GREENRAILSCAPE ENERGIZING SUSTAINABLE CITY LIFE
Group 1, MSc02 URB, June 2015, AAU
This project concerns the introduction of a new mode of transport through the heart of Aalborg - a light rail system is proposed implemented in the city network, and this mode of transport challenges the way in which we understand and perceive mobilities. Our proposal is an answer to the question of how the city can be molded through the addition of a green railscape, energizing sustainable city life by creating a green corridor that regenerates and strengthens urban habitats. The report contains a design manual, including the theoretical framework of sustainable mobilities and ecological approaches, as well as design guidelines for the proposed light rail stretch, connecting Aalborg from east to west. The strategic principles from the manual are exemplified through a sitespecific pilot project for the light rail interchange at Vestby Station. II
I love my new habitat.
TITLE SHEET PROJECT TITLE
Green Railscape Energizing Sustainable City Life PROJECT COURSE
Designing Urban Mobility PROJECT GROUP
MSc02 URB, Aalborg University Group 1, Spring 2015 PROJECT PERIOD
April - June 2015, 9 weeks PAGES
82 (95) SUPERVISOR
Anne Schlosser Dehn
Professor Ole B. Jensen Department of Architecture, Design & Media Technology Aalborg University TECHNICAL SUPERVISOR
Lector Niels Agerholm Department of Civil Engineering Aalborg University
Cosmin Stefan Pislariu
Boris Brorman Jensen Architect, MAA, Ph.D.
Nellie Veller Hansen
Oana-Maria Paraschiv IV
wen ym evol I .tatibah
wen ym evol I .tatibah
This project has been structured in two parts: 1. The Design Manual 2. The Pilot Project The design manual functions as a strategic practical mediator as well as guideline for designing sustainable ecomobility. It is a catalogue of how to design a light rail with the greatest potential of creating vigorous infrastructure and thereby healthier urban spaces. The pilot project of Vestby Station is an attempt to visualize how the design manual and its guidelines can be utilized in a contextual environment. It is an exemplification, customized to the site-specific location in Vestbyen, emphasizing the need for infrastructure combined with green corridors in the dense cityscape. When reading the pilot project you will meet the bubble to the right telling you, where you can find the principles used for the site-specific design in the manual, e.g. when reading about how the vegetation is implemented along Kastetvej, the bubble will tell you that the principles used are taken from the page about â€œRailscape biotopesâ€? at page 37. Enjoy while you watch the green railscape grow into existence... V
Design Manual Railscape biotopes p. 37
TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 02 03 05 07
Preface Light rail in Aalborg Methodology Green mobilities thinking
PART 1 - DESIGN MANUAL
02 17 19 21
03 25 27 28 29 31
04 35 37 39
Vision & statement Design principles Railscape & zoning
PART 2 - PILOT PROJECT 43 Design presentation
05 47 49 51
06 55 57 59 61 62 63
Site concept Programming diversity Vehicles PRESENTATION
Stitching green & grey Integrated site design Atmospheric details Kastetsvejâ€™s wet meadow Vestby Station Station design
Traffic calming Designing for flow Light rail without wires Wayfinding Station principles
ECOLOGY & SURFACE
Biodiversity in the city Railscape biotopes Surface strategy
07 66 67 71 71
08 73 75 77 78
09 A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5
Identity of Vestbyen Mappings Microclimate Analysis conclusion EVALUATION
Conclusion Reflection Illustration list Literature list APPENDIX
Shadow & sun Cars & noise Parking & programming Design process Design process
Introduction PAGE 01-12
PREFACE During the last decades, Aalborg rapidly changed its identity, economy, and cultural production from heavy industry to a city that now has a higher priority in research based capital and knowledge. The network city is entangled in the urban context of Northern Jutland with connections on a regional scale accessible by train towards the north and the south, and infrastructural arteries for motorized automobiles infiltrate the suburbs and the city core. The need for fast and reliable corridors of transport and communication infrastructure is of great importance in future urban development in Aalborg, which should be able to accommodate an expanding demographic composition. Along with other initiatives, the Municipality is in the process of making light rail mobilities as a catalyst for city improvement, and the LRT system is expected to be implemented by 2021 (Aalborg Kommune, et al, 2013). Thus, attention has to be given to both the overall strategy of a cohesively designed transport system as well as envisioning mobilities in the actual site-specific urban environments. This project seeks to provide a masterplan for the light rail stop at Vestby Station. In close proximity of the city center, Vestbyen is a diverse district with visible characters, but the existing rail tracks function as a barrier and separates green and grey structures within the city. The proposal involves solutions to creating sustainable, ecological urban development in Vestbyen, and Aalborg in general, by bringing natural habitats back into the urban fabric combined with integrated mobility flow systems.
LIGHT RAIL IN AALBORG LIGHT RAIL IN AALBORG
Today the light rail is a desired public transport solution by some and contested by others. Cases from Europe prove that a light rail brings more to a city than easy and fast transportation (Olesen, 2014). However, a light rail is an expensive investment. Some people argue that investing in other projects make the money go further.
Aalborg is a city that accommodates functions that serve both inhabitants as well as visitors, and it creates the framework for life lived on the move between dwelling, work, education, culture, recreation, and leisure. Studies show that high-class public transport solutions lead to urban growth in the corridors that they serve (Aalborg Kommune et al, 2013: 17), which indicates future urban and commercial growth in Aalborg when the light rail is introduced. Although, the dilemma of implementation of an LRT system in Aalborg relies upon two facts:
In Denmark, politicians and planners have agreed on introducing the light rail in Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense and Aalborg only years apart from each other (ill. 1.1). It seems like the light rail has become a trend that is here to stay. All the provincial cities are developing their public transport, although Copenhagen is an exception, to accommodate a growing number of citizens and to create sustainable infrastructure for the future. The government supports sustainable infrastructure by establishing a faster and environmentally friendly railway through Denmark that will create easy access to the main cities and support the sustainable growth (aalborgletbane.dk). Aalborg is developing a lot in these years with extension of the university, Gigantium, a new university hospital, the House of Music, thousands of student apartments and transformation of industrial areas. The light rail is going to be a part of this development and affords short travel time between the main points in the city. Furthermore, it has the potential to energize the light rail corridor with new development, housing and more life because of increased density. The light rail in Aalborg is to be completed in 2021, creating sustainable infrastructure, city development and short travel time to benefit the growth and inhabitants of the city (aalborgletbane.dk). FACTS:
Distance: Stops: Duration: Passengers: 03
12 km 24 35 min. app. 5 mil a year
1) Studies show that cities of the size of Aalborg are on the low end of what will make an investment like this pay off. 2)The prognosis for the number of people taking public transport towards 2025 is increasing according to population growth and demographics, and the LRT system provides a solution to the required capacity of the entire network (Aalborg Kommune et al, 2013: 15). Taking all aspects of the light rail into consideration, it is necessary to design for all user groups in the city. The light rail and its stations should accommodate easy access for workers commuting to their offices, students travelling to and from their institutions, the elderly, tourists, disabled people e.g. the visually impaired, and people travelling with larger objects such as carriages or bikes.
Ill. 1.1. Denmarkâ€™s major cities. Specifying the location of the light rail site in Aalborg. Introduction
METHODOLOGY The methods and techniques applied in this report are outlined to give a more in depth view of what processes helped shape the idea of a transport corridor - a green railscape. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING
Problem based learning is a method used to clarify and focus the approach to analysis, conceptualization and design of a given task â€“ in our case applied to a site. This implies establishing a set of initial guidelines, of which the most important is formulating a problem. In turn, the problem statement evolves, after careful considerations, into a vision for the ongoing process and development, by integrating theoretical and practical aspects, thus managing to synergize the approach. This method is not a continuous process, but a constant looping, adjusting and tweaking the different variables to be able to obtain a well-rounded, dynamic and comprehensive narrative (AAU.DK, 2010). INTEGRATED DESIGN PROCESS
The integrated design process establishes the need for an interconnected and multilayered approach to a project, incorporating everything from mapping and analysis tools, to engineering, technical and aesthetic design techniques (Knudstrup, 2005; 13-29). In our case, this meant taking the task through several iteration phases: The phase of analysis, conceptualization, design, and presentation. Thus, after grounding a set of principles for the project, the design phase approached two integrated parts: the holistic strategy, represented by the design manual, and the site-specific, zoomed in, represented through the pilot project of Vestby Station. The integrated design provided an interplay between technical mobilities design, ecological benefits, and sustainable urban development strategies that are rooted in five different approaches, which establish the foundation of our gained knowledge; mobility, urban design, ecology, technology, and theory. 05
Participation in a field trip to Gothenburg, Sweden, (Mar 10-13, 2015) provided information about a Swedish light rail system. The case study introduced methods of collecting relevant data in urban environments and involved quantitative registrations as well as qualitative observations. Interviews, countings and mapping created the basis for a small report, â€œLight Rail Systems - Study Trip to Gothenburgâ€?. This case study was a kickstarter for the project, Designing Urban Mobilities, and the methods used for site-analysis have been reapplied at Vestbyen Station.
Ill. 1.2. Integrated design combining and stitching different approaches. Introduction
GREEN MOBILITIES THINKING THEORIES OF THE NETWORK CITY
The point of departure for the theories of the network city is grounded in the need to comprehend and work with technical factors and their social context and how they affect and shape contemporary network cities. The network city theories present a theoretical toolset from a range of different interconnected fields. The theories act as a well known basis for the mobilities thinking that relates to infrastructure inside the network city, and the following theoretical examination explores different modes of transportation combined with green mobilities thinking. SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Cities of today and their ecosystems are challenged. Extensive growth in population affects the demands to the size and physical layout of our environments, natural resources are scarce, and public health is threatened to some extent. Climate change is another “hot topic” in the social debate, which is being attempted to remedy through political initiatives, legislation, and regulations, e.g. diminishing dependence on oil and green house gas emissions in order to limit climate change below 2 °C. (The European Commission).
stainable urban development and the necessities of preventing climate change is how to plan and develop communities and public spaces that will meet long term human and environmental needs? (Wheeler and Beatley, 2004). What are the changes we need in order to transform our cities into liveable and experiential habitats? GREEN CITIES
The notion of sustainability originates from the classic definition in the Bundtland Report from 1987: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainability can be interpreted as an umbrella term that covers multiple branches, and when discussing sustainable urban planning, “the green city” has emerged from the theoretical knowledge of landscape urbanism and ecological urbanism.
“Cities and towns worldwide are facing similar problems of climate change, excessive motor vehicle use, suburban sprawl, pollution, profligate use of natural resources, rising inequities, and loss of indigenous landscapes and ecosystems.” Wheeler and Beatley state that the challenges are rooted in different categories ranging from social sciences to natural scientific systems and processes and should be addressed in the field of urban planning, where considerations about urban development and future cities are core subjects. The question to be answered in relation to su07
(Wheeler and Beatley, 2004: 2)
Green city ideas and organizations originated in the late 1980’s with the aim to create sustainable environments. Their carrying capacity, thresholds, biodiversity, health, user-friendliness, equity, and governance are elements that define sustainable environments. Green city ideas in detail relate to urban planting, smart transportation, sustainable planning, renewable energy, neighbourhood
character and empowerment, recycling and reuse, celebrating life-place vitality, urban wild habitat, and socially responsible small businesses and cooperatives (Green City Project, 2015). All of these aspects work together in an interconnected relationship and especially smart transportation and mobilities design has emerged as an approach towards healthier urban infrastructure. ECO-MOBILITY
Mobility is a fundamental trait of our everyday lives, and transportation is necessary within and between societies. Boundaries have been dissolved and not only national but also international and global movement are to be accommodated. But the sustainability of transport is compromised due to pollution and emission that motor vehicles produce. The carbon footprint of traveling is evident and real, and new alternatives and technologies are means of decreasing this downside effect. EcoMobility is an approach within mobilities that addresses both green city ideas and creating environmentally sustainable mobility that prioritizes soft road users in public spaces by optimizing the performance of urban transportation. EcoMobility, according to ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability), is defined as following:
“Travel through integrated, socially inclusive, and environmentally friendly transport options, including integrating walking, cycling, wheeling, and passenging. By enabling citizens and organizations to access goods, services, and information in a sustainable manner, EcoMobility supports citizens’ quality of life, increases travel choices, and promotes social cohesion.”
Non-motorized means of transport includes walking, cycling and wheeling (bicycles, wheelchairs, scooters, skates, hand carts, trolleys, trailers etc. (electrical drive)). And use of public transport refers to passenging, which includes buses, trams, light rail, subways, trains, ferries, collective taxis and taxis (if low-emission). ORIGIN
The term EcoMobility, or Ecological Mobility, derives from the German word “Umweltverbund” (environmental alliance), first used by the Secretary General of the ICLEI, an international association of local and metropolitan governments dedicated to sustainable development, and for the Global Alliance of EcoMobility, Konrad Otto-Zimmermann. Umweltverbund was coined in the 1980’s where he was affiliated with a project concerning minimizing car-usage in cities and promoting walkability, bikeability and use of public transport. ICLEI promotes EcoMobility amongst users, businesses, policy makers and experts. The Eco-Mobile city is focused on infrastructure and optimization of the network, securing easy access for citizens to freely move around in the urban web with well-functioning flow systems.
“It minimizes the need to travel, promotes an optimal mode choice and realizes proper infrastructure and services for all modes, uses the potential of active and collective modes and reduces dependency on fossil fuels.” (Ecomobility-shift.org, 2015) The EcoMobility shift is a set of glasses that envisions energy-efficient transport and supports SloCat (Sustainable Low Carbon Transport). Both politicians and manufacturers see potentials in this approach. Through a re-thinking of our transportation systems, cities gain a new ecological image, as well as new markets and products will emerge in relation to new technologies of electric drive vehicles (EV’s).
concerns the creation of new public spaces and limitation of car-use. And finally the liveability and future-oriented city discourse includes technology and alternatives to motorized vehicles. EcoMobility as an approach is an underlying aspect of all of the above-mentioned discourses and affords both integrated ecological urban development together with optimized mobilities design.
The Ecomobility parameters or indicators are: 1) Enablers 2) Transport system and services 3) Results and impacts (EcoMobility-shift.org)
“Today, streets are disinterested movements not at all belonging to the houses that front them. So, you have no streets. You have roads, but you have no streets.” (Kahn, 1973)
Low speed/car free zones, information provision systems, parking, walking and cycling are elements that need to be provided for citizens moving in public spaces. The usability of public transport as socially inclusive is relevant too, providing a service that also includes people with disabilities. In general, the discourses of creating mobilities and public service systems are extensive. Ph.D. Mette Olesen, from Aalborg Light Rail Secretary, lists up the important ones when considering public transport and light rail mobilities: The environmental discourse focuses on the green city, branding of the city while introducing the LRT, which leads to an urban competitiveness discourse of the light rail as an actor in the green city image. The urban development discourse relates to LRT as the backbone of the transport system and the development alongside. The accessibility discourse 09
Although fairly old, this quote by architect Louis Kahn still holds up today. Streets have always been our most fundamental space (MacKenzie, 2013), but they have also always been the subject of contest between motorized and non motorized traffic. Traffic calming comes as a theoretical tool, but also as a system of design and management strategies which has the main goal of rebalancing and preserving the initial characteristics of streets – meeting places for people. Traffic calming, as a theoretical tool, also has other fundamental objectives that it touches on. But most interesting are the effects and benefits of introducing such systems. Redevelopment and implementation of urban regeneration strategies benefit from the existence of traffic calming implementations, as they assist in reducing the dependence on car usage by drawing back in urban activities in areas of the city where automobile usage
was inherently less prominent (Newman, 1999). And besides its ability to improve a streetscape, traffic calming solutions can also be implemented inexpensively and relatively flexibly.
places. McHarg is concerned with the life in human scale just as Jane Jacobs who published Death and Life of Great American Cities in 1961. Jacob’s approach to city planning was everything else than modernistic. She believed that:
Organisms can be studied at many different levels. Ecology concerns the level of populations, communities, and ecosystems, to the biosphere as a whole; which is the primary subject of ecological inquiries (Sciencedaily.com).
“The science of city planning and the art of city design, in real life for real cities, must become the science and art of catalysing and nourishing these close-grained working relationships” (Jacobs, 1961; 38).
Ecology is defined as: “A branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environments” (Merriam-webster.com).
Catalysts are a part of strategic planning today as a way of improving city life.
ECOLOGY AND URBAN PLANNING
The science of ecology helps us understand our environment and by measuring animal abundance it gives us an idea of how healthy our surroundings are in which we live. However, ecology is strongly connected to the perspective of nature and how we understand and perceive nature. Advocates of ecology in urban planning have spoken for better, healthier and more sustainable cities in different ways but with a common goal since the 1960’s – to create beneficial urban habitats for humans, animals and nature. One of the first strong advocates for designing with nature is Ian McHarg, who states that:
“Man is that uniquely conscious creature who can perceive and express. He must become the steward of the biosphere. To do this he must design with nature.” (McHarg, 1969; 5)
He speaks for humane cities and dream of city and countryside being equally two excellences of living
Cities need to be cultivated to afford great city life. Nature has a positive impact on life quality and should be a part of this cultivation. Furthermore, nature forges bonds between the city and the air, earth, water, and living organisms within and around it. The perspective on nature as everything surrounding us is Spirn’s main focus point, and her goal is to throw light on the beneficial aspects of planning cities with nature, both in the big and small scale.
“Nature in the city must be cultivated and integrated with the varied pursuits and purposes of human beings; but first it must be recognized, and its power to shape human enterprises appreciated.” (Spirn, 1984; 64) ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
The benefits we receive from nature are ecosystem services - these are resource services such as food, water, and energy, and other important services are purification of water, carbon sequestration and climate regulation, waste decomposition, crop pollination, pest and disease control. Furthermore, Introduction
“In the end we will conserve only what we love. We will love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught.” (Baba Dioum Senegalese forestry engineer, IUCN, 1968)
there is nutrient and seed dispersal and recreational experiences (Steiner, 2011). All these ecosystem services are a part of our life and will only be beneficial to us if the interrelationship between organisms and their environment is understood and designed for. Although, ecosystem services should be easy accessible and used by a greater set of city-inhabitants in order to be a good place for daily nature encounters, noise reduction, and absorption of pollutants in water and air (Andersson et al, 2014; 447). HEALTH
The physical environment has an impact on public health and increased attention is focusing on the sustainability and viability of our surroundings today. Research has proven that people in the settings of their everyday life create health, which means that human well-being, joy and happiness are important to human health (Bentley, 2013; 531). The same research supports Spirn’s ideas of humans as a part of the ecosystem by stating: “Rather than grafting an ecological public health onto existing structures, the challenge for the twenty-first century is crafting an ecological public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it and not central to it.” (Bentley, 2013; 529) DESIGNING FOR BIODIVERSITY
Simple concepts regarding designing and planning for better, greener and biodiverse cities should be taken into account: 11
PATCHES Urban landscape mosaics of small land use patches should become structures of ecologically important form going through the landscape of the city as green infrastructure. The connectedness is a key concern both for the ecological networks and the adjoining areas (Andersson et al, 2014; 446). By having small patches of vegetation this may suffice to maintain bird diversity in dense built areas. If the patches are evenly distributed in the landscape of the city the average distance to good habitats in the larger landscape will be reduced and create a better biodiversity. Land uses such as private and public gardens, cemeteries, old brown fields, and golf courses may contribute significantly to ecosystem services provided by the urban landscape (Andersson et al, 2014). FAUNA Avian diversity is promoted by local variables, such as the presence of native tree cover, berry shrubs, ponds, and fresh water sources. This also increases the likelihood of attracting sensitive species. Domestic gardens provide a rich fauna of insects and plants and contribute to support bird populations in larger natural lands, such as parks. In addition to this, gardens support a high number of invertebrates, which create forage for insectivore birds. TREES Small clumps of mature trees scattered throughout a residential area boost biodiversity in gardens and commons, and improve air quality and sequester carbon.
RECONNECTING CITIES TO THE BIOSPHERE
How do we ensure ecosystem services and sustainable generation for human well-being in future cities? The answer according to Swedish research is that urbanization needs to be redirected into a driver of positive change for humanity and the life supporting systems that we depend upon. The Swedish research group believes in stewardship as a local approach to change the mindset of people into ecological thoughts. To engage in stewardship of ecosystems in urban landscapes it is important to be motivated by sense of place, memory and meaning.
â€œOver time, this close interaction between human actors, the social context in which they are embedded and the landscape may lead to biodiversity rich systems maintained as much by human stewardship, the protection of land by the state, civil society, and socioeconomic factors as by ecological processes.â€? (Andersson et al, 2014; 446) CONNECTED THEORY
Although these concepts of eco-mobilities (ecology and mobility) have been around for quite some time, not that many cities have implemented these types of combined solutions, or if they have, it has been only in punctual form and not part of a widespread strategy. For this project we intend to show how implementing traffic calming systems and ecomobility through a wider stretch of the city, together with principles from the ecology thinking, can help increase the quality of life for city residents in Aalborg.
DESIGN MANUAL PART 1 This part concerns the railscape strategy. First the vision and concept is defined followed by specific designs concerning traffic calming, flow, wayfinding, light rail system, and station principles. The green approach is defined by how biodiversity works in cities and which biotopes provide good habitats for all living organisms in the railscape.
STRATEGIC APPROACH PAGE 15-22
STRATEGIC APPROACH Statement & vision Design principles Railscape and zoning
STATEMENT Introducing a new mode of PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION in Aalborg offers a great deal of potential in relation to SUSTAINABLE CITY development, and an implementation of a light rail has the benefit of questioning status quo.
Therefore, how can the light rail become a STREAM OF ENERGY throughout the city of Aalborg, energizing the surroundings, thus URBAN LIFE, by bringing new EXPERIENCES ALONG THE WAY in a SUSTAINABLE AND ECOLOGICALLY conscious manner?
VISION The vision is to create a light rail transportation system that becomes MORE THAN an efficient trip from A to B. By offering a variety of EXPERIENCES IN MOTION, the mode of transportation works as a CATALYST to create an urban, healthy, ecologically sustainable, and experientially RICH ENVIRONMENT along the railscape. The focus of this project is to transform Kastetvej into an important, vibrant, and GREEN CONNECTION leading to the new interchange of Vestby Station by STITCHING the urban fabric with green elements along the RAILSCAPE.
SUSTAINABLE CITY Strategic approach
Utilizing traffic calming strategies has the effect of generating more sustainable cities in relation to infrastructure, mobility, and the general public transportation scheme. The overall idea is to â€œslow auto traffic and create more urban and humane environments better suited to other transportation modesâ€? (Kenworthy and Newman, 1999: 161). Traffic calming has a major impact on the urban environment and how human behaviour is shaped, together with how the city is perceived, and the beneficial side of traffic calming is: increased safety, noise reductions, decreasing air pollution from automobile emissions, positive economic implications, and none the least an enhancement of the cityâ€™s walkability, bikeability, and street activity.
Ecology, in the sense of creating sustainable mobilities, concerns movement of matter and energy through a community within an ecosystem. The design strategy for a general public transportation system in the urban landscape can therefore be positively affected by thinking of the way different organisms interact with one another. SUSTAINABLE CITY
EcoMobility is a term that evolves around integrated and environmentally friendly transport options that supports more walking, cycling, and passenging in the cities.
The planning philosophy in coalition with the ecological mobility approach offer huge potentials in terms of generating more sustainable, and better environments for future generations. A consideration of the environmental impact, with which infrastructural systems have, is necessary for understanding the implications that every human action has on the planet. The footprint of human action in itself is inevitable, but it can be diminished through environmentally conscious development. Subjects such as green city, social city, health, transportation, wastewater treatment, food supplies, energy resources, access to education, and the built environment are to be addressed in order to sustain healthy cities.
Ecological mobility suggests an approach to mobility that focuses on the importance of public and non-motorized transport, which encourages an in-
The abovementioned strategies can be applied to the making of the LRT system in Aalborg, supporting future sustainable planning within the city.
Traffic calming is a toolset that allows for designers to prioritize different modes of transport, whether this is on an overall strategic level or according to the site-specific urban location where the planning philosophy can be implemented. ECOLOGICAL APPROACH
tegrated use of all modes within a city.
Ill. 2.4. Design principles for this projects approach. Strategic approach
RAILSCAPE AND ZONING
ZONES ALONG THE RAILSCAPE
The light rail project in Aalborg imposes a new vein of transportation throughout the city, and within thirty minutes the light rail will journey from Norden in Vestbyen to the University Hospital in Aalborg East.
The spaces along the light rail have been divided into four zones, according to different spatiality, speed and character of the area. The zones will help implementing principles from the manual in a site-specific design.
The light rail acts as the energizing and connecting link between people and places in the urban network giving life back to the streets at local nodes, which raises the need for a cohesive design proposal dealing with experiences generated in relation to interchanges and alongside the railscape â€“ from strategy to the actual design of nodes.
The urban development zone has the potential of thinking the light rail into planning with high priority, creating shared spaces, while developing and planning future city life in these areas. Furthermore, this zone is intended to be densified as part of the Municipality Densification Strategy (Olesen, 2014; 106).
DENSITY AND SPEED
The public service zone attracts a lot of visitors daily, which means that accessibility is important. Public service includes public institutions, hospitals and education.
The diagram shows the speed of the light rail through the city. The speed varies and is divided into three categories: 50 km/h is the speed limit. The light rail only moves with this speed when it runs in a separate track. 35 km/h through traffic lights and dense areas. 20 km/h in areas with mixed traffic, dense built environment, or pedestrian areas.
The dense urban zone is characterized by being a dense urban environment in the city of Aalborg with less space on the streets and pedestrian flow. This zone is dense, but it has potential for new development that will line up with the Municipality Densification Strategy (Olesen, 2014; 106). The low rise zone is a suburb area with more space and a quiet atmosphere. Here the light rail will be running in a separate track.
VESTBY ST. BORGERGADE ØSTERÅ
DENSITY & SPEED 50 km/h
ADMINISTRATIONSBYGNINGEN POLITIGÅRDEN KAROLINELUND JOHN F. KENNEDYS PLADS
35 km/h 20 km/h
GRØNLANDSTORV SCORESBYSUNDVEJ PENDLERPLADSSEN
FREDERIKS GIGANTIUM BAJERS VEJ
SELMA LAGERLØFS VEJ
VESTERKÆRET HARALDSLUND VESTBY ST.
ZONES ALONG THE RAILSCAPE Urban development zone Public service zone Dense urban zone Low rise zone
ADMINISTRATIONSBYGNINGEN POLITIGÅRDEN KAROLINELUND JOHN F. KENNEDYS PLADS BORNHOLMSGADE
GRØNLANDSTORV SCORESBYSUNDVEJ PENDLERPLADSSEN FREDERIKS GIGANTIUM BAJERS VEJ
SELMA LAGERLØFS VEJ SERVICEBYEN UNIVERSITETET
Ill. 2.5 and 2.6 Strategic approach
RAILSCAPE PAGE 23-22
RAILSCAPE Traffic calming Designing for flow Light rail without wires Wayfinding Station principles
TRAFFIC CALMING By using traffic calming methods in zones where cars are still prioritized, a wish is to drag people more into the streets with urban activities to rethink the prioritizing. This principle is based on the idea that a street is not solely for cars, but should be aimed towards giving a sense of place for people to walk, stroll, look, gaze, play and shop without feeling dominated by car presence.
â€œCities have much more intricate economic and social concerns than automobile traffic.â€? (Jacobs, 1961; 35)
Below, ill. 3.1 shows suggestions for traffic calming principles which force car drivers to slow down with both physical and visual elements. By this implementation it is aimed to give a sense of place for people to use the space differently because of the created shared space, without feeling dominated by car presence, but having the light rail as the main catalyst.
Humps Ill. 3.1. Different traffic calming principles.
TWO WAY DUAL LANE STREET
Ill. 3.2. Traffic, and car-oriented street, devoid of pedestrian spaces.
By removing two lanes in the middle for the light rail and giving more focus to the pedestrians, the space breathes much more easily and is more attractive. This principle are going to be implemented in the zones of urban development, public service and low rise.
TWO WAY SINGLE LANE STREET WITH PARKING ON EACH SIDE
Ill. 3.3. Car-oriented development is taking up most of the street space, creating an unattractive environment.
By removing the cars completely and introducing a light rail and parklets, the space becomes much more dynamic and attractive for pedestrians. This principle is going to dominate the dense urban zone and parts of the public service zone.
DESIGNING FOR FLOW Designing for flow is a way of creating experientially rich places by considering the motion, the mobile actors’ behaviour and how they interact (negotiate-in-motion or cooperate-in-motion). Regarding the mobility, flows are defined through three aspects: flow variables, situations and patterns. With other words, designing for flows is a process of taking into consideration these three parameters for changing the urban areas destined for movement into safe, experientially and transitory areas.
Flow patterns are the different types of mobile actors influencing flow situations through their movement. The mobile patterns are defined also, as the link between the variables that are provoking the motion and the environment, by affording different flow situations. The mobile actors’ patterns are influenced by the following parameters: speed, direction, and flow fluidity. FLOW SITUATIONS
Flow variables are defined as mobile entities - mobile actors - that through their mobile behaviours - flow patterns - are temporary changing the mobile environment by creating different flow situations. As key entities for mobile situations, the actual circumstances are important because of the difference in the way of acting in motion.
Flow situations are places where the hustle and bustle of the cities are taking shape through the mobile actors’ behaviours and also being provoked by their interaction. The flow situations are important urban frames that are fundamentally connected with the context and in the same time ways of defining city life.
MOBILE ENVIRONMENT FLOW VARIABLES
Ill. 3.4. Mobile environment. THREE DIFFERENT FLOW SITUATIONS
Ill. 3.5. Traditional intersection.
Ill. 3.6. Separated lanes, pedestrian flow
Ill. 3.7. Shared space, exempt cars.
LIGHT RAIL WITHOUT WIRES Ground level switched contact system comes as ECONOMY & IMPLEMENTATION an alternative solution for the now-norm Overhead In regards to the implementation of such systems, Contact System (OCS), which is unpopular with the the costs are virtually the same, suppliers estimapublic, especially when talking about new impleting a value within 5% of traditional OCS systems. mentations. However, due to technical and techDue to the modular nature of the components, the GROUND LEVEL SWITCHED ONTACTbecome SYSTEMS a nological improvements, the OCSCcould system can easily be installed in already existing These systems come as alternative solutions for the now-norm Overhead Contact System (OCS), which is unpopular with thing of thethepast (Swanson, 2004; 731). situations, or easily accessed and quickly changed public, especially when talking about new implementations. However, due to technical and technological impovements, the OCS becomefairly a thingstraightforward. of the past. The systemcould works The powin case of a default. In case of more humid or wet er supply for theThelight inside acenvironments, it has been tested that there is less way inrail whichistheplaced system works if fairlythe straightforward. The power supply for the light-rail is placed inside the actual light-rail itselfitself picking up power through a special collector shoe system. Due to safety issues, the special contact rail tual tracks,tracks, thethelight rail picking up power than 5 volts leakage outside of the running rails needed for connecting with the collector shoe is placed only in certain section. So, when system detects the light-rail is above it, through athrough special collector shoe system. Due oftocontact (Swanson, a detection loop, it then energizes the segement rail. In case of electrically dead zones, there is an on-board 2004; 743). power supply battery that is automatically transitioned to. Also, in case the signal is not stopped once the light-rail has passed the safety issues, the special contact rail needed for Bordeaux in France has by far changed parts of their contact rail segment, there are special monitoring systems that close the connection remotely. (Swanson, 2004) connecting with the collector shoe is placed only in light rail system to wireless. All practical knowledge In regards to the implementation of such systems, the costs are virtually the same, suppliers estimating a value withing 5% GWhen ROUND Lthe EVEL SWITCHED CONTACT SYSTEMS a certain section. system detects the light onOverhead how the the wireless system derives from this case, of traditional OCS systems. Also, due to the modular nature ofnow-norm the components, system can(OCS), easily be instaled in already These systems come as alternative solutions for the Contact System which is unpopular with existing easily accessed andtalking quickly changed in case of a fault. In case ofto more humid ortechnological wetthe environments, ithas hasthe been theor public, when about newwill implementations. However, due technical and impovements, OCStested rail above situations, it, through aespecially detection loop, it then which means that system not been tested could become the past.outside of the running rails that there is less thana5thing voltsofleakage energize the segment of contact rail. In case of in a cold, winter climate. Due to this fact, municiThe way in which the system works if fairly straightforward. The power supply for the light-rail is placed inside the actual electrically deadtracks, zones, there is an onboard po- collector palities inDue Denmark dothenot wish the light-rail itself picking up power through a special shoe system. to safety issues, special contactto rail take the risk and needed for connecting with the collector shoe is placed only in certain section. So, when system detects the light-rail is above it, wer supply battery that is automatically transitry out this new system, even though the manufacthrough a detection loop, it then energizes the segement of contact rail. In case of electrically dead zones, there is an on-board supply battery that is automatically transitioned to. Also, in case the signal is not stopped once the light-rail has passed the tioned to. Also, power in case the signal is not stopped ture is promising a well-functioning system. contact rail segment, there are special monitoring systems that close the connection remotely. (Swanson, 2004) once the light rail has passed the contact rail segIn regards to the implementation of such systems, the costs are virtually the same, suppliers estimating a value withing 5% ment, there areofspecial monitoring systems thatof the components, the system can easily be instaled in already existing traditional OCS systems. Also, due to the modular nature situations, or easily accessed and quickly changed in case of a fault. In case of more humid or wet environments, it has been tested close the connection that thereremotely. is less than 5 volts leakage outside of the running rails The individual segments of contact rail are only energized when the vehicle is detected over the rail section.
The contact rail is isolated and earthed unless vehicle is detected.
The individual segments of contact rail are only energized when the vehicle is detected over the rail section.
The contact rail is isolated and earthed unless vehicle is detected.
Vehicle collector shoe
Contact Insulated ModuleRail
Detection Loop Vehicle collector shoe
Connection between power supply and contact rail segment.
Connection between power supply and contact rail segment.
750 Volt Supply
A coded signal emitted by the vehicle collector shoe induces a signal in the detection loop which signals the presence of the vehicle and energizes A coded signal emitted by the segment of contact the vehicle collector shoe rail. a signal in the induces detection loop which
750 Volt Ill. 3.8. Diagram showing how the light rail system works without wires. signals the presence of Supply the vehicle and energizes the segment of contact rail.
chines, and transportaen will give
Creating identity Using landmarks to provide orientation Creating well-structured paths Creating differing visual character for different areas Avoiding giving too many choices Providing signs at decision points Using sight lines to show whatâ€™s ahead (Foltz, 2015)
To be able to direct people changing transportation mode or visiting attractions, 6 informations stands in different colours show activities in the area. On the stands the distance to various attractions will be written to invite people to explore further (ill. 3.11). By using the same colours throughout the light rail system it will create a familiarity, which will eventually make the use of the information stands more manageable, though it will relate to the specific location. The information stand includes time tables and ticket machines, and must therefore clearly inform people changing mode of transportation where to go. If the users have more time, a touch screen will give people more information if wished.
stem it will of the inforthe specific
e or visiting activities in e written to
A few significant way finding principles should be considered and/or implemented in every mobility design case:
Wayfinding or navigation is a fundamental human activity that leads you from place to place, and starting points and destinations are the static aspects of the dynamic mobility that takes place in between. Perception of space and information in the built environment is important for one to navigate to the right destination, and this process of finding information should be as smooth and easy accessed as possible. Information placed in strategic points can help guide people on their journey. But wayfinding is not the same as way-signing. Helping people to navigate through urban space also concerns the specific tactility of the urban surface (Tactile Ground Surface Indicators (TGI)), and how to create intuitively defined flow lines. Designing for visually impaired and blind travelers is another layer that needs to be added to the strategies of wayfinding. Tactile maps and magnifying information screens should be provided.
Ill. 3.9. Colored information stands designed for the light rail stations to make it easy to navigate. Chapter 3
REGIONS/AREAS OF DIFFERING VISUAL CHARACTER
IDENTITY SPECIAL CHARACTER CULTURALLY EMBEDDED CODING
PROVIDE SIGNS AT DECISION POINTS
VISIBLE STRUCTURES MEMORABLE PLACES ORIENTATION POINTS
PATHS CREATE WELLSTRUCTURED PATHS
SIGHT LINES USE OF SIGHT LINES TO SHOW WHATâ€™S AHEAD
Ill. 3.10. Wayfinding principles for designing spaces easy to navigate in. Railscape
STATION PRINCIPLES SHELTER
The principle of creating a â€œshelterâ€? is the main aspect to be integrated in the design of a station. It should be developed as a safe, covered but transparent environment to help protect users from elements like wind, rain, snow etc. LANDMARK
Stations usually become landmarks just due to their nature, but the intent for the railscape stations is to create indicators of interchange. By incorporating special forms and elements inspired by contextual and natural elements, they will support both sociofugal and sociopetal patterns. GUIDANCE
Being able to guide people either to nearby or far away destinations is a key element to any station. This fact is incorporated by adding visual guidance systems and also directing the flows to specific elements in each of the sites through the positioning of the stations; physical elements. MODULAR SYSTEM
To be able to create a cohesive thread that binds the stations along the path, a modular system should be implemented that offers ease of placement and flexibility regarding the site-specific characteristics of each station. SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS
To be able to create a unitary design strategy regarding the stations while also incorporating the outlined design principles, sustainable materials should be used in the design of each station. The area they are placed in dictates what type of material should be used as to create this coherent intervention.
rated in the overed but rated the wind,inrain, overed but wind, rain,
nature, the functional nature, the contextual functional bodiments contextual bodiments
nations is a al guidance nations is a of the sites al guidance of the sites
g the path, ement and g the path, n. ement and n.
tions while materials tions while placed in, materials create this placed in, create this
MODULAR SYSTEM MODULAR SYSTEM
SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS Ill. 3.11. Station principles: shelter, landmark, guidance, modular systems, and sustainable materials. Railscape
ECOLOGY & SURFACE PAGE 33-40
ECOLOGY & SURFACE Biodiversity in the city Railscape biotopes Surface strategy
BIODIVERSITY IN THE CITY As the theory states, creating good ecosystem circumstances and thinking of cities as part of the ecosystem is important for the biodiversity and the general health in cities (Andersson, Colding, 2014; 221). When transforming or creating cities connected to the biosphere, there are certain concrete things to have in mind when designing the urban landscape, in this case for the light rail corridor through Aalborg.
NON-PLACES These spaces are characterized by being green and contain ‘wild’ vegetation, which is not planned by humans. This makes non-places of green more or less accidental and provide an undisturbed habitat for species and insects that will attract bird life. CEMETERIES This kind of urban pattern is present in every town and city and provide some of the same advantages as gardens (Andersson, Colding, 2014; 224).
Patterns of green in the urban landscape should be placed in proximity to each other creating connectedness and green infrastructure. “Small patches may suffice to maintain bird diversity in more developed areas. Evenly distributed, small patches could reduce the average distance to quality habitat in the larger landscape.” (Andersson, Colding, 2014; 225) When planning with these principles seeds will disperse easily and animals can travel over distances like they do in the wild. Advantages of collecting runoff water to avoid floods are achieved as well as trees and plants purifying and cooling the air.
ATTRACTIVE HABITATS FOR ANIMAL LIFE
Local variables are important for presence of avian diversity and are likely to attract a wealth of species e.g rich fauna of insects creates forage for insectivore birds (Andersson, Colding, 2014; 225). TREE COVER Trees are one of the important elements that secure connectedness between landscape patterns. By providing treetops in proximity to each other the birds and animal life will easily travel from one treetop to the other, which will boost the biodiversity by connecting landscape patterns. Birds and bees are of importance when spreading seeds and the mass of microspores of flowering plants. Trees improve air quality and sequester carbon.
URBAN LANDSCAPE TYPOLOGIES
In the urban landscape green patterns are ordinary fields such as gardens, cemeteries, and non-places where vegetation is maintained or growing wild. The advantages of the patterns are biodiversity, but each typology has its own characteristics. GARDENS Gardens can be private, public, community gardens, and allotment gardens. They all support biodiversity and provide a rich fauna of insects and plants and e.g. pest control and seed dispersal as well as provide critical habitats and food sources for animal and humans. Bigger gardens, such as community gardens, generate ecosystem services like pollination that spill over into the wider landscape. 35
BERRY SHRUBS Shrubs and trees carrying berries provide food for birds during the year, which will make an area more attractive to avian diversity. PONDS & FRESH WATER Water is an essential part of life for all living organisms and should be present in the urban landscape. Illustration 4.1 explains how to create and boost biodiversity.
cape pattern s Lands
Urban landsca pe
typ o log ie
for animal life itats b a eh tiv c tra
Ill. 4.1. Creating biodiversity in the urban landscape. Ecology & surface
RAILSCAPE BIOTOPES WET MEADOW
The biotope is dominated by flowering herbs and grass vegetation with a few trees that tolerate moist soil conditions. The plants prefer nutrient-poor and constantly water-saturated soil and they absorb and evaporate great amounts of water, which make them suitable for adaptation to climate change. The biotope’s white and yellow flowers attract colourful butterflies, bees and buzzing flies. The bird cherry draws birds to the trees (Hansen, Hoffmann and Nissen, 2015). The wet meadow boosts the biodiversity and the presence of insects and birds.
Ill. 4.2. The biotope belongs to the zones of urban development, public service and dense urban, because of its advantages of absorbing water.
This biotope is characterized by nutrient-poor, drought resistance and acid soil. The moistness of the soil varies a lot. The vegetation is dominated by herbs, grass and stunted bushes that blooms in red, yellow, purple, blue and white colours throughout the year. The heather becomes a nectar bomb at the end of summer and attracts a lot of bees. The moorland’s rich and colourful plants draw insects and birds and the bushes carry eatable berries. This biotope is boosting the biodiversity (Hansen, Hoffmann and Nissen, 2015).
Ill. 4.3. The biotope belongs to the zones of the public service and dense urban area. This will create a colourful low vegetation.
The biotope needs light and heat to the low growing vegetation of grass and herbs. The soil is usually nutrient-poor and goes from dry to wet soil. The vegetation contains many eatable plants such as culinary herbs and strawberries and the flowers range from purple and blue to yellow and white. The trees carry berries for both human and birds. The grassland attracts a lot of butterflies, bees, buzzing flies, and insects (Hansen, Hoffmann and Nissen, 2015). The biodiversity is boosted by the grassland’s wealth of species and pollinating insects.
Ill. 4.4. The grassland belongs to the zones of urban development, dense urban and low rise. The biotope adds colour and tolerates changing soil conditions.
8 9 10 11 12 13
WET MEADOW 1.Big trefoil, 20-50 cm 2. Common loosestrife 50-80 cm 3. Common spiraea, 50-100 cm 4. Meadow avens, 20-40 cm 5. Narrow-leaved plantain, 10-40 cm 6. Yellow everlasting pea, 25-100 cm 7. Beach arrow grass , 60 cm 8. Light rush, 30-80 cm 9. Marsh arrow grass, 40 cm 10. Mat grass, 10-25 cm 11. Quaking grass, 20-45 cm 12. Red fescue, 25-60 cm 13. Wood reed, 150 cm 14. Bird cherry, 5-20 m 15. Common alder, 5-25 m 16. European aspen, 5-30 m 17. Willow, 1-14 m
MOORLAND 1. Cat’s ear, 20-40 cm 2. Cat’s foot, 5-20 cm 3. Common speedwell, 10-25 cm 4. Common yarrow, 15-50 cm 5. Grass-leaved stitchwort, 10-20 cm 6. Harebell, 15-40 cm 7. Mountain tobacco, 30-40 cm 8. Mouse-ear hawkweed, 5-20 cm 9. Spike speedwell, 10-50 cm 10. Sheep sorrel, 15-30 cm 11. Sheepsbit scabious, 10-35 12. Yellow bedstraw, 10-60 cm 13. Yellow everlasting flower, 30 cm 14. Field woodrush, 5-20 cm 15. Hairy woodrush, 10-25 cm 16. Sheep fescue, 10-30 cm 17. Wavy hair grass, 30-70 cm 18. Blueberry, 15-45 cm 19. Cowberry, 5-25 cm 20. Crowberry, 5-10 cm 21. Heather, 10-60 cm 22. Moorland bearberry, 5-80 cm 23. Narrow-leaved thyme, 5-20 24. Raspberry, 50-200 cm 25. Alder buckthorn, 1-6 m 26. Mountain ash, 3-15 m 27. European aspen, 5-30 m
12 13 14 15
GRASSLAND 1. Biting stonecrop, 5-15 cm 2. Bloody cranes bill, 15-45 cm 3. Carline thistle 25-50 cm 4. Catchfly, 15-45 cm 5. Dropwort, 30-60 cm 6. Field scabious, 30-70 cm 7. Greater knapweed, 30-100 cm 8. Hawkbit, 10-30 cm 9. Kidney vetch, 10-30 cm 10. Maiden pink, 10-20 cm 11. Marjoram, 20-60 cm 12. Oxeye daisy, 20-70 cm 13. Self-heal, 5-25 cm 14. Silvery-leaved cinquefoil, 15-30 cm 15. Wild strawberry, 5-20 cm 16. Browntop, 10-50 cm 17. Sweet vernal grass, 15-45 cm 18. Cherry plum, 2-8 m 19. Hawthorn, 1-8 m
Ill. 4.5 (Hansen, Hoffmann and Nissen, 2015 & Danmarksflora.dk, 2015 & Jørgensen and Hansen, 2010) Ecology & surface
SURFACE STRATEGY Introducing a light rail in the city will create a transformation of the urban fabric. Through changing the physical settings different atmospheres are created according to the use of the spaces along the light rail, depending on different modes of transport.
Places where the social character and city life interfere with the planned environment, and by stitching green and grey, nature is slowly introduced. The idea of stitching is dissolving the rough and cold urban pavement, into a soft vitalizing pattern of vegetation.
Zones programmed for motion, where the pavement affordances are orientated to direct and guide the flow. Prioritizing different means of transportation (bike and light rail) will offer smooth flow patterns by avoiding unnecessary negotiations in motion between different modes of mobilities.
Zones in proximity of residential buildings, are transformed in an egological performative way in order to create scenic breaks in the urban flow. Strengthening the level of detail in regards to permeable textures and vegetation will also help manage storm water infiltration. Neighbourliness should be encouraged through community involment. 39
Ill. 4.21 Ecology & surface
DESIGN MANUAL DIRECTIONS
The theories and principles illustrated in the design manual are guidelines for a future cohesive design for the light rail system in Aalborg. By creating a green railscape that infiltrates and regenerates the network, the city will not only benefit from new biodiverse habitats, but also from healthier urban
spaces with focus on efficient public transportation as well as experiential city life and flow. The principles should be regarded as guidelines and be integrated in relation to the explicit zone. The principles should be modified to fit the site-specific context.
PILOT PROJECT PART 2 This part shows an example of how the principles from the design manual can be implemented in a specific site - in this case the site is located at Sct. Mariæ Church on Kastetvej and 550 m up the street to Café Ulla Terkelsen and Fakta, Aalborg. The stretch is an important part of Aalborg’s infrastructure to and from the city center for many modes of transportation. Vestby Station is located in the middle, affording an important connection to the railway system, whereas the shops and grocery stores in Vestbyen constitute a little growing city center servicing the densely populated area.
Ill. P2.1. Masterplan of Kastetvej and Vestby Station. (To scale in drawing folder) 43
Ill. P2.2. Section C-C through Kastetvej showing urban gardening, life on Kastetvej and a multi purpose field. (To scale in drawing folder)
Ill. P2.3. Section B-B. Vestby Station area with station structure, stairs connecting the two levels and new buildings and parking. (To scale in drawing folder)
Ill. P2.4. Section A-A. Hospice garden to the left and front garden for hospice. Public, bicycle ramps and seating outside the parking house. (To scale in drawing folder) Pilot Project
SITE CONCEPT PAGE 45-52
SITE CONCEPT Site concept Programming diversity Vehicles
Going from the overall strategy of the light rail establishment in Aalborg towards the focus area, the attempt was to develop a coherent conceptual story from the existing motorized atmosphere, deep-seated in the current settlement, towards an environmentally friendly ambience. Zooming in, the site concept contains a transitory attempt regarding the priorities in motion through a socially responsible process. Taking out cars From a strategic point of view, the site concept is structured in development stages, which are following the same narrative thread of creating environmentally healthy, sustainable and experiential urban spaces through changing the current car orientated attitude. This approach of changing the motorized atmosphere is an attempt to change the priority hierarchy in the mobile system, by taking out and redirecting cars from Kastetvej. Introducing the light rail The process of diminishing the carsâ€™ priority in order to raise the importance of the light rail is taking place by introducing it on Kastetvej. This attitude is guided by the idea of raising the quality of life through introducing sustainable means of transportation and, at the same time, prioritizing soft road users. Light rail + Adopting changes in the mobilities hierarchy will change the entire urban space. Therefore, the next stage is focusing on increasing the area awareness through creating new destinations by diversifying the programming scheme. Creating new attractions will generate new target groups and in the same time activate Vestbyen. Stitching green and grey The last stage is framing the main idea of the site concept by creating a new dimension, the railscape. Through the process of stitching the green with the grey, the landscape is introduced into the city. The railscape development in the studied area is showing the role played by the introduction of the landscape in the urban environment and the effects of it, by creating new sceneries on the way. In order to support the new atmosphere, the city centerâ€™s vibe is extended into the site through introducing new activities and experiences in motion. In addition, these activities are taking place in different areas depending on the functional compatibility with the existing and new programming scheme.
+ PRIORITY MOVEMENT EFFICIENCY
Ill. 5.1 The concept specific to the site. Site concept
While activating not only the interchange with the different modes of transport at the train station, but also the stretch from Sct. Mariæ Church to Café Ulla Terkelsen, an important principle has been to divide the area into zones that relate to the interval in which people are presumed to stay. TIME AND ZONING When taking the light rail from the city center to Vestbyen, the first zone one meets will be the green and recreational area with an interval of 5 min +. The zone encourages slowing down the speed and lets people drift and enjoy the natural greenscape, and it should function as a break from the city center to Vestby Station. Most activities will happen on street level, since the buildings are reserved for residents, and it is therefore a semi-public area. At the interchange, activity will happen between people changing mode of transport, and depending on the journey, it is estimated that people will stay in this area for 5-20 min. The interchange will function more as a to-go area, with easy options for bringing something extra to the means of transport. Further to the west, a new urban city area is created, which invites people to stay 20 minutes or more. Facilities like restaurants, cafés, supermarkets, coffee shops, galleries and delicacy shops are programmed to attract different types of people. PROGRAMMING THE AREA While looking at the elevations, it is clear that more residential buildings are placed to the east, which naturally will function as the recreational area, bringing more green to the city center. To the west, most of the ground floors are transformed into different professions to support the new city center in Vestbyen. By introducing professions, life will be created throughout the day as office hours normally are from 8 am to 16 pm, where most of the residents will arrive home from their daily routines, and therefore life is created throughout the day. The stretch facilitates different activities and target groups, which will create diversity in the area.
NEW PROGRAMMING OF SITE
Public institutions Public institutions 49
Cafe & restaurants
Cafe & restaurants Art, politics, exercise
Art, politics, exercise Shops
Urban city area 20 min +
To-go area 5-20 min Recreational area 5 min +
Ill. 5.2. Time interval for stay.
South facing facades along Kastetvej. Showing the program of the buildings.
North facing facades along Kastetvej. Showing the program of the buildings. Professions Residential Parking Professions Ill. 5.3. Elevations . Site concept
CAR STRATEGY Wanting to create a more ecological and sustainable urban environment, the concept for the traffic flow throughout the city center is focused on redirecting the cars to this proposed Inner City Ring Road, composed of Strandvejen, Dannebrogsgade, Kong Christians Alle, Hasserisgade, Vesterbro, Prinsensgade, Jyllandsgade, Karolinelundsvej and Nyhavnsgade (ill. 5.4). In this way, the light rail is unaffected by car flow, while also maintaining accessibility towards the city center, but in a more circular motion. â€œThe street is the river of life of the city, the place where we come together, the pathway to the center.â€? - William H. Whyte One of the main goals of this project has been to remove car transit along the path of the light rail through the city. At the pilot area on Kastetvej, it is managed to show how this is possible, with not too many compromises or queueing issues. The argument for redirecting the traffic will create a more sustainable urban environment, while also giving people more space to embody. Thus, the street space is given back its initial characteristics of meeting areas, of human interchange, and social experience. This does not mean that cars are negative elements, and planners should strive to remove them completely from the cityscape. It is a matter of prioritizing which mode(s) of transport is suitable to certain areas inside a city. From a technical standpoint, prioritizing the light rail and the bicyclists on Kastetvej is done by redirecting the cars towards Strandvejen, Dannebrogsgade, Svendsgade, and Badehusvej (Appendix 2). Due to the detour that some journeys will have to make to cross this part of the city by car, some drivers will be inclined to take the light rail because it is easier, thus lowering the total amount of cars in certain intersections. Also, it might cause an increase in cars on Strandvejen occurs, (which is to be expected) but the capacity of the street is able to cope with this increase. The only issues could arise during peak hours of daytime, but these can be regulated with better light-signal planning and a broader traffic strategy. PARKING STRATEGY In the process of limiting access for privately owned motor vehicles on Kastetvej, parking lots have to be replaced at new locations, while also taking into account the densification at Vestby Station. The parking is calculated according to Aalborg Municipalityâ€™s parking standards for the city center and is planned with the intention of limiting number of cars in the city (Aalborgkommuneplan.dk, 2015). The standards are fulfilled, but as the goal is to promote sustainable urban infrastructure and the use of public transportation, the system accommodates only the necessary parking, keeping in mind the changes of future technologies and alternative transportation methods. Public and private parking is located mainly in C. W. Obel parking house at Kastetvej (accessed from Badehusvej) and in the underground parking at the station premise (accessed from Lindholmssti). Private parking is also located inside the courtyards to the residential buildings, but redirected to spaces that are accessible from access roads to Kastetvej (ill. 5.5). The total number of parking lots related to the site is 770 (Appendix 3).
Traffic calming p. 26
Ka s tetv ej
g Rin ity
ed Inn er C
Ch ri s tia
Ill. 5.4. Car strategy. Dannebrogsgade
PARKING STRATEGY Public parking Underground parking Private parking
Poul Paghs G
Ill. 5.5. Parking strategy. Site concept
PRESENTATION PAGE 53-64
PRESENTATION The area offers activities for everyone - jump off the light rail or catch the next one leaving for Norden in 5 minutes. If you are in a hurry then follow the guiding tree structures towards the train platforms. Whenever you want to relax and enjoy the sun, then go to the recreational area, sit on a cafĂŠ, and do outdoor activities with your neighbour at the playing field in the urban city area. Or maybe just go for a walk with your dog along the green railscape. You can choose to be a part of the urban gardening community, or maintain your own front garden the way you think it should be kept. If you are using the interchange you have the opportunity to stay in the to-go area, grab a sandwich or a coffee, or if you have more time, then go to the shops in the urban city area.
Stiching green & grey Integrated site design Atmospheric details Kastetsvejâ€™s wet meadow Vestby Station Station design
Ill. 6.1. Stitching grey and green along Kastetvejâ€™s recreational area letting cars cross the road.
â€œStitching together flows of transport infrastructure and people in an attractive and coherent fashion.â€? (Edwards, 2011; 9)
INTEGRATED SITE DESIGN
MATERIALS FOR THE SITE
Integrated site design is an approach that increases the quality of the built environment and involves optimizing existing natural systems in order to apply low-impact materials. CONSIDERATIONS IN CHOICE OF MATERIALS 4) Economically viable 1) Made from renewable resources 5) Environmentally acceptable 2) Recyclable 6) Reducing carbon footprint 3) Biodegradable (end-of-life) TIMBER STRUCTURE Timber as a forest product is made largely from atmospheric carbon, it does not have the same relationship between embodied energy and the carbon cycle as other major building materials (ill. 6.2). WOODEN FLOORING Wooden stairs allow for a design that invites people to stay and sit. It is more sustainable and an alternative to the often seen staircase intervention made of concrete (ill.6.3). POROUS ASPHALT Asphalt as pavement is non-sustainable, but new technologies of porous asphalt offer potentials as best practices of storm water management (ill. 6.4). Design Manual Railscape biotopes p. 37 CONNECTING THE SITE TO THE BIOSPHERE
BIOTOPES IN THE SITE Both grassland, moorland, and wet meadow from the design manual are implemented along Kastetvej to secure a diverse and rich vegetation that fits the siteâ€™s topography according to e.g. hollows where the runoff water will gather to be absorbed by wet meadow plants. The moorland and grassland dominate the vegetation along the stretch with some plants being in both biotopes, because of flexible soil conditions. This affords a vegetation with blooming flowers from April to October in colours of yellow, white, red, green, blue, and purple. The berry trees and shrubs will attract birds, and all the biotopes will provide a habitat for insects, birds, butterflies, bees, and flies that support the human well-being and enjoyment of being close to nature. IMPLEMENTING GREEN IN TWO WAYS The recreational area of the stretch implements vegetation by stitching green and grey at the same level (ill.6.5), whereas the urban city area has the vegetation raised from the ground in plant boxes to let the vegetation create spatiality in front of shops and places to eat or buy groceries (ill. 6.6.). FRONT GARDENS & URBAN GARDENING Along the recreational area the street has front gardening in certain places, where local citizens are the owners. This will provide gardening for the advantage of the biodiversity and a personal touch to the streetâ€™s look. In the urban city area, a parking lot is transformed into urban gardening run by locals engaging in a community of garden owners. This will create a better neighbourhood where people know each other. 57
Ill. 6.5. Concept 1 for the recreational area. Stitching green and grey implemented along the street and for front gardening.
Ill. 6..6. Concept 2 for the urban city area. Raised vegetation along the street and used for urban gardening.
Urban city area
Ill. 6.7. Diversifying the green along the stretch. Presentation
Ill. 6.8 and 6.9 59
Ill. 6.10 and 6.11 Presentation
Design Manual Biodiversity in the city
Design Manual Surface strategy p. 39
Ill. 6.12. The urban city area in front of the senior residents, where the wet meadow grows. 61
Design Manual Wayfinding p. 29
Ill. 6.13. Vestby Station is the to-go area with light rail and rail stop, where the structure acts as a landmark. Presentation
NATURE IN DESIGN As outlined in the station principles, the main goal is to create a shelter that can adapt to its surroundings, while also offering the necessary protection for users. Wanting to take inspiration from nature, the leaf represents the key natural element for the station design. It is a flexible element, modularised so that different instances of it can exist along a station platform and also bendable and twistable to suit the needs of the site. LEAF & SHELTER The main module is composed of 2 and up to 4 leaves, each at different heights and angles, offering shelter for people below it, but also to help point out or direct pedestrian flow on Kastetvej. The structure of the leaves is used as a wayfinding tool, and will be coloured depending on the themes outlined in the design manual. Design Manual Wayfinding p. 29
FLOWS & PLACEMENT The placement of these different â€œtreesâ€? depends hugely on the flows that have been envisioned. Three main flows have been designed for: one east/west crossing the area, one from the east going up the stairs, and one that is the fast route from the station to the train platform. To help organize these flows, the structures have been placed to act as separators between fast and slow movement, while also covering most areas where people are intended to be sitting and waiting for the different modes of transport. Two main structures have also been highlighted by using a larger module of the structure, to emphasize areas where you can get information regarding the light rail and/or train schedules. Main interchange flow Bicycle lane Platform
Potential areas for structure placement
Main pedestrian flow
Structure signalling important areas
Design Manual Designing for flow p. 27 Ill. 6.14. Flow in the station area and placing of the station design structure. 63
Design Manual Station principles p. 31
CONCEPTUAL NATURE ADDING TRANSPARENCY ROTATION DISPLACEMENT SHELTER WAYFINDING
Ill. 6.15. Designing the station structure. Presentation
“The bus takes me from Ø-gaden to Vestbyen within 12 min, which is fine by me.” Lis, 67 years old, Red Cross
“Sitting options are missing. There is almost nowhere to sit along the street, except for the café.” Ilma, 38 years old, La Casa Latina
“If the cars are directed elsewhere it would be much easier to bicycle to the city center. I’m going everywhere by bike.” Thomas, 75 years old, tool maker
“I’m missing shops that will attract people to my small shop in this area.” Ilma, 38 years old, La Casa Latina
ANALYSIS PAGE 65-72
ANALYSIS IDENTITY OF VESTBYEN
Vestbyen is a neighbourhood in Aalborg that in spite of its central location and close proximity of the city center has its own identity. The district includes a variety of dwellings and offers equally diverse programming that facilitates an attractive place to settle. The demographics of the area is reflected by people focusing on their careers, together with families, and students living in traditional apartment buildings (Aalborg Kommune and KUBEN Management, 2012). The Municipality’s intention is to develop Vestbyen into a sustainable local community by still sustaining the identity and character of the neighbourhood with its multi storey buildings, open green villa areas towards the South, and its recreational connection to the maritime harbour front at Vestre Bådehavn. The accessibility from the district towards the Fjord is to be accentuated in the future in order to support the slogan, “The City by the Fjord” (Kommuneplan Vestbyen).
PURPOSE The programming map shows the existing functional structure and how it is concentrated in the analysed context. Moreover, the main aim for showing the functional distribution is based on illustrating the existing uses and services that the area affords, in order to define the character of the site and also to point out through problems and potentials the demands and needs of the users. PROBLEMS The main issue in terms of programming is reflected by the low density of public functions along the street, together with destinations that attract and keep the users in this area. Furthermore, this gap of functions is the reason for the functional disconnection between the residential area and the city center. POTENTIALS Potentials are generated by the existence of the ground floor spaces that can be converted depending on a programming strategy and also the spaces between and behind the buildings, which can be opened up to the street.
PURPOSE This scheme shows the existing parking spaces locations and how they are accessible. PROBLEMS The main issue is concentrated on the surfaces that are occupied by parking lots, which creates an unwelcoming atmosphere. POTENTIALS The existing parking spots are an important source of space that might give room for new activities in order to activate the surroundings. Total number of existing parkings lots is 660.
PROGRAMMING Supermarkets Auxiliary spaces Education Housing Institutions Industry
s Gade Poul Pagh
28 10 9
PARKING SCHEME Outside parkings Covered parkings
s Gade Poul Pagh
Ill. 7.2 Analysis
PURPOSE This registration was recorded to illustrate the places and directions from where the green layer can be dragged in and spread out along the stretch, in order to support the main goal of bringing more green into the city by stitching it with the existing grey surfaces. PROBLEMS Regarding the green spaces, the issues that the current situation is dealing with are framed by the urban environment of densities and grey surfaces. Moreover, the ratio between green and grey is shown as a problem, for the fact that the city center is lacking in green spaces and vegetation. POTENTIALS The potential at a local scale is reflected by the existing density of the green spaces that exists in the southern part of the site, and also by the green protection area that is located along the train. Zooming out, the opportunity is generated by the South-East city fabric that consists in a residential built scape, which is wrapped by the green environment. There is a potential to open up the backyards for semi-public use and making a visible connection between the back side and front side of the buildings by dragging the vegetation and green spaces from semiprivate spaces to the street.
PURPOSE The flow system was registered in order to show the traces of different modes of mobility (motorized or non-motorized). Moreover, illustrating the traces is a way of telling the story of the existing movement that takes place in the analyzed area, pointing in the same time at the critical points of contact, intersection spots for negotiation in motion. PROBLEMS At peak hours, the intersections can become crowded, a reason for why it is generating a big issue for the overall flow system, changing in this way also the atmosphere on the street. POTENTIALS The flow system is showing the directions and traces, which represent the potentials regarding the main aim of designing for flows.
s Gade Poul Pagh
Ill. 7.3. Green
FLOW SYSTEM Main heavy flows Secondary heavy flows Main pedestrian flows Secondary pedestrian flows Main bicycle flows Secondary bicycle flows
Ill. 7.4 Analysis
PURPOSE The wind analysis is showing aspects concerning microclimate at Vestby Station. Wind conditions have been analyzed for the area and the biggest intensities are coming from a south-west direction, affecting in this way the tunnel beneath the bridge of Vestby Station. Solar and shading studies have been calculated along with noise pollution monitoring (Appendix 1 and Appendix 2). PROBLEMS The existing wind issues regard the wind corridor that is formed along the street and underneath the bridge, and it is enhanced also by the lack of physical obstacles or vegetation. POTENTIALS Enhancing the existing pockets along Kastetvej and creating recreational spaces on the eastern part of the rail tracks.
ANALYSIS CONCLUSION The main focus of the mapping was to get a better understanding of how Vestby Station functions both on a local scale, but also in relation to the city core and network. From this information, it is possible to draw a series of conclusions regarding this areasâ€™ character and potentials. While keeping in mind our design principles, the thing that stands out is how the programming of the area is not related with the green spaces. They appear as separate entities. In turn, this generates room for more car-oriented design, due to lack of interest from the people in the public domain. Thus, the social implications are also felt, as the street functions as a functional flow corridor, seeming empty or devoid of long term stay. On the other hand, Vestbyen is not absent of potentials. The main catalyst for redevelopment will be the light rail, but there are other local identities that can be extruded to bring more life back to the street and give it back to the people. The existing green courtyards and the green belt along the regional train tracks offer the possibility of extending the green into the street, creating a more ecological atmosphere. This not only helps the microclimate in certain areas, but it also offers new possibilities for thinking of human interactions inside a landscape centred around mobilities.
310+ 278 248 216 186 155 124 93 62 <31
Ill. 7.5. Prevailing wind - wind frequency (hrs). 1 st January - 31st December, time 00:00-24:00. Ecotect analysis. Analysis
EVALUATION PAGE 74-82
EVALUATION Conclusion Reflection Illustration list Literature list
CONCLUSION The vision of the project has been to create an attractive green railscape in regards to the stretch’s different identities of the neighbourhoods. The main focus is to stitch mobility with ecology both thinking in city and site-specific scale to create a vibrant, diverse and attractive environment along the corridor, that all living organisms will inhabit and make their own. By accommodating future public transportation needs and connecting Aalborg to the biosphere through three types of biotopes, each with different characters and advantages, the design of the light rail stretch creates a great environment for people going from A to B, which also offers experiences in motion fulfilling the initial vision. Furthermore, the green railscape has the potential of catalysing urban development and investments along the stretch, which goes in line with the Municipality’s Densification Strategy, implemented in the zoning of the light rail stretch of this project. PROCESS AND CONCEPT
The whole process has gone through analysis and development of a strategic and site-specific concept, onto detailing and telling the story in a comprehensible way. Through the project the work has been integrated in terms of applying five different approaches (mobility, ecology, technology, theory, and urban design) from the beginning. The mobility issues and traffic prioritization were taken into account from day one, and the method of zooming in and out in order to comprehend the implications of our descision-making has been a natural approach towards the overall mobility design. PRIORITIZING TRAFFIC
Principal thoughts concerning traffic have been the main priority of the light rail as the most important mode of transportation through the railscape. This means that cars have been redirected and lanes have been taken out to give space to the light rail and the use of traffic calming principles together with eco-mobility approaches creates a vigorous green environment along the railscape.
The zoning and characters of each zone are closely related to speed and density of the urban form. This leads to four zones with different characters: the urban development zone, the public service zone, the dense urban zone, and the low rise zone. The zoning secures the design manual’s ability to fit different neighbourhoods and creates diversity along the green railscape. DESIGN MANUAL GOING SITE-SPECIFIC
Biodiversity in the city The three biotopes, wet meadow, moorland, and grassland coexist in accordance with eachother, but also with different urban fabrics. These biotopes are complete with different kinds of vegetation, both adaptable to climate change and purifying airquality, that help enhance local microclimates to the point where they can become self-sufficient, with little maintenance needed. As a main part of these biotopes, e.g. green semi-public gardens have been proposed to incorporate urban gardening activities in the pilot project in order to encourage local community and neighbourliness amongst people in Vestbyen. Pilot Project The railscape is not just a green corridor through the city, it becomes site-specific through the flexibility of the design manual. In the case of Kastetvej, in the pilot project, the green elements along the light rail depend on the area’s varied programming. Vestby Station becomes the heart of the area being centered on Kastetvej and located beside the growing city center of Vestbyen. Public, semi-public and private zones are related with almost invisible lines. They are places where people living will feel at home, and the people bicycling from A to B, or taking a walk, will experience the area as a place where they are welcome. Connecting and breaking the barrier The design of the station itself incorporates mobility, ecology, and sustainability principles, as the shape of the shelters are inspired by nature, while
also the materials used are ecologically viable (timber structures). The station structure is placed on both sides of the railway tracks giving it a cohesive perception as a landmark, while the surface strategy and the way the vegetation is implemented connects the urban city area with the recreational area, and the to-go area binding everything together. ZOOMING IN AND OUT
In order to understand and improve infrastructure and green patterns in the urban landscape we zoomed out. To understand the site and everything related to the urban landscape, identity etc. we zoomed in. The different scales demand an understanding of the sense of the city in different layers. While the big scale is focusing on logistic and connectedness, the smaller scale demands detailing and perception on another level. Therefore, atmosphere, landscape topography, and biotopes have carefully been placed in terms of establishing the right biodiversity, rich environment for living organisms and planned activities. This approach is in line with the intention of Spirnâ€™s (1984) quote about cultivating nature in the city, and McHargâ€™s (1969) opinion on designing with nature creates better quality of life. This also fits the Ecomobility. orgâ€™s statement on ecomobility as promoting social cohesion, increase of travel choices, and the quality of life that comes with diversity as a tool to make phenomenal richness of physical life - constructing a meaningful and viable public realm.
designing urban spaces with the use of the three design principles that make up the foundation of the green railscapes: transportation planning, an ecological approach, and sustainable city development. By weaving these into a clear narrative depending on the specific characteristics and identities of each site, while not losing track of the strategic perspectives, the energizing character of the light rail can be prosperous from both a social and design related perspective.
The result is a project creating a green railscape by using the sustainable approaches of ecomobility, traffic calming and ecology, which goes well with the basic concepts of the network city. This creates a city prepared for future growth, which is able to accommodate future transportation needs as well as a more sustainable Aalborg with focus on vegetation creating better and healthier environments by introducing humans as a factor in the ecosystem. The light rail can become a stream of energy by Evaluation
REFLECTION The reflection is a future perspective towards the development generated by the introduction of a light rail as a new sustainable mobility solution for the current motorized network city, anchored in an urban context. The character of the design reflects both the general strategy of the transport system as well as the mobile adaptability to the site-specific appearances. The idea of dividing the booklet into two parts was implemented relatively late in the process. This meant focusing on the site-specific scale (the pilot project) before thinking in strategic principles for the railscape (the design manual). The other way around, working with Kastetvej and the interchange of Vestby Station helped shed light on the human scaled design; extra attention being given towards the atmosphere of the railscape and the affordances of light rail based mobility design from a human perspective. The strategic part of the development involves an envisioning of the light rail itinerary, as a reflective approach of how this stream of energy activates the surroundings by bringing new experiences along the way in a sustainable and ecological manner. By introducing the pilot project, it is proposed how to adapt to the different urban patterns, with the design principles working as basic guidelines. Activating people taking care of front gardens breaks down the barrier between urban consumers and the local ecosystem, which establishes healthy improvements of the existing urban fabric, and thereby creates rich urban neighbourhoods with humans as an integrated part of the ecosystem. Stitching together green and grey can raise a discussion regarding the risk of losing some of the characteristics and generators of attractiveness for each of the two. Also some travel time could potentially be lost due to the reduced speed for the light rail in some areas. But by enhancing experiences in motion and the relation to the urban context, the spatial atmosphere and life lived on the move are enriched.
Consequently, the discourse of the economic and political rationale is in play vs. the urban and aesthetic rationale (Olesen, 2014: 101). From an economical point of view, the introduction of green infrastructures ultimately means an increase in housing prices in the areas associated with them, due to the new recreational commodities made available. This downside defines the changes of area affordances and more importantly the user groups that are choosing to inhabit them. Thus, the initial context principles can suffer changes over time. From an ecological approach, the green areas risk becoming isolated and losing some of their biodiversity and related services that made them attractive in the first place. Also, an outcome of the light rail project in Aalborg might be the same as in the case of Bergen Bybane in Norway, where lacks of political will to restrict car access to the city has proven a challenge in itself, and the traffic levels and congestion have not changed (Olesen, 2014: 125). The urban and aesthetic factors also present themselves as convenient disruptions of existing city life cadences, provoking a paradigm shift in the way people perceive their environments. Through staging from above, you challenge the norm of urban development by increasing the opportunities for social embodiment, leading to an extension of the aesthetic qualities that, in turn, can be perceived in the physical realm, not just in the contemplative one. By diversifying these qualities through design, a new sustainable path emerges by raising the inhabitantsâ€™ quality of life. From a theoretical point of view, greener cities mean healthier cities. But practice has shown us that this is not always the case. Compromise has not been established between all the urban actors, leading to social segregation depending on income levels. In regards of this, is the method of ecologizing cities truly a way of creating healthier cities, or just greener cities?
It all very well depends on public perception and how people get accustomed to these new urban structures. As designers, we create greener cities with the intent of also generating viable city life. But the urban consumers are those that dictate if these principles actually become rooted in neighbourhood cultures. Along with strategic as well as design principles, a successful implementation of projects like this is then based on the key reaction of community involvement, raising awareness towards a more sustainable way of relating to the environment.
a b n r U l a n d s c a p e t py
ILLUSTRATION LIST CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.0 Photo from www.lightstalking.com 1.1-1.2 Created by the authors PART 1
P1.0 Created by the authors 1.1-1.2 Created by the authors CHAPTER 2 – STRATEGIC APPROACH
2.0 Photo from www.famlii.com 2.1 Photo from www.in-georgetown.com 2.2 Photo from www.earthporm.com 2.3 Photo from www.hdwallpapers.im 2.4-2.6 Created by the authors CHAPTER 3 - RAILSCAPE
3.0 Photo from www.wallpaperup.com 3.1-3.4 Created by the authors 3.5 Photo by www.pinterest.com 3.6 Photo from www.claudecormier.com 3.7 Photo by www.lastreetcar.org 3.8-3.11 Created by the authors CHAPTER 4 - ECOLOGY
4.0 Photo from www.naturstyrelsen.dk 4.1 Created by the authors 4.2 Wet meadow Photo by www.urbangreen.dk 4.3 Moorland Photo by www.urbangreen.dk 4.4 Grassland Photo by www.urbangreen.dk 4.5 Created by the authors with photos from www. danmarksflora.dk 4.6 Photo from www.kbhby.dk/bikelanes 4.7 Photo from www.vildmedberlin.dk 4.8 Photo from www.flickr.com 4.9 Photo from www.pinterest.com 4.10 Photo from www.pinterest.com 4.11 Photo from www.heirloomdesignbuild.com 4.12 Photo from www.silkeborgkommune.dk 4.13 Photo from www.irfa.dk/adgangsveje_og_stier 4.14 Photo from www.flickr.com/photos 4.15 Photo from www.upload.wikimedia.org/ 4.16 Photo from www.thegoodlifefrance.com 4.17 Photo from www.dinby.dk/valby-bladet 4.18 Photo from www.flickr.com/photos 4.19 Photo from www.architizer.com 79
4.20 Photo from www.tangranews.com 4.21 Photo from www.greentech.bg PART 2
P2.0-P2.4 Created by the authors CHAPTER 5 – SITE CONCEPT
5.1-5.5 Created by the authors CHAPTER 6 – PRESENTATION
6.1 Created by the authors 6.2 Photo from www.superstats.dk 6.3 Photo from www.arcspace.com 6.4 Photo from www.vwmin.org 6.5-6.15 Created by the authors CHAPTER 7 – ANALYSIS
7.1-7.5 Created by the authors CHAPTER 9 – APPENDIX
9.0 Photo from www.topwalls.net Remaining illustrations created by the authors
LITERATURE LIST PREFACE
Aalborg Kommune, et al (2013). ‘FASE 1 RAPPORT Vedrørende Foranalyse Af Aalborg Letbane’. Aalborgletbane.dk. [Online] Available at: http://www.aalborgletbane.dk/media/552159/fase1_rapport__ fra-NT-hjemmeside.pdf [Accessed 1st May 2015]. LIGHT RAIL IN AALBORG
Aalborgletbane.dk, ‘Aalborg Kommune Får En Letbane, Der Forventes Klar Til Drift I 2021’. [Online] Available at: http://www.aalborgletbane.dk/ om-letbanen [Accessed 15th May 2015]. METHOD
AAU.DK (2010). ‘The Aalborg PBL Model’. [Online] Available at: http://www.aau.dk/digitalAssets/62/62747_pbl_aalborg_modellen.pdf [Accessed 31st May 2015]. Jensen, O. B. (2013). ‘Staging Mobilities’. London: Routledge. Knudstrup, M. (2005). ‘Arkitektur som Integreret Design’. In Botin, L. and Pihl, O. (red), Pandoras Boks: metode antologi (p. 13-29). Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag. THEORY
ECOMOBILITY Ecomobility.org (2015). ‘ICLEI Ecomobility’. [Online] Available at: http://www.ecomobility.org [Accessed 20th May 2015]. Ecomobility-shift.org (2015). ‘Ecomobility SHIFT Downloads – Manual’. [Online] Available at: http:// www.ecomobility-shift.org/en/project-downloads/ category/8-shift-manual# [Accessed 20th May 2015]. Green City Project (2015) ‘A Green City Program for the San Francisco Bay Area and Beyond’. Planet Drum Foundation [Online] Available at: http:// www.sustainable-city.org/orgs/gcp.htm [Accessed 15th May 2015].
Olesen, M. (2014). ‘Making Light Rail Mobilitites’ [Online] Available at: http://vbn.aau.dk/ files/196654311/Olesen_2014_Making_Light_Rail_ Mobilities.pdf Wheeler, S. M., and Beatley, T. (2004). ‘The Sustainable Urban Development Reader’. 3rd ed. London: Routledge. [Online] Available at: http://samples. sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781317672173_sample_717376.pdf. [Accessed 15th April 2015]. Woo, F (2013) ‘Sustainable Urban Development – It’s time cities give back’. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2013/aug/13/sustainable-urban-development-regeneration [Accessed 20th May 2015]. ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES Andersson, E. and Colding, J. (2013) ‘Understanding How Built Urban Form Influences Biodiversity’. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 13.2: 221-226. [Online] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S1618866713001258 [Accessed 1st May 2015]. Andersson, E. et al. (2014) ‘Reconnecting Cities To The Biosphere: Stewardship Of Green Infrastructure And Urban Ecosystem Services’. [Online] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24740616. AMBIO 43.4, 445-453. [Accessed 1st May 2015]. Bentley, M. (2013) ‘An Ecological Public Health Approach to Understanding the Relationships Between Sustainable Urban Environments, Public Health and Social Equity’. Health Promotion International, 29.3: 528-537. [Online] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23661624 [Accessed 1st May 2015]. Jacobs, J. (1961) ‘Orthodox Planning And The North End’. In Beatley, T. and Wheeler, S. M. The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 3rd ed., (2004) 3438. London: Routledge. Evaluation
McHarg, I. L. (1969) ‘Design With Nature’, Garden City, N.Y.: Published for the American Museum of Natural History. Portland: Natural History Press.
Agreement’, 73-75. Tokyo: A+U. [Online] Available at: https://www.japlusu.com/news/room-streetand-human-agreement [Accessed 29th May 2015].
Merriam-webster.com (2015) ‘Ecology’. [Online] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/ dictionary/ecology [Accessed 26th May 2015].
MacKenzie, A. (2013) ‘Reimagining Our Streets As Places: From Transit Routes To Community Roots’. Project for Public Spaces. [Online] Available at: http://www.pps.org/ reference/reimagining-our-streets-as-places-from-transit-routes-to-community-roots/ [Accessed 29th May 2015].
Oxforddictionaries.com (2015). ‘Ecology’. Definition. [Online] Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/ecology [Accessed 26th May 2015]. Sciencedaily.com, (2015). Ecology’. Definition. [Online] Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/ terms/ecology.htm [Accessed 26th May 2015]. Spirn, A. W. (1984) ‘City and Nature’. In Beatley, T. and Wheeler, S. M. The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 3rd ed., (2004): 61-65. London: Routledge. Steiner, F. (2011) ‘Landscape ecological urbanism’. In Beatley, T. and Wheeler, S. M. The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 3rd ed., (2004): 190-194. London: Routledge. Wheeler, S. M., and Beatley, T. (2004). The Sustainable Urban Development Reader. 3rd Edition. London: Routledge. [Online] Available at: http:// samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781317672173_ sample_717376.pdf. [Accessed 15th April 2015]. CHAPTER 2 – STRATEGIC APPROACH DESIGN PRINCIPLES
Jeffrey, R., K and Newman, P. (1999) ‘Sustainability And Cities’. Washington D.C.: Island Press [Online] Available at: https://books.google. dk/books?id=X-p0Nw7XbzIC&printsec=frontcover&hl=da&source=gbs_ge_summar y_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 29th May 2015]. LIGHT RAIL WITHOUT WIRES
Swanson, J.,D. (2004). ‘Light Rail Without Wires’. 1st ed. New York: Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. . [Online] Available at: http:// www.reconnectingamerica.org /assets/Up loads/20040121ThirdRailPaper.pdf [Accessed 15th April 2015]. WAYFINDING
Foltz, M. A. (2015) ‘5. Design Principles For Wayfinding’. Ai.mit.edu. [Online] Available at: http:// www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infoarch/publications/ mfoltz-thesis/node8.html [Accessed 20th May 2015].
Kenworthy, J. and Newman, P. (1999) ‘Traffic Calming - from Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence’. In Beatley, T. and Wheeler, S. M. The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 3rd ed., (2004) 34-38. London: Routledge.
Symonds, P. (2014). ‘Blind and Visibility Impaired Travellers and Wayfinding’. Wayfinding in Travel and Tourism. [Online] Available at: http://www.travelwayfinding.com/visually-impaired/ [Accessed 20th May 2015].
CHAPTER 3 – RAILSCAPE
BIODIVERSITY Danmarksflora.dk (2015) ‘Danmarks Flora’. [Online] Available at:
CHAPTER 4 – ECOLOGY & SURFACE
TRAFFIC CALMING Kahn, L. (1973) ‘The Room, the Street and Human 81
http://www.danmarksflora/0101.php 10th May 2015].
Hansen, H.O and Jørgensen, J. (2010) ‘Sortimentskatalog 2010/2011’. Skjern: Strandbygaard Grafisk A/S Hansen, L., Hoffmann, T. and Nissen, D. (2015) ‘Urbangreen’. [Online] Available at: http://www.urbangreen.dk [Accessed 10th May 2015]. Edwards, B. (2011) ‘Sustainability and the Design of Transport Interchanges’. London: Routledge. CHAPTER 5 - SITE CONCEPT
VEHICLES Aalborgkommuneplan.dk (2015). ‘Bilag F - Parkeringsnormer - Kommuneplan’. [Online] Available at: http://www.aalborgkommuneplan.dk/bilag/ bilag-f0.aspx [Accessed 24th May 2015]
I love my new habitat.
CHAPTER 7 - ANALYSIS
Aalborg Kommune and Kuben Management (2012). ‘Bosætning 2012 - Bosætningsmønstre Og Boligpræferencer I Aalborg Kommune’. [Online] Available at: http://www.aalborg.dk/media/368610/ Cameo-analyse-Geo-demografisk-husstandsklassifikation-Bilag-til-Cameo-analyse-del-4-.pdf [Accessed 6th May 2015]
Chapter 9 APPENDIX APPENDIX 1-5
APPENDIX Appendix 1 - Shadow & sun Appendix 2 - Cars & noise Appendix 3 - Parking & programming Appendix 4 - Design process Appendix 5 - Design process
APPENDIX 1 SHADOW ANALYSIS ECOTECT MARCH
SHADOW & SUN ECOTECT INSULATION ANALYSIS
TOTAL SOLAR RADIATION // VESTBY STATION Av. daily radiation // March-April-May (7am-18pm)
WH 320000+ 292000 264000 235000 208000 180000 152000 124000 96000 68000 40000
The results show average daily solar radiation at Vestby Station, indicating a potential of creating public spaces North-East and West of the interchange. Kastetvej receives a proper amount of radiation during daytime with most solar radiation towards the northern part of the stretch. The tunnel underneath the bridge is an issue in terms of comfort and lighting.
2440 250 Strandvejen
280 340 540
160 1340 100
160 1340 100
1600 210 520 40
250 1100 210 Kastetvej
280 340 540
90 920 260
250 1100 210 Kastetvej
90 920 260
210 520 40
250 1110 280 Dannebrogsgade
140 980 240 Kastetvej
Dannebrogsgade 140 1030 180
1340 250 1110 280 Dannebrogsgade Dannebrogsgade 140 1030 180
140 980 240 Kastetvej
2440 250 Strandvejen
2940 1030 Strandvejen
Strandvejen 2770 640
Svensgade Badehusvej 550 1220
Dannebrogsgade Dannebrogsgade 710 1280
710 580 Kastetvej
Dannebrogsgade 710 1280
2940 1030 Strandvejen
â€œThe stree pathway t
One of the of the ligh show how
â€œThe street The argum pathway to urban env street spac One of the interchang of the light element a show how just a matt inside a cit The argum urban envi From a tec street spac is done by interchang and Badeh element an this part o just a matt it is easier, inside a cit can be see but the ca From a tec could arise is done by better ligh and Badeh this part of it is easier, can be see but the cap could arise better light
CARS & NOISE REDIRECTION OF CARS For the detailed traffic calculations, considerations were made. For each flow depicted, an increase of 1% for each year was added to compensate the rise in car usage trends. The diagrams show the two main intersections that we work with along Kastetvej: The intersection with Dannebrogsgade and the one with Svensgade. An extra intersection was taken into account, the one between Badehusvej and Strandvejen, because it will be the main and nearest one affected by the redirection. At each intersection, the arrows represent the flow direction and where it is coming from, as well as the actual number of cars associated with that flow. A sum for each intersection direction has also been made to easily visualize the total number of cars at that specific point. For each intersection’s connected street we have 2 values, one representing the total number of cars coming from the intersection to that street, and one with the total number of cars going from that street into the intersection. The values in red represent the modifications made to each flow after the redirection implementation. The flows going in to Kastetvej have been redirected to Strandvejen, Dannebrogsgade and Svensgade. The distribution of these flows was not equal: it was assumed that 60% would go towards Strandvejen while the other 40% would go down Dannebrogsgade and Svensgade.
min max av.
56,50 65,73 60,73
min max av.
46,99 59,72 52,97
min max av.
46,54 61,09 55,86 min max av.
NOISE LEVEL IN dB(A) Low
58,55 68,25 63,11
Moderate min max av.
min max av.
48,07 60,68 54,14
min max av.
53,56 71,06 62,58
min max av.
min max av.
ssti 45,09 indholm L 64,34 54,90
min max av.
35,03 40,88 38,23
44,60 74,55 59,09
51,44 65,60 59,45
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS Noise pollution monitoring provided information about the environment in Vestbyen in proximity of the station area. This mapping technique was applied in order to analyze the affects of motorized vehicles on the milieu in Vestbyen, and their implications on comfort zones. The method is based on the application “NoiseTube” that transforms ones smartphone into an acoustic detector, which then generates a set of data according to the place where one is standing or walking. The accumulated result is a mediated noise map in GoogleMaps that tracks the path of the smartphone movement. The noise is represented by several colours based on decibel detected in the area. The mapping of Vestbyen indicates high levels of db(A) in both tunnels, underneath the bridge. Busses, cars and mopeds generate noise, and especially busses or trucks passing through the tunnel creates levels of >72 db(A) which is a nuisance to the human body. Corners where intersections appear also have higher densities of noise levels. Our results implied a rethinking of transport modes along Kastetvej to avoid nuisances, and created the basis for the idea of residential living close to the tracks.
PROGRAMMING & PARKING
The process of densification is located next to the Vestby Station and affords functional programming for three new residential buildings as well as eight small constructions for the public life precognized in this area, that is governed by the transitory aspect of the place (tourists or people that are transiting the area). Two of the residential buildings are intended for students - studious (50sqm), having in the same time at the ground level small offices for start ups - entrepreneurship, function that is compatible with the group users for which it is destined. The third residential building is for families and at the first two floors are accommodating ting offices for different businesses. Moreover, underneath these buildings, a parking house was made in order to accommodate the amount of cars that are necessary for the new intervention, and half of the parking lots that were taken off the street and replaced in different parts (underground and ground parking house).
PARKING & PROGRAMMING NEW UNDERGOUND PARKING TOTAL CAPACITY 128
TOTAL DENSIFING PARKINGS 34
TOTAL RELOCATED PARKINGS 69
FAMILY FAMILY 100 sqm
FAMILY FAMILY 100 sqm
FAMILY FAMILY 100 sqm
100 sqm 50 sqm
FAMILY FAMILY 100 sqm
ENTREPRENEURSHIP 200 sqm
COMMERCIAL 25 sqm
FAMILY PARKING LOTS 1/2 per apartment
BIKE PARKINGS 2 per apartments
COMMERCIAL 42,25 sqm
COMMERCIAL 42,25 sqm
MUNICIPALITY DATAS BUSINESS
1 per 4 apartments
FAMILY (8 apart.) PARKING LOTS
2 per apartment
PARKING LOTS 1 per 100 sqm
1 per 100 sqm
1 per 25 sqm 2 > 25 sqm
1 per 100 sqm
DENSIFICATION DATAS BUSINESS
STUDENTS (24 apart.)
TOTAL PARKING LOTS
TOTAL BIKE PARKINGS
1 ANALYSIS // TRAFFIC CALMING Phase 1 evolved around establishing basic critical points of contact between different modes of transport and mobilities on the proposed light rail stretch in Vestbyen. How could we design a light rail environment on a local scale while prioritizing specific modes of transport?
Initial sketches of critical points of contact. Two-way experiential path stitched together at the interchange.
2 THE STRETCH // ECOLOGICAL APPROACH Phase 2 established the boundaries of our site and pockets were taken into account in order to turn pockets into an integrated part of the closed down street of Kastetvej. The outline helped define the flow patterns and potentials for creating public zones.
Working with pockets of activities and directions of flow. Extending the green from the courtyards out to the streetscape at Kastetvej.
3 CONCEPT // RAILSCAPE Phase 3 focused on developing a concept for the stretch. The design prioritized the light rail and soft road users, and a diverse landscape along the tracks would function as a recreational corridor in the city. Stitching together green and grey structures happened in two ways at Kastetvej on either side of the regional rail tracks. Activity curves were proposed.
Detailing the stretch by creating activity life line and a greenery life line that conveys the spots where activity is low.
4 PROGRAMMING // EXPERIENCES
Different zones of urban gardens, activity zones for bikes and skateboarders, vertical activation of facades by bringing in greenery.
Phase 4 strengthened ideas from the concept trying to zoom out from the previous detailed stretch sketches. The overall programming of experiences and atmospheres were necessary in order to understand the impacts of our intervention on urban flows, attractions, and sensations within the site.
5 INTERCHANGE // THE HUB Phase 5 focused on the interchange/node where the two levels of public transport meet; the regional and the local transportation systems. The access points towards the rail track were re-designed and centered in order to create optimized flow from one mode to another. A hub was designed, which would frame our light rail stretch and create shelter for commuters arriving by train.
Designing a transportation interchange combined with sustainable materials. Framing the light rail with a view towards the street from both sides.
GIGANTIUM FJ O
LIGHTRAIL VE ST
6 STRATEGY // GREENSCAPE Phase 6 was based on reflections from PinUp 3 where issues concerning the hub and the stretch together with their lack of interplay were discussed. We decided to â€˜kill our darlingâ€™ and zoomed even further out to see our design in an overall perspective. The approaches of ecological and sustainable principles were to be introduced along the whole light rail line, relying on the urban fabric. Structural analysis and speed diagrams helped us define the strategic approach.
RAILSCAPE DEVELOPMENT AREAS
Speed diagrams and urban zone diagrams mapped from a light rail perspective - from Norden in Vestbyen to the University Hospital in Aalborg East.
7 URBAN DEVELOPMENT // DENSITY Imagining a commercial area with small shops a la Market Halle in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Residential programming and flow lines have been considered.
Phase 7 zoomed in again on the interchange at Vestby Station. Densification and flow in the area were designed. Residential, commercial and cultural facilities have been considered and implemented in our design. The Municipalityâ€™s vision for Vestbyen affected our decision for the masterplan.
INFORMATION PANELS CROSSING VIEW POINT
LIGHTRAIL STATION LANDMARK TRAIN STATION
8 PLATFORMS // SHELTER AND FLOW
The structure/shelter guides people on the move from the light rail platforms to the access points on two sides of the street. Experimenting with different shelter structures inspired from nature, leaves, and insects.
Phase 8 focused on wayfinding and mobilities design in the node. Shelter and guidance structures were designed for the platforms of the light rail. This subtle design intervention had to correspond with our design manual principles, but affected by site specific measurements.
ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN AALBORG UNIVERSITY
Published on Feb 15, 2017
Project sem.2, Urban Design Master, AAU, Aalborg, Denmark ABSTRACT This project concerns the introduction of a new mode of transport throug...