vol. LIMSI Groupe - FRANCE A 4. #l, l955, DD. EEUU. Marquette, Jean-Claude - FRANCE Mezei, Leslie - CANADA ` _ - , (65) Xenakis, I., "The Origins of Stochastic Mikulic, Tonnislav - YUGOSLAVIA l * Music", Tempo, #78, Autumn. l966, pp. 9-l2. Milojevic, Elizabeth - CANADA , A Milojevic, Petar - CANADA ~ ‘ 7 Mohr, Manfred - FRANCE 7 . ; ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON MUSIC AND THE VISUAL ARTS: Molnar, Vera - FRANCE , _ ; S Nahas, Monique - FRANCE - See the August Issues of Computers gd People, Nake, Frieder - GERMANY Berkeley Enterprises, Newtonville, Mass. Nash, Katherine - USA A_ . Nees, Georg - GERMANY *4 _ The Spring (Bibliography Update) Issues of Palyka, Duane - USA . . Computers mi gig Humanities, Pergamon Pavlin, Sergej - YUGOSLAVIA . . . , Press, N. Y., for definitive state-of- Schwartz. Lillian — USA . . the-art bibliographies. according to Segui, Ana - SPAIN ‘ specific categories within each field. Segui, Javier - SPAIN { ' Q _ (Exam les: The Visual Arts; Music, Etc.) Sevilla, Soledad - SPAIN . . P Sh P l USA " mow: Graphics by Herbert Franke, from me ""lt"€y’ ‘]°"" E USA = ` Au ust iowa Art cxmaimn of com e & P i Z°J°°’ Pwd ` mw - - V , Q · ‘ ziijak, Vilko » vucosuwm Zotti, Antpn - GERMANY JD. %` `=¢=a1::;·=.. ~.· · ge — _\\ pq,. %i'* %s:5;E=5&&:::;g;35:i ,\\ ·\ rwr ':g§Eg§§;::llI···»·•·¥i, . *’ ' WWW /_ A ’ · ... I hy · ==:.¤ $ §·· ig ¤ COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May, 1976 N

ART FIEPFIDDUCTIDNS, \"’ I uertigih. A srained-giaslsydisigi of AV ’ y cunputer graphics designed for the v ` }) [ ` y Q intarnaticmal periodical, gggters ,7 , I and the Humanities, to be used for a . . r i {I —- r-— /1 r' ;;·_ A ·: \ ` five year perred. raeh year, the color { ` I %" of the cover is varied. (This year it 5 *;_ r Y r E %*:·' I1r` is a rich red.) é H I E mi ` The graphic was first printed in {‘\a ’ '“ `, II i `x rl {wv; . I the August, 1974 Art Issue of gwtexs yi.? 4 igiilgagrgsn-Chr§r1?;ii;r?Zs:;;}% §;yd SUIZWIEI, .\ r- · ·w_ j#J¤~4~J¤n¤ A / Leslie Mezei, Lillian Schwartz, Ken 1 ' ’ Qzyiggf } gigiiiiiiiiiii EA l§ Knowlton, and Grace uertiein. Ebyptian r1 V N, k‘ {N,} · 4 » maaiiiiiiiiiij V v• hieragiyphs are by Elizabeth Meyers, V xr g { Eggggglaglagggzg r w sermeriy pr the University of Iowa, ' , ’ { I \ 'i’????)>f?]¤?T??¤¤ ,J A\ Iuva City. Other patterns are by x . wxh ' ;·._ . ééééywkgzzgzggl W Ay Hertlcm stuienre. *r,,_,)¤ x —-• jjjjjjesfffiff ,¤ \O . , The repredderien is a reverse ‘ V I rg, X 5 ,,,,,,§;;;;;jgg Q4) image, white lines on a black back4 ¤` "; if .; .<’ _ ground, as are the other prints in 7` Y g’ z’ `Y `¢ U " W Series fl Arr Re roductions e re e .· , · } 4 r. -· r Eg? 4 ` " { gr , JG The set of three graphics is on i i ay ra I Q ff arr paper, ss X in mehes. Prepaid Qi r. pr a A } subscribers may order theselqzaphics er .. j, gr by the set (three repmductmns> for \;, ‘ h§\ a ees; price pr $2.20 per set. This '•* includes postage and handling. RFADER BZINUSES: ART REPRODUCFIONS -— SET El — THREE PRINTS : I . . ».\ §|'|§ Above, COMPUTER COLLAGE #1 —- At riqht, `_ ` ;I l I ‘ EL Cd4PUTER COLIAGE #2. I ‘ > l I§$' ¢~·· I; QIiiQ*‘ ‘ . -. {Qs wr ir J | . 4 » ¤ `°’e?>\—** N FI IL k =~·~·l V `¤, HIT -.: CONEPUTEIR ®LIAGD #2 by Grace Hertlezin. 7 \ . This was an aiternere design for me above i M periodical. Here a mre static ecmposi— / 1 M tion relates to eeiumn-like separaripns, _; . ;1 recalling Lkeek columns, anpha- _ r a __ g j sizing the classic guaiiry er all related _ V - ; ·_ _ .‘ g ¤— art forms, including the computer. The _ I popular portrait by the Japanese Cuuputer 3*; =,— ,/ U . 1 lf Technicme creep is used, wiui details of g, r ~ the tapestry qifaphics by Kehhéfh Kruwlton [ ' JI F' Si Q I `; _ and Lillian Schwartz. The hiemglyphs of · *· I ’s " “v _, _ J Elizabeth Meyers form a continuity. wz I ,§ ‘ This qraphic has not been printed else- ` i YZ where. ’ Other patterns are by Hertlein and her _ = stgdeugsi alonq with details fron gputers *5+*** 46%;%,;: @1, [E an e E E. »_h vg 7 $,$,$,$ @1 @l@l (See page 3l for order rprm, char may '@2!rH" gl ’ — be Xemxed se err to ee. dar., ei $$$$ T · lM·l @||E| PLEASE ALLOW THREE WEEKS FOR DELIVERY. $0 (‘O.’l1PUTI;R GRAPHICS uml ART fur Nur, /070

SEA FANS by mace Hertlein. This graphic h originally appeared as a 1974 cover for the V *··, ' magazine, Cgggrgters and Pmple. The origi· nal work was in black ink on white paper. T . This graphic was the result or eeerr ¤»· ,,,7 mentation with the microfilm plotter at the "'__ n - _ University or Iona, iowa City, during the V ` M , *“L Sumner ot 1974. nicrotiim output opened _j up a whnie new avenue or expieratien, in , , ®§ 2 which the film output was taken into generae & ,(- _ @ ·. tive photography, seriqraphy, use of ace— v N Q 6 .; t t nh tate Diazos etc. For details on the \ e s t r e - W .AIl'·!•' 4 r P0 K. _ , tential of cuuputer art taken E phOhO_ §§$55§§ /;,,u\|"",. . graphy into varied art neoia, see the June, %$§§§§§ ggéi _ ,. ,W:?.,p·;_ 1975 Proceedigs, ccuc/6 (forvpiters in the ~\ $§s;§E i 5 »:§,;;··.;-Q . Undergmduate Curriculum), Tunes Christian \ :EE§ ig ·. , `§§ _ University, Fort Worth, Tees, ·*·i·he hierar;‘ _.» _ ~ ° rim plotter ana Computer Art", (it you \— ,\ f do not have access to these proceedings, . _ , “ , ·_ if 'i¥ write me editor for a ditm copy.) ._, = _‘ The technique or photographic reversals ` .; ·\ \'§ /y» ~- of cunputer art is becoming increasingly ._`?r _ *5,;*, . V r’/ · more oomwnn. A great many computer gra`·.` lh; ¤,=_» ,eee._ -_ ' phics are more aesthetic in their reveree _ *@§%§$_§ ,/= v ron», where the innumerable iinee, in a `~\`— Z _E · jr. \" ` s és ’ white pattern, are rwre restful and con` ‘=,= §§S§ ° temporary than in their counterpart fours ¤’ ` `» ’a, \ of black ink lines on white paper. 'l\-\ EE; A I NOTE ON FRAMING: Plmciglas E X ll) inch , V { - . boxes are very effective, as well as white V \ mats with s¤inless steel rraree. 1—ra— diticmal wooden frames are not as compatible with contenporary graphics. THIS FORM MAY EE XERJXEID AND SENT 'H) (ISLA, CHICK) AS AN ORDER FORM. (ALLQW 3 WEEKS FOR D]gLI\vgRy_) TO: COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND ART Berkeley Entarprisas _ Chim, Branch THIS IS A BONUS OFFER TOR PREPAID SUESCRIBERS ONLY. 555 Vallmrbmsa, #35 Chico, Cblifornia 95926 Please send me set (s) of three prints each. I enclose $2.5¤ for each set of three graphics, (This covers the prints, postage, and handling.) Please make checks payable to Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. I am i.nterest$ in other editions of computer art graphics. NAME ORGANIZATION ADDRESS AJ Y V Y CV Y Q Y Q QV A V *1 Q Y IIIIII N I ll I YQ COMPUTER GRAPHICS und ART for May, 1976

CONCLUSION: wore ra hics from the storage cathode ray tube o Charles Fritchie and Robert Vorriss. A 9FY range of final styles is presented, ranging from brush-like calligraphy, to direct dmwing, with very personal, free forms resulting. ,~,, /’ / / /—!»-,· »,,,//”i/ /%/ t~<\ yi ·\ fw,/]|]/M]4//c\\:\\ lvl ·/w), wi ` A" \ \\ ` \ \ • / ` z LL \ VJ; *» ._x\,_ \\ \ \\ wir _ ,\\x \ \ / u·‘{{.,,¢ , _ ` W __ gsj 3 » P¤ \\ \\ ··» # ‘—= \ `>4 4;..;. ` W A4·.fTm2éi§€=—~$"€T`¥`.. Xe `\ x \ . ‘<‘HZ-" " `\ `* ’\i \ L5 VMI: 7 ‘ V w -.4-%.-.r€$» h·‘. \¤7 ¤= QN .e » . \ Rv.; ,1,,,Jy ,T? 4 !;·,»_g>; `*\\ \ ‘\®,<§·.s.d!’»/*’,n, ——e J MSS; \\x ~_ \ it • _\. z \ V » *\ seq `~\ \“\ —_,, 2; 3;,\ _ *3 {QJ ’ \f*{? V? ;/» \1~ • \<s\\\ * t or sr; ogy e c//e Above, left: Figure B, whirling forms in space. Above, right: Fiqure 7, with brush-like calligraphy patterns. Bottom, left: Figure 2, node-like, delicate tracings. At the right, bottom: Figure 3, forms resembling slinky wire sculptures. (Interested readers should write Professors Fritchie and rbrriss for more details.) CCMMENTS: The qraphlcs on this page were 0z‘i·· qimlly developed with white lines on a black background. To experience e new view of these CRT graphics, they were rephotographcd by CG&A , if in reverse, using a copy camera. The free forms Q _$; are more dcxninant in these versions, resembling H, ,/\`\\“ works that might be accomplished by using a liqht ME / : m.|w._, _ , 7- _ pen or G digitized tame;. Photographic mnipm J / e ` iatmns or wmpater err often yield mma intercstt __ . 1 , XX* be _ mq results than ae pmwy srt Gutput. .4 of ' , \, ,,§ \ , * i1:·‘ p i~\=¤w\ `A at T ` ” /\ `·§\\Ti;; `\ 4 l “ \ V . ¤ * ie; so Y [?‘f/- A , ; e VJ i\\ it M J l ix c i ` `\_ Em 5 A M E `\ » ` se = e l »» we * " l ` ` s \ `"rr W, J _ sx. if \}) Q, , R, " \\. . W ‘ ' \ *¤M·,**l » ,/ L A \ *—\~ ~ e . _;* xxi · L ,/4 . ·m»*’ ~ ~ " "X ' ` H ' . ’ »·,,¢"` J T\%\$~ l ve ~ `. li ‘ Ag " *‘" A ‘ ` l’ u, “¤ ~¢ A » · r ~· A Jean \‘ r’_ liy t . ` V . . "._ " // »\"~\/ , {A ` r \ · ’ , {Y 1YH1PL‘7'I.R riR,1!*llICS Amd A/€Tjm· Mu, N70

as COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND ART FIRST ISSUE NOW PUBLISHED! {$?¤{;·‘ COMPUTER GRAPHICS und ART is a new international quarterly of interdisciplinary graphics for graphics people and Panel Table ¤i <>¤¤¤¤¤¤ — V¤¤- I, N0- I computer artists. ·r»us new periodical is aimed er students, teachers, people from undergraduate and graduate institutions, Learning Through Graphic, researchers. and individuals working professionally in graphics. by Dr. AI Bork, University ol California, Irvine, Califorrna lts topical coverage ts broad, ernbracing a variety of fields. A tenryear forecast for computers, education, and graphics by a lt is useful, informative. entertaining, and current. Out goal lcadrns authority. is excellence, and to achieve this objective. We invite our An Dr me rechmmr Wmrd readers t0 participate actively in the magazine, and to advance by Dr_ Harharr prankel Munich Germany the state of the artr of computer graphics by oommunlcation, csmeorer err ss me euooe serweeo me me reerme or err Shanna. and <1¤ss¤m¤¤a¤<>¤ ¤f ¤d=¤s“"" ‘E"“'“· We imno you, your colleagues ood sruaems to help as Expanding the Graphics Compatability Systern to Three Dimensions achieve this goal. by Rrchard F, PuI<, Purdue University, Lalayette, Indiana A vereenet Philosophy or moss, New Hardware, sua use rreeuus by Duane Palyka, University oi Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah wrrrrw The frame-buffer from Evans and Sutherland allows the artrst to Applied Arts and Graphics treat the computer as n paint and brush medium. Architectural Graphics Frome e oem, r.e. e..,. .,.¤. or eeseeee eee g;;;¤j3;_g,§;;*;jj,rn °’i`ZZ1£rZF `§;r§“I§’ .13 SLZZUElfiiiloiZ`°§;§°§Sn'°L2Li.m °··m¤m* Amd and M*"¤¤*¤ *"=*~=¤¤" I. me eeveee re. emu. je Seium. e.,e e emuee “ "·*'i*‘"¤ Cm ¤·¤* °*a··"*¤* ' ComPuter Graphics in Physics, Chemrstryr How to Build Futzy Visual Symbols Mathematics. etc, by Alex Nlakarovrtsch, Honeywell Bull, Paris, France § Qwmputer Programs for New Applications A new approach to computer art and graphics by a oornputer Display Systems and Graphics scientist. ° réi . V r Fine Art and Nledia E><¤lorations . . . . . , , , _ Z@¢§r¤%E crsptoies so eusioess Coordination of Etbltugraphy·Maktng for Interdisciplinary Graphics · 5 gy H . . . · ardware Systems and Graphics by Gia" °· H°"'°'"· E""°' rn; iruerooraye Greenies raugoeees era systems ores errsireereprues using e tested memos ‘*"‘“““°‘ ‘°' °°'"°‘“°' °'“°"'°‘ i"“ “'“° V ’ crepmos Primitives Computer Art Illustrations Szftware Systems and Graphic Reouirements by Frieder Nake, Alex Makarovitsch, William Kolomyiec, Ensor Statistical Packages and General Graphing Holiday, and Duane Falyka Syllabi for Computer Graphic Courses 1 L ,· · IC'. ‘·· S Qsstlai .#=s¥% , ares Qs rtqiz a etrceazy eo? "wrcgr r~ e rg.».&;; e gr % -------- - 7 -»----- -— -—-—· — —Imay be copied on any piece of paper) ————————— -— -—----—------Tu CDMpUTE;; G;qApH]C_garrdApT HERE IS YOUR OPPORTUNITY FOR FEEDBACK TD US: B¤r*<·=*Er E¤*¤r¤ri¤¤· '¤¤— I r r ree. te submit for pueiieetroo in com msreoer eo me renewing SI5 Washington St. roms: I I Please enter my PERSONAL (US and Canada) sutgseriprion ro I I I am interested in reading materials by the following authors; CG&A ISIU per year). ( I Please enzer my FOREIGN PERSONAL subscription to CG&A I$'l3 Der year). ( I I arn particulariy interested in coverage of the following subiects I I Please enter my LIBRARY/DEPARTMENTAL subscription to CGSIA ISIS W ver)- ( ) . would like to rzoeiyz materials ort ot er erkelcy nterprrses, Inc. I I ;';°:;"§: '"`I PERSONAL CHECK AND/OR PURCHASE ORDER oumioerrous; I I cowwrsns en.1 Pearce I I ne cnmursn I I erretosea as szrsn ror e sample may or com ropouoeene toward s °’"E°m"Y'"“ EUYERIS GMDE I lP"°"'” """ "'” whim mm) PURSI/IT of Truth I I The Notebook on COMMON SENSE and D ` WISDOM I I WHOZS WHO in COMPUTERS and DA TA FULL REFUND IN 30 DAVS IF NOT SATISFACTORV PROCESSING I I Books _})_V"_ rrrr _ rrrrr wi rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr _iY"_"_ rrrrr_ ______ __rrrr _ rrrrr_ _' I I I am interested in. I I black and white computer art reprints at low cost Ia bonus for subscribing to CGBIAI I I 77 page FORTRAN Narne IV art manual I I 45 Page interdisciplinary graphiu bibliography Title by G. Henlein Organization __, . I ) Additional Comments Iattach another piper ii neededI1 Address COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ARTfor May, 1976 33 l l I }

QQ m p uu E |*S clear and literal inrgrrnatiprr that you aaa, rr} der to understand and apply computers and and eu °' . p data processing effectively — both now and in formerly Camputws and Aummatiun the future when oomputers, we believe, will be» come commoner than motor cars. We help you comprehend the fastest growing industry in the world. ¤¤¥`“P'~_§,E§!;p§ cairrprrrert and People is the oldest magazine in the computer field, published since 1951. It _ ' is edited by computer pioneer Edmund C. Berkeley, He took part in building and operat>_“_`\ ing the first automatic computers, the Mark I , {T ,l "‘ * SEA FANS and Il at Harvard University in 1944-45; in kw A 1955-67 he implemented the programming lantl l r guage Lisp for the DEC PDP—9 aarriprlrer. He , v' is: a founder of the Association for Computing ’ Machinery; its secretary 194753; the author of fourteen books on oomputers and other sub~ jects; a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries; and an invited lecturer on computers in the United States, Canada, England, Japan, the Soviet and nenpls Union, and Australia. -e IE ;e~§ ·— · He is assisted by able associates and oontriba Published bv: _ uting editors who help report the concepts, B k I E _ J applications, and implications of information *5; zllzihllggfggrgssv Inc. T\", ‘e€ ¤l°€€$Sl¤9 Sl/Stéms — with emphasis on ideas, . ` "/P ` __ : , issues. controversies, society, people, and social Newtonvllle, Mass. 02160 ?; ~ » a ,Esp0,,slbll,,y_ 617r332»5453 , »r· `· i ' X V 1 V Take a quick look at the summary here of RAW /NPL/T FDH LUMBER the contents of Cumputefs and People - then MILL AND COMPUTER ask yourself: Would this information advance the goals of my organization, and my personal goals, in the Computer Revolutiont" com uters P ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤¤*¤ and people ; Each issue of Computers and People, formerly it ·` rs} Computers and Automation, contains articles of sig— ’ ‘”E*"""E’°‘ niripanae on important aspects or tire computer field W""”"VG and related fields. Here are same samples: " EL/DY ·;.§*}5 r; Computers and Monopoly 3.; ` ' R. M. Carlson and B, Wehrmann, U.S. Dept. of Justice IBM and the Maintenance of Monopoly Power Dan L. McGurk, President, Computer Industry Assoc. Competitive Restructuring of Monopoly Situations Cbmpulers and Privacy HOW CAN YOU KEEP nal. Alan l=. westarr, columbia university G Databazks in·aV;r?aSociety:° lh f Nh overnor ranols . rgent, mmonwoat 0 ss. National Crime information and Massachusetts Pres. Jerome B. Wiesnor, Mass. Inst. of Technology ll you read cnmpumu and People llormefly The Prospects of information Tyranny compmels and Auwlmtlunl your lab will be Vern Countryman, Harvard Law School easier, your eriprts will be less. °¤¤·¤¤*¤*¤ and ¤¤¤·¤*$ 34 COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May, 1975

l I Campuim. mi,] Game Computers and Sacl11IResyrlsibi1irK [ Donn la. Parker, Stanford rleteareh Institute ¤r· H¤rr=v S- G·IIr¤¤¤. DCF $v=t¤r¤=. I—t¤· The Antisccini use Ot Computers The Social Responsibility of Computer Specialists Richard E, Sprague, President, rereonei nee. Services R¤Il=r· N¤¤=r· A¤¤r¤=v =·r··* ¤¤r·=¤r··=r A¤··¤·=rt= The Assassination or President Kennedy; computer Corrwuters and the Consumer Anpiicaticns to the photographic Evidence Richard E. Sprague, President, Personal Data Services _ iiaynionn E. aoehe, Calif. state Univ.-San Luis oeiioo °¤rr·l>¤t¤r *’r¤f¤=*·¤¤¤•¤= Wtlrt Their System Software Deeiohering anu "Cracking" $°°IaI C°"°°f"$ NW *° B9 4 Computers and the WWE Prof. Charles Sussklnd, -Unlv. of Calif. at vBerkeley _ _ Technology as a Social Force and Ethloal Problem ` Dr. Stafford Beer, Manchester University, Great Britain Managing lvlooem Complexity SPECIAL ISSUE C. P. Snow, Ministry of Technology, London, England Science and the Advanced Society John Kenneth Galbraith, Harvard University TI'IE COIVIPUTER DIRECTORY Employment, Edumtion, and the Industrial System AND BUYERS GUIDE, Dr. Ruth M. Davis, National Bureau of Standards the mldyear reference issue of Computers and People, Computers and the international Balance of Power formerly Computers and Automation, published every (;_ w_ gpangih Vim president. Honeyweii inC_ year since 1955, is a special 13th issue. It is a basic The Present Rcin Ot Governments in the Wntid buyers' guide to the organizations, products, and serv— Computer industry lceftavallactzile for supplying, designing, and using com· Compumg ,,,,,1 me Mind of MM Pu Ing Htl data processing sysremg DL RI'°h°'d w' Hammmgr I’°'I T°I°I]h°"° I'Rbs' I"°' This issue contains over 20 kinds of reference informaThe Computer and the Intellectual Frontier tion. Sncn as: Dri Donain E_ Knuthr stanford unimrsity — Rcsteriof Organizations in the Computer Field Computer serene an ie Relation to netnenntiee · Buyers G.¤·€*·r *¤ "r°r*¤¤*S and SME? Prot. Grace c. ltertlaarncalir. state University, Chico ` °f G9"”'°' P““’°” D'g'"*' Pm$°:;;':;' :;;;:';‘;;;‘E;i|wE N Y - Over 2500 Applications ol Computers ' r r · _ · — Roster of General—Purpose Programming Languages Computers and the Future of Education and much more Weyne E. Shufelt, Sperry Rand Univer: Pictures of Mars by Mariner and by Computer Well, w¤u|dn't this information advance your goals in Lawrence M. Clerk, Framingham, Mass. the Computer Revolution? Why not fill in the coupon Languages Among Computers, Machines, Animals below and mail it novv? and Men com melhvgmmmin THERE IS NO RISKI David w. Packer, Digital Equipment Corp. lf at anytime you feel that Computers and People is no Ettemive Program Design supplying you with useful information and ideas, tell us L. H. Crandon, RCA, and P. G, Anderson, and we will promptly refund to you the value of the nr Newark College of Enginenring mailed portion of your subscription, Computer Program Reliability E. C. Berkeley and C. Otten, Berkeley Enterprises E E .., e,e.....,,., - .. .E._. _ Ei Computer Programming Using Natural Language I TO; (;0MpU·i-ERS AND pEOpi_E i Computer Applications l BERKELEY ENTERPRISES, INC. I (;°|°“n| T_ B_ ryhncimiiil u_g_ Nami wa, colin, i B15 Washington St., Newtonville, MA 02160 i The Trouble With Management Information Systems i YES, start my subscription to COMPUTERS AND | Edward N, Cole, Pyqsident_ Ganaral Nlqtora corp, i PEOPLE according to the instructions checked be|0w.| The Automotive Industry and the Computer Industry l i l one year lis issues with the computer Directory ana { J. W. Germany, Vit: President, Southern Pacific I E¤Y¤t¥' Guidel $23-5U' i The Railroads and Computer Control { I 7 git: gijgrilzijggi glthggt the Computer Directory i Frank Burnside, President, Fowler Dlck and Walker, i _ Canada, Edd $100 3 Veg" mreign. and S6-00 B year- I w‘II‘°"B°"°· P‘· I l l rraymenienalosee l > ani ni or anlrati n I . , . v 9 ¤> | Point of Sale Equipment for Retail Stores I I Prof. Gone F. Franklin, Stanford Univ., Califomin : i Computing Facilities at Stanford Univ.: i MV name and adding; are attached l Their Development and Direction c ‘····p-·· 7 7 -—-#—-——— — - — I COMPUTER GRAPHICS and ART for May, 1976 J5

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