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(1915 -1 2008)


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ju,fpifrsm;7J h rdcif uG,fvGefoGm;+yD=zpfwJh tarvlxka':trm7J h 93 ESpfa=rmuf arG;aehtxdrf;trSwf *k%f=yKpm uAsmrsm;

2008 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbm 29

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rmwdum ESif;qDvGifjyifpmay pmwnf;tzGJ@. trSmpm tcef ; (1) tar vl x k a ':trm. ajym=um;csuf E S i f h a&;om;csuf r sm; tar vlxak ':trm. pum; tEkynmpmtkyaf wGudk bm&nf&, G cf suef @J a&;ovJ æ æ vlxak ':trm aps; (c&D;oGm; aqmif;yg;) æ æ vlxak ':trm 91 ESpjf ynfph um; æ æ (rk;d rcu vlxak ':trmtm; ar;jref;csu)f tcef; (2) tar vlxk a':trm uG,fvGefjcif;twGuf ay;ykd@=uonfh o0%f v$ m rsm; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwt D wGi;f &Sd acwf+ydKifvyk af zmfuidk zf ufrsm;rSu, G v f eG f ol vlxk a':trmtwGuf xkwjf yefa=unmcsuf æ æ ‘vlxrk cd if’psmyeyGu J dk &nfp;l I ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwrD S rsKd ;qufopf &J abmfrsm;.xkwjf yefa=unmcsuf æ æ vlabmifopf 'Dru dk &pfwpfygwD (XmecsKyf) . tar vlxak ':trm uG,f vGejf cif; twGuf 0rf;enf;o0%fvm$ æ æ tar vlxak ':trm uG,v f eG t f edpaP &mufjcif;twGuf jrefrmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f m ausmif;om;rsm; 'Dru dk &ufwpfwyfO;D (ausmif;om;wyfrawmf) . 0rf;enf; a=umif; o0%fvm$ æ æ vlxck spo f nfh owif;pmq&m pma&;q&mr}uD; vlxak ':trm uG,v f eG f oGm;onft h wGuAf rmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f m ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tzG@J csKyfEidk if jH cm; a&;&maumfrwDrS ay;yk@d onfh 0rf;enf;jcif;o0%fvm$ æ æ jrefrmh*% k x f ;l aqmif pma&;q&m owif;pmq&mr}uD; tar vlxak ':t rm (1915 Ek0d ifbm 29 - 2008 {+yD 7) uG,v f eG jf cif;twGuf jrefrmo wif; or*~. txl;0rf;enf;o0%fvm$ æ æ

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‘ik&ifjyif’&Jabmfrsm;. tar vlxak ':trm (1915 - 2008) ok@d æ æ 0rf;enf;jcif; o0%fvm$ æ æ ‘tm[m&pmapmif’0kid ;f awmfom;rsm;. 0rf;enf;jcif;o0%fvm$ æ æ ‘vrif;w&m pmayqufqaH &;’ESihf ‘rm,mpmayr*~Zif;’rS ay;yk@d aom 0rf; enf;o0%fvm$ æ æ ‘opPmawmfveS af &;tiftm;pk’rS ay;yk@d aom 0rf;enf;o0%fvm$ æ æ *syefEidk if aH &muf pmaytiftm;pkrsm;jzpfwhJ ‘tm[m&pmapmif’ ‘opPmpm aytiftm;pk’‘tvif;tdrrf *~Zif;’tzG@J om;rsm;u *syefEidk if aH &muf jrefrm Ekid if o H m; nDtpfudk armifErS rsm;ok@d vlxak ':trmtwGuf 0rf;enf;jcif; txdr;f trSwf tcrf;tem; zdwpf m æ z'kd ref;+idr;f &J@ 0rf;enf;o0%fvm$ æ æ &Jabmfarmif0À&J@ 0rf;enf;o0%fvm$ æ æ tcef ; (3) tar vl xk a':trmtwG uf *k%fj yKa&;zG J@=uaom uAsmrsm; tarhb0 aiGvrif; æ æ Aef;armfnKd EG@J jrifjh rwfwu hJ avmif æ æ wifr;dk jrwfrcd if. jrwfaomvrf; æ æ wifr;dk tarhr;D wkid f r+idr;f Ekid f æ æ wifr;dk tarhuefawmhyef; æ æ wifr;dk tarharwWm urBmtqH;k æ æ armifaygupf nf (ref;wuUov dk )f vlxk a':trm arG;ae@ trSww f &uAsm r[mav;csKd ;}uD; æ æ armifprG ;f &nf vlxrk cd if ææ armifprG ;f &nf [dopPH æ æ armifprG ;f &nf cGyaf 'gi;f rdcif tarrmok@d æ æ armifprG ;f &nf tarrm uG,v f eG cf sed f æ æ armifprG ;f &nf uk, d &hf ifxu J ææ rmrmat; 88 ESpaf jrmuf *g&0 æ æ ta0;a&mufwynfo h m;ajr;rsm; ae@wae@&@J ed'ge;f æ æ aqGEidk f (e,fomvef) 91 jynfh tarok@d æ æ zk;d oH (vlx)k vlxt k ar oufawmf&n S fææ vlxo k m;cspf

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'efu@dk toJ omwJn h ææ ZGerf id_ ;f igw@dk acwf&@J =u,fwm&m vlxak ':trm æ æ xGe;f jrifah tmif tma0%du*k%&f iS f tar æ æ atmif[ed ;f (rH&k mG ) or*~tarok@d uefawmhyef; æ æ cGeq f idk ;f tJ'gtar vlxak ':trmaygh æ æ armifp;dk csed f tarrm b,fawmhrS rao æ æ ZifZif tarrm xm0&raoyg æ æ &J&ifo h ufZJG em;pGix hf m;&wJh toH&iS f æ æ &Jabmfp;dk cspf oHr%dvyd jf ym yef;vdyjf ym æ æ +idr;f csr;f ol tareJ@ww l t hJ ar ok@d r[kwf æ æ zk;d eD vGr;f xku d v f @dk reS ;f æ æ &efEidk x f eG ;f (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr uk&d ;D ,m;) taræ ok@d æ æ atmif+idr;f +idro f ufwrdepf æ æ pk;d jrifjh rwf tarrmok@d *g&0jyKjcif; æ æ ausmaf qG tarac:oHrsm; æ æ &Jabmfausmaf v; ,Ofaus;r_ppfrsuEf mS .rdcif æ æ cspaf tmif jynfo@l rcd if æ æ &JabmfatmifEidk Of ;D jrwfrcd if æ æ &JabmfaiG (r=unfav;) om;trdcsi;f ay;pmwapmif æ æ zk;d oH (vlx)k 92 ESpjf ynfh arG;rdcifo@dk ay;pmwapmif æ æ zkd;oH(vlxk) vlx*k sme,fEiS hf vlxak ':trm æ æ ZifZif tarhvrG ;f csi;f æ æ &J&ifo h ufZJG rEWvmajru vlxt k ar æ æ &J+idr;f qD æ rvl;wJh ayzl;v$m æ æ cifarmifviG f (jynf) {&m0wD&@J orD;aumif; 'k@d acwf&@J rdcif æ æ armifv0S if; (jrif;+cH) tcef ; (4) tarvl x k a ':trmtwG u f *k % f j yKa&;zG J @ =uaom aqmif ; yg;rsm; tbk;d tbGm;awG r&Sad wmhwhJ wkid ;f jynf æ æ OD;acgi;f um;r!¸wf æ æ jrrOPL±kyyf v kH m$ æ æ

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pmay armif&pf vlxak rmif0 '*kew f m&m


vlxak ':trm&J@ tHrh cef;avmufwhJ pGr;f aqmifcsurf sm; æ æ rm;om;atmhzf bm;rm; æ æ vlx&k @J a':trm vlxak ':trm æ æ wk@d rmS tar&Sad o;w,f æ æ vlxak ':trm (ok@d r[kw)f &mpkEpS . f pmayrD;±SL;wefaqmif æ æ at;&dyo f m,m æ æ vlxak w;oH/ oHr%dcw H yfEiS hf ref;awmif&yd if dk æ æ *k%ef @J j'yfuu dk n f w D hJ r[mjrpfEpS pf if;wk@d &@J aygi;f pnf;jcif;oauFw æ æ vlxt k wGuf vlxb k ufu vlxak ':trm æ æ a':a':&J@ v_y&f mS ;aeaom TurBmeJ@ usr æ æ a=uuGzJ , G yhf &kH yd rf sm; æ æ tarwk@d 'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f ppfajy;=uwke;f u æ æ tarwap>ra=umufb;l æ æ

vif;,keaf rmifarmif vlxpk ed 0f if; armifomEk;d armifprG ;f &nf csr;f +idr;f a'guw f mjrrOPL armifvrG ;f %D bkw d ;l 0if;wifx h eG ;f vSausmaf Zm a'guw f mjrrOPL zd;k oH (vlx)k zk;d oH (vlx)k

tcef; (5) tar vlxka':trm uG,fvGefjcif;twGuf ay;ykd@=uaomt*F vd y f bmom a&;om;csuf r sm;ES i f h *k % f j yKpmuAsmrsm; (ENGLISH SECTION)) The Sails Are Up Again! æ æ Ode to Ludu Daw Ahmar æ æ Dear PTJ æ æ Ludu Daw Amar (As a leading dissident writer she fought for democracy in Burma) æ æ My Mum æ æ

Prince Taw Phaya Galae Dr. Maung Maung Nyo KKChaw

The Guardian (Saturday April 12 , 2008) Po Than Joung

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(1) tarrm 90 ausmfoufwrf;rkd@ orkdif;a=umif;&Snfygonf? ukdvdkeDacwfu pcJhwJh acwfqkd;acwfusyftrsdK;rsdK; jzwfoef;cJh&ol æ yGJ=unfholtjzpf ai;armaewmr[kwf/ pOfqufrjywf jynfolbufrSm &yf+yD; a&S@wef;u wkdufyGJ0ifvmol æ 'ga=umifhvnf; txktaxmif; ±kdufcsufjyif;jyif;awG vSdrfhcH&onf? (2) uk d , f w k d i f u pma&;q&m owif ; pmq&mjzpf v k d @ w&m;uk d z uf u avmifukdif+yD; rw&m;wmawGukd xkd;ESufcJhonf? trsdK;om;tarGukd qufcHxdef;odrf;+yD; ukdvkdeDpepfukd ±_wfcs/ e,fcsJ@ukd &J & J q ef @ usif c J h o nf ? vGwfvyfa&; &+yD;acwfwGif u|efawmfwkd@ tarhukd 'Dvkd awG@=u&jyef onf ? jynfwGif;azmufjyefwJh tpkd;&tqufqufawG&J@ tvkdus ra&;/ jynf oltwGufom a&;cJh/ ajymcJhol æ ppftpkd;&awG vufxufrSm jynfolawG&J@ pm;0wfaea&;/ 'DDrkdua&pD a&;twG u f ae@pOf y l y ef aomuyG m ;aeol æ ppftm%m&Sif oufqkd;&SnfoGm;rSmukd cGifhrjyKEkdifol æ 'ga=umifh acwfqkd;pepfqkd;awGukd ajymif;vJypfzkd@ qufwkduf}udK;yrf; wkdufyGJqifaeol æ wzufrSm rsdK;cspfjynfcspfpdwf&SdolawGeJ@ vli,fausmif;om;awGukd vrf; a=umif ; rS e f w if a y;aeol æ ±kd;&m jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_ tarGtESpfrsm;ukd xdef;odrf;umuG,f ay;ae ol æ tjzpf xif&Sm;pGm jyoGm;cJhygonf?

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(3) wkdif;jynftwGuf vkdtyfaewmawGukd xwfpGrf;or# tar jznfhpGrf; ay;cJ h y g+yD ? bufaygif;pHk wm0efauscJholtar æ 'Dtar&J@ 93 ESpfajrmuf arG;ae@rSm tarhaus;Zl;awGukd atmufarh owd & jcif ; tm;jzif h Tpmpk u k d ES i f ; qD v G i f j yif u *k % f , l p G m xk w f a 0jzef @ csd vk d u f y gonf ? Tpmtkyf xkwfEkdifa&;twGuf ESif;qDvGifjyifu qufoG,fEkdifor# aom pma&;q&m}uD ; rsm;/ pmay0goem&S i f r sm;/ pmaya&;zG J @ ae=uol r sm; xH pmrl a wmif ; ygonf ? jyef@usJaeonfh pmrlrsm;ukd pkpnf;=uygonf? pkpnf;&or#xJu a&G; Ekwfaygif;csKyfum oufqkdif&m pmrl&Sifrsm;xH cGifhjyKcsuf awmif;cHcJhonf? vufvSrf;rrDolawGeJ@ qufoG,fvkd@ rjzpfEkdifolawG&J@ pmrlawG t wGufawmh cGifhv$wfay;=uyg&ef ESif;qDvGifjyifu tEl;tnGwf awmif;yef ygonf ? pmwnf ; tzG J @ ESif;qDvGifjyifpmay

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tar vlxka':trm. ajym=um;csufESifh a&;om;csufrsm;

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“taruawmh ausmif;om;vnf; EkdifiHa&;vkyfoifhw,fvkd hjrif wmyJ? bmjzpfvkd hwkef;qkdawmh ausmif;om;vnf; wkdif;oljynfom; wa,mufyJ r [kwfvm;? olwae hvl}uD;jzpfvmOD;rSmyJ? tJ'Dawmh EkdifiHa&;rvkyf&if‘t’ w,f ? jynf o l v l x k e J h t wl a&m_yD ; awmh wuf º uG & rS m yJ / Ek d ; -um;&rS m yJ / v+yf&Sm;&rSmyJvkd h jrifwmyJuGJ h? ausmif;om;awGukd tukefvkH; [kda±$ h'Da±$ h/ wcgwnf ; z±k d z &J j zpf a tmif tpG r f ; uk e f ol w k d h b uf u vk y f a wmh w myJ ? ausmif;om;ukd olwkd hu odyfa-umufaewm? tJ'gyJ tarjrifwm” vl x k a ':trm(1915-2008)

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tEkynmpmtkyaf wGud k bm&nf&, G cf suef @J a&;ovJ vlxk a':trm arv 27 &ufae@u tr&yl& awmifav;vH;k OD;ynmausmif;rSm jynfol cspfaom tEkynmonfrsm; pmtkyfxGufwm 25 ESpfjynf@wJh txdrf;trSwfeJ@ awG@qykH u JG av; vky=f uw,f? rEWav;/ ppfuidk ;f / tif;0/ wHwm;OD;/ pOfu h idk /f &Gmaxmif/ +rdK@ompwJh 0ef;usiu f pma&;q&m/ uAsmq&mawG/ obife,f/ *Dwe,fuvlawG awmfawmfppkH kH vm=uw,f? ±ky&f iS rf if;om; ukx d eG ;f a0}uD;vnf; ygw,f? a&eHajr a':cifpv k J a&mufvmao;? eef;awmfa&S@q&mwifo h m; a&$eef;wif/ +rdK@r+idr;f om; +rdK@r uk&d e$ ;f +rdKif/ pdeaf A'g}uD;&J@om; OD;aX;/ +idr;f csr;f a&;nGe@f wif/ vrif;w&m ukjd rwf r_id ;f eJ@ yefwsmaX;aX;jrif/h vl&i$ af wmf udo k m"k/ apmif;rlro l ed ;f wk@d nDtpfr pojzifh vlu awmfawmfpv kH mawmh qk=d uwD;=ueJ@ aysmpf &m vGr;f p&m}uD;ygy?J tJ'rD mS vGecf hJ wJh 25 ESpu f xGucf w hJ hJ u|erf a&;cJw h hJ pmtky[ f m ckaetcgrsm; a&;prf;ygqv dk m&if [kw d ek ;f u u|erf awG@qakH r;jref;cJo h al wG tm;vH;k eD;yg; aoqH;k ukew f mvJwa=umif;/ u|erf uk, d w f idk f [kw d ek ;f uavmuf tyifyef; rcHEidk af wmhwmvJ wa=umif;a=umifh 'Dpmtkyrf sKd ;jzpfz@dk rvG,b f ;l ? i,f&, G o f al wG uk, d v f yk cf siw f mukd tm;aumif; armif; oefjzpfwkef; +yD;ajrmufatmif }udK;pm;vkyfaqmif=u/ tcsdefumvqkdwm apmifh aewmrsKd ; r[kwb f ;l vk@d ajym&w,f? 'Dpmtkyef @J ywfouf+yD; uAsmq&m uk=d unf atmifu &oajrmufwJh twÎKy`wWdpmayvkd@ ajymvkd@ u|efru a&;pOftcg wke;f uawmh twÎKy`w&dW ,fv@dk a&;wmr[kww f t hJ a=umif; enf;enf;yg;yg; ajym jycJw h ,f? tdrjf yefa&mufawmh 'Dta=umif; a':a': rEWav;+rdK@awmfcef;r (1) rSm wcgu a[majymzl;om;yJv@dk uae@tcrf;tem;wufwhJ rdwv DÎ maumvdyf pm=unhf wku d rf LS ;uk0d if;wifu h ajymygw,f? [kwv f m;/ wk@d rrSwrf ad wmhb;l vk@d ajymawmh olu olord ;f xm;wJh u|erf a[majymcsuu f av;udk rdwv DÎ muae jyefy@dk ay;vdu k yf gw,f? odr;f xm;azmf&vk@d aus;Zl;wif&ygw,f?

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bmvk d @ a&;ovJ trsKd ;om;obife@J ywfouf+yD; a':a': pm 4 - 5 tkyf a&;cJyh gw,f? (1) jynfocl spaf om tEkynmonfrsm; (2) atmifAv/ zk;d pde/f pdeu f wk;kH (3) a&$ref;wifarmif (4) t+idrhf 'Dpmtkyaf wGxu J tukev f ;kH r[kwaf wmifrS wcsKd @uadk wmh zwfz;l =urSmyg? 'gawG a&;jzpfwhJ aphaqmfcsuu f ppf+yD; 'DbufumvrSm trsKd ;om;obif&@J tqifh twef; tifrwef edru hf svmwmukd awG@&awmh pdwx f rJ mS t&ifu vlawGudk vGr;f +y;D uk, d o f cd hJ rDchJ =unhcf hJ jrifc&hJ wJh obifynmonfawG/ =um;zl;em;0&Sad ewJh obif ynmonfawG [kw d ek ;f u b,fvdk tvkyv f yk =f uwmuvm;qk+d yD; uae@ obif avmuxJuadk &m yG=J unfyh &dowfjynfou l akd &m jyefajymjycsiv f @dk a&;wmyg? ppf+yD; 'DbufacwfrSm trsdK;om;obifawG&J@ tqifhtwef;u awmf awmf}uD;ukd edrfhusysufpD;vmygw,f? bmvkd@vJqkdawmh e,fcsJ@,Ofaus;r_awG&J@ txk;d tESuu f dk cH&vk@d uk, d rhf u l dk qkyu f idk rf xm;Ekid b f J wzufu u,dr;f u,kid f jzpf wmeJ@twl ajymif;vJaewJh acwftajctaeukdrSD+yD; tawG;tac:opfawGeJ@ wDxiG q f ef;opfra_ wGudk u|erf wk@d obiform;awG vku d rf vkyEf idk v f @dk a&S@rrD aemuf ra&mufe@J paumpu jzpfae&wmvJ ygygw,f? tJ'v D dk trsKd ;om;obifawG jzpfwhJ Zmwf/ ±kyaf o;/ t+idr/hf qdik ;f awG tqift h wef; edru hf swmawG awG@&awmh pdwx f rJ mS tm;rvkt d m;r& jzpfae+yD; ajymif;vJaewJh tajctaeopfawGudk Ekid if H a&;tod r&Sad o;vk@d vku d rf rD&if &Syd gap/ &S&d if;pGJ trsKd ;om;obif&@J tqift h wef; ukad wmh qkyu f idk v f @dk xm;zk@d aumif;ygw,fv@dk atmufarh+yD; uk, d o f rd w D hJ jrefrmhobif ukd jyefa&;jywmygy?J twÎ K y` w W d v m; a':a':hpmtkyaf wGudk wcsKd @u jrefrmobif ynm&Siaf wG&@J twÎKy`wadW wG jzpfw,fv@dk q+dk y;D twÎKy`wpdW mayxJ oGwo f iG ;f =uygw,f? wcsKd @uawmh jrefrm obif orkid ;f yJq+dk y;D orkid ;f pm&if;xJ oGwo f iG ;f =uygw,f? orkid ;f eJ@ twÎKy`w[ dW m qufE, G rf _ &Syd gw,f? 'ga=umifh a&;cJw h hJ pmtkyaf wG[m twÎKy`wedW ,fy,fxJ 0ifoavmuf awmh 0ifygvrd rhf ,f? Ek@d ayr,fh a&;pOftcgwek ;f uawmh twÎKy`wadW &;wm r[kwyf gb;l ? OD;zk;d pdew f @dk / a,mufsm;rif;orD; OD;atmifAvwk@d / OD;pdeu f wH;k wk@d / &Gmpm;}u;D pdeaf A'gw@kd twÎKy`wadW wGudk tjcm;pma&;q&mawG a&;+y;D om;&Syd gw,f? wtkyrf u wcsKd @y*k Kd~ vf

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awGq&dk if ola&;iga&; ESpt f yk o f ;kH tkyf &Syd gw,f? Ek@d ayr,fh olw@dk a&;xm;wmawGu u|erf a&;wmeJ@ ,lwhJ pmay±_axmifch si;f rwlygb;l ? yGJ=unfh±_axmifh u|erf pmtkyaf wGu yG=J unf±h a_ xmifu h a&;wmyg? u|erf wk@d yG=J unfw h t hJ cg aemufw&uf 'Dyu JG dk =unfo h cl si;f qHrk &d if yGJ pm;+rHK@jyefwwfygw,f? vljyufu bm ukd b,fvjdk yufvu dk w f muvm;qk+d yD; jyufv;kH ukd jyefajym+yD; &,f&w,f? rif;om; rif;orD;qdw k hJ oDcsi;f awGxu J uk, d &f wJh tvku d u f av;eJ@ tyk'd u f av; qk=d unf&h w,f? Zmwf0ifcef;xJu uk, d Ef pS o f ufwhJ pum;vH;k av;awG jyefajym&w,f? yGJ =unfch si;f 'Dvdk yGpJ m;+rKH @jyef&wm yDwed @J yg? u|erf i,fi,fu tvkyo f rm;awG =um;xJ }u;D jyif;vmcJw h myg? u|erf wk@d rdbbk;d bGm;awGu aq;/ aq;±k;d a&mif;0,f=uolawGr@dk tdrrf mS aq;aygv h yd cf /kH aq;jyif;vdycf kH &Syd gw,f? tJ'aD wmh aq;vdyo f nfv@dk ac:wJh tvkyo f rm;awG=um;xJrmS aecJ&h wmyg? u|erf olw@dk e@J twl yGJ pm;+rKH @ jyefwmawGudk tck jyefowd&+yD; tJ't D vkyo f rm;awG&@J aveJ@ 'Dpmtkyaf wGudk a&;wmyg? b,f v k d p k o vJ uae@ jrefrmhobifonfawG trsKd ;om;obif tpOftvmawGudk av; av;pm;pm; rxm;bJ jzpfuwwfqef; vkypf m;ae=u&yHak wGudk tm;rvkt d m;r& &Sw d mrk@d [kw d ek ;f uawmh qkid ;f ynmqk&d if &Gmpm;}u;D pdeaf A'gw@dk u b,fv&dk mS rD;S qnf; yl;cJhwm/ tEkynmorm;wa,muf[m aowyefoufwqHk; ynmqnf;yl;jznfh wif;ae&w,fv@dk pdeaf A'g}uD;u ,H=k unf+yD; ol@,=kH unfcsut f wkid ;f rsupf Ed pS v f ;kH zGiu hf wnf;u rSw d w f t hJ csed x f d ynm,lwm/ tvkyv f yk cf sed u f sawmhvnf; tvkyu f dk b,fvadk v;av;pm;pm; vkyo f mG ;w,fqw dk mrsKd ;awGukd wifjyEkid af tmifv@dk olw@dk tvkyv f yk cf w hJ ahJ cwfudk wu,frcD w hJ v hJ al wG/ olw@dk e@J wGzJ ufvyk u f idk o f mG ;olawGukd vku d v f pH pkH rf;+y;D olw@dk qu D ar;jref;rSwo f m;ygw,f? u|erf a&;wJh tEkynmonfawG xJu taraxG;ac:wJh raxG;av;&,f/ q&myk}uD;&,f/ atmifAv&,fukdawmh rrDvu dk b f ;l ? u|erf rarG;cifu 'DynmonfawGu aoqH;k =uwm? Ek@d ayr,fh wu,fh ynm}uD;wJhvlawG jzpfavawmh olwkd@&J@ ynm&nfu orm;pOf trSwftom; tjzpfeJ@ ajymprSwfawG obifavmurSm trsm;}uD; usef&pfygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'aD jymprSwaf wG olw@dk wynfw h yef;awGqu D vku d v f &H mS azG pkaqmif;&ygw,f? uset f EkynmonfawGuawmh odvu dk w f m/ rDvu dk w f m/ =unfzh ;l vku d w f m/ wcsKd @u u|r;f u|r;f 0if0if &Sw d mawG ygygw,f? a&$ref;wifarmifq&dk if t&if;ESq D ;kH

17


wa,mufyg? ukw d ifarmif rif;om;rjzpfcif q&mawmf OD;auo&qDrmS bke;f }uD; ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u odygw,f? ol@q&mawmfu u|efrwdk@vJ ukd;uG,f wmukd;? ol@udk rif;orD;}uD; raiG+rdKifqDukd ynmoiftyfawmhvnf; odwmyJ? raiG+rdKif&@J yOPi;f u u|erf wk@d trd u f qGr;f cHu, dk af wmfu;dk ? aemuf ol rif;om; jzpf vmw,f? ausm=f um;vmw,f? aemuf urBmppf}uD; jzpfvmw,f? ola&m u|erf wk@d a&m a&$ref;q&mawmf OD;auo& ppfwiG ;f oDwif;oH;k wJh uykid af wmifipl ak usmif; xJrmS oGm;+yD;cku d ;dk &w,f? w0kid ;f wnf; oH;k ESpaf vmuf twlaezl;oayg?h ppf+yD;awmh udw k ifarmif jyefuw,f? xef;jrif&yfxJ raecsib f ;l / u|erf wd@k tem; aecsiw f ,fqv dk @dk u|erf cJtu kd ol@wu dk u f dk }uD;=uyfaqmufay;w,f? u|erf wk@d e@J ig;tdryf J jcm;w,f? tJ'aD vmuf &if;ES;D ayr,fh ol tedpaP &mufv@dk jrefrmZmwfobifavmu twGu/f ol@ta=umif; a&;r,fqakd wmh ole@J od±kH u|r;f ±Hk &if;ES;D ±Hek @J pmtkyw f tkyf rjzpfygb;l ? ole@J twl wGzJ uftvkyv f yk =f uwJh ZmwfoZl mwfom;awG tm;vH;k eD;yg; ac:awG@&/ ar;&/ jref;&/ rSwo f m;&ygw,f? ol@xrif;csu/f ol@refae*smygrusef awG@qkH &ygw,f? +yD;awmh olay:vm/ oltvkyv f yk o f mG ;wJh acwfwav#mufv;kH ukv d nf; +cKH +y;D odxm;zk@d 'DrmS 'Dvadk y:vmwJh rif;om;qdw k m yDyjD yifjyif jyEkid zf @dk avhvmrSwo f m; &ygao;w,f? +yD;awmhrS ol@u, dk af &;uk, d w f mawGudk ol@aqGrsKd ;/ ol@trd o f t l rd o f m; awGqD wcg ar;jref;,l+yD; wifjy&ygw,f? aumuf o if ; aumuf tEkynmonfawGta=umif; 'Dvdk &SmazGwifjywJt h cg jrefrmhobif ynm rSm xH;k pH&w dS t hJ wkid ;f oH;k pGw J hJ uAsmvuFm pmtzd;k wefav;awG &Sw d ,f? Zmwfjzifh vJ ZmwfrmS rk@d v@dk / ±kyaf o;jzifv h J ±kyaf o;rSmrk@d v@dk / t+idrjhf zifv h J t+idrahf yg?h wdrx f ;dk wJ/h avajywJh/ qkdif;qifhwJh/ ywfwkdufwJh/ cGef;axmufwJh/ awmvm;wJh/ oajyvm; a&vm;wJ?h 'DuAsmvuFmawGu ol@ae&meJ@ol oH;k &E_e;f &ygw,f? ckawmh obif tqifhtwef;awGu edrfhusvkdufvmawmh 'DuAsmvuFmawGvJ aysmufrSef;rod aysmufukef+yD? tJ'guav;awG[m raysmufysufxkdufbl;? odrf;qnf;xm;Ekdif&if aumif;w,f? ESajrmp&mawGqw kd hJ tode@J u|erf a&;wJh pmtkyaf wGrmS obifqikd &f m 'DuAsmvuFmawGudk ae&m&Sm+yD; xnfyh gw,f? 'gav;awG[m u|erf awG@qakH r;jref;xm;wJh obifonf}uD;awG&@J ajym pum;awGxu J aumufoif;aumufxm;wmawGyg? +yD;awmh yG=J unfah wG yDwed @J oDqckd &hJ wJh oDcsi;f av;awGuv kd J &wwfor# jyefazmfxw k +f yD; u|erf pmtkyx f rJ mS xnfx h m;ygw,f? 'gav;awGvnf; ESajrmvk@d raysmufysu&f atmif odr;f qnf;ay;

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wmyg? owif ; pmq&m&J @ owif ; ay;csuf tJ'v D dk awG@qakH r;jref;+yD; pkaqmif;+yD;wJt h cg owif;pmq&mwa,muf&@J vmbfeJ b,ftuGuu f adk zmf&if bmygrS jynfph rkH ,f? jcL;a&;&if +cHKygawmh ykrd aumif; vm;qdw k hJ tode@J qDqidk &f m ygoifyh gxu dk f wmawGudk uk, d jf rifoavmuf vufwH t&SnfqHk;eJ@ vufvSrf;rDor#udk &,lw,f? +yD;awmh owif;axmufaumif;w a,muf&@J owif;ay;yHrk sKd ;eJ@ pHpk akH phaph tuGuv f nfvnf a&;om;owif;ay;ygw,f? owif;,lpOftcgwek ;f uvJ obifonfawG&@J avukd wwfEidk o f avmuf trdzrf; w,f? olw@dk oH;k E_e;f ajymqkw d hJ olw@dk yidk af 0g[m&/ olw@dk bef;pum;awGuv dk J & atmif,l+yD; owif;ay;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh u|efrpmtkyfawGpm trsm;a&;wmeJ@ rwlwmyg? ta&;tom; 'Dpmtkyrf mS jynfocl spaf om tEkynmonfrsm; pmtkyu f vG&J if usepf m tkyaf wGrmS pum;ajymwJt h wkid ;f a&;xm;ygw,f? tJ'gvJ u|erf ajymcsiw f mawGudk 'DypkH eH @J a&;rS ukepf ifatmif ajymjyEkid rf ,f? zwf&wJo h v l J 'grS t&omjynfh cHpm;Ekid f r,fq+dk yD; a&;wmyg? pma&;w,fqw dk m yg;pyfe@J ajymvk@d r=um;ra&mufwq hJ D pm eJ@a&mufatmifvkyfwm/ pum;ukd tuQ&meJ@ zvS,fay;wmukd pma&;w,fvkd@ ac:wmygy?J pm pay:wke;f u ajymwmukd a&;cs&mu pmpay:wmyJ? pmu t&if ay:wm r[kwb f ;l ? pum;u t&ifay:vmwm? pmu aemufrS ay:vmwm? 'g a=umifh ta&;[m tajymukd ajymwJhtwkdif; a&;wmygyJ? ta&;wrsdK; tajym wrsKd ;vk@d ay:wke;f u r&Scd yhJ gb;l ? Ek@d ayr,fh vl@pum;qkw d m ausmufw;kH }uD;vkd ikwf wkwaf ewJo h abm r&Sb d ;l ? pum;rSm touf&ydS gw,f? vl@tajctaeawG ajymif; vJwkd;wufwmeJ@tr# pum;awGvJ ajymif;vJvm&w,f? pum;vHk;awG wkd;vm &w,f? pum;wk;d wufajymif;vJovkd pum;ukad &;wJph muvJ trDvu dk +f yD; wk;d wuf ajymif;vJ&w,f? u|erf wd@k pmrSm wcsed w f cgwek ;f u tajymeJ@ta&; wajy;nD&cdS ahJ y r,fh wcsdefusawmh tajymuom ajymif;ajymif;vm+yD; ta&;u wae&mrSm rd;k wk;d rwfwwf &yfuse&f pfw,f? 'ga=umifh a&;pmeJ@ ajympum; enf;enf; uGm[ oGm;w,f? 'gudk a&;pmu ajympum;rDatmifajymif;zk@d r}udK;pm;=ubJ ta&;u ta&;wrsKd ;/ tajymu tajymwrsKd ; &S&d r,fv@dk ynmwwfwcsKd @u qkad e=uygw,f? ynmukd vlwpkvufxrJ mS om qkyx f m;csi&f if/ ynm&Sd vufqyk u f dk rajzcsi&f ifawmh

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xm;yg? 'Dvdk r[kwb f eJ @J pmqkw d mukd vlwidk ;f a&;Ekid /f zwfEidk af pcsiw f ,f? vlwidk ;f vG,v f , G f em;vnfapcsiw f ,fq&dk ifjzifh pum;ajymwwfw,f? pum;yDem;=um;&Sd w,fqw dk hJ vlwa,mufu tJ'pD um;ukd tuQ&mpmvH;k eJ@ zvS,w f wfw,fq&dk if olvJ pma&;Ekid yf gap/ pmzwfEidk yf gap/ 'grS pD;yGm;a&;edru hf svw S hJ u|erf wd@k tvkyf orm; v,form;awG pma&;wwf zwfwwfvm=urSmyg? u|erf pmtkyaf wGudk pum;ajymwJhyHkpHeJ@a&;awmh u|efrbmajymcsifwmwkH;? ajymcsifwmukd tdwfoGef zmarSmuf pmeJ@ ajymvk@d &vmw,f? 'Dtjyif b,fapwemeJ@ ajymcsiw f mvJ? wdraf um ukew f mawG ESrEd aS jrm wifjycsiw f mvm;/ aESmif;vlawG aygah ygw h efwef tvkyv f yk f ae=uvk@d u±k%ma'goeJ@ ajymcsiw f mvm;? 'Da&;enf;u u|erf rSm&Sw d hJ apwem twkid ;f wdwu d sus a&;jyvk@d &ygw,f? 'ga=umifh pum;ajymwJt h wkid ;f a&;xm; wmyg? trsKd ;om;obifqidk &f m pmtkyf 4-5 tkyu f dk 'Dvdk }udK;}udK;pm;pm; a&;& wJt h wGuf wd@k ,Ofaus;r_ rSm 'gawG 'gawG &Syd gw,f? wk@d wawG wwfEidk o f avmuf qufvufxed ;f odr;f r,fv@dk oabmayguw f hJ ynmonfwcsKd @ ay:xGuv f mygw,f? 'g[m tjrwfyg? Ek@d ayr,fh jrwfoifjh rwfxu dk w f hJ twkid ;f twmtxdawmh rjrwf vmao;ygb;l ? uk, d yf idk &f w dS hJ trsKd ;om;,Ofaus;r_udk qufvufxed ;f odr;f +y;D ajymif;vJ vmwJh tajctae t&yf&yfe@J tnD trsKd ;om;[ef rvGwb f J qef;opf wDxiG rf _ awGukd jyK=u&rSmu vlawGc, H l usio hf ;kH &r,fh vrf;pOfygy?J 'ga=umifh a':a':uawmh wkd@,Ofaus;r_tarGawGukd wwfEkdifoavmuf pkpnf;+yD; pmtkyaf wGtjzpfe@J rif;wk@d vufudk tyfcrhJ ,f? rif;wk@d u 'Dta[mif;ukd qkyu f idk /f ta[mif;xJu taumif;uk, d +l yD; vl@abmifopftwGuf jynfou l dk tusKd ; jyKr,fh tEkynmukd zefw;D =uayawmhv@dk wku d w f eG ;f &if; ed*;kH csKyfygw,f? ? (tustaysmufrSvGJI owfyHkrsm;ukd rl&if;twkdif; xdef;odrf; azmfjyxm;ygonf?)

vlxa k ':trm pmay*sme,f trSwf (5)/ 1989 12 &uf/ 'DZifbm/ 1975 ck/ n 7 em&DrE Wav;+rdK@awmf cef;r (1) rSm vlxka':trm a[majymcJhwJh pmwrf;?

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tom;csnf; rau|;Ekdifbl;? toD;tESH ta&mtaESmuav;eJ@ csufau|;rS vkHavmufr,f? 'ga=umifh 0ufom; wyd\m 9 usyfaps;eJ@ tpdwft0uf 0,f&if 50 usyo f m;u 4 usyf 50 jym;/ tpdwo f m;u 2 usyf 25 jym;/ t0ufom;u wusyf 15 jym;/ tpdwt f 0ufq&dk if 0ufom;zk;d 3 usyf 40 jym; ukew f ,f? ygwmu 3 usyrf @dk ‘0ufom;em; ruyfEidk yf gb;l av’ qk+d y;D tdr&f iS rf u 0ufom;qDu aemufqw k f &w,f? 0ufrS r0,fEidk &f if =uufqw dk mawmh a0vma0;a&m? =uufu 9 usyaf ps;/ 10 usyfaps;? ajcaxmufeJ@/ vnfacsmif;eJ@? acgif;eJ@/ ZvkwfeJ@? ypfp&mawGu trsm;}uD;? +rKd@xJu =uufqkdwm ao+yD;rSvJ ZvkwfxJ tpmawG w0w+yJ}uD; =uufonfu oGwx f m;ao;wm? Zvkwx f u J xrif;ukd =uufom; vky+f yD; a&mif; &atmifv@dk w?hJ 'gah =umifh =uufvJ r0,fEidk b f ;l ? ig;uav;rsm; aps;aygovm;vk@d ig;wef;rSm av#muf=unfv h u dk &f w,f? wefaqmifrek ;f vrk@d ig;uswma=umifh ig;r_ef ig;zGaJ v;awG tpdwo f m;ukd 75 jym;wJ?h 'gqdk rqk;d bl;? Ek@d ayr,fh qDuek rf ,fh ig;awmhvJ 0,frpm;Ekid jf yefb;l ? tk;d uyfcsuv f @dk &r,fh ig;usjyef awmh tpdwo f m;ukd 2 usyu f ratmufjyefb;l ? ig;tpdwo f m; tk;d uyf&ifvJ weyf yJ pm;&r,f? 'DaiG ok;H usyef @J rjzpfao;ygbl;? 'gha=umifh tdrfuvifonfukd om; uav; ig;uav;eJ@ +rKd;+rKd; jrufjruf wcgwav csufau|;csifayr,fh 0rf;bJO a=umfuav;rsKd;/ c&rf;oD; tk;d uyfuav;rsK;d ukd csOaf &[if;uav;eJ@ iydzw k af vmufe@J yJ pDrEH idk yf gawmhw,f? c&rf;oD;&,f/ csOaf ygi&f u G &f ,f/ ig;yd&,f 0,f+yD;wJah emuf c&rf;csOo f ;D uav;/ i±kwf oD;pdr;f uav;/ =uufoeG ef u D av;uvJ 0,fO;D rS? yku d q f H 10 jym;qk&d if eHeyH ifz;dk &w,f? 'ga=umifh tdrf&Sifru 5 jym;ukdvJ wGufwGufcsufcsuf okH;&w,f? 10 jym;ukdvJ ukefoifhrS ukefap&w,f? 'DypPnf;u 10 jym; av#mh,l renf;bl;rkd@ qpfvnf; qpf&w,f? +rdK@aps;qkw d mu ol@c&rf;oD; a&mif;csiw f mu 10vH;k ukd jym; 50 jzpfayr,fh 'gb,favmufvJ ar;vku d &f if 75jym;vk@d aps;wif qkw d myg? rav#mh bl;vm;ar;&if b,fEpS v f ;kH ,lrmS vJ/ 10vH;k pvH;k ,l&if jym; 60 ay;oGm;wJ?h uk, d u f 0,fcsiw f mu 3vH;k wnf;? 10vH;k ukd jym; 50 aps;xm;yg? 15jym;zk;d a&mif;ygv@dk qpfcsifw,f? Ekd@ayr,fh aps;onfrsufESm vSrf;=unfhkvkduf& ygao;w,f? 'Daps; onfu tqpfrS cHyghrvm;qkdwm? wcsdK@u aps;OD;}uD; vmrqpfeJ@vkd@ aiguf v$wfwwfwmuvnf; &Sdao;awmh olwkd@u aps;wifqkdwwfrSef; odayr,fh t&rf;rqpf&Jbl;? rqpf0Hhvkd@ 'Dtwkdif; xGufoGm; jyef&ifvJ wcsdK@aps;onfu ‘r0,fbeJ @J ujrif;vk@d ar;ovm;’vk@d vSr;f qJwwfygao;w,f? 'ga=umifh =unfh uGu=f unfu h u G f vkyaf e&if qif;&JyakH yguw f hJ aps;0,fusawmh aps;onfu ‘uJ ,l

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rSmvm; ,l/ awmhwa,mufwnf; a&mif;aewm r[kwfbl;’wJh? csrf;om w,fxifwhJ aps;0,fusawmh ‘0,fyg tpfr&,f/ 10vH;k jym; 60 rrsm;ygb;l ’wJ?h aps;0,fu tqpfaumif;&if jym; 50eJ@ &wmyJ? tqpfnHh&if jym; 60 ay;+yD; 0,fch&J wmyJ? ‘+rdK@aps; a,muQr rodapeJ@’qkw d hJ yHck idk ;f &Syd gw,f? +rdK@aps;rSm ukeyf pPn;f [m uae@ 2 usyaf ps; a&mif;ayr,fh eufjzefcgawmh ypPn;f rusv@dk q+dk yD; 4 usyf jzpfcsif jzpfaewm? tJ'Dawmh rae@u 2usyfyJ ay;&w,f? uae@ 4usyfajym&rvm;vkd@ a,muQrvkyfwJhvlu r,Hk=unfaybl;? ol@ukd tukeftodray;eJ@vkd@ owday; wJyh ckH idk ;f ayg?h +rdK@qw dk m aps;0,fawGuvnf; aygvu dk w f m }udw}f udww f ;dk yJ? vqef;p we*FaEGae@rsm;qk&d if wu,fyJ wk;d rayguaf tmif pnfygw,f? aps;0,fcsn;f pnf wmr[kwb f ;l ? aps;onfuvnf; aygvu dk w f m 'if;=urf;? wjcm; tvkyt f udik af wG ae&mrusvkd@ &wJh0ifaiGeJ@ravmufvdk@wJh? aps;a&mif;wJh vlawG 'gavmuf ayg vmwmjzpfw,fv@dk aps;onfawGu ajym=uw,f? jrLeDpy,f tr_xrf;awGu aps;xJ ovm;ae+yD; vrf;ay:rSm csa&mif;vk@d aiguw f m/ irf;wm/ zrf;wm/ qD;wm awGuvJ ae@widk ;f ygy?J aps;0,fw,fqw dk m wu,fawmh tenf;qH;k ESpEf pS /f oH;k ESpf tdraf xmif&iS rf jzpf+yD;rS 0,fwwf/ jcrf;wwf/ uk, d u f temrcH&wJb h 0/ wef&mwefuaJ y;0,fv@dk &wJb h 0ukd a&mufwmyg? aps;t0,f0g; r0ao;&if aps;onf taigucf &H wmu c%c%? tav;cd;k cH&wmu ae@widk ;f yJ? +rdK@rmS aps;onfuidk w f t hJ av; jynfw h ,fv@dk tvGeef nf;ygw,f? ravsmyh gb;l qk&d if wyd\macgi;f rSm 5usyo f m; 10usyo f m; avsmw h wfwmyJ? wcsKd @rsm; 20usyo f m;txd avsmw h ,f? olw@dk uawmh yGe;f vk@d avsmhw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f? wu,fuawmh oHav;awG[m aoG;ypfawmifrS 'g avmuf yGe;f p&m r&Syd gb;l ? tav;avsmw h u hJ pd P aps;}uD;awGrmS jrLeDpy,fu csed cf iG f awG csw d +f yD; vlapmifch sed af y;ae&w,f [kwv f m;? tjynf&h a&maygv h @dk ajymp&mygy?J jrLeDpy,fu tav;eJ@ csdefcGifeJ@ tvkyform;wa,mufxm;ay;+yD; rouFmvkd@ csed cf siw f hJ aps;0,f b,forl qkd csed af y;wJah e&m &Syd gw,f? 'gayrJh tJ't D av;orm;&J@ tav;uukyd J rjynfb h ;l ? aps; onfawGu rke@f z;dk yJz;dk ay;xm;w,fqw dk hJ toHrsKd ;vJ =um;&zl;ygw,f? csed af y;wJh tvkyo f rm;u aps;pnfcsed f vufzuf&nfaomuf xGuf &atmif rke@f z;dk ay;wJv h l &Sw d ,fqw dk hJ pum;rsKd ;vJ =um;&zl;ygw,f? +rdK@aps;[m vnf ovkd pm;=uwJh ae&m}uD;ygy?J aps;onfu tav;ck;d / &mZlc;dk ovkd aps;0,fuvnf; vpf&if vpfovkd E_u d , f w l mrsKd ;vnf; &Sw d myJ? 'gah =umifh aps;0,fomG ;&if tdr&f iS rf u wwfEidk &f if t0wftpm;vwfvwfudk 0wfomG ;&w,f? r[kwv f @dk t0wftpm;

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EGr;f yg;pkwyf ahJ e&if aps;onfu aps;ck;d tpGcJ &H wwfao;w,f? 'Dvrdk sm; cH&rvm;qk&d if tpGJcH&wJholu ‘rsufESm=unfhajymaemf? 'Dvkdvkyfr,fh tpm;vm;’vkd@ jyef+yD; a[muf&w,f? vufqyk v f ufuidk f rrd&ifawmh tJ'aD voHrsKd ; ypfvu dk rf S pGypf w JG v hJ l u aemufqkwfw,f? vufqkyfvufukdif rdjyefawmhvJ aps;onfawGu 0kdif;+yD; ±ku d =f uESu=f uvk@d ypPn;f cd;k rdwchJ rsmrSm zGwzf w G af usrwwf &Sw d t hJ cgvJ &Syd gao;w,f? aps;xJrmS bmE_u d af jy;vk@d w/hJ bmqGaJ jy;vk@d wq hJ +dk yD; ±kw±f w k f ±kw±f w k f jzpfwmawG/ vkduf[ zrf;[ ajy;[ jzpfwmawGuvJ r=umr=um awG@&wwfao;w,f? tJ'=D um;xJurS uk, d , f v l mwJh yku d q f u H av;eJ@ pm;aumif;r,fh pm;p&m csupf &m awG trsKd ;rsKd ;ukd =unf&h if; wwfEidk w f mav;awGukd oGuo f u G v f ufvuf 0,fvu dk f &w,f? tdrfeD;csif;qDtyfxm;cJhwhJ ukd,fhuav;rikdcif/ orD;i,fukd xdef;&pfygvkd@ rSmcJ&h wJh uav;ti,f rvJruGcJ if ajcukeo f w k jf yefz@dk u &Sad o;w,f? taraps;u jyefvmawmh rke@f 0,fcrhJ ,faemfv@dk acsmx h m;cJ&h wJh uav;i,fpm;zk@d rke@f yo J m;a&pm uav;uvnf; 0,fvkdufcsifao;? cifyGef;onfeJ@ om;}uD;orD;}uD;rsm;pm;zkd@ csdKcsdKcsOfcsOfuav;uvnf; ygvkdufcsifao;? ygvmwJh ykdufqHuav;uvnf; ravmufriSr@dk &wwfor#uav;eJ@ yifo h ufcs okwaf cswif jyefc&hJ wwfygw,f? u|erf wk@d rmS 'Dtavhtusiahf wGu &csiw f idk ;f &aeawmh yk*aH ps;rSm vwf vwfqwfqwfeJ@ aps;aygvSwJh om;ig;toD;t&GufawGukd awG@&wJhtcg u|efr wkd@wawGu avmbw}uD; 0,fcJhjcrf;cJhrdw,f? tvkt,uf 0,f&avhr&Sdao; wJah ps;rSm tusi}hf u;D ygaewJh u|erf wd@k wawG avmbwyfcyhJ akH wGuadk wmh 'Dae&muyJ }uHKwke;f }uHKcku d f yk*o H al wGudk awmif;yef&awmhrmS yJ? ? (tustaysmufrSvGJI owfyHkrsm;ukd rl&if;twkdif; xdef;odrf;azmfjyxm; ygonf?)

vlxak ':trm rEWav;0dZ…m/ody`HwuUokdvf ESpfvnfr*~Zif; 1969 - 70

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91 ESpjf ynfh pum;

vlxak ':trm

Ekd0ifbm 29 &ufae@wGif touf 91 jynfhrnfjzpfaom pma&;q&m owif; pmq&mr}uD; vlxk a':trm. arG;ae@trSwfw&pum; &&SdEkdif&ef rkd;rc 0kdif;awmf om; xdefvif;u w,fvDzkef;jzifh qufoG,fcJhygonf? Ekd0ifbm 17 &uf a e@wG i f &&S d c J h a om quf o G , f a r;jref ; csuf r S vl x k a ':trm. trS w f w &pum;rsm;tm; azmf j yygonf ? • tarharG;ae@eD;vmvkd@ tarharG;ae@ trSwfw&pum; vkdcsif vkd@yg tar? vli,fawGyJjzpfjzpf vlvwfykdif;awGyJ jzpfjzpf taruae =o0g'pum;wck c k ajymwmyJ j zpf j zpf / tarh & J @ trSwfw&m ajymcsifwJh ta=umif;t&m bmyJjzpfjzpf ajym apcsif v k d @ ygtar? • taruav æ touf}uD;u &Snfvkdufwm? wkd@Armouf r[kwb f ;l / 91 ESpq f w dk m? t*Fvyd v f q dk &kd if Ek0d ifbm 29 &ufae@rmS jynfhawmhrSmaemf? tJ'Dawmh raoao;bl;aygh? 91 ESpfjynfwJh tarwkd@b0rSmav æ tarwdk@ 'DrSmae&wm tifrwef usOf; usKwfw,f? bmrS rv_yEf idk b f ;l ? bmrSvnf; rajymEkid b f ;l ? rif;wk@d tjyifudk a&mufaewJh om;awGorD;awGu ajymEkid q f Edk idk f v_y&f mS ; Ekid ?f tJ'aD wmh tarwd@k uv dk nf; owd&w,fqadk wmh tarwk@d u 0rf;omw,f? 'gayrJh tarrSmcsiw f ,faemf wck? wk@d ArmawGuav æ ody+f yD; awmh pkpkpnf;pnf; nDnD!Gwf!Gwf raeEkdifbl;uG? uGJw,f +yJw,faemf? tJ'gawG wwfEidk o f r# a&Smif=uygu, G af emf?

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bmrSrvkyfEkdifwJh wkdif;oljynfom;awGukd,fpm; ig@om;wkd@u wwfEidk o f avmuf tjyifu vkyaf y;=uyg? om;wk@d udk tarwk@d u tukefvHk;odw,f? od+yD;awmh rif;wkd@ukd aus;Zl;wifaew,f? a=omf æ ig@om;av;awG ig@orD;av;awG v_yEf idk v f @dk v_yaf e=u wm/ wk@d uo dk wd&&Smw,fq+dk yD;awmhav? tJ'aD wmh arwWm apw em tjynfhxm;+yD;awmh Armtcsif;csif; pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; nDnD !Gw! f w G f cspcf spcf ifcife@J ae=uuG,af emf? vkyEf idk w f muawmh 'gy?J tarwk@d b0uawmh rv_yEf idk b f ;l om;&J@? olw@dk uvnf; olw@dk tiftm;u rawmifhwif;awmh bmrS vGwfvyfcGifh ray;Ekdifbl; tarwkd@ukd? • tarqdkvkd@&Sd&if acwfawG trsm;}uD;vnf; rDcJhw,f tar &,f ? acwf a wG x J r S m 'D a cwf u om;wk d @ awG @ &wm awmf awmf a v; qk d ; aew,f a yg@ tar&,f ? taru acwf awGtrsm;}uD; rDvmwJh tcgusawmh 'Dacwf&J@ tae txm; u b,fvkdyHkpHrsdK;jzpfaevJvkd@ tar b,fvkdjrifvJ tar? • 'Dacwftaetxmm;u om;&,f æ tar t*FvdyfacwfrSm aecJ&h w,faemf? t*Fvyd af cwf aecJw h ek ;f u t*Fvyd af wGu aer0if tifyg,m}uD;&J@ ocif? olwkd@u tus,f}uD;tkyfcsKyf=uwm? tJ'aD wmh olw@dk rmS ckid +f rJr_ trsm;}uD;&Sw d ,f? &Sad wmhow l @dk u tar wk@d udk 'Dru dk a&pD ajcmufq,fom; ckepfq,fom; avmufawmh ay;xm;wmayg@? tJ'gudk wk@d ArmawGu tckbmajymw,f rSwf wke;f æ “t*Fvyd u f |ejf zpf&wm awmfao;w,f”wJ?h b,f'v D [ kd w k yf g@rwke;f ? olw@dk u olw@dk wwfEidk o f avmuf vdrmR oavmuf wk@d udk csKyfxm;wmyJu?G tck wk@d rvkyEf idk w f muvnf; olwdk@rSm bmrSrcdkif+rJvkd@/ bmrSraocsmvkd@ wkd@tay: zdwmuG? taru tJ'DvkdyJ jrifw,f? tJ'Dawmh 'gukd wkd@u wwfEkdifo avmuf wif;cH+yD; wk@d tcsi;f csi;f nDn! D w G ! f w G f &So d xuf jr‡ihf ay;&rSmyJ?

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rSmcsifwmu tJ'gyo J m;? tjyifbufrSmae=uwJh om;awGorD; awGu trsm;}uD; vGwv f yfw,fav? vGwv f yfayr,hf wk@d Arm vlrsKd ;&J@ xH;k pHaygo h m;? ody+f yD;awmh =um=um}uD; vufwEJG idk w f m r[kwb f ;l ? uGw J ,f+yJw,f 'g æ xH;k pH? tJ'aD wmh taru tJ'D tuGt J +yJudk a&SmifEidk o f avmuf a&Smif+yD;awmh wkid ;f jynftwGuf vlrsKd ;twGu/f wk@d ArmawG (jrefrmawG) tm;vH;k twGuf rif;wk@d wwfEidk o f avmuf nDn! D w G ! f w G f pnf;pnf;vH;k vH;k cspcf spcf ifcife@J vkypf &m&Sw d m vkyaf y;=uygv@dk ajymcsiw f myJ? • [kwfuhyJ gtar æ tarvnf; 'Dxufykd+yD; usef;rmygapvkd@ qk awmif;ygw,f tar? • at; æ 0rf;omygw,f? • tar wjcm; ajymcsiw f m&S&d ifvnf; ajymygO;D tar? • tar use;f rmaeoa&G@ v_y&f mS ;Ekid af o;oa&G@awmh tarvnf; rif;wk@u d v dk nf; qkawmif;r,faemf? tarwk@d uv dk nf; ig@om;wk@d u tm±Hjk yKay;=uygv@dk aemf? ?

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A[kpd nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD CENTRAL OR GANIZING COMMITTEE, COMMUNIST P AR TY OF B URMA ORGANIZING PAR ARTY BURMA

ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDwGif;&Sd acwfòyifvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;rS uG,fvGefol vlxka':trmtwGuf xk w f j yef a =unmcsuf &ufpJG 7/ 4/ 2008 1? wdkif;jynfudkcspfoltm;vHk; 0rf;enf;=u&rnfh owif;w&yf ,ae@yif =um;odvdkuf=u&onf? “a':trmuG,fvGef+yD” qdkaomowif; jzpfonf? a':trmonf - e,fcs@J qef@usiaf &;acwf oydwaf rSmufausmif;oltjzpf xif&mS ;cJo h l - xufjrufaom uavmif&iS w f OD; - jynfwGif;ppfumvwav#mufvHk; q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;aemufrS urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf pdu k v f u kd rf wfwwf pGr;f pGr;f wrH aqmif&u G o f l - b,facwf b,ftcsed rf mS jzpfap jynfo@l a0'emudk a0r#cpH m;ol - touf 90 ausmaf omfvnf; tem;r,l u¾aygi;f pHrk S wdik ;f jynftusKd ; &S&d m&Sad =umif; vkyu f ikd af y;aeol jzpfonf? 2? u|Eyfk w f @kd owdxm;rdonfrmS - wdik ;f jynfukd cspo f t l m;vH;k u a':trmudk csp=f uonf? - wdik ;f jynf. ,Ofaus;r_/ "avhx;kH pH/ ±d;k &mtarGtESprf sm;udk wefz;kd xm;=u oltm;vH;k u ol@ukd jrwfE;kd =uonf? - bmomra&G;/ vlrsKd ;ra&G;/ vlwef;pm;ra&G;/ touft&G,rf a&G;

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A[kd pnf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD Armjynf uGejf rLepfygwD CENTRAL OR GANIZING COMMITTEE, COMMUNIST P AR TY OF ORGANIZING PAR ARTY BURMA

‘vlxkrdcif’psmyeyGJukd &nfpl;I ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS rsd K ;quf o pf & J a bmf r sm;. xk w f j yef a =unmcsuf (1§ 2008) 9 - 4 -2008 ,ae@onf vlxrk cd if. ±kyu f vmyfudk jymcs+yD; {&m0wDjrpfwiG f a&ar#mrnfh ae@jzpfonf? jrpfrif;{&monf ol@orD;}u;D ukd axG;yku d }f uKd qkI d ol@c&D;ol qufygvrd rhf nf? vlxrk cd if. ±kyef mrftpkta0;onf trdajrrS aysmufu, G o f mG ;cJyh g+yD? ok@d aomf ol.pdwf"mwfonfum; urBmajrrS aysmufuG,froGm;/ {&m0wDuvnf; taysmuftysucf rH nf r[kw[ f k vH;k 0yif,=kH unfonf? ,if;pdwf"mwfum; ‘zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rSefor# tnHhrcH wGef;vSefwkdufckduf oGm;rnf’ qdak om pdw"f mwf jzpfonf? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS rsdK;qufopfrsm;onf ,if;pdwf"mwfukd tarG qufcu H m rw&m;rif;rlowfjzwfaeonfh ppftyk pf . k zdEydS cf sKyfcs,rf r_ eS o f r#udk tnHh rcH wGe;f vSef wku d yf 0JG ifomG ;rnf[k oEMÏd mefjyKygonf? vlxrk cd if. pdw"f mwf xm0& t"Ge@f &n S yf gap?

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tarvl x k a ':trm uG , f v G e f t ed p P a &muf j cif ; twG u f jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm; 'Drkdu&ufwpfwyfOD; (ausmif ; om;wyf r awmf ) . 0rf ; enf ; a=umif ; o0%f v $ m e,fcs@J qef@usiaf &;/ vGwv f yfa&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;/ trsKd ;om;a&;wk@d twGuf a&S@wef;rS pGr;f pGr;f wrH aqmif&u G cf o hJ /l jynfov l x l b k ufrS tpOfxm0& &yfwnfco hJ /l tmZmenfo&l aJ umif;wOD;jzpfaom tarvlxak ':trmum; 2008 ckEpS f {+yD 7 &ufae@wiG f uG,v f eG t f edpaP &mufcahJ y+yD? TtwGuaf =umifv h nf; rdrw d @dk jrefrmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f m ausmif;om;rsm; 'Drdk u&ufwpfwyfO;D (ausmif;om;wyfrawmf) u tarvlxak ':trm uG,v f eG f tedpP a&muf oGm;jcif;twGuf rdom;pk0ifrsm;ESihf xyfwx l yfr# ESajrm 0rf;enf; a=uuG&J ygonf? ausmif;om;b0rSpwifI aemufq;kH xGuo f uftxd b0wav#mufv;kH Y rdrw d @dk jynfov l x l }k uD;w&yfv;kH twGuo f mru vlom;wkid ;f twGuf pmaytEky nm/ Ekid if aH &;/ vlra_ &;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ e,fy,ftoD;oD;wGif pHerlemxm;avmuf onfh tar. vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;ESihf tar.owW/d apwem/ ZG/J 0D&, d ESihf pGe@f vw $ f tepfemcHrw _ @dk rmS pum;vH;k tm;jzifh azmfjyIr&Ekid af vmufatmif }uD;us,jf rifrh m; vSonfrmS tarhukd cspaf om av;pm;aom wefz;dk xm;aomolwidk ;f u tpOfxm0& *k%jf yKrSww f rf;wifxm;+yD; jzpfygonf?

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euf±id_ ;f aoma=uuGrJ j_ zifh &Jabmfarmif0À 2008 ck/ {+yD & &uf?

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58


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59


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61


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62


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wifr;dk 23/ 10/ 2006 tar&du

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85


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86


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87


tcsed yf idk ;f t,f'w D mqkx d ifyg/h ynm&Sd OD;qef;xGe;f wk@d uvJ vlxk&@J &dyfuGef;rSm ckdv_Hcho J lawGyg? wuUokdvf armifapmvGif/ vlxkarmifopfvGif a&$jynfOD;bwif&J@om; ukdwif0if; vlxkpdef0if;wkd@wawGomru OD;0if;az/ ay:OD;oufwkd@uvJ yef;csb D ufu wtm;wtif r[kwv f m;? vlxkwkdufom;rsm;&J@tay:u q&mawmf a&$ukdif;om;vJ &Sdav&J@? armifodef;Ekdif/ armifrkd;ole@J tjrifrsK;d wla,mif wifr;dk / =unfatmif/ armifprG ;f &nf tif;0*k%f&nfu ukdav;wkd@uawmh uGr;f aoG;eDeeD @J vufzuf&nfqidk f xkid o f rm;awG pwkdifxGm;xGm;eJ@ v#mzsm;wyGwfyGwf/ tm;0g;v$wf+yD; uAsmrsm; &Gwfae=ua&mhxifh? +yD; - vufzsm;wcsuEf ydS ±f eHk @J ykH&dyfawG woDwwef;xGufwJh owif;&J@touf "mwfykHq&mawGuvJ apwemvSwhJ uko d ed ;f wefe@J ukad &$ nKdnKd&Snf&SnfeJ@ ukdvSjrifhwa,muf ewfarmufxGef;&Sdefwkd@vJ ygao;&J@? pmpDcef;u ukw d ifa&$ ykEH ydS rf ifawGwayayeJ@ tvkyq f if; OD;pkd;0if;uvJ wvkH;csif; pmjyifaewmukd jrifa,mifa,mif? ukad rmifarmifuawmh refae*smcsKyf vlx&k @J OD;xkyaf ygAh sm? {nfch ef;t0if0rSm wv_yv f y_ ef @J

88


tvkyf vkyaf eav&J@? 'Dvkd vlxk 0kdif;awmfom; wavS}uD;eJ@ pmayc&D; avSmfcwfch=J uwm trSwf& vGrf;qGwfrdao;w,f? (4) vlxkvrf;ukd vkdufwJh vlxkwkduf vlxkae&m[m pmaytEkynm bk&H yd o f myg? rEWav;&J@ &eH@ wysH@ysH@oif;aewJh vlxkpmayyGJcif;yg? tarrm[m ta=utnmu pmayrdcifyg? pmaytEkynm/ yef;yGi&hf mrSm vdyjf ymawmifyH wzsyzf syf cwf+yD; pmaypdw"f mwf rsK;d aphcsz@dk xm0& touf&iS af erSmyg? tarrm raoyg/ &mpkaxmifcsD+yD; awmif'yD g ZrÅ Lu|e;f rSm vGr;f &pfz, G hf tajctae xGe;f opfr,fh taryg? vlxkom;cspf 9 &uf/ pufwifbm 2003 ck?

89


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omwJn h ZGer f i kSd ;f

• i,fi,fu ok;d aqmif;'¾m&Dxu J ol&aJ umif; 'efu@dk ta=umif;=um;& tm;uscJhzl;w,f? • “a[m'D zke;f qk;d uEWm&ukd csex f m;&pf rwfapmufawmifwef;awGudk ausmv f m$ ;ypf a&=unf&m ya&&D jrufcif;opfqu D dk oGm;=ur,f” ol@val wGudk tcgcg &Si;f jy ta&S@q;kH u cscD w hJ ,f? • vrf;ckvwf &dumQ jywf vrf;aysmuf awmeufeuf&@J tacsmuftcsm;awGudk aoG;ysuf c&D;rqufEidk f vufrid_ cf s jiif;=ucke=f u tcsi;f rsm;=u azsmif;zsjcif;rsm;pGmukd acgi;f cgae=uwJh tqH;k uEWm&om;tm;vH;k &J@ a&S@a&;ukjd rifwhJ 'efudk ol@&ifucdk JG ol@toJux dk w k f toJudk ukid af jr‡mufjy ‘vm usKyfaemufu vku d cf =Jh u’wJ?h • wqwfqwf wkeaf ewJh ol@toJu tvif;qufawG wzswzf swf ckex f u G v f mvku d w f m =u,fwcH eG w f ckxuf vif;vufomG ; r=umrD ya&&Dudk bGm;ueJ awG@&owJ?h • 'Dn awmiforeftif;rSm

90


vwpif;omw,f taotcsm =unhaf wmh 'g æ vrSr[kwb f J 'g æ 'efu@dk toJ [kww f ,f æ 'g Armjynfu 'efu@dk toJ? • tJ'v D if;vuf &$e;f jr awmufyr_rmS ya&&D jrufcif;oGm;wk@d uAsmawG xGe, f uf=u &ifcek o f aH wG }uJyuf=u tcspaf wG ysKd ;axmif=u yifv,fawG pku d yf sKd ;=u ÁajEN}uD;vSwhJ r,fZ,fyifwef; =uufo;D jzef;jzef; xrdw,f? • wu,fudk 'Dv[m yde;f ydwaf ewJh OD;ydew f w H m;xdyrf mS om va&mifqw d af ewJh xD;aygi;f um;rSm om r,fawmfarSmifusaewJh a&$0gjynfrmS om aAvifpD rnDEidk af o;wJh +*dK[fjymtkrd mS om vrif;w&mxufvnf;om &mpkwcke;D eD; om+yD;&if;omcJw h mrd@k [kd æ ra0;awmhwhJ umvwckrmS rdom;pkuu JG mG ukaËukËm xrif;vufqpkH m;apr,f yef;ork'&N m a&mifpjkH zm wku d w f aomif; wkeaf tmif yGiahf pr,f acwfru D se;f rm urBm&Gm +idr;f csr;f oHpkH v$r;f apr,f? ( tusOf;axmiftwGif; usif;ycJhwJh tarrmharG;ae@ tcrf;tem;rSm *k%fjyK &GwfqkdchJwhJ uAsm jzpfygw,f?)

ZGerf id_ ;f 29-11-2001?

91


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92


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93


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xGef;jrifhatmif 88 rsd K ;quf a usmif ; om;rsm;

94


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95


vlro _ rdik ;f tarGtydik ;f ydik ;f ukd ay;oGm;wJt h ar 'k@d taruG? jrefjynfordik ;f rSm om;orD; teEWudk arG;xkwf aemifvnf; arG;xkwOf ;D r,ht f ar tma0%du *k%&f iS f om; teEW&@J rdcif om; teEWu cspw f t hJ ar om; teEWudk cspw f t hJ ar teEW arwWm&Sif tar teEW u±k%m&Sif tar teEW rk'w d m&Sif tar? vlxt k ar 'd@k taruG/ 'k@d tar?

,ae@ eHeuf (8 em&D 37) rdepf u uG,v f eG cf w hJ hJ jynfocl spw f hJ tar (vlxk a':trm)/ (93) ESpf/ om; teEW&J@ rdcif}uD; twGuf ta0;a&mufom;wa,muf&J@ 0rf;enf;rSwfwrf; uAsmjzpfygw,f? tarrm aumif;&m ok*wdvm;ygap?

atmif[e d ;f (rk& H mG ) 7 &uf/ {jyD/ 2008? eHeuf (10 em&D 40)

96


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97


oabmaygufw,ftar ajr;cspfawGvnf;tawmifayguf Ekid if w H um wHcg;awGudk odumQ &S&d adS cguw f wf=u+yD? pdwcf star "rRurf;yg;rSm tarxm;cJw h m om;wzsm jrpfwzsmrS r[kww f m tyGm;tpnf; aoG;opfawGa0a0qmqmzG@J om;orD; ajr;jrpfawG ukaËukËmeJ@ 'Dajr'DurBmrSm 'Drw dk ajrw&Gm wnfv@dk &yg&@J tar? (atmif q ef ; wk d @ tar A[d e f ; wk d @ tar atmif a usmf w k d @ tar c|ef j r=uap/ wG e f u =uap/ Zmenf t k d ; a0) or*~tar oDcsi;f ukd qkad e&if; axmifxu J tarhom;awGtarh*% k af wmfawGudk atmufarhae=urSmyg? ajratmufu tarhorD;awG tarvkjd zpfatmif usi}hf uHae=urSmyg? ppfzed yfatmufu tarhjynfoal wG ±ke;f xae=urSmyg? ta0;a&muf tarhom;orD;awG trdajrtwGuf wku f yf q JG ufae=urSmyg? cG e f q k d i f ; 8-4-08

98


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ausmufom;ausmufpdkifawG[m &mpkEpS rf sm; / axmifpEk pS rf sm; &moDwu kd pf m;r_rsm;xJrmS aysmufuG,foGm;wwf&Jh? tar&Jh vGwv f yfa&;pdw"f mwfpmaytarG[m a[mif;tdpk epf acwfumv &moD wdu k pf m;prf;ygap b,frmS aysmufu, G f vGiyhf g;oGm;Edik rf ,fy? vlawG[m touft&G,f}uD;vm cg;awGudkif;r,f tjriftm&Hak wG r_e0f g;r,f aoqH;k jcif;&J@aemufrmS ajrv$mtjzpf a&v$mtjzpf ajymif;oGm; 'g[mobm0 w&m;yJav? tarhpmayawGu tcsed u f v kd eG af jrmuf t&G,u f v kd eG af jrmuf ae&ma'oudv k eG af jrmuf wdr;f apmif;!¸wu f ikd ;f azmufjyefroGm;

99


r_eaf 0oGm;jcif;r&Sd cGet f m;&Sw d phJ may? tarSmifq;kH nawGrmS rkew f ikd ;f vrf;ay:rSm vrf;aysmufre_ 0f g; prf;w0g;0g; av#mufvrS ;f &if;awG h "l0=H u,ftarhukd tarh pmayawGuakd yg?h aemufawmh tarrmeJ@ tarrmhpm &ifwiG ;f rSm csw d q f JG vif;jzm vjynf0h ef;yrm tarrm vjynf0h ef;yrm tar ph m pma&;q&m&J v h ufeufqw kd m olwkd &h @J pmtkyrf sm;om yJ&h JG eh aH [mif pkwn f pf a[mif;tdkwJhacwfudk jzdKzsuyf pfwhJ pmayvufeufawGaygh tarrm[m igwkd ah cwf&@J vlom;awGtwGuf vufeufawGukd ay;cJah v&J@? wu,fawmh tarhpmawG[m tarhpmawGxu J tarrm tarSmifb0awGxJu w&J&0J ifh / aevH;k yGi?hf ? armifp;kd csdef ar 1 &uf 2008

100


tarrm b,fawmhrS rao Zif Z if

ESpaf ygi;f 93 ESpt f wGi;f rSm omcJw h hJ v vif;cJhwJhae aยบu oGm;jyDwv hJ m; wu,fawmh aยบuoGm;wJh cE<mud, k f yef;wyGiahf emufrmS raowJph may &Sio f efaeayg?h azmufjyefwphJ maytm;vH;k aoqHk;aysmufuG,foGm;p+rJ odk ah yrJh vlxpk may raobl;a[ h raobl; tarhpmay/ rao tar[m usrwdk t h oJEv S ;kH xJ pG+kJ rJ &Sio f efae w&J&v J if;yae tarrm b,fawmhrS rao? ? arv 2 &uf 2008

101


tarrm xm0& raoyg &J&ifhoufZGJ r&%rif;&J@ odrzf si;f wJh trde@f o[ H m use;f rma&; raumif;olwa,muf&@J aeaumif;xkid o f m &Srd r_ sK;d eJ@ {+yDv 7 &ufae@ reufcif;ukd jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmif oGm;cJw h ,f? *vkb d ,fvu dk af Z;&Si;f tifazmfar;&Si;f wuUEadk vmf*sD enf;ynmwk;d wufrr_ sm;u urBm}u;D ukd &Gm}uD;w&Gm jzpfapcJ+h yDæ tJ'&D mG }u;D xJrmS {+yDv 7 &ufae@ reuf[m tEkjrLAk;H wvk;H vkd ayguu f JG igw@dk yk;d pk;d yufpuf toJawG [ufwufucJG ahJ yg?h tarrmqkw d m jynfjrefrm omru 'DurBmrSmyg vl±adk o &Si±f adk o b,fawmhrS raowJh pmaye,f&@J rD;&SL;wefaqmifvnf;jzpf rsK;d *k%f ±k;d *k%f Zmwdrmef*% k f xufoefwhJ uEWm&&J@ ESi;f qDwyGiv hf nf; jzpfw,f?

102


taræa& om;wkd@ac:oH=um;vm; om;wk@d atmfoH =um;vm; tarht&dyrf mS om;wkd@ckdem; om;wk@d wm0efrausc=hJ uykrH sm; cGiv hf w $ yf g tar? taræa& touf uk;d q,fEh pS Ef pS q f w dk m Armjynf vl@oufwrf;rSm aoaysm+f yDv@dk qkEd idk af yr,fh jynfwiG ;f jzpf zufqpfvufatmufrmS taræaeraysmcf b hJ ;l qkw d m om;wk@d odygw,ftar? tckawmhæ tqkd;taumif;ukd tusK;d ta=umif;eJ@ &Si;f jyay;r,fo h l oGeo f ifq;Hk r ay;r,fo h l tar r&Sad wmhb;l ? tarhukd,fpm; tarxm;oGm;wJh pmay tarGtESpaf wGe@J Armjynfwacwfopfatmif om;wk@d }uKd;pm;azmfaqmifomG ;ygrh ,f tar? tarrm aumif;&m ok*wd vm;ygap? ? &J&ifhoufZGJ {+yD 7/ 2008

103


““em;pGix hf m;&wJt h oH&iS ” f &Jabmfp;dk cspf (1) • rrSew f &hJ yfwnfcsuf ol@woufrmS wpufrrS &Sd (2) •

acwfwikd ;f acwfwikd ;f rSm rjrifomwJah umif;r_ r=um;Edik w f t hJ oHr[kwf (3)

jynfot l aygi;f axmifaomif;ru aoa=u=uwJh umvrsKd ;rSm ‘eD;±d;k ’ toGif tm%m&Siu f · 0uFEW yGJ qif,ifEaJ$ omf ‘a':a':’ bmrsm; ajymrnfenf;? (10 - 5 - 2008)

· 0uFEWyGJ - qENcH,lyGJ

104


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105


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107


{&mjrpfr }udwrf Edik cf rJ & &if0pnfw;D a&pD; rwef@apeJ@aemf // ref;awmif&yd n f Kd &ifzEkd rG ;f [du k f yifhoufv_dufarm cspfaomolESihfauGuGif;& w&m;"rRe@J om ajzygawmh // ykym` ;awmifxk xuf av;eufw@J t"dym` ,f tar ao&usKd ;eyfygw,f // (2) tara& ykyt f n hJ pfo;kd pepfq;kd 0J*,uf=uD;xJrmS om;wdk@udk xm;&pfc@J aygh // ar#mv f if@csuef @J touf&SifcJ@wJ@tar aemufq;kH ESv;kH ckeo f H wpfcsuf ar#mv f if@vsuyf jJ zpfrmS yg // yef;jcif;æ yef;acG tvGr;f awGe@J a0 æ tar&J@ t+yHK;rSmææ arwWmt&dyfv$rf;aew,f owWt d a&mifoef;aew,f æ arwWmeJ@owWd azsmpf yfxm;wJ@

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111


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&ef E k d i f x G e f ; vGwfajrmufe,fajr ukd;&D;,m;

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tar h h hodk h atmifjidrf;

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atmifjidr;f (23/ 4/ 2008)

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+idrfouf wrdepf· pk;d jrifjh rwf (1)

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(2) 7- 4- 08 vlxkukd cspfwhJ vlxku cspfwhJ tarrm orkdif;wefzkd; xrf;&Gufykd;+yD; c&D;a0;wae&m xm0&cGJcGm a=uuGJ0rf;enf;pdwf tarhtwGuf av;euft"dÏmef +idrfoufwrdepf?

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tarrmokd h *g&0jyKjcif; ausmfaqG tarrm. aemufqHk;c&D;ukd cHpm;a&;zGJ@ygonf

· 2008 {+yD 7 &uf eHeufcsed cf g ArmjynfrmS tcsed t f cgr[kwf aevH;k uG,af ysmuf tarSmifatmuf usa&mufcw hJ ,f? · xkpd Ofc% ivsifawmfvJoH}uD; wkefcgjrnf[nf; urBm}uD;uk±d u dk cf wf ae&mtESH@a&mufae=uwJh tarrmukdcspfolawGt=um; a=uuGyJ laqG; ikdaºu;wrf;w “tarvlxka':trm uG,fvGef&Sm+yD” æwJh? · tarvlxak ':trmqkw d m wkid ;f jynfucdk spf trsKd ;ukcd spw f hJ

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120


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(2) [kwyf gw,f æ æ tara&vk@d qlnw H hJ ac:wJt h oH puf±t kH vky±f akH wGxu J ac:wJt h oH ±k;d jywfv,fawmxJu ac:wJt h oH pmoifausmif;cef;awGxu J ac:wJt h oH +yD;awmh æ æ ,rf;aiG@jrLck;d awmwkd;awmifwuf c&D;qufae=uwJh &JabmfawG&J@ac:wJhtoH +yD;awmh æ æ u|e;f xJ wkdufxJ axmifxJ wku d yf 0JG ifaeqJ &JabmfawG&@J ac:wJt h oH? (3) tar tara& æ ævk@d wk@d wawG &ifxu J wrf;wrf;ww rSe;f rSe;f qq ac:=uwJhtar[m tarwumukd uk, d pf m;jyK tarvlxk a':trmwJh jynfArm&J@

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,Ofaus;rSpk pfrsuEf mS . rdcif cspfatmif

· twdik ;f tqr&Sw d hJ }uD;rm;wJh vlxrk cd if a':trmqdw k m q&m}u;D rif;ok0%f ajymovdk trmonf taysmrh [kwf taysmo h nf trmr[kwcf yhJ g? · aeSmif;acwfval wG ordik ;f odatmif r¹cif;rcsef oGeo f ifq;kH r rdciftrm&J@b0[m ordik ;f t&Sn}f u;D yg? · jrefrmtkypf ;dk ol opPmazmuf ,Ofaus;r_aysmufrmS udk pd;k &draf e&olyg?

125


· ausmif;om;Edik if aH &;rvky&f qdw k hJ tkypf ;kd ol vkyZf mwfcif; awmfveS cf siw f ahJ usmif;om;buf rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfwnfco hJ yl g? · tkypf ;dk olawG opPmazmuf wdik ;f jynfu|eb f 0jyefa&mufrmS t+rpJ ;kd &draf e&olyg? · rdcifa':trmqdw k m awmfveS o f al wGarG;xkwf ,Ofaus;wJah cwfukd wnfaqmufcsio f yl g? 7 &uf/ {+yD 2008 wGif b0wyg;odk@ ul;ajymif;oGm;ol vlxka':trmtwGuf *k%fðypyfqdkygonf? cspfatmif 9 - 4 - 2008

126


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127


tarhpw d "f mwf vGejf rifjh rwfudk b,fvrdk sm;wk,OS f tpm;0if,El idk =f uygrh vJ ighjynfighvlxk ig=unf±h t _ hH &Si;f oef@=unfvif =u,fpifawmufy vrf;jyaqmifae tkæ d tar tarhtod cGet f m;&S. d owWdawGarG; tarGay;jyef avmu"H±idk ;f 'Dvid_ ;f ±ku d yf w k f =urf;=uKwfarSmifwiG ;f avSmf&if;cwf&if; &ifqidk jf cif;jzifh rmef0w hH if;cH awmfvSefoabm trSeaf jymI pdwfa&mukd,fyg oGefoif&Smonf tm*Zmenf jynfo@l rcd ifwnf;?

&J a bmf a tmif E k d i f O D ; 25-4-2008?

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_rwfrcd if &JabmfaiG (r}unfav;)

(tarrm&J@ b0woufwmukd cHpm;zGJ@qkdygonf?) (1)

2008 {+yD æ aEGO;D &J@reufcif;rSmaygh “vlxktarrm uG,fvGef&Sm+yD” æ wJh? 'Dowif;ukd =um;&awmh orD;wkd@tm;vHk; ,lusKH ;r& ikdaºu;wrf;w 0rf;enf;cJ=h u&w,f? xkdtckduf0,f [kd æ tjrifrh mS 0VmwcGif xufaumif;uifvnf; jympifrvJ/h ikrd [ hJ efa,mif jrLarSmifc;dk awG/ r_id ;f ndK@aevk@d vGr;f rk;d apGapG a0awmhw,f?

129


[kd æ ta&S@rmS vGvw G ±l /l aiGcsKd ;jzLvnf; csKd aw;oHjr‡L/ ulEidk &f mS bJ ys0H aJ v[ke/f edrjhf rifw h rHk S rpkeaf wmh+yD/ &*H+k rdKifxyd f awmt&dy0f ,f/ wdwq f w d n f ifom arS;;puf&mS onf/ xHwsmcsKd aw;pJawmhw,f? [kæ d ta0;rSm Ek,axG;,ysKd ,jrpf yk&pfz;l csed /f *drmS efO;D rk@d av±l;aqmfaoG;/ ulumay;vnf; awmawmifp+kH rdKif/ *Ekid t f wGi;f yef;rsm;tvSæ &eH@rpH/k yef;r_e0f wf&nf zl;iHw k iG ;f rSm/ arS;puf&mS +yD yGiv hf m$ xHek @H uif;awmhw,f? (2) tarhb0 woufwm twdwt f a=umif;/ iJah pmif;wGupf pf zGiv hf pS =f unf&h if/ i,fpOftcg wuUoDvm/ausmif;olb0rSmyif e,fcs@J qef@usif wku d yf 0JG ifcw hJ hJ ol&aJ umif;? wkid ;f jynfucdk sp/f trsKd ;cspv f @dk jynfwiG ;f ppfurdk vkv d m; +idr;f csr;f a&;w&m; tpOfvufukdifxm;vsuf

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132


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134


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135


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136

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137


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138


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143


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146


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147


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148


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149


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jrrOPL ±kyyf v kH m$ '*kew f m&m (u) usaemf olrukd jrrOPLtjzpf pwifo&d jdS cif;r[kw?f oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;ol rtrmtjzpfom pwifjrifzl;cJh&jcif; jzpfonf? 1936 ausmif;om; oydww f iG f e,frS usaemfw@dk yxrqH;k Ekid if v H ;kH qkid &f m nDvmcHo@dk wufa&mufpOfu olrukd pwifjrifz;l onf? *sLAvDa[mwGif usi;f yonf? ,if;nDvmcH}u;D rS yxrOD;qH;k aom ArmEkid if v H ;kH qkid &f m ausmif;om;or*~udk arG;zGm;ay;vkdufonf? ,if;nDvmcHwGif tqdkwifoGif;aom tif;vsm;aqmifol rtrmukd awG@&onf? pum;ajymaumif;onf[k cHpm;vku d &f onf? xk@d aemuf usaemf &efuek w f uUov dk o f @dk a&muf&o dS mG ;pOf ‘a'go’[laom 0wÎKwkduav;ukd wuUokdvfausmif;wkduf r*~Zif;wGifvm;rod zwfvkdufrdonf? a&;olu jrrOPL/ *smref0wÎK/ 0wÎKa&;q&m [mrd. Fury 0wÎKukd bmomjyefxm; aom 0wÎK? usaemf ‘a'go’ ukd }udKufomG ;onf? xk@d aemuf jrrOPL 0wÎKrsm;ukd r zwfr?d usaemfyJ rzwfro d vm;/ jrrOPLyJ qufra&;ovm; rodawmh? xdk@aemuf ppfrjzpfrDumvu }uD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkdufrS ‘arm&pfaum vpf’. ‘tr_tcif;rsm;’pmtkyf bmomjyefudk zwf&onf? xk@d aemuf ppf+yD;pwGif ‘0gvpD pk um;’. ‘oufwaH &mif’0wÎKbmomjyefudk zwf&onf? ,if;oufwaH &mif 0wÎK trSma&;olu ‘ocifoef;xGe;f ’? oluvnf; pma&;aumif; tzG@J tEG@J aumif;? 1950 'DZifbmvu rEWav;ok@d a&mufomG ;onf? pma&;q&m rdwq f uf yGjJ zpfonf? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEu k txufjrefrmjynf pma&;q&mESihf atmufjrefrm jynf pma&;q&m rdwq f ufyJG vkyaf y;onf? xkt d cgu a':trmukd awG@&onf? usaemfu touf 30 t&G,/f a':trmu usaemfx h uf 4 ESpcf ef@ }u;D onf?

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rdwq f ufyjJG zpfojzifh [k{d nfch yH o JG mG ;&/ onf{nfch yH o JG mG ;&ojzifh a':trmESihf aumif; pGmyif pum;rajymjzpf? 1939 usaemf rEWav; a&muf/ ukAd [de;f u a':trmqD ac:roGm;/ rawG@ vku d ?f a&$jynfO;D bwifxo H @dk ukAd [de;f u ac:oGm;onf? a&$jynfO;D bwifEiS t hf wl OD;xifudk awG@&onf? aemufrS OD;xifonf a':trm. zcifreS ;f od&onf? a&$jynf OD;bwifu usaemfw@dk &Sr;f jynfomG ;rnfqI dk &Sr;f jynfwiG f a&ukd txl; *±kpu dk f aomuf&ef rSm=um;aeonf? OD;bwifrmS ,ck &o 'g±u dk w f m uk0d if;az. zcif jzpfa=umif; aemufrS od&onf? aemufawmh rEWav;a&mufv#if OD;vStrd rf mS wnf;ckd onf? owif;pmbufwiG f a&mufae+yD? xkt d cg a':trmonf vlxk a': trm jzpfae+y?D (c) pmayb0qkdonfu ajym&tcufom;? tuJjzwf&cufonf? rdrdwkd@. yk*v ~ u d b0ESihf qufpyfaeonf? ukv d ES iS hf ta=umif;ygaomtcg owif;pmq&mr jzpfomG ;[efwo l nf? ukv d ES iS hf usaemfw@dk u cif=uonf? ausmif;om; b0uwnf; u odu|rf;onf? usaemfhxuf tawmfvnf; }uD;onf? ppfjzpfcgeD;u ukdvS wm0ef,x l w k af eaom }uD;yGm;a&;r*~Zif;wku d o f @dk 0wÎKwkad v;wyk'af &; ay;cJo h nf? xkt d cgu usaemfusKd ufvwfo@dk a&mufaeonf? 0wÎKa&;q&m armfygqeG ;f . ‘rGe;f vku d ’f trnf&dS 0wÎKwkad v;ukd rS;D um a&; vku d o f nf? ‘tvS*% k ’f [k trnfwyfonf? }uD;yGm;a&;r*~Zif;rSm xk0d wÎK ygvm onf? ukv d u S usaemfzwf&ef pmtkyrf sm;pGm yk@d vu dk o f nf? 1946 u usaemf wm&m xkwfa0aomtcg a':trmxHu pma&mufvmonf? usaemf. wm&mr*~Zif; twGuf uk, d pf m;vS,v f yk &f ef jzpfonf? ok@d aomf usaemfu vlxw k u dk t f wGuf uk, d pf m;vS,f ray;jzpfbJ tjcm;wku d o f @dk ay;jzpfomG ;onf? usaemf tm;emaeonf? usaemfu vkyif ef;aumif;pGm rvkyw f wfI t&ifvmajymI ajymoludk ay;vku d f [efwo l nf? usaemfu rEWav; ta&mufenf;onf? xk@d a=umifh a':trmESihf txd tawG@enf;onf? rEWav;a&mufv#ifvnf; vlxkwkdufwGif ukdvSESifhom pum; ajymjzpfonf? ukv d ES iS phf um;aumif;aepOf a':trmu 0ifajymwwfonf? a':trm a&;aom ocifu, dk af wmfrid_ ;f / jynfocl spaf om tEkynmonf pmtkyrf sm;xGuv f #if usaemfx h H yk@d wwfonf? usaemfzwf&onf? a':trmu tpk taqmif;aumif;? rEWav;rS tEkynm&Sif Zmwfq&mrsm;ta=umif; aphaphii a&; onfudk zwf=unfjh zpfonf? usaemfonf Zmwfobif 0goemygojzifh zwfjzpfonf?

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a':trmonf Zmwfobifavmu *DwavmuESihf tu|r;f 0if em;vnfonf? ocifu, dk af wmfrid_ ;f pmtkyq f v dk #if txl}uD; ususeeavhvmum twÎK y`wu dW dk a&;onf? usaemfu &opmayukd a':trmxHrS ar#mv f ifo h nf? jrrOPL. pmayta&;tom; tzG@J tEG@J udk odaeojzifh jrrOPLuJo h @dk 0wÎKrsm; bmomjyefapcsif onf? ok@d aomf jyefonfudk rawG@&? jrrOPLu jyefvnf&iS o f efxajrmufjcif; r&S?d vlxak ':trm[laom owif;pmq&m/ twÎKy`wadW &;q&m oabmrsKd ;uko d m awG@ ae&onf? pdwx f u J odyrf auseyf? (*) owif;pmq&mESihf pma&;q&m (0g) &opma&;q&muawmh odyrf wl? owif;pmq&mqko d nfuawmh wu,fjzpfysuaf eonft h &mwk@d udk rSww f rf;wif &onf? &opma&;q&muawmh wu,fhtjzpftysufukd tajcjyKI Zmwfvrf; Zmwfuu G w f @dk jzifh jc,fo&onf? usaemfu jrrOPL jzpfapvko d nf? olr. tawG@t}uHKESiq hf v dk #if olrjzwf oef;cJah om/ olrjzwfoef;aeaom orkid ;f tawG@t}uHKESiq hf v dk #i/f jrrOPL tzG@J tEG@J rsKd ;ESiq hf v dk #if 0wÎK&Snf a&;zG@J Eidk rf nf[k xifxm;cJo h nf? ok@d aomfowif;pmq&m tcef;uvnf; ol@tcef;ESio hf l &So d nfudk usaemfem;vnfonf? ,ckvnf; r*~Zif; rsm;wGif ol.tawG@t}uHKukd tajccHum a0zeftuJjzwfaom pmrsm;ukdvnf; zwfae&I jrrOPLukd rawG@&aomfvnf; vlxak ':trmtjzpf awG@&I wrsKd ;auseyf &onf? rESpu f tr&yl& *E<m±Hak usmif;wku d t f eD; awmifav;vH;k ausmif;wku d ft oGm; rEWav;blwm±Hq k if;v#if a':trmhtrd o f @dk 0ifomG ;&onf? q&m}uD;ocifu, dk f awmfrid_ ;f . qDaq;um;csyaf &S@wiG f usaemfw@dk udk {nfch o H nf? c%wjzKwfawmh pum; ajymonf? rEWav;u uAsmq&mESihf pma&;q&mrsm;vnf; ac:xm;I pHpk v kH ifvif? jrrOPLta=umif; ajymjy&if; jrrOPLemrnfEiS hf a&;aom 0wÎKrsm; pkxw k rf nf[k =um;&I 0rf;omrdonf? pum;ajym=u&if; wm&memrnfEiS hf pyfxm;aom tqkad wmfpma&; q&mta=umif; a&mufomG ;onf? ‘rde;f uav;vm;/ a,mufsm;av;vm; rodb;l ’ [k usaemfuajymjyvku d &f m a':trmu +yHK;I ‘&Siu f rde;f uav;jzpfapcsiw f m vm;’ [k usaemfu h dk pvku d o f nf? (C) jrrOPL 0wÎK/ bmomjyefæpaompmrsm;ukd rzwf&aomfvnf; ,ae@ xGuf aeaom r*~Zif;rsm;wGif a':trm. aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd zwfae&onf? yxr rsKd ;quf/

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'kw, d rsKd ;qufrsm;ukd jzwfoef;oGm;+yD; wwd,rsKd ;qufudk jzwfoef;aeqJ? ,ae@ acwfay:tajctaeukd ol.cHpm;onft h wkid ;f a&;om;xm;onf? ppfrjzpfraD cwf ESihf ,ae@acwfudk E_id ;f ,SOI f azmfjyxm;ojzifh todw;dk &onf? todqo dk nfrmS E_id ;f ,SOcf surf sm;jzifo h m rSeu f efaomtodudk awG@&onf? csKo d nf[k t&omcHv#if omrefxuf rcsKd aom &ocHpm;csurf sm;om jzpf onf? omrefxufcsKd v#if ,cktcsKd onf aygo h mG ;rnf? olr. t,ltqrsm;/ olr. cHpm;csurf sm;ukd ,ae@wwd,rsKd ;qufrsm; ykI d zwfoifo h nf? ok@d ro S mv#if olw@dk . tjrif/ olw@dk . v_y&f mS ;r_ rnfo h nfah e&m a&muf&adS e+yDudk ykI d odEidk af oma=umifh jzpfonf? usaemfu trsKd ;om;ae@rsKd ;qufcsi;f jzpfI olr. cHpm;csuu f dk zwfcsiaf erd onf? 1936 ausmif;om;oydwrf S pwifawG@xcd &hJ aom oydwaf rSmufausmif;ol rtrmukd ,ae@aps;uGuf pD;yGm;a&;pepf[k ac:aeaom acwfwacwfwGifvnf; pl;&SxufjrufpmG / &$iv f ef;pGm/ a0zefpmG jzwfoef;aeonfudk awG@jrif&ayonf? '*kew f m&m 10 &uf/ azazmf0g&D/ 1995 pmay*sme,f?

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vlxak ':trm&J@ tHrh cef;avmufwhJ pGr;f aqmifcsurf sm; vif ; ,k e f a rmif a rmif ±k d ; &mrysuf w uf a &muf o l 'Dae@jrefrmEkid if w H 0ef;vH;k rSm &S=d uwJh pmorm; uAsmorm;rsm;eJ@ *Dwobif tEkynm&Sirf sm;twGuf rxifrw S b f J xl;jcm;vSwhJ ‘trSww f &ae@’wae@udk }uKH awG@ jzwfoef;vmcJ=h uwm q,fpEk pS w f ckru ausmv f eG v f mcJ=h uyg+yD? tJ't D rSww f &ae@ uawmh wjcm; r[kwyf gb;l ? u|eaf wmfw@dk wawG cspcf ifav;pm; =unfnKd tm;xm; ae=uwJh rEWav;u pma&;q&mr}uD; vlxak ':trm&J@ arG;ae@ tcrf;tem;ygy?J 'DarG;ae@txdr;f trSwt f crf;tem;ukd ESppf Of Ek0d ifbm 29 &ufae@widk ;f tr&yl& awmifav;vH;k q&mawmf ukyd nm&J@ausmif;rSm usi;f ycJ=h uwm 12 }udrf &Scd yhJ g+yD? wdwdususajym&r,fqkd&if vlxka':trm&J@ arG;ae@tcrf;tem;ukd a':trm touf 70 jynfw h hJ 1985 Ekid 0f ifbm 29 &ufae@u p+y;D usi;f yvmcJ=h uwm vGecf w hJ hJ 1997 ckEpS f Ek0d if bm29 &uf vlxak ':trm touf 82 jynfw h t hJ xdygy?J 'DvEdk pS pf Ofrysuf usi;f yvmcJ=h uwJh arG;ae@tcrf;tem;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; tcgoifv h @dk tcGi}hf uHKwke;f u|eaf wmfu h , dk u f |eaf wmf *k%, f l ajym=um;&r,fq&dk if u|eaf wmf[m vlxak ':trm&J@ 70 jynfah rG;ae@up+yD; 82 ESpjf ynfh arG;ae@txd ESppf Of±;dk &mrysuf wufa&mufcyhJ gw,f? 1988 ck ta&;tcif;umvrk@d arG;ae@ tcrf;tem; rusi;f yEkid cf v hJ @dk tJ'w D ESpf ysuu f u G cf yhJ gw,f? 'Dvdk *k%, f al jym=um;&wmuvnf; wjcm; a=umifh r[kwfygbl;? ESpfpOf tcrf;tem;ukdwufa&mufvm=uwJh y&dowf oHk; av;&m (wcgw&H y&dowf 500) avmuf &Sw d t hJ xJu u|eaf wmfw@dk ESppf Ofrysuf wufa&mufcJhwJh olawGukd vufcsdK;a&wGuf=unfhr,fqkd&if vufwzufawmif jynfrh ,f rxifv@dk ygy?J +yD;awmh 'Dvdk ±k;d &mrysuw f ufa&mufcw hJ m[m vlxak ':trm tay: u|eaf wmf&@J =unfnKd av;pm;r_ twkid ;f twm b,favmuf}uD;rm;w,fqdk wm ay:vGix f if&mS ;apcsiv f @dk ygy?J

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‘Asd K ;’[pf z d w f = um;cJ h a om tcrf ; tem; vlxak ':trm&J@ arG;ae@tcrf;tem;eJ@ ywfoufv@dk a&mufz;l }uHKzl;olawG a&m ra&mufzl;r}uHKzl;olawGtwGufyg xl;jcm;wJhtcsufuawmh 10 ESpfausmf usi;f yvmcJ=h uwJh 'Dtcrf;tem;ukd zdwpf meJ@ zdw=f um;cJw h m[m yxr w}udrf ESpf }udrjf zpf+yD; usew f EhJ pS f usew f hJ tcsed af wGrmS wcgrS zdwpf meJ@ zdw=f um;cJ=h uwm vH;k 0 r&Scd yhJ gb;l ? zdwpf mvnf; rvkyd gb;l ? ESppf Of Ek0d ifbm 29 &uf/ 'Dae@'&D uf[m a': trm&J@ arG;ae@qw dk m te,fe,ft&yf&yfu pmayorm;rsm;eJ@ pmayjrwfE;dk olwidk ;f od+y;D jzpfae=uygw,f? 'ga=umifrh @dk vnf; arG;ae@ra&mufrD wv avmuf}uKd+y;D tcsi;f csi;f vufw@dk owday; ta=umif;=um;cJ=h uygw,f? 'g[m tnm"avh tnmxH;k pH twkdif; tvSLwckvkyfawmhr,fqkd&if oD;oef@zdwfpm±kduf+yD;rurf;awmhbJ ‘AsdK;’ [pfvu dk ±f ekH @J w&GmvH;k u od=uwJo h abmygy?J 'ga=umifhrkd@vkd@ ‘AsdK;’[pf+yD; zdwfvkdufovkd tcsif;csif;vufwkd@+yD; owd ay;=u/ tazmf&mS =u/ tazmfn=d‡ ueJ@ tcsed w f efawmh Ek0d ifbm 29 &uf reufcif; awmifav;vHk; ausmif;0if;twGif; rEWav;/ rHk&Gm/ rkd;ukwf/ rdwÎDvmeJ@ jrpfi,f/ ausmufqnf/ rauG;/ awmifwiG ;f eJ@ &efuek t f ygt0if te,fe,ft&yf&yfu pm ayorm;awG[m tv#Kd v#Kd eJ@ a&mufvm=u+yD; awmifav;vH;k ausmif;twGi;f rSm y&dowfawG jynfu h sy+f yD; azG;azG;v_yo f mG ;cJw h mygy?J ‘apwem’csrf ; omol vl x k a ':trm 1985 ckESpfu yxrqHk;usif;ycJhwhJ 70 jynfharG;ae@rSm vlxka':trmu ‘u|erf rSm csr;f omwmqkv d @dk apwemyJ &Syd gw,f’vk@d ajymzl;ygw,f? 'Dpum;av;[m u|eaf wmftygt0if vlxak ':trm&J@ pmzwfy&dowftwGuf tonf;cku d af tmif }udKufEpS o f ufc&hJ wJh pum;av; wcGe;f jzpfcyhJ gw,f? wu,fawmh t"dy`m,fav;eufvSwJh 'Dpum;uav;[m pma&;q&m pmayorm;rsm;twGuf aoG;xGuaf tmifreS w f hJ pum;uav; wcGe;f ygy?J wu,fh wu,ftm;jzifh vlxak ':trm a&;om;jyKpkco hJ r# aqmif;yg;/ 0wÎKawGe@J bmomjyef pmaytpkp[ k m a':trm&J@ apwemukd txift&Sm; azmfjyaeygw,f? 'Dvdk apw emtjynfeh @J a&;om;jyKcv hJ @dk vm;rodb;l / ESpaf ygi;f 50 ausmt f wGi;f a':trm a&;om; jyKpkcw hJ hJ pmaytpkp[ k m awmify&kH myHk ‘tH=h oukeEf idk zf , G ’f vk@d qk&d avmufatmif rsm;jym;vSygw,f? b,favmufawmifrsm;ovJqadk wmh rdwv DÎ maumvdyf pm=unfh wku d u f q&m0if;wifh pkaqmif;jyKpkyEkH ydS x f m;wJh “vlxak ':trmb0eJ@ pmay&ufpJG rsm;”qkw d hJ rSww f rf;pmtkyrf mS azmfjyxm;csut f & 1995 ck (touf 80 jynft h xd)

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vlxak ':trm a&;om;jyKpkcw hJ hJ vH;k csi;f pmtky/f ed'ge;f eJ@ trSmpm a&;cJw h phJ mtky/f owif;pm*sme,f acgi;f }uD;/ aqmif;yg;/ yifu, dk af &;eJ@ bmomjyef 0wÎKwkad wG tyg t0if pmrsKd ;pHk pkpak ygi;f 874 ck&w dS ,fv@dk od&ygw,f? q&m0if;wifh }udK;yrf;jyKpkxm;wJh tJ'rD w S w f rf;pmtkyu f av;ukd 1995 ckEpS f vlxak ':trm&J@ touf 80 jynfh arG;ae@trSww f & vufaqmiftjzpf jzef@a0cJh ygw,f? 'Dpmtkyu f av;xJrmS pepfwus azmfjyxm;wJh vlxak ':trm&J@ pmrsKd ;pHk pmpkpm&if;ukd awG@vu dk &f awmh u|eaf wmfrh mS acgi;f em;yef;awG}uD;+yD; rsuv f ;kH awG jyL;oGm;rdygw,f? ‘a&;Ekid v f cS snv hf m;’vk@d E_wu f toHxu G o f mG ;avmufatmif wtHw h =ojzpfc&hJ +yD; wcsed w f nf;rSmyJ a':trm&J@ apwemeJ@ pGr;f aqmifcsuaf =umifh rlvu &S&d if;pG=J unfnKd av;pm;r_[m ESpq f oH;k qavmuf wk;d oGm;cJyh gw,f? 'Dpmtkyaf v;xJu pmpkpm&if;uk=d unf+h yD; pmzwfy&dowfjzpfwhJ u|eaf wmf wk@d om wtHw h =o jzpfomG ;cJw h m r[kwyf gb;l ? um,uH&iS f pma&;ol vlxak ':trm uk, d w f idk f ‘rsm;vS yguvm;/ [kwaf um [kw&f @J vm;’vd@k awmif atmufarhc&hJ w,f? wtk y f w avrS ypf & uf p &mr&S d a ompmtk y f r sm; u|eaf wmf[m vlxak ':trmeJ@ ppf+yD;acwf 'Dbufyidk ;f 1950 jynfv h eG Ef pS f (vGecf w hJ hJ ESpaf ygi;f 40) cef@u vlcsi;f pwif awG@qckH ifrifc&hJ ayr,fh vlxak ':trmqkw d hJ uavmiftrnfuadk wmh ppfrjzpfrD wESpaf vmuf 1938-39 uwnf;u rSwrf w S f xifxif u|r;f 0ifaecJyh gw,f? ppf}uD;rwkid rf D tJ't D csed u f vlxak ':trm&J@ ‘jrefrm jynfwiG f ppfaq;cJah om r_cif;rsm;’eJ@ ‘pENrmvm’0wÎK[m u|eaf wmfu h dk bmom jyef pma&;q&mwa,mufjzpfatmif yxrqH;k v_@H aqmfcw hJ hJ pmtkyaf wGygy?J tJ'D pmtkyu f zdk wf+yD; a':trm&J@ okweJ@&o bmomjyef ESprf sKd ;pvH;k u|r;f usiyf idk Ef idk rf u _ dk vlcsi;f rawG@&cifuwnf;u cs;D usL;av;pm;rdcw hJ ,f? ppf+yD;acwf onfbufykdif;usawmh vlxka':trm&J@ ‘jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;’‘a&$ref;wifarmif’pwJph mtkyaf wG[mvnf; u|eaf wmft h wGuf vufurcsEidk af tmif wpdrphf rd hf zwf+yD; wodro hf rd hf cHpm;&wJh pmtky}f uD;awG jzpfcyhJ g w,f? tJ'aD emuf vlxo k wif;pmacwfrmS a&;om;jyKpk xkwaf 0cJw h hJ ‘qk&d , S v f pf wkid ;f jynfrsm;ok@d ’‘tk, d ef;uD;wk@d ’eJ@ ‘aiGe@J vufeuf’‘b0csi;f rwlonfh w±kwjf ynf’ pwJh pmtkyaf wG[mvnf; u|eaf wmft h wGuf Ekid if aH &;vrf;!¸epf mtkyrf sm; jzpfcyhJ g w,f? 'Dae&mrSm okawoDrsm;twGuf “vlxak ':trm&J@ b0eJ@ pmay&ufprJG sm;”

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pmtkyx f rJ mS awG@&wJh vlxak ':trm&J@ uavmiftrnfcrJG sm;ukd rSw&f om;&atmif qifyh mG ;r#a0vku d yf gw,f? tJ'u D avmiftrnfcaJG wGuawmh æ (1) cifv0if; (2) ZrŠL'Dyg atmifxeG ;f (3) zcifatmifEidk f (4) zdk;omatmif (5) jrrOPL (6) trm (7) trm (oydwaf rSmuf ausmif;ol) (8) tif;vsm;ausmif;aqmifolwOD; (9) vlxak ':trm æ ponfw@dk jzpfygw,f? txufazmfjyyg pmtkypf mwrf;awGtjyif arG;ae@usi;f ywJt h cgwidk ;f wESpf wcgvufaqmifay;cJw h hJ ‘aq;vdyef @J vo l m;’ ‘b0eJ@pmay&ufprJG sm;’ ‘urBmh t}u;D qH;k ausmufqif;wkawmf’ pwJh pmtkyu f av;awGutp a':trm a&;cJw h hJ pm tkypf mayawG[m trSww f & odr;f xm;&r,fh pmtkyaf wGygy?J tm;vH;k uk+d cHK+yD; pum;ukeaf jym&r,fq&dk if vlxak ':trma&;cJo h r# pmtkyf awG[m wtkyw f avr# ypf&ufp&m r&Syd gb;l vk@d qkcd siyf gw,f? umv&Sn=f um anmif;vSwhJ ESpaf ygi;f 50 ausmt f wGi;f pmayodumQ eJ@ pmaywefz;dk }uD;rm;vSwhJ 'Dpmtkypf mayawGukd a&;om;jyKpkEidk w f m[m aiGtojym csr;f omvk@d r[kwb f J apw emcsr;f omvk@d a&;Ekid cf w hJ ,fqw dk m pOf;pm;p&m/ tjiif;yGm;p&m r&Syd gb;l ? 'ga=umifh vlxka':trm apwemawG csrf;omonfxuf csrf;omygapvdk@ 'Daqmif;yg;eJ@ *k%jf yK qkawmif;vku d yf gw,f? tH h = ozG , f a umif ; vS a om t"d u pG r f ; aqmif c suf &Snfvsm;=umanmif;vSwJh ESpfaygif; 50 ausmftwGif; 'Davmufta& twGurf sm;jym;+yD; 'Davmufpmaywefz;dk }uD;rm;vSwhJ pmtkyaf wGudk tqufrjywf a&;Ekid cf w hJ hJ vlxak ':trm&J@ pGr;f aqmifcsuw f ckudk u|eaf wmf owdjyKrdygw,f? tJ't D csuu f awmh bmvJqadk wmh a':trm[m 'Dvpdk mtkypf mayawGukd a&;om;cJ&h mrSm at;at;aq;aq;eJ@ pdwcf sr;f omuk, d cf sr;f om a&;cJw h m r[kwf ygb;l ? cifyeG ;f onf OD;vS uG,v f eG o f mG ;+yD;wJah emuf ESpaf ygi;f 15 ESpv f ;kH vH;k txD; useb f 0eJ@ aecJ&h ygw,f? tifrwef cspcf if=uifemcJ=h u+yD; wa,mufe@J wa,muf wrsuEf mS w&Gmxifae=u&mu aouGu J +JG yD; cGcJ &hJ wmrk@d a':trm&J@b0 b,f

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+yD; yk@d wmyg? u|eaf wmfw@dk wawG[m tJovkd vlxo k wif;pmwku d u f dk 0ifxu G o f mG ;vm aeayr,fh wcgz;l r# OD;vSe@J a&m a':trmeJ@yg Ekid if aH &;/ ausmif;om;ta&; aqG; aEG;jcif;/ ajymqkdjcif; r&dScJhpzl;? tjcm;vlr_ qufqHa&;pum;-pmaypum;awGyJ ajymcJh=uwmyg? 'gayrJh zqyvtpkd;&&J@ taxmufawmf}uD;awGuawmh vlxk OD;vSu ausmif;om;awGukd !¸ef=um;aew,f? aiGa=u; axmufyHhaew,fvkd@ xifuek =f uawmhw,f? 'Dvekd @J 1953 atmufwb dk mrSm wuUov dk f ausmif;wv ydwaf &; wku d yf jJG zpfawmh u|eaf wmfw@dk ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;eJ@twl vlxk OD;vSuydk g zrf;vku d yf gawmhw,f? ol@vydk J txifrmS ; tzrf;cH&ol aemufwOD; uawmh 'k@d b&k if OD;b&if? 'k@d b&k if OD;b&ife@J wcsKd @udk yxr v$waf y;w,f? wESpcf =JG umwJt h cg u|ef awmfwkd@ ausmif;om;awGukd v$wfay;w,f? 'gayrJh OD;vSukdawmh v$wfray;bJ av;ESpx f d axmifxrJ mS qufxm;w,f? 'gawGrmS ;rSe;f aemifov d mwJt h wGuf tJ'D acwfu zqyvtpkd;&&J@ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; Akdvfcifarmifav;[m aemif ol&m xl; jyKwfvmwJhtcg vlxkOD;vSqDvm+yD; uefawmhoGm;ygw,f? (28-11-79) “OD;av;vnf; ol@udk qkawG t=um}uD; ay;ypfvu dk o f uGm”vk@d 'Dta=umif; u|ef awmfu h dk jyefajym&if; OD;av;u &,f&,f+yHK;+yHK;ajymygw,f? (OD;Ekuvnf; rSm;a=umif; 0efco H mG ;ygw,f?) 1955 rSm u|eaf wmf axmifxu J xGuv f mawmh wuUov dk jf yefaecGihf r& ao;ygb;l ? u|eaf wmf vlxo k wif;pmwku d rf mS nt,f'w D m 0ifvyk yf gw,f? ae@ t,f'w D mu OD;xGe;f az (ol&/ &Sr;f jynf)? olu owif;pmtwGi;f pmrsuEf mS awGudk ae@cif;rSm vkyo f mG ;+yD;/ rsuEf mS zH;k eJ@ ausm&,f/ tv,fpmrsuEf mS ESprf suEf mS &,fudk u|efawmfhtwGuf xm;cJhygw,f? ta&;}uD;wJh pmrsufESmawGyg? wkdif;jynfrSm wae@wmtwGi;f jzpfysucf w hJ hJ owif;awGxu J ta&;}uD;qH;k owif;awGudk aemuf usEkdifoavmuf aemufusatmifapmifh+yD; rsufESmzHk;rSm xnfh&wm jzpfygw,f? rEWav;eJ@ txuftnm owif;awGuadk wmh uk, d yf idk o f wif;axmufawGu a&;+yD; om;av;awG u|eaf wmfph m;yGrJ mS vmyk@d =uw,f? wcsKd @ pm;yGrJ mS xkid af &;w,f? &efuek f owif;ukad wmh w,fvzD ek ;f eJ@ ay;w,f? urBmo h wif;twGuf &GKu d w f m/ attufzyf /D atyD/ &Sif[Gmowif;XmeawGu owif;v$mawG pmwkdufu a&mufaeayr,fh aemufq;kH owif;ukad wmh bDbpD /D bDtadk t/ armfpuk/d yDuif; a&'D,o dk wif;awGuydk J tm;udk; &w,f? u|efawmfhatmufrSm vufaxmuf t,f'Dwm wOD;&Sdygw,f? 'gayrJh u|eaf wmfu h dk t+rJwrf; vma&mufun l D oGeo f ifaewmuawmh a':a':ygy?J

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Ekid yf gw,f? a':a':ajymavh&w dS mu OD;av;[m a':a':&J@ q&mygyw J ?hJ wu,fawmh ta=umif;t&mra&G; vlx=k um;u aumufumiifum xkwEf w k f a&;om;+yD; vlxk qDudk ‘'g[m cifAsm;wk@d ta=umif;yJ’vd@k tvG,ef @J jyefvnfwifjyae&mrSm OD;av; [m q&mwqljzpfygw,f? 'Dae@a':a':taeeJ@ a&;rukeaf tmif ºu,f0ae wm[m OD;av;&J@ uGecf suu f dk odxm;vk@d jzpfw,fv@dk qkcd siyf gw,f? 1997 ck atmufwb dk mvxJrmS yJ u|eaf wmf rEWav;ukd a&mufomG ;awmh a':a':u ukad usm&f ifjrifu h dk a&$uifkd ;f om;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ pmyk'd af wG &Smckid ;f aewm awG@c&hJ ygw,f? tJovkd &Smckid ;f ae&if;u “'k@d EpS af ,muf ige@J a&$uidk ;f om;ukd ukv d S arG;xkwcf w hJ m”vd@k u|eaf wmfu h dk vSnafh jymygw,f? trSeyf gy?J OD;av;/ a':a':eJ@ a&$uikd ;f om;wk@d [m a&;wJt h a=umif;t&meJ@ a&;[efrwlayr,fh ta=umif;t&m rsm; ,lyakH y;yHrk mS awmh a':a':a&m a&$uidk ;f om;a&m OD;av;eJ@ twlwyl J jzpfygw,f? }u;D yGm;a&;r*~Zif;uae vlx*k sme,f/ vlxo k wif;pmtxd a':a':eJ@ a&$uidk ;f om;wk@d a&;vm=uwmawG[m OD;av;a&;apcsiw f mcsn;f qkw d m owdjyK&if awG@Eidk f ygw,f? }uD;yGm;a&;r*~Zif;rSm a':a':[m jrrOPL/ cifv0if;qkw d hJ uavmiftrnf ESprf sKd ;eJ@ a&;cJyh gw,f? bmomjyef0wÎKwked @J uk, d yf idk 0f wÎKwkad wGudk a&;cJw h myg? vGecf hJ wJh 15 ESp/f ESpf 20 avmufu tJ'0D wÎKawG &oavmufjyef&mS ay;zk@d u|eaf wmfu h dk a':a':rSmvk@d wuUov dk rf sm; A[kpd m=unfw h u dk &f dS }uD;yGm;a&;r*~Zif;awGxrJ mS u|ef awmf &Smay;cJ+h yD;yg+yD? vlxk }uD;yGm;a&; pmtkyw f u dk u f ±ku d Ef ydS x f w k af 0r,fv@dk pDpOf aea=umif; od&ygw,f? “tJ'gawGu jyef±u dk zf @dk aumif;rS aumif;&J@vm;uGm”vk@d a':a':u u|ef awmfh xifjrifcsuu f dk ar;zl;ygw,f? “aumif;ygw,f? u|eaf wmf tm;vH;k zwf=unfh vku d yf gw,f”vk@d jyefajzcJyh gw,f? q&m'*kefwm&muawmh 1995 Ekd0ifbm pmay*sme,frSm “jrrOPL jyef vnfxajrmufjcif;r&S/d vlxak ':trm[laom owif;pmq&m/ twÎKy`wadW &; q&m oabmrsKd ;uko d m awG@ae&onf? pdwx f u J rauseyfv@dk ”qkcd yhJ gw,f? “u|eaf wmfu jrrOPL jzpfapvko d nf? olr. tawG@t}uHKESiq hf v dk #if olr jzwfoef;cJah om/ olrjzwfoef;aeaom ordik ;f tawG@t}uHKeJ@qv dk #if 0wÎK&Snf a&;zG@J Ekid rf nf[k xifxm;cJo h nf? ok@d aomf owif;pmtcef;uvnf; ol@tcef;ESio hf l &So d nf ukd u|eaf wmf em;vnfonf? ,ckvnf; r*~Zif;rsm;wGif ol@tawG@t}uHKukd tajccH um a0zeftuJjzwfaom pmrsm;ukv d nf; zwfae&I jrrOPLukd rawG@&aomfvnf; vlxak ':trmtjzpf awG@&I wrsKd ; auseyf&onf? '*kew f m&m (2-10-95)

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vl x k o wif ; pm/ *sme,f r sm;ES i f h a':trm Tae&mwGif vlxkowif;pm/ *sme,fta=umif; ajymrnfqkdu OD;vS onfvnf;aumif;/ a':trmonfvnf;aumif; yg0if=urnfom jzpfygonf? vlxo k wif;pm/ *sme,frsm;onf OD;vSEiS hf a':trmwnf;[laom yk*Kd~ vfEpS Of ;D wk@d . }udK;yrf;r_jzifh ay:xGufvmjcif;a=umifhjzpfonf? vlxkowif;pm/ *sme,frsm;ESifh vlxak rmifEw HS @dk rmS cGjJ cm;Ir&aom '*Fg;jym;. acgi;f ESiyhf ef;ozG,f &Scd +hJ y;D ‚wk@d EpS Of ;D . vH@k vpku d x f w k rf j_ zifh jrefrmjynftxufyidk ;f t0ef;wGif vlxt k rnfrmS ar$;}uKd iyf iG v hf ef; I vmygonf? OD;pGmxkwaf 0onfrmS vlx*k sme,fjzpfonf? 1945 ck Zlvidk f 15 &ufwiG f xGuaf y:vmaom vlx*k sme,f ESpyf wfw}udrx f w k jf zpf+yD;/ vufqnfuef&yf *4 vrf;&Sd }uD;yGm;a&;yHEk ydS w f u dk rf S ±ku d Ef ydS jf zef@cscd jhJ cif;jzpfonf? *sme,f. rl0g'ESihf ywf oufI acgif;pD;Y ‘u|Ekfyfwkd@. *sme,fonf rnfonfh*kd%f;*e/ ygwDwkd@ESifhr# aiG a&;a=u;a&;/ 0g'a&;ESiyhf wfoufI pyfvsO;f jcif;r&S?d u|Eykf w f @dk ,H=k unf,q l onfh twkid ;f worwfwnf; oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif;’yg&cdS +hJ yD;/ rsuEf mS zH;k yef;csED iS hf ywfoufI vnf; ‘oef;acgiu f mv vuG,n f Y awmeuf}uD;twGi;f wGif rsupf v d nf vrf;rSm; oltm; vrf;!¸ev f su&f adS om Guiding Star vrf;!¸ef =u,fwm&monf t+rJ a&S@aqmifvsuf&Sd.? xkd@twl Armvlxk}uD; vrf;rrSm;&avatmif tjrifrSefjzifh csw D ufEidk &f ef pnf;±H;k Ekid &f avatmif "l0=H u,fuo hJ @dk aom vrf;!¸e=f u,f}uD;onf tvif;a&mif jzef@jzL;vsu&f +dS yD[al om t"dym` ,fjzifh rEWav;yef;csD b&ifuav;onf u|Eyfk w f @dk . rsuEf mS zH;k ukd a&;qJv G u dk o f nf’onf[I l yg&cdS ahJ vonf? vlx*k sme,f xkwaf 0pu jrefrmjynftajctaerSm zufqpfawmfveS af &; }u;D qifE+J¸ y;D csed jf zpfI wrsLd ;om;vH;k Ek;d =um;um trsKd ;om;nD!w G af &; jyefvnfwnf aqmufaeaomumv jzpfonf? Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;OD;aqmifrj_ zifh zqyvtzG@J }uD; onf vGwv f yfa&;twGuf +Adwo d #w@dk tm; tjyif;xefq;kH wku d yf 0JG ifaecsed v f nf; jzpfygonf? ok@d &mwGif zqyvtzG@J csKyf}uD;taejzifh ‚wk@d .tmabmfudk oD;jcm; azmfjyEkid af om pmapmifvnf;r&Sad o;acs? ,if;ok@d aom tajctaeY txufjref rmEkid if t H xufyidk ;f zqyv0g'jzef@csad &;rSL;vnf;jzpfonfh OD;vSu jrefrmjynf t xufyidk ;f a'orsm;tm; uk, d pf m;jyKum wrsKd ;om;vH;k vGwv f yfa&;twGuf vlx*k sm e,frS v_H@aqmfpnf;±Hk;a&;om;cJhavonf? xkdpOfu zqyvtzGJ@csKyf}uD;. tm abmfudk &efuek +f rdK@rS xkwaf 0aom 'D;'kwEf iS hf *sme,fausmYf trsm;qH;k jrifawG@&+yD; rEWav;+rdK@wiG u f m; vlxYk zwf±&_ avonf? tqkyd g *sme,f}u;D 3 apmifrmS pme,fZif;orkid ;f wGif vGwv f yfa&;yef;wkid o f @dk

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rrSdwfrokefcsDwufaeaom zqyvtzGJ@csKyf}uD;. tmabmfrsm;xif[yfum jynfov l x l t k m; todtjrifziG ahf y;onfh *sme,f}uD;rsm; jzpfco hJ nf? a':trmonf OD;vSEiS t hf wl vlx*k sme,fY OD;pD;vkyu f idk af vonf? vuf axmuft,f'w D mb0ESihf owif;wnf;jzwfjcif;/ pmjyifjcif;ESihf aqmif;yg;a&;jcif; rsm;ukd vufawG@vyk u f idk cf &hJ m pme,fZif;tawG@t}uHKrsm; &&Scd ahJ vonf? touf 30 jynfch +hJ yDjzpfI csichf sed Ef id_ ;f qr_vnf; &&Sad e+yDjzpf&m *sme,fwiG f vufaxmuf t,f 'DwmrS t,f'w D mtjzpfo@dk wk;d jr‡iv hf yk u f idk cf o hJ nf? *sme,fwiG f yg&o dS nfh owif;/ aqmif;yg;ESihf 0wÎK/ uAsmwk@d rmS vufiif;jzpfay:aeaom Ekid if aH &;/ vlra_ &;/ pD;yGm;a&; tajymif;tvJrsm;ukd aphiak &;om;jcif;/ tpk;d &rl0g'rsm;ukd a0zefa&;om;jcif;tjyif e,fcs@J qef@usiaf &;/ trsKd ;om;vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf urBmt&yf&yfrS pmrsm;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_/ tm;upm;/ ody`Hqkdif&m tjzpftysufwkd@tm; xnfhoGif;azmfjycJh&m vlx*k sme,fonf jrefrmjynftxufyidk ;f omru wEdik if v H ;kH ys@H E@HS um =oZm&Sad om *sme,fwapmifjzpfvmcJo h nf? *sme,fxkwfa0&if; ae@pOfxkwfowif;pmxGuf&Sda&;twGuf OD;vSESifh a':trmwk@d onf ,cifuxuf vH@k vpku d f vkyu f idk cf &hJ m 1946 {+yD 19 &ufwiG f ‘vlxyk *k v ~ u d owif;pm’ xGu&f v dS mygonf? t,f'w D mcsKyfrmS q&m}uD;a&$Oa'gi;f jzpf+yD;/ a':trmonf acgif;}uD;a&;twwfynmukd a&$Oa'gif;xHrS wjznf;jznf; avhvm oif,cl &hJ m uk, d w f idk v f nf; acgi;f }uD;a&;ol jzpfvmcJo h nf? vlxo k wif;pm onfvnf; *sme,fenf;wl atmifjrifr&_ &Sv d m+yD; xkt d csed rf pS I OD;vSEiS ahf ':trmukd a&S@r‘S vlx’k xnfq h dk ac:a0:vmcJ=h uonf? vlxkowif;pm xkwfa0pu vli,frsm; twkckd;vGJrSm;rnfpkd;I ±kyf&Sif a=umfjimrsm;ukyd if vufrcHcyhJ g? ESpt f wef=um 0efxrf;rsm; 0kid ;f 0ef;ajymqk=d uojzifh ±ky&f iS u f ¾ukd xnfo h iG ;f cJjh cif;jzpf.? xk@d jyif vlxo k wif;pmwGif t&ufa=umfjim/ jrif;yGo J wif;ESihf avmif;upm;owif;rsm; xnfo h iG ;f jcif; tv#i;f r&Scd ahJ y? xkrd #ru vlra_ zmufjyefusL;vGeo f nfh owif;rsm;tm; pdppf azmfjycJo h jzifh owif;pmonf rdom;pktwGi;f atmf[pfzwfjyEkid af om oduaQ pmifph nf;onfh yk*v ~ u d owif;pm }uD;wapmif;tjzpf xifxif&mS ;&Sm; &yfwnfEidk cf . hJ ? txl;xkwo f wif;pmrsm;wGif ay:OD;ouf/ 0if;az/ OD;atmifcsp/f OD;b&ifuav;/ OD;at;jrifh ESihf Ek0d ,fqif;yg;vfw@dk . vuf&mwk@d jzifh a&mifpjkH c,fre_ ;f um xkwaf 0cJo h jzifh apmifa&rSmvnf; wk;d jrifh vmcJh onf? vlxak ':trmvnf; *sme,ftawG@t}uHKrS ae@pOfxw k o f wif;pmbufo@dk tqifq h ifh ul;ajymif;cJo h nfjzpfI xl;c|ef xufjrufaom trsKd ;orD;owif;pmq&m

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jzpfvmygonf? OD;vSEiS t hf wl pme,fZif;vkyif ef;rsm;tm; 'k;d wlaygizf uf OD;aqmif OD;&Guf vkyu f idk cf &hJ m vkyif ef;wckv;kH tm; wuk, d w f nf;OD;pD;Ekid o f nftxd wk;d wuf vmcJo h nf? xk@d a=umifv h nf; q&m}uD;a&$Oa'gi;f ESihf vlxOk ;D vSw@dk +idr;f csr;f a&; uGezf &ifrh sm; wufa&mufaepOftwGi;f ESihf txde;f odr;f cHumvrsm;Y owif;pm/ *sme,f tvkyftm; OD;pD;vkyfukdifEkdifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ,if;okd@ vkyfukdif&mY pmapmifyHkrSef xGu&f adS &; }u;D =uyf&onft h jyif acgi;f }u;D ESihf yifwidk f aqmif;yg;&Siu f ¾ aZmufcsa&; om;&avonf? vlxkowif;pm/ *sme,frsm;tm; olrukd,fwkdif OD;pD;vkyfukdif aepOftwGi;f acgi;f }uD;ykid ;f yifwidk af &;&onft h jyif a':trmtrnfjzifh v_y&f mS ;ae aom urBmah &;&mu¾ yifwidk af qmif;yg;&Siv f nf; jzpfco hJ nf? ,if;u¾ukd vlxk owif;pmY 1961 arvrS 1967 Zlvidk t f xd 7 ESpef ;D yg;a&;om;cJ&h m Personal hJ nf? Regular Colunnist yHrk eS af umfvpH m;taejzifh a&;cJah om Editorial vnf;jzpfco ‚aqmif;yg;rsm;rSm 2791 yk'fwdwd &SdcJhojzifh jrefrmtrsdK;orD;owif;pm q &mwOD;taejzifh trsm;qH;k a&;onfh aqmif;yg;ta&twGu[ f v k nf; owfrw S f Ekid yf g onf? txl;ojzifh cifyeG ;f jzpfol r&Spd Ofumvrsm;twGi;f om;orD;apmifah &Smufa&; ESihf pme,fZif;vkyif ef;rsm;xJ csmcsmvnf vnfum pmtkyrf sm; a[mwtkyf a[m wtkyf a&;xkwEf idk jf cif;rSmvnf; jrefrmtrsKd ;orD;wOD;taejzifh xl;jcm;aom pGr;f aqmifcsufvnf;jzpfcJhonf? xkdumvu vlxka':trmonf &ifaoG;i,ftm; csyD ;dk &if; owif;pm*sme,f tcsed rf eS x f u G &f adS &;twGuf pGr;f aqmifcahJ om &SmrS&mS ; onfh trsKd ;orD;owif;pmq&mvnf; jzpfayonf? vl x k & yf e m;+yD ; rS vlx*k sme,fonf 11 ESp=f um xkwaf 0+yD;aemuf 1959 Zefe0g&w D iG f &yfem; cJ+h yD; vlxo k wif;pmonfum; 7 ESpw f idk f qufvufxu G &f adS e+yD;/ 1967 Zlvidk f 7 &ufwiG rf S &yfem;cJyh gonf? vlxak ':trmonf *sme,f&yfem;+yD;onfrS tcsed yf rdk dk &&Sv d m+yD; pmaya&;om;jcif;bufY jr‡KyfEv HS yk u f idk cf &hJ m qk&d , S v f pfwidk ;f jynfrsm; ok@d / td, k ef;uD;wk@d / aiGEiS v hf ufeuf (1963)/ jynfocl spaf om tEkynmonfrsm; (1964)/ b0csif;rwlonfh w±kwfjynf (1966)/ atmifAv/ zkd;pdef/ pdefuwHk; (1967)/ a&$±;dk buav; (1970)/ urBmt h }uD;qH;k pmtkyf (1973)/ a&$a'gi;f awmif aqmif; yg;rsm; (1975)/ q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif; (1976)/ awmfvSefwJhw±kwfjynf u|eaf wmfrw S rf o d r# (1979) wk@d udk a&;om;xkwaf 0cJ+h yD; (1982) =o*kwf 7 &uf wGiu f m; 43 ESp=f um aygi;f oif;vmonfh cifyeG ;f onf vlxOk ;D vS uG,v f eG jf cif;ESihf }uHK awG@&avonf? ,if;aemuf 1984 rwf 4 wGif avmifu|r;f aom OD;usm;}uD;

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acgi;f wvm;ukd rxrf;yk;d Ekid af omfjim;/ trSew f &m;ukd usaemf ausmyk;d aecJw h m tar? tar em;vnfciG v hf w $ w f efaumif;&J@? “twdwq f w dk m &Sv d nf;&Sw d ,f? &Sw d ,fqw dk mvnf; *k%, f &l w,f? t wdwq f w dk hJ avS u m;xpf & S d v k d @ ypP K y` e f q d k w J h avS u m;xpf u k d wuf E k d i f w m jzpf y g w,f ? 'ga=umif h twdwfukdvnf; rsufuG,fjyKzdk@ r}udK;pm;apcsifbl;? rae@u&Sdvkd@ u|efrwdk@rSm uae@&Sd aewmyg? uae@&Sd aeEkdif=uwmyg?”(vlxktar/ jrefrmhr[m*Dw æ rS)

vlxak w;oHqw dk m w&Hrqdw/f twdwu f dk E_;d qG/ ypPKy`eu f dk v_@H aqmf/ tem *wfukd ,Hk=unfwmyJ r[kwfvm;tar? vlxkukd ,Hk=unfrS/ awmfvSefa&;ukd ,H=k unfr/S ,H=k unfcsuu f dk ,H=k unfr/S atmifyu JG dk ,H=k unfrmS r[kwv f m; tar? 'gawGu tar jyÏmef;ay;cJw h hJ vGwaf jrmufa&; oD0&DawGav? tarh b0wckv;kH eJ@ wkduf,lvkd@ &cJhwJh opPmw&m;awGav? trSefw&m;awG usaemfwkd@b0awGay: yd+ydKvdrq hf if; vmatmif/ axG;ayG@arG;jrLwwfatmif/ tiftm;awG }uD;xGm; &ifo h ef vmatmif b,foal wG aqmif=uOf;ay;cJyh govJ? tarhaus;Zl;/ arwWm/ apwem/ rk'w d mawGu ( 'Dxuf av;euf euf±id_ ;f wJh tjcm;pum;vH;k rsm; usaemfrh mS yg;&Sm; w,f/ tarh&@J Ek@d &nfwpufv@dk yJ usaemfrw S , f yl gw,f) tara& æ vlxt k ara& æ? vlxkaw;oHawGeJ@ orkdif;tqufquf/ &mZ0if tcef;cef;ukd tar jzwfoef;pD;qif; oGm;cJ+h yD r[kwv f m;? (2) trsm;eJ@qkdifwJh udpPawGrSm b,fawmhrS rjiif;wJh vlwa,muf? tJ'Dvkdvlukd “trsm;eJ taygif ; toif ; a&mif ; &if ; eJ @ ywf 0 ef ; usif v l @ taqmuf t tH k u b,f h E S , f vk y f + yD ; arhEkdifrSmvJ?”(vlxktar/ awmifav;vHk;rS ewfu|ef;txd trSmpum; æ rS)

tareJ@ pwifqHkqnf;cJh&wJh ouU&mZfrsm;ukd jyefa&wGuf=unfhrdw,f? 1985 pmqkdawmf&moD? usaemfwdk@e,f+rdK@av;rSm pmqkdawmf&moDa&mufwkdif; pma&;q&m/ uAsmq&mawGudk zdw=f um;+yD; pmaya[majymyGaJ wG usi;f yjyKvkyf avh&w dS ,f? pmaya[majymyGeJ @J twl usyef; pum;ajymyGaJ wG/ pum;&nfvyk aJG wG/ 0wÎK/ aqmif;yg;/ uAsm/ umwGe;f +yKd ifyaJG wGvnf; ,SOw f +JG y;D vkyaf vh&w dS ,f? usaemfu rk;d a0 vli,fuAsma&;ol jzpfaeyg+yD? 80 vGeEf pS rf sm;rSm usaemf wk@d +rdK@u pmaya[m ajymyGaJ wG/ pmayv_y&f mS ;r_awGxrJ mS xJx0J if0if usaemfyg0ifciG hf &aecsed ?f ESpw f idk ;f

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&efuek u f q&mq&mrawGcsn;f zdwaf e=uawmh 'DEpS af wmh tvSnt hf ajymif; vnf; jzpf/ usaemfw@dk tifrwef av;pm;=unfnKd &wJh rEWav;u tarrmwk@d udk zdw&f atmifv@dk usaemf t}uHjyK=unfw h t hJ cg tm;vH;k u oabmwlvufc/H &ufowfrw S /f usaemfe@J pmay&JabmfwOD;/ rEWav;ukd tjrefcs/D tarrmwk@d e@J &if;ES;D u|r;f 0ifwhJ q &m}uD;OD;rif;EG,f (rif;EG,-f v,fuidk ;f ) qDu pm,l/ usi;f ya&;aumfrwDu zdwf pmawGxnfh/ tarrmwkd@ pDpOfay;EkdifwJh pma&;q&m uAsmq&mawG zdwfac:cJh ayawmh æ wJ?h OD;av;vS/ tarrm tygt0if q&mwifrkd;/ q&marmifpGrf;&nfwkd@u 1971-72 avmufwkef;u wacgufwusif; a&mufcJhzl;=uygw,f? tJ'Dumv awGwek ;f u e,frmS pmaya[majymyGaJ wG us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ rxGe;f um;ao;ygb;l ? usaemfw@dk txufwef;ausmif;u ausmif;tkyf q&m}uD;/ q&m}uD; OD;atmif^m%f (awmifwiG ;f ) u OD;aqmif+yD;/ ynma&;wuUov dk u f qif;vmwJh q&mOD;atmif 0if;wd@k / jrefrmpm q&mq&mrawGu pDpOfusi;f yay;wJh ausmif;a[majymyGrJ sKd ;yg? ausmif;rSm a[mvkd@jyKvkd@+yD;rS +rdK@ay:u pmay0goem&SifawGtwGuf vSoD&D ±kyf&Sif±Hk}uD;rSm quf+yD; a[m=uajym=u/ pmayaqG;aEG;yGaJ wG vkyf=uw,f/ &Guf =urf;a&csKd pmaya[majymyG?J 'ge@J yJ rEWvmukd tjrefEiS /f rEWav;vlxw k u dk af &muf/ tarhudk uefawmh/ vm&if;udpaP jymjy/ taryJ tpp pDpOfay;ygayg@? taru +yHK;+yHK;&$i&f i$ f em;axmif+yD; “bkdndK æ om;yJ armifukdav;wkd@ armif=unfatmifwkd@eJ@ pDpOfay;yguG,f/ t arvnf; rif;bl;ra&mufwm =umayg@? ukrd if;EG,u f vnf; wul;wuukd zdw&f mS w,f/ a&$pufawmfbk&m;vnf; zl;&if;aygh”vkd@ ukdndK@ukd rSmajymav;ajymw,f? usaemfw@dk uawmh tqifajyavawmh 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om? ukn d Kd (nDyak v;) u “q&marmifvGrf;%Dwdk@ 'DnaeyJ jyefr,fqkdawmh a[majymr,fh &ufukdvnf; od&+yDav/ usaemfw@dk um;awGe@J yJ vmcJrh ,f/ wjcm;vkid ;f um;awG bmawGvnf; rpDpOfygeJ@/ udpPtm;vHk; usaemfwdk@yJ pDpOf+yD;vmcJh=uygr,f? vmcgeD; q&m}uD; OD;rif;EG,t f rd u f kd zke;f quf vku d yf g@r,f? tJwckawmh &Sw d ,f/ rauG;urf;uaeawmh vm}udKay;ayg@aemf?”“pdwfcsyg ukdndK&,f?” rEWav;awmifukd ajy;/ usHK;ukdywf/ r[mrke&d iS af wmfjrwfudk uokwu f &ufz;l / aps;csKd ukd wywfywf/ xk;d rke@f av;/ vrke@f av;0,f/ naeapmif;awmh rauG;um;eJ@ jyefvmcJ=h u? a=omf æ jzKwfcsn;f ref; awmif&dyfckd? a&mufvmr,fh reufyidk ;f rSmyJ usaemfw@dk rauG;bufurf; ul;+yD; rauG;u pmay &JabmfawGe@J apmif}h uKd ae=uw,f? {&m0wDjrpf}u;D ukd jzwfu;l zd@k Zufv@dk ac:wJh

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um; wifu;l wJh a&,mOf}uD;&J@wm0ef&o dS al wGuv dk nf; }udKwif+yD; pm&if;ay;/ arwWm &yfc/H wm0ef&o dS al wGuvnf; usaemfw@dk +rKd @u a&a=umif;0dZm… }u;D awGqadk wmh tqif ajyw,fv@dk yJ ajym&r,f? rGe;f vGJ 12 em&D0ef;usiaf vmufrmS rauG;urf;ezl;ukd tarrmwk@d a&muf vmygw,f? E_wq f uf=u/ rdwq f uf=uayg?h “'g armifuadk v; (uAsmq&m}u;D ukad v; - tif;0*k%&f nf)/ armif=unfatmif (uAsmq&m}uD; =unfatmif)/ a[m'gu wuUov dk f armifapmvGi/f [kb d ufu EkE&k nf (tif;0)/ 'Dbufu ESpaf ,mufu tarhom; bkn d Kd (nDyak v;) eJ@ rdwv DÎ maumvdyu f pm=unfw h u dk rf LS ; uk0d if;wif”h tarrmwkd@ukd vl&Sif;+idrfqdwfwJh xrif;qkdifav;wckrSm ae&mcsxm;/ um;awGZufay:wifz@kd pDpOf / rif;bl;urf;bufudk a&muf&adS =umif; zke;f quf/ ygvm olawG pm&if;yk@d ? rif;bl;urf;bufrmS vnf; vnf;yif;w&Sn&f n S ef @J apmifah eolawG u oufjyif;wcscs? pdr;f vh=J unfjymaewJh {&m0wD&@J a&pD;oHawGudk em;axmif&if; taemuf±;dk rbufqD ai;&DaewJh tarhrsuEf mS rSm vGr;f &dyw f csKd @u xif[yf arsmvGihf aeav&J@? (3) “vl vlqkdwm bmvkyfcsifvkyfcsif raocifyJ vkyfEkdifwm? aow,fqkdwm tm;vHk; tm;vH k ; bmrqd k tqH k ; ur` w f ed * H k ; owf w myJ ? tJ ' D a wmh vk y f c sif w m&S d & if rao cif v k y f x m; qk d w muk d yk d y k d + yD ; oabmayguf a ew,f ? ” (vl x k t ar/ pma&;jzpf wJhta=umif;&if; æ rS)

rif;bl;a&mufawmh q&m}uD;OD;rif;EG,f OD;aqmifwhJ pmay&JabmfawGjzpfwhJ rif;jrifZh if/ A[de;f atmif/ aZmfoufaxG;/ armifeOD ;D / qufEidk af tmif/ uku d adk t;wd@k apmif}h udKae=uw,f? t+yHK;uk, d pf u D , dk if eS @J taemufajrvwfrmS pmaya[majymyGJ rSww f idk w f wkid f pku d x f =l uzk@d a&$a'gi;f awmif uavmifrsKd ;awG Ek;d =um;pk@d ? 'Dae@n 7 em&DrmS rif;bl;yG/J aemufae@nrSm ref;a&eHajr tvkyo f rm;rsm;&J@ yG/J aemufwae@rmS a&$a&mifawmf a&eHajr tvkyo f rm;rsm;&J@ yG/J +yD;&if arsmufu }udK;acG/ a'gi;f tk;d a0vk@d zG@J ocD w hJ hJ &Sirf [m&Ïom&&J@ a&$pufawmfomG ; awmvm;ukd cHpm;=unf=h ur,fh ajcawmf&m bk&m;zl; c&D;pOf? tJ'ED pS &f @J xl;jcm;r_av;awGu a[majymyGJ cef;r}uD;&J@ atmufxyf cef;r }uD;rSm 'Dae@emrnf }uD;aewJh rif;bl;om; yef;csq D &m uk0d if;azjrihw f @dk / ukw d if0if;wk@d /

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220


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{nfch v H u kd &f vd@k tbu tm;emaew,f? }udKwifppD Ofrr_ &Scd v hJ @kd tbu usaemfu h kd tjypfwifygw,f? tarwdk@vnf; c%avmufem;+yD; c&D;quf=ujyefw,f? tJ'D wkef;u tareJ@twlygvmwJh pma&;q&mawGuawmh usaemfav;pm;cspfcifcJh olrsm;jzpfygw,f? olw@kd uawmh tar/ q&m=unfatmif/ q&mOD;udak v; (tif;0 *k%&f nf)/ q&mOD;apmvGi/f q&marmifr;kd ol / nDyak v;e@J q&mr EkE&k nf (tif;0) wd@k tjyif usaemfrodwhJ {nfo h nf 2 a,muf/ 3 a,mufvnf;yg ygao;w,f? usaemfjh cHo@kd tarwd@k tzG@J vmvnfc+hJ yD; &ufowW 2 ywf 3 ywfavmufrmS usaemfhudk axmufvSrf;a&;u vmzrf;ygw,f? udpPuawmh tarwdk@eJ@rqdkifyg? usaemfw@kd ajratmufEidk if aH &; v_y&f mS ;r_tzG@J rS &Jabmfwa,muf&@J pnf;urf;csKd ; azmufra_ =umifh &efou l od&o dS mG ;+yD; tzrf;cHvu kd &f w,f? tzrf;cH&pOfu rdred @J roufqdkifolawGudk zrf;qD;cH&rSm/ tppfaq;cH=u&rSm tpdk;&drfqkH;yg? aemufqkH; ppfa=uma&;+yD;vd@k tif;pdeaf xmifa&mufryS J rdred @J roufqikd w f o hJ al wG tzrf;rcH& bl;qdw k m odvu kd &f rS enf;enf;pdwaf t;oGm;w,f? jyefvw G v f mawmhvnf; ppfaq; jcif; rcH=u&bl;qdw k modv@kd pdwaf ygo h mG ;w,f? usaemfw@kd ukd ±k;H wif w&m;pGw J m rvkyfygbl;? 10 (u) eJ@wdkufydwfxm;w,f? 1988 / *sLvdkif 15 &ufrSmawmh jyefvw G af y;vdu k yf gw,f? tJ't D csed u f rqvppftpd;k &qef@usiaf &; v_y&f mS ;r_awGu Edik if eH @J t0ef; jzpfaecsed ef @v J nf; wdu k q f ikd af eygw,f? txde;f odr;f cH&mrS vGwaf jrmufvmch+J yD;aemuf usaemf &Sr;f jynfo@kd jyefvm cJyh gw,f? jyefa&mu+fy;D aemufrmS vnf; ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;awG&@J apmif=h unfch aH e&r_ uawmh cHae&qJjzpfw,f? ud, k v f yk pf &m&Sw d m qufvyk zf @kd q;Hk jzwfcw hJ ,f? +cHrmS wywfavmufem;+yD; usaemf&h @J ZmwdajrjzpfwhJ tnmaus;vufu rdcifxH txde;f odrf;cH&mu jyefvGwfvm+yDjzpfwJhta=umif; owif;ay;zdk@ &Srf;jynfu jyefqif; vmcJhw,f? rEWav;udk jzwfoef;oGm;&wmjzpfvdk@ xkH;pHtwdkif; vlxkwdkufodk@ oGm;a&mufum tareJ@ bdn k Kd udk 0ifa&mufEw _ q f ufcw hJ ,f? taruusaemfuakd wG@awmh “rif; b,faysmufaewmvJærawG@wm=um +yD? +cHvyk if ef;aumtqifajyvm;” vd@k ar;jref;ygw,f? usaemfvnf;jzpfpOftcsKd @ukd tusOf;csKH;+yD;ajymjyygw,f? 'Dwacguf tarqD0ifE_wfqufwJhtcg xl;jcm;wm wck&Sdchw J ,f? taru usaemfudk pma&;yghvm;vdk@ wdkufwGef;ygw,f? usaemfu uAsmwcsKd @awmha&;jzpfygw,fv@kd ajymvdu k f rdw,f? taruquf+yD; tckygvm;vd@k ar;ygw,f? 'Dvekd @J usaemhrf mS ygvmcJw h hJ uAsm 3 yk'u f kd tarudjk y=unfyh gw,f? tar[m uAsmawGudk taotcsmzwf=unfhygw,f? pum;vkH; tokH;tE_ef; awGujkd yifay;w,f? owfyt Hk rSm;awGawmif jyifay;vdu k af o;w,f? +yD;awmh tar

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ajymwmu “ rif;uAsmawGu pdppfa&;udjk zwf&rSmqdak wmh r*~Zif;xJygz@kd rvG,b f ;l / 'gayrJh pdwfrysufe@J / qufa&;yg” vdk@ajym+yD; pum;ajya&;zdk@vnf; wdkufwGef;cJhyg ao;w,f? tarudk av;pm;wmawGxrJ mS 'Dvt kd ao;tzGaJ v;awGup+yD; *±kwpdu k f oif=um;jyoay;wwfwJh tarh apwemav;awGvnf; ygw,f? tar[m taumif;qk;H oif=um;jyoay;ol/ taumif;qk;H vrf;!$ejf yoay;oljzpfw,fv@kd usaemfwdk@t&ifu aemifawmfawG/ q&mawGuajymqdkch=J uwm 'ga=umifh jzpfyg vdrrhf ,f? 'Dtcsuu f kd =unfjh cif;tm;jzifh tar[m vli,fawGukd wd;k wufjrifrh m; apcsiw f ,fqw kd hJ apemt&if;cHa=umifjh zpfw,fqw kd m b,forl rS jiif;Edik yf gb;l ? usaemf 0ifxu G o f mG ;vmaewm ESpt f cdsK@&cdS ahJ yr,fh taru usaemfu h kd &Srf;jynfZmwdvdk@yJxifaeykH&w,f? 'Dwacguf usaemfhZmwd&Gmjyefr,fvdk@ajymrS taru “rif; b,fZmwdvJ” ar;ygw,ff? usaemfhZmwdajymjyawmh taru “tJ'&D mG u tarhtbd;k / tazwd@k &@J Zmwd&mG eJ@e;D eDav;yJ/ tckxd tarwd@k aqGrsKd ;awG tJ'&D mG rSm &Sad ewke;f yJ”wJ?h +yD;awmh b,foal wGukd odvm;/ b,f0gawGuo kd v d m; pojzifhar;ygw,f? tJ'Dae@u tarudkE_wfqufyD; usaemf[m &efatmifref; um;*dwb f ufukd ajcOD;vSnv hf u kd yf gawmhw,f? usaemf[m tnmu Zmwd&mG av;rSm wywfavmuf rdcife@J twlaecJ+h yD; &Sr;f jynfo@kd jyefwufvmcJw h ,f? xdt k csed u f jynfwiG ;f rSm rqvtpd;k &qef@usiaf &; v_y&f mS ;r_awG/ qENjyr_awGu ae&mwumrSm ay:xGupf ðyaeyg+y?D rqv qef@usiaf &; pmapmif pmwrf;awG/ a=unmcsuaf wG/ owif;pmawG (jynfoal wGu, kd w f ikd f xkwf wJh owif;pm) u ae&mtES@H rmS yvlys/H ysH @E@HS aew,f? tJ'u D mvrSm xif&mS ;wJh owif;pmawGuawmh tdraf wmf&m/ *VKefe/D ta&;awmfy/Hk owif;pmawGjzpf=u+yD;/ &Spaf v;vk;H owif;pmeJ@ THE CAll (cGe;f qifo h )H owif;pmawGuakd wmh &Spaf v; vkH;ta&;awmfykH twGif;rSm xkwfa0cJh=uygw,f? owif;pmawG&J@oufwrf;u awmh pufwifbm 18 &uf e0w tm%modr;f +yD;wJh txdyJ oufq;kd &Sncf yhJ gw,f? tJ'o D wif;pmawGu usaemfaewJ&h rS ;f jynfu +rdK@uav;txd ysH @E@HS ygw,f? usaemfw@kd +rdK@uav;u ausmif;om;vli,fawGe@J 0efxrf;wcsLd @&@J rqvqef@usiaf &; qENjyyGaJ wGukd &Spaf v;vk;H &uf ausmcf +hJ yD;rS vkyEf ikd cf yhJ gw,f? qENjy w&m;a[myGJ awGrmS qd&k if ykvyd t f &m&St d csKd @uvnf; rqv qef@usiaf &; w&m;a[majymae wmawG@jrifc&hJ w,f? usaemhu f akd wmh axmufvrS ;f a&;u aus;&Gmvl}uD;wa,muf xm;+yD; apmif=h unfch ikd ;f ygw,f? usaemfuawmh jcHrmS aevdu k f jrdK@xyJ rHk eS o f mG ;vdu k f vmvdkufvkyfae&if; ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf vdktyfwJhtultnDay; 0dkif;&Hwm

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avmufyv J yk cf yhJ gw,f?usaemfh tbuawmh usaemfu, kd w f ikd f ta0;od@k roGm;bJe@J olu, kd w f ikd f oGm;p&m&Sw d mawGukd aqmif±u G af y;wwfygw,f? txl;ojzifh rEWav; u&Jabmfrsm;eJ@ qufo, G af y;w,f? usaemfah e&mrSm vkðH cHa&;raumif;&if rEWav; udk qif;vmcJzh @dk &Jabmfrsm;u t}uH^m%fay;ygw,f? 'Dvekd @J usaemf[m (8) vydik ;f 13 &ufae@rmS yJ rEWav;udq k if;vmcJyh gw,f?

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awmhav a=omfæ olw@kd 'v D akd e&wmud;k ? udv k u S awmhav wcGe;f rSrajymbl;? ig b,fvakd e&w,f/ igw@kd ukd b,fvx kd m;w,fv@kd bmrSrajymbl;? OD;rluawmhav“'k@d av/ cs;D tdro f mvnf; wl;&w,fa[h/ odvm;? wHjrufpnf;vnf;vSn;f &w,f? [dak umifawG cdik ;f wm 'd@k vyk &f wm”/ tJvakd jymjyw,f? 1945ckEpS af ygah emf/ uydik rf mS / ud, k 0f efu uydik u f ygvmwm? uydik u f ajymif; vmcJhwm? uydkifrSm oHk;ESpfavmuf=um=uw,f? ppfjzpfawmh om;}uD;pdk;0if;u 2vom;? 2veJ@ppfajy;&wm? b,fupkd ajy;wH;k qdak wmh/ yxrOD;qH;k rrOD;wd@k tr&yl& 'Dbufuav/ uyfausmf/ uyfausmfudkajy;&wm? uyfausmftdrfrSm c%wjzKwf ae+yD;awmh b,fuakd jy;&vJqakd wmh a¹rGrw S f wmyJ? a¹rG±mG udak jy;+yD;awmh/ tJ'rD mS av;ig;ajcmufv ae+yD;awmh b,fajy;&wH;k qdak wmh rwW&m[db k ufuav — —————— (enf;enf;jywfomG ;)—— [kww f ,f/ armifErS awG? tarwd@k caJG ewm enf;w,f? wrdom;pkv;kH / tarh taza&m/ tara&m/ tarwd@k a&m/ wl-wlrawGa&m? touf}uD;awmh emrnfawG arhukefwm? a¹rGuakd &muf+yD;rS yif;,udak jy;=uwm? yif;,rSmawmfawmfae+yD;rS uydik f jyefwm? yxr uyfausm/f +yD;'[awWm/ '[awWmuae+yD; a¹rG±mG / a¹rGyo k rd ?f tJ'u D ae+yD;rS yif;,/ yif;,+yD;rSuydik ?f tJ'rD mS t=umqH;k yJ? uydik rf mS oH;k ESpaf vmuf =um wm? uydik u f ae+yD;uef}uD;? uef}uD;uae uydik jf yefvm/ +yD;rS0gcif;uke;f / r*Fvmaps; AHk;uswm/ udkbOD;uGrf;+cHu udkbOD;wdkufrSm? tJ'Du+yD;rS udk,hftdrfudk,fjyefwm? udk,fh0if;udk,fjyefwm? tar&,f/ taz&,f/ wd@k ro d m;pku av;a,muf? wd@k armifErS u ajcmuf a,muf? wdk@ta':awG&Sdao;w,f? ta':ESpfa,muf? (Z0e&,f/ Z0ea,muf z&,fygao;w,f? OD;vSu uydkifrSmtzrf;cH&wm? tufpftufpftufpf udkacgif; aqmifvmwJo h u l a±$bu kd (pma&;q&m)armifaomfu&J@ tpfut kd }uD;qH;k / udpk rwf qdw k m/ rlqvif? tJ'g usyif;}uD;ac:oGm;wm? wkwaf umufvakd oewfvnf; odr;f oGm;w,f?)· ——— armfawmfum;ay;vdu k &f wm? *syefuakd y;vdu k &f wm? wd@k taz&J@um;? tJ'D armfawmfum;uav;/ ppfjzpfcge;D awmh ajy;&atmifq+kd yD; armfawmfum; 0,fwm? wd@k ut&ifwek ;f u rpD;zl;bl;? ppfjzpfcge;D u wd@k tazu um;0,fwm? ('±dik b f mu armifaxG;wJ?h oGm;acgav;/ a±$omG ;eJ@)· oH;k axmifvm;rodb;l ay;cJ&h wm? 0,f+yD;awmh um;udak wmh t&ify@kd &/ a¹rG

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udyk @kd wm? tvkyo f rm;av;a,muf t&if oGm;ESi&fh wm? um;vrf;xGi&f / awm vrf;}uD;/ usLyif}uD;awG&iS ;f zd@k yif;,uaeoGm;&wJah wmvrf; ajy;zd@k 0,fxm;wm? wu,fu rE aW v;+rKd@A;kH }uJawmh/ tazwd@k uajy;awmh ajcusiaf jy;&wm? um;r±Sd bl;? (wck±w dS ,f? ajcusiq f akd yr,fh vl}uD;ydik ;f avmufuom +rKd@xrJ mS ? uav; wcsKd @u awma&mufae+y/D 1941, Christmas) · rif;omrSwrf w d m/ igrrSwrf b d ;l ? ajcusiaf jy;&wm? um;udzk u G v f u kd &f wm? zGuo f mzGu&f wm/ zGuw f myJ tzwfwif w,f? aemufq;kH usawmh *syefut kd yfvu kd &f wm? um;taumif;pm;? (aAmufaqm- arm&pf 22/ atmfpwif 8 vd[ k mrsKd ;ayg/h twG}J uD;? qvGe;f }u;D ? tJ'w D ek ;f u olu0ef}u;D jyKwfp? Aarmf bOD;wd@k u±_yo f aemfqw kd hJ bOD;/ ynma&; 0ef}uD;/ jyKwf+yD;av;-ig;vaeawmh ppfjzpfwm? jyKwfwmr=umao;bl;? tJ'aD wmh oluum;aumif;}uD;pD;wm) · uydik u f t kd wlajy;=uwm? uydik q f v kd @kd +rKd@xrJ mS r[kwb f ;l ? awmifi}l uD;qdw k hJ awmifipl rk mS ? bke;f }u;D ausmif;}u;D t}u;D }u;D ±Sw d ,f? tJ'aD usmif;0dik ;f }u;D tus,}f u;D u vlr±Sb d ;l ? bke;f }uD; r±Sb d ;l ? ypfxm;wm? tJ'gukd wd@k bek ;f }uD;OD;auo&u 'g}uD; udk&Sif;/ wynhfom;ajr;awGudkvm=u-vm=uqdk+yD;ac:/ ab;uausmif;uav;rSm tukev f ;kH 0ifaewm? tkypf v k [ kd mrsKd ;? oH;k tkypf ?k a':pktkyfpk/ a±$csnfxdk;utkyfpk/ a±$ref;wifarmiftkyfpk? a±$ref;wifarmif uvnf; aqGrsKd ;om;csi;f awGtm;vH;k / Zmwf}uD; wckv;kH zsuv f m+yD;ae=uwm? !Ge@f 0if;eJ@ armifp;kd 0if;eJ@ v}uD;vi,f? jzwfar;- OD;av;udv k mzrf;wmeJ@ywfouf+yD; bmta=umif;jyvJ? bmrSrodb;l ? wd;k wd;k ajym+yD;awmh ac:oGm;wmyJ? tJ'aD wmh igu bmvd@k zrf;xmrSe;f awmif rodb;l / jzpf&yHu k ? ac:oGm;awmh igw@kd =um;ae&wmu ausmuf qnfudkodrf;awmhr,fqdkawmh ppfwyfu OD;vlaz0if;udkpum;jyeftjzpfeJ@ac: oGm;owJ?h udv k u S v kd nf; 'Dvpkd um;jyefvyk zf @kd ac:w,fv@kd xifwm? zrf;rSe;f rodb;l ? aemuf+yD;usawmhrS t=um}uD;/ t=um}uD;aeawmh zrf;wmwJh? aemufawmf awmf=umrS rE aW v;ol&, d udo k ef;armif/ q&m}uD;&mZwf/ OD;rlw@kd bmwd@k / trsm; }uD;tzrf;cH&wm? igb h ma=umihzf rf;w,f/ igb h ,fvEkd ydS pf ufw,fqw kd m rajymbl;? ig b,fvdkcHpm;&w,fvJrajymbl;? awmfawmf=umw,fuG? oHk;av;vavmuf xifw,f/ rrSwrf b d ;l ? uydik u f t kd &ifu ra&mufz;l bl;? a0;w,fu?G aemufraS &mufwm? igrw S f

264


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tar wap> ra=umufb;l zkd;oH (vlxk)

rE aW v;om;wa,muftaeeJ@ jyefpOf;pm;vdu k &f if usaemfawmh Owko;kH vDxrJ mS aEGe@J aqmif;udk trSwrf q d ;kH yJ? txl;ojzifah EG? bma=umihrf rS [kwb f ;l ? ylwm}uD; udyk J rSwrf ad ewmyg? ylywJq h &kd if ae@vnf 2em&De@J 3em&Dt=um;[m tylq;kH / tqd;k qH;k ? vrf;ay:rSmuwW&mawGu t&nfaysmv f @kd / taiG@awGvnf; waxmif;axmif;eJ@? avrd k @ wd k u f y wJ h q d k & if v nf ; avyl } uD ; ? 'D x J r S m zk e f a wG u ygvmao;w,f ? rwwfomwJ@ tajctaer[kw&f if b,forl v S rf;ay:rxGuyf gb;l ? 'Dvt kd csed rf mS wcgwav vrf;ay:uae qD;,do k nfv[ kd mu c|cJ |jJ ypfjypfe@J “qD;,d-k - - - ”vd k @ rsm;atmf v d k u f & if / trav;- rE W a v;&J @ aEG y ef ; csD u m;[m jynfph o kH mG ;+yDv@kd qEkd ikd w f ,f? usaemf wuUov kd u f ausmif;xkwcf &H awmh toufu 18ESp-f 19ESp?f tar u usaemhu f kd tm;aewm/ bmrSvyk pf &m r&Sb d J vwfvsm;-vwfvsm;vkyaf evdrhf r,fq+kd yD; owif;pmvkyif ef;xJ 0ifcikd ;f ygw,f? ynmoif oabmayg?h e,fowif;eJ@ a=u;eef;owif; bmomjyefwmawG vky&f ygw,f? e,fowif;rSmawmh usaemhq f &m awGu OD;&Jvif;eJ@ ewfarmuf udx k eG ;f &Sed w f @kd ayg?h bmomjyef vkyif ef;rSmawmh taru yJ uef@uv l ufvn S hf oifay;wmyg? tJ'u D mvawGtwGi;f rSm ckeuajymwJh aEG&ufrsKd ;a&muf&if tarhtvkyf pm;yGrJ mS xdik +f yD; tarajymwmawG em;axmif&wm r*Fvmwyg;ygy?J taru trsm; tm;jzifah wmh usaemfrrDvu kd w f hJ aqGawGrsKd ;awGta=umif;/ rE aW v;òr@d }u;D ta=umif; awG ajymjywwfygw,f? tarhrmS arG;csi;f 12a,mufawmif±w dS m/ 'DtxJu 6 a,mufyJ vlvm;ajrmufcJh+yD; usaemfwdk@rDcJhygw,f? usefwmawGudk "mwfyHkav; awmif usaemfw@kd rjrifz;l ygb;l ? tJ'v D o kd al jymjywmawGxu J usaemf&h @J pdwx f rJ mS pGJvrf;aewJh usaemfhrjrifvdkuf&wJh ta':ESpfa,mufta=umif;udk jyefajymjycsif ygw,f? 266


tar[m ol@pm;yG&J @J nmbufab;u jywif;ayguaf v;udjk zwf+yD; tjyif udk =unh&f if; “tarwd@k i,fi,fu 'Dvakd EGq&kd if a&m*guyfawG a=umufp&maumif; vdu k w f m/ ESppf Ofvv kd u kd swwfw,f? txl;ojzifah wmh ausmufe@J yvdyyf ?J wcgwcg 0rf;a&m*gus&ifvJ ygoGm;olawGenf;wmr[kwfbl;/ tJ'Dvdkuyf}uD;awG wcg/ wcgjzpf+yDq&kd if rE aW v;rSmvlawG axmife@J csD aowm” qd+k yD;pajymygw,f? “tJ'w D ek ;f u vl}uD;awGajymwmuawmh 'k@d qrD mS t&ifu 'Dvakd &m*gawG/ uyfawGr&Sb d ;l / t*Fvyd af wGvmrS ay: vmwm/ 'Duv kd ekd o D rm;awGu ArmawG +rKd@ awGjyawGrSm pnfpnfum;um;/ pkpk±Hk;±Hk;r&Sdapcsifwm&,f/ olwdk@udkwGef;vSefvdk pdwaf wG ray:ayguaf pzd@k &,fw@kd twGuf wrif a&m*gy;kd awG,v l m+yD; jzef@=uwmwJ?h [kwrf [kwaf wmh twnfðy&cufom;? 'gayrJh udv k ekd t D *Fvyd q f w kd muvnf; 'grsKd ; rvkyb f ;l vd@k b,forl S tmr rcHEikd b f ;l av? 'Dvakd &m*grsm;jzpfywJq h &kd if td;k ypf tdryf pf awmrSmoGm;ae=u&wm? +rKd@awGuajcmufuyfomG ;wm? aemuf+yD; a&m*gjzpfwhJ tdrf awGa±S@rmS vnf; 'Dtrd rf mS ausmufa&m*gjzpfaew,f/ ykvyd af &m*gjzpfaew,fqw kd mrsKd ; qdik ;f bkw}f uD;awGqx JG m;wm? vlawGuvnf; nus&if rD;yHak wGz@JG / oHy;kH awGw;D +yD; o&Jr&Jajcmuf=u/ vSe@f =ueJ@ayg?h xdwv f ef@p&mtajctae}uD;ayg?h ” “vlawGrmS vnf; use;f rma&;/ oef@&iS ;f a&;todawGu enf;yg;ao;w,f av? t&yfxu J kd ausmufx;kd q&m vmw,fq&kd if tdrw f cH g;ydw+f yD; wdr;f =u/ a&Smif =uwm? tarwd@k taz/ rif;tbk;d wd@k usawmh ausmufx;kd q&mudk rke@f z;kd yJz;kd ay;+yD; jyefvw $ v f u kd w f m? vlawG&@J todxrJ mS u tJ'u D muG,af q;awGx;kd &if zsm;w,f/ emw,fq+kd yD; aq;udt k ,Ht k =unf r±S=d ubl;av? ausmufx;kd q&mqdw k muvnf; vcrsm;rsm;&wJv h rl sKd ;rS r[kww f m? rke@f z;kd ajcmufr;l wyJ&&if auseyf+y;D jyefomG ; wmyJ? olw@kd om wdwu d susvyk &f if aq;xd;k rcHou l kd Oya't&udk ta&;,lEikd w f ,f? 'gayrJh 'grsKd ;avmufe@J vnf; Armcsi;f tcsi;f ryGm;csib f ;l qdw k hJ pdwrf sKd ;vnf; vlawG&@J pw d f xJrmS &So d eJ@ wlyg&@J ?” ausmufa&m*gqdkwm aEGrSjzpfwwfwmyg? usaemfwdk@armifESrxJrSmudkyJ tpfreJ@ErS [m ausmufaygucf yhJ gao;w,f? 'Dae&mrSm ausmufqw kd m ausmuf}uD; vdk@ajym=uwJh[mudk ajymwmyg? usaemfuawmh ausmufuav; (ausmufjzL) ayguw f m ausmuf}uD;enf;enf;ygv@kd whJ rsuEf mS rSm tcGuu f av;/ wck&adS eygw,f? wESprf mS awmh usaemht f ar&J@ nDrESpaf ,muf ausmufayguyf gava&mwJ?h tar@atmufu quf&ufESpfa,mufqdk xifyg&J@? usaemfenf;enf;arhoGm;+yD? rdef;uav;ESpfa,muf? wa,mufu&D&DwJh? aemufwa,mufu =unf=unfwJh? tarh pum;eJ@ajym&&if “t}u;D uav;&D&u D enf;enf;ndKw,f/ ausmufaygucf sed rf mS

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ig;ESpaf vmuf±+dS yD? ti,fav; =unf=unfuawmh tom;vnf;odyjf zLw,f/ pum; vnf;odyw f wfw,f/ oH;k ESpaf vmuf±+dS yD”ayg?h “olw@kd av;ESpaf ,mufu w+yKdief ufwnf;jzpf=uwmqdak wmh tm;vH;k yJjym oGm;wmayg?h Armaq;q&myif/h Armuk- uk=uwmayg?h bm&rSmvJ? tJ'aD cwfu ArmjynfrmS &Sad ewJh aq;twwfynmeJ@ 'Dvu kd yfa&m*grsKd ;udk ukv@kd aysmufw,f qdw k m w&mrSmrS&v dS S wa,muf/ ESpaf ,mufayg?h 'ge@J t}uD;rav; &D&u D awmh pjzpfuwnf;u pum;udk rajymEdik af wmhb;l / rsu&f nfjynf@aewJh rsuv f ;kH uav; uv,fuv,fe@J om tay:udpk u kd =f unhaf eawmhwmyJ? oH;k -av;&uf? cufwmu =unf =unf? olu ol@tpfravmufrqd;k bl;? pum;ajymEdik af o;w,f? 'Dawmhou l ‘taza&/ ylvdkufwm/ usrudk a&wdkufygOD;// ac|;okwfay;ygOD;’pojzifh wwGwf wGwfajymaewm? =um;&ufp&mr&Sdbl;? ol@wudk,fvHk;rSmvnf; ausmufzkawGeJ@/ rsufESmay:rSma&maygh? oluac: -ac:aeawmh ol@tem;udkoGm;=u&/ =unhf=u&/ awG@&/ =um;&jyefawmhvnf; pdwrf csr;f om/ olue*du k wnf;urS wtdrv f ;kH &J@ t onf;pGaJ v? tazqdw k m/ rif;vnf;odw,fr[kwv f m;? rif;wd@k tbd;k [m tifr wef pdwcf ikd w f m/ om;a&;orD;a&;avmufe@J enf;enf;rSpw d v f y_ &f mS ;wwfwhJ vlrsKd ; r[kwb f ;l ? tckawmh tazawmifrS =unf=unfav; toHurkd =um;&ufveG ;f vd@k uG,&f mrSm oGm;-oGm;rsu&f nfus&mS w,f?” olajymwJEh pS af ,muf[m usaemft h a': a':wifwife@J usaemfOh ;D av; OD; armifav;t=um;uv@kd usaemfrw S rf ad e ygw,f? “tJ'g &D&aD v;u t&ifq;kH &Smw,f? 'gayrJh tm;vH;k pdw&f o dS avmufridEk ikd =f u ao;bl;? aowGi;f E_wcf rf;rSm ar;wifaewJh aemuftrd o f m;wa,muf &Sad o;w,f r[kwv f m;? tJ'gav;udk 0dik ;f jyKpk=ujyefwmayg?h jyKpkw,fqw kd mvnf; bmrSx;l xl; jcm;jcm; r[kwyf gb;l / a&0wfav;eJ@yw G af y;/ ac|;okwaf y;wmavmufyg? wjcm;bmrS vkyEf ikd w f mr&Syd gb;l ? r=umygb;l ? aemuf ESp&f ufavmufaeawmh =unf=unfav; vnf; ol@tpfraemuf vdu k o f mG ;wmygy?J ” taru pum;pudjk zwf+y;D tjyifukd pdu k af i;aeygw,f? 'Dvakd EG&moD&@J vGecf hJ wJu h mvwcku ae@&ufrsm;udk jyefjrifa,mifaewmjzpfrmS yg? usaemfu bmrS rajym bJ tar bmqufajymrvJvdk@yJ apmihfem;axmifaerdygw,f? pum;jywfrcHcsif awmhygbl;? “tJ'v D kd olw@kd EpS af ,muf qH;k oGm;+y;D wJah emuf tar-rif;tbGm;-u ol@u av;awGukd nrSm awmufwrkd ,f&cdik ;f &if wd@k uwa,mufe@J wa,muf wHawmif csi;f wd@k +yD; eifomG ;/ igomG ;vky=f uwmayg?h ta=umif;u tdro f m;ESpaf ,mufawmif

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qufwu kd q f ;kH oGm;wmqdak wmh uav;yDyD wap>a=umuf=uwmud;k ? rif;wd@k tbGm;u ol@uav;awGukd cdik ;f wefwm&S&d if cdik ;f w,f/ rvkyw f wfb;l / roGm;&Jb;l qdw k mrsKd ;udk róudub f ;l ? touft±G,v f u kd v f @kd vky&f u J ikd &f /J vkyw f wfuikd w f wfrS }uKduw f ,f? ‘'DrmS yJjrpfawGjyKwx f m;w,f/ oGm;prf;[J/h rD;zdx k rJ mS qDe@J qm; oGm;,lacs?’ 'grrS [kwf vnf; ‘aemufaz;rSm axG;cHomG ;oGeaf cs’qdw k mrsKd ; t+rJcikd ;f wwfw,f? tarwd@k u cgwikd ;f awmh tJ'grsKd ;awGukd rqdik ;f rwGvyk yf gw,f/ 'gayrJh vlEpS af ,muf aoxm; awmh a=umufw,fv@kd jzpfae=uwmayg?h aemufawmh 'gukd rift h bGm;uodomG ;+yD; idw k ,f? ‘trav;/ igo h rD;av; ESpaf ,muf/ 'gavmufjzLpif=u,fwm/ b,fty,f/ b,fo&l b J 0rS ra&mufygb;l awmf? olw@kd ukd ewfaumif;ewfjrwfawGu ewfjynfu ae qD;awmif}uKd=urSmyg’ qd+k yD;yg;pyfu wwGww f w G af jym+yD;id&k mS w,f?” “tbGm; tJ'v D kd pdwx f cd u kd w f mawG@awmh tarwd@k uvnf; tbGm;udo k yd f oem;oGm;+yD; ud, k v f nf; 0rf;enf;vmw,f? 'daemufrmS tarwd@k rmS wap>a=umuf w,fqw kd m r&Sad wmhb;l ?”

zk;d oH (vlx)k

'Duv kd ekd o D rm;awGu ArmawG _rKhd awG_yawGrSm pnfpnfum;um; pkp&k ;kH &H;k r&Sad pcsiw f m&<f olwhu kd kd wGe;f vSev f kd pdwaf wG ray: ayguf apzdh&k <fwht kd wGuf wrif a&m8g ydk;awG<lvm_yD;_zefhjuwmwJh? [kwfr[kwfawmh twnf_yK &cufom;? 269


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ENGLISH SECTION

tar vlxka':trm uG,fvGefjcif;twGuf ay;ykd@=uaom t*Fvdyfbmom a&;om;csufrsm;ESifh *k%fjyKpmuAsmrsm;

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80th birthday, 1995 The Sails Are Up Again! Prince Taw Phaya Galae 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

The scene - panorama of typical Burmese life We all enjoyed the long riverine ride From our boat in full sail Pagodas, monasteries and palaces having their tale. While the peasants and laborers toiled with sweat The fishermen with bare chest cast their net. The weather was sunny and fine The ripples sang with rhythm and rhyme; Ah! How wonderful to be free Feeling the gentle fresh cool breeze. Suddenly the white and blue sky Partly became red. Why? Oh! Why? A hurricane bashed the palace Like it was done by the imperialists. Our sails were almost ripped And our boat was slowly stripped . Behold! The rising sun There was joy and fun But soon it became raging hot Destroying our precious paddy plot by plot. Look! The sky is red, white and blue We thought was indeed a beautiful view Nay! The whole sky turned blood red What will our boat face ahead? Our great helmsman took hold of the wheel Poised to challenge the second stormy waves of the sea On came the ruthless wave Alas! Our great helmsman although brave Was washed overboard ; honored as our liberator Trying to steer our boat out of disaster. We on the boat began to utter Who should become the master While the boat was drifting Toward the west the wind was blowing Might is right then took place Rocking, drinking, gambling, and swashbuckling became their taste No one cared where our boat was being carried along There was a jolt; something was surely wrong Heck! Coco Island! This is not our destination Let’s get out! That was our determination. ‘ Thardu, thardu, thardu ’ said the elderly man

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42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

With rosary in a helping hand All the crew gave a deep sigh Thinking to be saved from all crime Praying and prayers everywhere Bells ringing and thardu in the air; Everything seems serene and peaceful Blessed be the elderly man for we were grateful Wait! Who are those grumbling? They are those who kept following But, but...they are at daggers drawn Split into three groups with nasty scorn. The storm had gathered again Our boat must not be set aflame We must move forward into the calm sea Where all our crew could rest without agony. The dark clouds grew more and more And the raving winds came blow after blow Torrents of rain filled our boat Many crew hanging on had to float The boat was surrounded by sharks Ready to attack us, surely dangerous We gritted our teeth determined to fend off all Remember!United we stand, divided we fall! Hey! There are ships sailing our way Flags flying. Black flags on display Two crossed bones and a bony head Pirates! White men! Don’t be afraid! We stood up to show our unity This is just their gun-boat activity In other words it’s a ‘Paper Tiger’ Remember what happened in China, Vietnam and Korea. With our united strength We can move the earth! Come rain or storm We must remain united and warm There’s a Burmese saying; Hlaing gyi hlay out1 Which is true without amy doubt, We must make it clear for reality Our real strength lies in our own country! DEAR RESPECTED SAYARMAGYI LUDU DAW AMAR On your 80th birthday, we wish you to hear Our slogan still remains THE SAILS ARE UP AGAIN!

Prince Taw Phaya Galae

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Ode to Ludu Daw Ahmar (On Her Passing away at 8 AM, 7.4.2008)

Dr Maung Maung Nyo Ludu Daw Ahmar is dead The news spread like wild fire I’m very sad to hear It’s a great nightmare. Daw Ahmar was “Our Mother” She has led Burma In journalism and literature By writing truths, tenets and tampers To let people adhere to Burmese culture Burmese are really grateful to her. She has been the editor of “Ludu” A progressive periodical of people From whose it took its name To represent the mass maimed It thus claimed fame and authority It led struggle for peace and democracy. I once went to see “Ahmay (Mother)” To get permission to use her essay On leprosy and public health ways In BMF* magazine of Mandalay She willingly helped, I must say It was in 1959 hey days. She wrote a book on Burmese art world Dancers, musicians, jokers and jugglers It won a national literary award thereafter It set a standard for late comers So were her translations of English literature “Trials in Burma”, “Sanda Marlar” etc. “I appreciate them”, Maurice Collis muttered. She also wrote on Burmese culture “Ahmay Shay Sagar”, “Mandalay Thu/Thars” She also featured in Burmese magazines People held them in high esteem

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She wins the admiration of the nation She was indeed the “Literary Queen”! If I have to draw her caricature It may thus appear “She was a university boycotter A avant-garde literary hawker A progressive journalist and author A dedicated wife and a devoted mother Grandma of Burmese literature She was the “Guardian of Burmese Culture”.

She died at 93 years of age At * A.M.on 7th April 2008 People gave her accolades She really had been great. It was Burma she dedicated It was patriotism she demonstrated It was Burma’s causes she never hesitated Let’s prostrate and contemplate Our love, sorrow and dedication To this “Great Lady of Our Nation” By wishing her a heartfelt valediction “ Farewell, Mother, Good Bye” in salutation. Note: BMF = Branch Medical Faculty, The Forerunner of Institute of Medicine Mandalay

Dr Maung Maung Nyo 11.04.2008

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Dear PTJ, I was just preparing to send you a message of sympathy and concern. You have been in my thoughts a lot since the sad news reached us of your mother’s death on April 7th.You knew this time would come, yet I am sure you didn’t want it to come. The reason that I have not written to you sooner is because I have been very busy writing and preparing an obituary for Daw Amar to be published in our leading leftwing newspaper, The Guardian. Today at last, it was finished and supplied with a good photograph to accompany the obituary. As soon as the news reached us, Vicky asked me if I would write an obituary, saying that she was too busy at the moment. What happened is interesting. I phoned the paper and said I wanted to write about this outstanding Burmese writer who had just died. The editor said ‘OK, send me something’. I wrote only a short account which I sent him, but I said that it really should be much longer and with more detail. His first reply was that the paper only had room for very short obituaries, but that he would edit my piece and see what I thought. To my surprise, he then sent me back a piece twice as long as my original, including many details of your mother’s life which I had not included. It seems that from knowing almost nothing about Burma, the editor had become so interested in Burma and the story of your Mum that he had gone onto the w.w.web and found lots more information about her, which he had written into my obituary. So the final version is only half mine, and half from somewhere else (perhaps from MinZin in ‘Irrawaddy’). But the beginning and end are from me, so it is a very personal piece. The editor also became curious to know more about me and how long I had known your family (from back in Jan. 1977) and many other questions. I actually heard the news first from Su Su Mar, who rang me early on theMonday morning. She was very sad. We talked for quite a long time and I tried to comfort her. She has given me an email address so that I can now try to write to you sister, Daw Than Yin Mar. She has been through a long, long period of anxiety

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and stress, nursing your mother both at home and in hospital. I hope the strain has not left her too exhausted. I know Su Su wishes that she could be at home to help her mother. I treasure the many books that I have as presents from your Mum, signed in her own hand. And many letters too written by her. Have you beenable to receive letters from her at all? Try not to be too sad. Your mother had a remarkable life and has left amost valuable legacy to her fellow countrymen and women. khin-min-lyet KKChaw

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Obituary Ludu Daw Amar As a leading dissident writer she fought for democracy in Burma

Article history

In recent years, in the days leading up to November 29, writers, journalists, and artists from all over Burma have gone to Mandalay, the country’s cultural heartland, for a gathering in a monastery compound. There they celebrated the birthday of a writer, publisher, and activist, Ludu Daw Amar, who has died aged 92. Since those days in the mid-1930s when she joined a student strike at Rangoon University, opposing British colonial rule, Daw Amar never ceased to write, or to fight. For many, attendance in the compound was a way of demonstrating opposition to Burma’s military regime. Unhappily, it also provided an opportunity for military intelligence to note dissident names and faces. From 1962, when General Ne Win led the coup that has subjected Burma to almost half a century of military dictatorship, Daw Amar provided opposition. She and her family paid a heavy price. Daw Amar was the fourth among 12 siblings of an upper-class family whose fortune was made in the tobacco trade. Educated at Mandalay’s American baptist school and the national high school she read science at Mandalay Intermediate College and Rangoon University. There, in 1936, came her role in the student strike. She also began to get published. In 1938 she translated the British civil servant Maurice Collis’s critical assessment, Trials in Burma. In 1939 she married the journalist U Hla, who in 1933 had established the leftist Ludu Kyi-bwa-yay (Progress) magazine in Rangoon. Together they set up the Kyi-bwa-yay press in Mandalay. In 1942 British rule collapsed, Burma fell to the Japanese and the couple moved north of Mandalay while continuing publication of Ludu Kyi-bwa-yay. She translated Hino Ashihei’s bellicose Japanese bestseller Wheat and Soldiers, but also became involved in the resistance movement. By the spring of 1945 the Japanese were being driven from Burma, and that summer U Hla launched the Ludu (People) Journal with Daw Amar as assistant editor; a daily, Ludu Thadin-sa, followed in 1946. “Ludu” was incorporated in the couple’s names as the country moved towards independence from Britain in 1948.

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But soon after independence, the army, hostile to the couple’s radicalism, reduced their press to rubble. Their family narrowly escaped with their lives. In 1953, Daw Amar attended a Soviet-backed peace congress in Copenhagen and a youth conference in Romania. Meanwhile her husband, convicted of involvement in student protests inspired by the Communist party of Burma (CPB), was sentenced to three years for sedition. Daw Amar, with five young children to raise, continued to publish Ludu Thadin-sa until U Hla’s release in 1957, but two years later the government shut the paper down for 14 months. In 1967, five years after the coup, the regime closed Ludu Thadin-sa. Daw Amar switched from writing about politics to culture and history, focusing on prewar Burmese singers and actors. With military rule, many students, including her two eldest sons, had become student activists. The eldest, Soe Win, headed for the mountain jungle. There, in 1968, he was murdered in a CPB internal purge as the party was hit by the backwash from China’s cultural revolution. Her second son, Than Joung, was also a student activist who was detained from 1966 to 1972, and on the point of being rearrested in 1978, fled to join the CPB and later went into exile in Yunnan - a leading CPB member, he would never see his mother again. In the wake of that escape, military intelligence detained U Hla, Daw Amar and their youngest son for 13 months. They were released in 1979. The publishing house subsisted on jobbing printing, while Daw Amar wrote for Burma’s privately owned monthlies, while refusing to write for state publications. An astute businesswoman, she published her many articles in book form. In 1982, U Hla died. Daw Amar continued to run the publishing house, but in 1984, during the dry season, fire consumed central Mandalay, destroying the printing equipment, the book production department and paper store of the Kyi-bwa-yay press. Happily, her home, private library and newspaper archive survived. Five years later her 38-year-old youngest son was sentenced to 10 years. He was imprisoned in Thayet, a two-day journey for Daw Amar, his wife and their three children. Meanwhile, as part of its drive to “beautify” towns for tourists, in the 1990s the regime began relocating cemeteries far outside Mandalay. So in 1998 Daw Amar set up Byamazo lu-hmuyay Athin, a mutual aid association to help those who, amid the collapsing Burmese economy, were too poor to bury their dead. Now the charity often covers hospital medical costs, provides minibuses and carries out free funerals. Initially Mandalay’s military boss resented and hindered its operations. Later came tolerance the operation clearly fulfilled a desperate need - and other towns copied the scheme. In 2003 Daw Amar had a small building erected just behind the Kyi-bwa-yay press. Her lifetime’s book collection was put there; this is to be the first public library open for all to use in Mandalay in the last half century. Into her 90s Daw Amar contributed monthly articles to journals and magazines and published at least one small book annually.

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It was in the mid-1970s that I first met Daw Amar. My first impression became a lasting one: intelligent, thoughtful, kind she went on to become both the voice of traditional Burma, calling for adherence to Buddhist values, and a symbol of opposition to the regime, leading the struggle for a more democratic, more humane society and for the possibility to write freely and truthfully. We met in the 1980s and 90s, and our last encounter was in January 2005. It is a source of profound regret that I was prevented by the Burmese authorities from attending her 90th birthday. But I remember her last words to me three years ago, “We simply wish,” she said, “to be treated like human beings.” She is survived by two sons, two daughters and six grandchildren. ·Ludu Daw Amar, writer and activist, born November 29 1915; died April 7 2008

The Guardian,

Saturday April 12 2008

Article history

There are some mistakes in the above short biography . However , with all our due respect , we didn’t make any correction.

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My Mum Dear Ko Min Zin, Here are the answers to your questions. If there is anything you would like to know more or make clear, please don’t hesitate. To tell you the truth, I am not very much at ease to praise my own mother. There’s a Burmese proverb that my mother often quotes: “ The neighbourhood will acknowledge if your daughter is really beautiful.” So, I don’t think that it is the task of the children to write about their parents. Anyway, here they are. 1. How would you describe your mother as a mother not as a journalist or social critic? She’s a good mother just like any other typical Burmese, Buddhist mothers. She loves Burmese food and can make good dishes. She loves planting flowers and likes to visit markets, especially those in the countryside. She enjoys seeing Disney cartoons, comedies, as well as Hollywood films that my uncle (her younger brother) recommended. Once she went to see the horror film “Dracula” on my (elder) brother’s insistence and admitted that she was very frightened when she came back. I mean to say that she’s just a human being. As my parents were always occupied with their editorial work and social welfare works, they had very little time to spend with their children or attend to their daily life and needs. We were left in the hands of an aunt, a distance relative of my mom. She always emphasised cherishing the traditional values of our nation and moral integrity when she educated us. Knowing that we were starting to get involved in politics, she once told me, “No matter what, as a student, one should try to excel in study also. Just look at Ko Aung San and Ko Ba Hein. They are known not only for their political merits, they are known for their performance in their studies also. “This is the way she used to tell us. She rarely said “must” or mustn’t.” Rather, she pointed out exemplary figures. There are three brothers in our family and no one of us drink or smoke. This is not because they told us not to do, but rather because through their own deeds they made us realise that these things are not good. She rarely beat us too. As far as I can remember, she once beat us when my elder brother, my elder sister and I went for begging during one Dazaungdaing Thieves’ Festival. I think I was about ten at the time. My brother went with his friends and my sister and I went with the children from our neighbourhood. As we were young, we couldn’t go very far, we only went to some of our relatives and neighbours. Evidently, the news reached her ears immediately and she beat us when we arrived home.

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She never told her children to read Marxist books (nor oppose doing). Instead, she recommended us to read various kinds of books that she thought worth reading. Edger Snow’s books, Autobiography of Charlie Chaplin, The Silent Spring (an early book about environment question) and Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire were some among them. As for the Burmese books, there were too many to mention. The list includes classical literature, Thakin Kodawhmaing’s works and Khitsan Literature. She also mentioned books like Thakhin Ba Hein’s “The Capitalist World” and Tin Moe’s “The Lantern” as very good and we should read. 2. Would you recall the most unforgettable moment you spending with your Mom? It’s difficult to say at this age, because (I think) I have become less and less sentimental or emotional, than when I was young. However, I should say, listening to what she told us about our forefathers or their old days was the most enjoyable and unforgettable moments. That kind of moment was not very common. As I have said above, my parents were always busy. I think I had more chances than other children at that time, because when I was sacked from the Mandalay University for taking part in student activities, my parents arranged me some deskwork among the newspaper staff and during the hot Mandalay afternoons, when she had time, she used to recall these and told me. I must also say that I neither regretted nor blame my parents for spending less time with us. On the contrary, I believe that, even when I was young, I know they were working for the good of others and their devoted working style became my model, as I grow old. 3. Nearly all of her siblings have been involved in Burmese politics as committed dissidents/revolutionaries. Have your parents (particulary your Mom in this context) had any disapproval against your involvement? How did they express their worry for you siblings since you all have paid a lot for what you believe? Have you ever heard any complaint from your Mom regarding to your elder brother’s (U Soe Win’s) death? My parents never say ‘no’ to what we do with our beliefs. They only told us to be careful when they learned something about the government agents’ knowledge or plans. They never said that you should believe in communism, rather, they sometimes told us how the leaders of the communist party and other patriotic personages at the time had made enormous contributions and sacrifices for the nation. Incidentally, as my father was arrested again and again by the government and the publication of our newspaper was disrupted often, seeds of hatred for the government took root in my mind since I was very young. My parents, both devoted Buddhists, never compelled me to be as devoted as they are. We were sent to Roman Catholic Schools, but my parents made us convinced that we should not become Christians, and they did, not by saying directly, but very tactfully. They have respect for our beliefs and our ability to decide for ourselves. It’s not their style to interfere in our political convictions. Perhaps this is because they think what are we doing is right. Of course, they instructed us about moral and manners when we were young. No doubt, they are very worried about us taking part in very dangerous and risky activities. But they rarely express these feelings on their face or in their words.

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I found their faces very calm and serene when the military intelligence came and arrest me on two occasions (I managed to escape at the second time) and they made me brave and less worried during the consequent events. Once, when I went to play football at Myaung, a town fifty miles southwest of Mandalay on the Irrawaddy River, we came back very late. Perhaps it was one o’ clock after midnight. When the car carrying stopped in front of my home, I found both of them standing in front of our house, worried! They had rosary beads in their hands. When I got home after release from gaol, they told me the following episode: just about a month before my release. U Ne Win, who was on summer vacation in Maymyo, asked my parents to see him. He told them, “ As a father myself, I can understand your feelings about your son in prison. But they told me he was very stubborn also. Nevertheless, please go and see Brig, Gen Tin Oo (The M.I.S. chief) in Rangoon and he will arrange for his release.” Thus, I was released from the Insein Gaol. My mother added, “We often met with people like U Ne Win and other leaders of the government. However, we never uttered a word asking them to release you. Of course, we want you to come out as soon as possible but we know we shouldn’t do that at the expense of your dignity.”That made me very proud of them. As for my brother’s case, both of them said nothing to me. Once, after my release from gaol, I got a letter from a CPB leader for my mom. In that letter he explained the case of my brother and apologised to my parents. I handed it to my mom and saw tears falling from her eyes after reading it. She said, “I and your father had never said anything between us about this matter. We just pretended not to have heard anything.” After that I didn’t try to talk about that matter till now. 4. Recently, we have heard that Sayamagyi was sick and hospitalized? Since you haven’t seen your Mom for a long time, how such news worry you? Certainly, I’m very worried, worried than anything. My inability to be present at the bedside of my dad when he was about to leave this world has been haunting me all along. One of my greatest wishes as an ordinary man is to have a chance to pay respects (kadaw) to my dad’s tomb. 5. Daw Ahmar has been highly respected by Burmese people. Many people even compare her with Thakin Kodaw Hmaing. Even though she is getting old, she still write prolifically with well-intention (cetana). How would you see your Mom not as your mother but as a woman from the angle of your social value and political belief. I’m not interested in comparing her with Thakhin Kodaw Hmaing. To me it’s just a kind of storm in a teacup that would lead nowhere. My Mom always express her deep respect for Sayagyi Thakhin Kodaw Hmaing for many merits and I’m sure she won’t like comparing her to the person she respects so much. She never attack or react against anyone for personal grudges. Both my parents tried to be balanced when they judge other people. My mother has very remarkable courage that she inherited from her mother. She never sulks, grumbles or murmurs when she has to encounter all kinds of difficulties and threats. She used to express dislike for traitors and cowards. Her, as well as her husband’s, attitude towards young people is made up not only of cetena, but also of recognition of their capability and potential. They used to be very humble when talking with young people. Even with me, they never treated me

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patronizingly. For instance, when she was writing her prize-winning book about famous people from music and drama circles, “ Artists who are Loved by Masses”, she ask me one day, “ My son, I know nothing about music and to handle a character like Myoma Nyein is simply beyond my capacity. Can you tell me some facts that may throw light upon the talents of this genius?” In fact, though I was about eighteen at the time, I was also a philistine in this field. She often said, “ My son, I am not good at choosing names for books. Would you mind choosing one for me?” The titles of some of her books were chosen by me. She believes in the might of our people. She believes in their future and that one should work one for, and if needed, make sacrifices for this cause. She has reached this height because she has been standing firm with the people of our nation through thick and thin. She never bargains her principles for anything.

Po Than Joung

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9 lu du daw ah mar kyai sin myar yet mi khin  
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