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THE MISSING 400 On the Erasure of Women from the Urban Environment

Pierre Bélanger Ghazal Jafari Hernán Bianchi Benguria Audio/Video Collaboration with Hélène Cixous cc 2016–2018

By way of a review of The Architectural Review’s 2000 article “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution: An Overview of Twentieth-Century Architecture”


In the July 2000 issue of The Architectural Review, postmodern architectural theorist Charles Jencks made a critical observation on the so-called revolution that had taken place during the twentieth century in the development of ideological trends in the discipline of Architecture that by now, nearly twenty years later, bears considerable importance for the field today: “However beneficent this [revolution] may be for architectural creativity this has not been healthy or good for the environment. For one thing it has been Gardner’s message—the revolutionary period has been dominated by men, there are very few women among the 400 protean creators I have gathered from other writers. An urbanism both more feminine and coherent would have been far superior to the over-rationalized and badly related boxes that have formed our cities.”1

8 The Architecture of Erasure The Missing 400

Warranting review and revision, Jencks’ declaration was to cap off a series of articles written over the course of nearly five decades2 on the evolution of architects (as professionals) and the revolution in architecture (as discipline) seen through an evolution of styles and ideological trends. Jencks’ analysis proposed that, at any one time, “the twentieth century architect has had to face three or four completing movements of architecture, respond to changes in technology, social forces, style and ideology—not to mention two world wars and such large impersonal forces such as the Internet.”3 Like body-counts, the “shed building, the factory, warehouse […] the office […] airports […] museums […] shopping and mega-malls” captured an era where the short attention span of the public eye and dominant cycles of media powered trends that barely lasted little more than a few years, let alone a decade, requiring constant renewal and reinvention. In short, as Jencks proclaimed, “it was an exhausting century.”4 Epitomized by a canonical bubble diagram of trends and fashions—a sort of genealogy of ideas, “the main narrative” of architectural ebbs and flows as Charles Jencks professed,5 belonged “to a competitive drama, a dynamic and turbulent flow of ideas, social movements, technical forces, and individuals, all jockeying for position.”6

The Architecture of Erasure But as competitive, dramatic, and dynamic these movements may seem, they reveal perhaps the most profound neglect and violent outcome of twentieth-century architecture. Poorly understood and widely overlooked, but now obvious after almost 50 years since Jencks published the original diagram in his doctoral dissertation, is the missing representation of women whose voices were consistently strong at different periods of time during the past century, and far beyond. Yet remarkably, in the isolation of gender, race, and genius, women remain absent from the profile of the profession of architecture and silent in the evolution of cultural trends, as if they were either irrelevant, or otherwise erased and scrubbed clean. Conditions during the past two centuries were clearly “optimal” for men.8


That narrative was told through the pornography of illustrated historical timelines, between 1971 and 2015, charting the perpetual impulse towards stylistic reinvention. Across the twentieth century, Jencks had observed that these architectural movements were loosely following a “‘10-year rule’ of reinvention for the creative genius,” a concept captured and chronicled in the 1993 bestseller, Creative Minds, by cognitive scientist and Harvard Professor Howard Gardner.7

The Missing 400

Ironically, the only other record of another woman—albeit the repeated instance of token-women yet again obscured, i.e. “Eames” and “Smithsons”—was in an earlier 1971 version of Jencks’ “Evolutionary Tree” diagram. Hovering discreetly close to the label “UTOPIE” and aligned as “ACTIVIST,” the surname “Jacobs” makes a modest

10 The Architecture of Erasure

Amidst the so-called ‘evolution in’ and ‘revolution of architecture,’ the linear partitioning of Jencks’ illustrious timeline into regular and evenly-divided decades, oddly features the record of only nine practicing female architects. Suspiciously however, the recognition and representation of their gender (and their associated influence or contribution) when featured at all, is buried in their professional surnames: “Aulenti,” “Decq,” “Hasegawa,” “Hadid,” “Jiricná,” and “Sejima.” And, except for one—whose full name of “Maya Lin” is present—the gender-identity of Gae, Odile, Itsuko, Zaha, Eva, and Kazuyo are obscured by the truncation of their full names and simultaneously buried in the litany of the pseudo-professionalism of ‘architectural’ surnames, styles, trends, expressions, and business partnerships (“[Julia] Bolles & [Peter] Wilson” and “[Eisaku] Ushida & [Katherine] Findlay”). The white blobs do nothing more than to fence off this architectural apartheid of identities; while in the case of simultaneously marital and professional bonds (“Aalto,” “Eames,” “Troost,” “Kikutake,” “Hopkins,” and “Libeskind”) the asymmetry of recognition perpetuates their obscurity.

Subordinated to a male-dominated professionalized patriarchy, masculine trends of phallocentric form-making, and male-dominated categories illustrating the ‘man as creator’ (edified of course by Vitruvian Man), the seemingly benign erasure of names of these exceptionally influential women represent in many ways the disembodiment of the profession of architecture from a larger sphere of influence across different orbits of engagement, an interaction beyond the purview of the building as object of intervention, and more importantly, beyond the colonial antagonism of ‘breaking ground’ as example of creative, professional achievement. This blatant exclusion (or more aptly, censorship), while excused,10 was never corrected in Jencks’ later works or diagrams, ever since the publication of his dissertation in 1970, “Modern Architecture: The Tradition Since 1945” at the


appearance. The reference is made, of course, to the politically active, revered New York everyday observer, and best-selling author of the 1961 The Life and Death of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs. Not uncoincidentally, a 1977 iteration positions “Jacobs” along and in between the strands of the “AD HOC” and “URBANIST” orientation; this time accompanied by “[Gae] Aulenti” and “[Diana] Agrest” on opposite corners of the diagram. Surprisingly within this systemic historic erasure, “Jacobs” does not reappear in further versions for decades,9 until the 2000 diagram.

12 The Missing 400

“Evolutionary Tree” (Charles Jencks, The Architectural Review, 2000)


14 The Spatial Structure of Sexism The Missing 400

Bartlett School of Architecture in London, England. Even in subsequent writings, both in British and American design literature, Jencks’ excuse mirrored “the dearth of women” that Howard Gardner—the late-twentieth century developmental psychologist who inspired Jencks in his collection of creators, a profile of “individuals of undeniable creativity who seemed to stand out in terms of a particular intelligence”11—was presented through a male-dominant, and gender-biased, largely eurocentric perception of the so-called creative intelligence itself, across a wide range of fields. Since women were largely classified or perceived as “a reserve labor force for capitalism,”12 it is then hardly surprising that Jencks and Gardner, the products of an elite-industrial-academic complex, barely disrupted the predominant, yet awkwardly violent, social-cultural tendencies and patriarchal processes of assimilation through integration and incorporation that would lead to the scarce acknowledgement—if not complete erasure—of women’s creative intelligence, deft intellect, entrepreneurial flair, boundless disposition, and relation to the living world. These women are silenced in a history of architecture—the ghosts of a discipline hidden behind the white space of an elite and privileged, ivory-tower profession—that has sought to suppress powerful voices and extinguish the political forces of women across race and non-binary identities, in a slow societal process that feminist Gayle Rubin refers to as “gender


stratification,” a relational “sex-gender system” that has many forms, variations, and expressions.13

The Spatial Structure of Sexism In Jencks’ 2000 diagram, even the structure and syntax of the organization (as opposed to the style or styles) of the pseudo-genealogical diagram itself is not only biased in its white blobs awash with fluid and bodily metaphor, it functions more realistically as a rigid mask. When considered through the feminist lens of Indian scholar and theorist Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak in their description as a “complicated semiotic system of organizing the sexual/gendered differential,”14 the encoding of Jencks’ diagrams precludes a penchant for male-dominant narratives based on the threefold focus on singularity (aka authorship), enclosure (aka objecthood), and frontier (aka novelty), and therefore cuts out and rejects pluralities, differences, transitions, and interrelations in ulterior modes of representation. Erasure in Jencks’ diagram is not exceptional. This historical cutting out and intellectual amputation is not unconsciously engineered but deeply rooted in social, historical predispositions that are still perpetuated today. In one of the footnotes explaining the origins of the “evolutionary tree” diagram dating back to 1970, Jencks explains that its “structure” originated from “the structuralist meth-

16 Histories of Exclusion The Missing 400

od of analysis, derived from Claude Lévi-Strauss” which knowingly or unknowingly was based on a male-centric mode of anthropological perception, that of ‘the structured mind’ in contraposition to the influence from an experience and environment of the senses.15 Therefore, the organization of the structure of Jencks’ diagram inherits, what feminist anthropologist Shirley Ardener calls, “dominant male systems of perception.”16 Ironically, it was this largely Eurocentric bias and sexist shortcoming—“Architecture, as the professional activity of a body of men”—that Jencks’ professor, the British-American historian émigré Reyner Banham, sought to later avoid in his profiles of contemporary patterns of construction, formats of building, as well as environmental transformation that included lives, livelihood, and the living world.17

Histories of Exclusion In spite of the late-century liberation movement of women during the late 1970s into the 1980s18— itself borne from the struggle of women in the 1920s suffrage movement (right to vote) and equal opportunity (access to university and employment) among others—three distinctive periods characterize the obscurity, the invisibility, and the darkness19 that suppressed the importance, inhibited the influence, and/or blocked the participation of women in various aspects of society.


Victorianism, and the subjugation of women relegated to the background and rendered invisible by the foreground of men during the violent period of industrialization and colonialism (during the height of the British Empire under Queen Victoria’s reign), instilling strong divisions of labor.21


Militarism, and the marginalization of women to secondary roles of provision and manufacturing behind the battlefield of the World Wars (notwithstanding acts of violence against women and girls during wartime), and well into the 1950s and 1960s with the baby boom.22


Academism and the displacement of women to subsidiary positions of the stenographic class, serving lead male scientists during the Cold War, well into the 1980s.23


Shadows were cast on contemporary history across a range of fields far beyond the discipline of architecture, across urban studies into other realms, itself emerging out of and responding to an environment of urban industrialization, preceded by European colonialism.20 The following summary of predominant cultural states and inherited historical conditions are consequential and prove instructive:

18 The Missing 400

“Evolutionary Tree” (Charles Jencks, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, 1977)

19 (Jencks, 1987)

20 Deconstructing Inequality

Clearly, in the misinterpretation and the misunderstanding of the indivisibility of the language of labor and life, in the exclusionary partitioning of sex, race, and gender in all aspects of a white, ‘male-dominated’ industrialized society and especially the ‘male-documented’ professional world, women confronted ideologies of either scientific and professional isolation of efficiency and economy as barometers of achievement that, for so long, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century, overtook and dominated the Western mind. Not only did this Western eye overlook and ignore the value of women’s contribution, but also fractured the complex, correlated, and indivisible dimensions of women’s work, including their creative intelligence, social-cultural interconnectedness, and political influence.24 If Jencks’ diagram dug out holes in architectural history through which the recognition of women could have escaped by externalizing the great whole of urbanism, then the blind eye of ‘capital-A’ Architecture requires a thorough review, revision, recategorization, reclassification, and reclamation.

The Missing 400

Deconstructing Inequality In her review of the near-biblical veneration for Lewis Mumford’s 1934 Technics and Civilization, technological historian and MIT scholar-author Rosalind Williams, through her counter-establishment

“It is more difficult to separate feet and mind, life and work, when the work is one of self-declared moral prophecy. For example, I can no longer read the passages in Technics and Civilization that run on and on about ‘life insurgent’ as the creative force of history without recalling that Mumford justified his affair with Catherine Bauer as a period of disequilibrium necessary for him to achieve a new synthesis in his own life. Like a high priest, he ritualistically reenacted the drama of life’s renewal while Sophia slept on a sofa, took care of two small children, and tried to provide her husband with ample time for creative concentration. Having peeked behind the domestic curtain, I can no longer see Mumford as a wizard.”26 This late, turn-of-the-century revisionist perspective on the so-called creative male genius is mirrored in recent observations by prominent women practitioners on the battlefield of construction sites. In a piercing 2013 article of Lilith Magazine, “Revising Our Ideas about Collective Inspiration: Gender and Genius,” Esther Sperber contextualizes her own


book Retooling: A Historian Confronts Technological Change published in 2002, sees the revision of the questionable creative genius of this so-called “public intellectual”25 whose writing has been central to the understanding of the built environment by architects, historians, and urbanists alike:

The Missing 400

Deconstructing Inequality


experiences of sexism in the actual practice of architecture and construction: “In the 10 years I’ve been running my architectural practice, I, like Richard, have gotten accustomed to people assuming that my male employees — whether younger or older — are the lead architects who will be making final decisions. Yet this time a lingering frustration colored the rest of my day, a sense that while feminism has made significant progress on a conscious level, little change has trickled down into the unconscious of our culture.”27 Sperber’s 2013 article helped to establish a platform for reclaiming the ground that legitimately belongs to her, or is shared by women first and foremost. Asking the provocative question, “Did I mention that in 105 years no woman has received the AIA Gold Medal Award?” Sperber also called for the recognition of practitioners such as Denise Scott Brown’s lifelong contribution to the profession of architecture. In the shadows of business partner and husband Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown’s name was missing from the original nomination for the highest honor awarded by the American Institute of Architects in its annual Gold Medal Award that recognizes “individuals whose work has had a lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture.”28 Thanks to the tireless voices of advocates and countless appeals from women rights organizations across the academy and prac-

However, for all the meek advances made in America, the world architectural stage has remained equally devoid of women’s representation. In spite of recent calls for recognition in the renowned Pritzker Prize, again in the case of Denise Scott Brown’s contribution to the joint creativity in her creative practice shared with Robert Venturi, the Committee refused to modify their decision in 1991 on grounds of the impossibility of “reopening the decision-making process” in the case of Pritzker Laureate Robert Venturi.29 The Committee Chair Lord Peter Palumbo explains, but uncritically excuses the situation as sign of the times: “That said, we should like to thank you for calling directly to our attention a more general problem, namely that of assuring women a fair and equal place within the profession. To provide that assurance is, of course, an obligation embraced by every part of the profession, from the schools that might first encourage students to enter the profession to the architectural firms that must facilitate the ability of women to fulfill their potential as architects. We believe that one particular role that the Pritzker Jury must fulfill, in this


tice, Denise Scott Brown became the first women to ever be recognized by the Institute since 1907; her name was later added to the Award in 2016, and inscribed alongside, albeit second, to Robert Venturi.

The Missing 400 24

25 Charles Jencks, original ‘Evolutionary Tree’ diagram from his PhD dissertation (ca. 1970) at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, “Modern Architecture: The Tradition Since 1945” (UCL Library Archive)


respect, is that of keeping in mind the fact that certain recommendations or discussions relating to architectural creation are often a reflection of particular times or places, which may reflect cultural biases that underplay a woman’s role in the creative process. Where this occurs, we must, and we do, take such matters into account.”30 Gender remains so absent and so invisible to the establishment of prizes that, despite countless public appeals, even the mission and nomination for the Pritzker Architecture Prize today still omits the obvious and refuses to acknowledge gender as an underlying cultural bias:

The Missing 400

Deconstructing Inequality

“The prize is awarded irrespective of nationality, race, creed, or ideology.”31 Clearly, the universal politics of gender recognition (let alone parity) do not equate with the geographic disparities of reconciliatory measures. Nor do they necessarily result in continuous cultural restitution, gender empowerment, or institutional reform, especially across international borders. Now that Jencks’ focus and fetish of style over gender and other power systems can be disentangled, the professional, scholarly, and cultural geographies of inequality are much more difficult to discern, perhaps even unseen, practically because they are so uneven and diffuse.32

So, then, where are all the women?34 The cultural failure to correct the course of history or, to undo intellectual mistakes or unconscionable and often dehumanizing choices, provides not only insight on the skewed if not overlooked recognition of women and their role in twentieth-century architecture, the compounded violence of Victorianism, militarism, and academism; the suppression and erasure of women exposes the foundations of an establishment based on historical misrepresentation, professional subjugation, and agressive marginalization of their voices, their minds, and their bodies. As a result, any form of other identity or body politic that confront this masculine complex and patriarchal establishment is either at risk, or intrinsically constitutes a risk.


It then provides pause and cause for alarm, for even some of the most recognized historians and theorists in the field who recognized these disparities and inequalities excused themselves from the responsibility of recognition, reconciliation, or even restitution. Even historian and theorist Michael Hays footnoted this concern in his selection of authors for the canonical anthology Architecture Theory since 1968: “Feminism and identity politics are only the most obvious of themes that have produced massive numbers of studies since 1993 not primarily concerned with reification.�33

The Missing 400

Undressing Jencks’ Diagram


Undressing Jencks’ Diagram So the recognition of women in the practice of architecture not only exposes gender biases and sexist underpinnings that have yet to be reconstituted albeit barely recognized; it confronts the very constitution of a practice’s history, its reliance on exclusive principles of efficiency and practices of what it refers to as ‘high Art.’ For example, in the 1857 Charter of the early beginnings of the American Institute of Architects, its origins lay in the goals “to promote the artistic, scientific, and practical profession of its members; to facilitate their intercourse and good fellowship; to elevate the standing of the profession; and to combine the efforts of those engaged in the practice of Architecture, for the general advancement of the Art.”35 And later in its mission statement, “the objects of this Institute are to unite in fellowship the Architects of this continent, and to combine their efforts so as to promote the artistic, scientific, and practical efficiency of the profession.”36 If then the historical development of a profession has required a specialization in skill and capacity based on refinement of craft, then its constitution may have served as an exclusive instrument in the classification of both social and professional statuses. Is it then possible that, at its core, the profession’s own constitution—once intended to protect and include—serves as an unintended exclusionary device? If categorization,

Furthermore, does this grounding towards spatial practices that shape the built environment debase the exclusive authority of the architect on practices of the built environment? And, the hegemony of the individual, “stoic,” and “autonomous building”?37 What responsibility does the legal stronghold of a professional title have on the identity of so many practitioners whose influence not only breaks beyond the envelope of single building projects, but also breaks open stereotypes of professional identity? Can new identities open new public spheres and dismantle professional,


classification, and even capitalization of Architecture has historically served to underpin methods by which scientific research and advancement occur, then can the decategorization, and the potential declassification of architects provide a rereading of the history of urbanism altogether? Does the singling out of ‘Jane Jacobs’ as ‘urbanist’ in Jencks’ diagram propose a rereading of what the profession represents as a whole? Should the contours of the profession be delineated differently to include, rather than exclude parallel practices of landscape architecture, interior design, or even state planning? Do the sister practices of visual communications, urban photography, industrial design, critical and spatial theory, or journalism bear any significance to this refashioning of the architectural establishment towards more diverse and integrative possibilities that open more urban realms of engagement?


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Elizabeth Farel

Joan Forrester Sprague Architec Susana Torre Historian, Architect, Educator

Elizabeth Chesterton Architect, Urban Planner Ivenue Love-Stanley Architec Sheila Levrant de Bretteville Graphic Designer, Educator a Siren Architect Maria Auböc Anna Halprin Dancer, Theorist Verma Panton Architect Louise Harris Brown Architect Yasmeen Lari Architect Mary Otis Stevens Architect, Publisher Joan Goody Architect, Preservationist, Educator culturalist Cathy Simon Architect Sharon E. Sutton Ragna Grubb Architect ist Mary Lund Davis Architect, Industrial Designer Sara Ishikawa Architect Jane Drew Architect, Urban Planner, Theorist Flora Manteola Architect Crowe Landscape Architect Cynthia Weese Architect, Educato Zelma Wilson Urban Planner, Architect Dina Stancheva Architect Brinda Somaya Architect Ada Louise Huxtable Architectural Critic, Historian M Дина Николова Станчева P Myriam Beach Architect, Landscape Architect hitect Odilia Suárez Architect, Urban Planner, Educator Josefa Santos Architect Ann Beha Architect M Ingrid Bourne Landscape Architect Norie Kikutake Architect Su Brumwell Architect Dimity Reed Architect, Po Alison Smithson Architect, Theorist t Margot Taulé Architect, Engineer Miranda Martinelli Magnoli Zoe Zenghelis Artist, Designer Chowdhury Architect, Historianm Landscape Architect Ros Ζωή Ζέγγελης Jean Walton Landscape Architect a Architect, Urban Designer Katerina Tsigarida Architect Elizabeth Wright Ingraham Architect, Educator L. Jane Hastings Architect Κατερίνα Τσιγαρίδα Clara de B Anne Whiston Spirn Landscape Architect, Educator, Historian storian, Educator Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk Urban Plan Chloethiel Woodard Smith Architect, Urban Planner, Educator Elissa Aalto Architect everly Loraine Greene Architect Renée Gailhoustet Architect, Historian Julienne Hanson Educat Judith Edelman Architect, Historian Hoa Architect Rosa Grena Kliass Landscape Architect Natalie Griffin de Blois Architect Nadi ndustrial Designer Luzia Hartsuyker-Curjel Architect, Urban Planner Raili Pietilä Architect, Urban Designer M. Rosaria Piomelli Edu Ethel Bailey Furman Architect Denise Scott Brown Architect, Urban Planner, Theorist Milka Bliznakov Architect, Educat or Georgie Wolton Architect Ada Karmi-Melamede Architect Милка Близнаков Minette de Silva Architect Maya Li ernstedt Architect, Urban Planner Barbara Schock-Werner Architect nterior Architect, Educator Harriet Pattison Architect, Landscape Architect Tonny Zwollo Architect, Theorist ct, Policy Maker Do Dora Gad Interior Architect

hitect Angela Schweitzer Lopetegui Architect Ellen Perry Berkeley Historian, Theorist Rosalie Gen Carol R. Johnson Landscape Architect, Urban Planner Barbara Biel Anne Griswold Tyng Architect, Theorist, Educator Pamela Cluff Architect, Theorist Phyllis Lambert Architect Jane Jacobs Theorist, Urban Planner Astra Zarina Educator, Architect Kate Macintosh Architect Hélène Cixous Writer, Philosopher Yvonne Farrell Architect Dolore chitect Maija Isola Designer Wenche Selmer Architect, Educator Christina Perks Architect Gae Aulenti Architect, Indu Franca Helg Urban Planner, Industrial Designer, Educator Wimmer Landscape Architect ara Porset Designer B Valve Pormeister Architect Leslie Kane Weisman Urban Planner, Educator Judith Roque-Gourary Architect Penelope Seidle Bassett Industrial Designer Isabelle Auricoste Interior Architect Margaret Thatcher Prime Minister, England Grethe Meyer Architect, Designer Gertrude Lempp Kerbis Architect Roberta Washington Architec Eva Vecsei Architect Dorothy Hussey Landscape Architect Architect, Educator Carol Franklin Landscape Architect Helga Plumb Architect Revathi K Marion Tournon-Branly Architect, Educator chitect Gwendolyn Wright Historian, Theorist, Educator Hillary Rodham ne Tyrwhitt Urban Planner, Educator Wendy Cheesman Architect Frances Halsband Architect, Educator Sheila Sri Prakash Architect Elisabeth Böhm Interior Architect Aung San Suu Kyi P Juana Ontañón Architect f Pattee Landscape Architect, Educator Högna Sigurðardóttir Architect, Industrial Designer Marika Zagorisiou Architect F Stanisława Sandecka Nowicki Graphic Designer, Educator Madelon Vriesendorp Architect Op Μαρίκα Ζαγορησίου Engineer Lota de Macedo Soares Architect Donella Meadows Environmental Scientist, Writer, Educator Patricia Johans ander Landscape Architect Margaret Feilman Architect, Urban Planner Doris Cole Historian, Arch Patricia Carlisle Landscape Architect Dina Zerega Architect Shelley McNamara Architect Anna Wintour Journalist vil Rights Activist Ruth Rivera Marín Architect, Educator, Theorist Pamela Burton Landscape Architect Tilla The Hattie Carthan Community Activist, Environmentalist Raquel Peñalosa Urban Designe Gerda Gollwitzer Landscape Architect -Łyżwińska Urban Planner, Educator Eva Jiřič Karen McCoy Architect Diane Kostial McGuire Landscape Architect, Historian Politician Rachel Carson Marine Biologist, Writer Wangari Maathai Environmental & POlitic Golda Meir Prime Minister of Israel ucator, Historian, Theorist Sara Topelson de Grinberg A Cristina Felsenhardt Architect Barbara Ward, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth Economist, Environmentalist tionist Ranjini Kalappa Lisa Peattie Anthropologist Rosalind E. Krauss Art Critic & Theorist E Janet Abu-Lughod Sociologist Phyllis Birkby Architect, Filmmaker, Educator Marie Tharp Geologist, Oceanographic Car Xiuwen Qiu Architect Minnette de Silva Architect Solange d'Herbez de la Tour Architect Leslie Kanes Weisman Urban planner, Educator Svetlana Kana Radević Architect n Gottlieb Architecture Vesna Bugarski Architect, Interior Designer Amanda Burden Policy Make Margarita Brender Rubira Architect Tatyana Velik Elisabeth von Knobelsdorff Architect, Engineer Leonore Davidoff Historian, Sociologist, Editor

Татьяна Ми

Nancy Somerville Landscape Architect Yen Ha Architect Martha Fajardo La Malkit Shoshan Theorist Anca Malene Hauxner Landscape Architect, Theorist, Educator a Levisman Architect, Archivist Madeline A Winka Dubbeldam Architect Shimul Javeri Kadri Architect Anna-Theres Marie Philipp Arc Houben Architect Katerina Ruedi Ray Educator, Historian Inga Varg Architect Naomi K chitect, Landscape Architect Marguerite Mercier Urban Planner Mary McLeod Educator, Historian Brit Andresen Architect, Edu Shannon Nichol Landscape Architect Felicia Chateloin Ar Jeanne-Claude Artist Jill Desimin elly Architect, Architecture Critic, Educator Sandra Barclay Architect, Educator Anya Van der Merwe Architect Andrea Leers Urban Designer, Educator ect, Urban Planner, Historian Marilyn Jordan Taylor Educator, Archit Sheila Jasanoff Environmental Lawyer, Educator Kazuyo Sejima Architect Chie Nabe Linda Mvusi Actress, Architect Blanche M. G. Linden Historian, Educator

hitect, Developer

Mia Lehrer Landscape Architect, Urban Designer

Elizabeth Grosz Author, Educator

Deborah Marton Landscape Architect Catherine Ingraham Educator, Theorist, Editor Margarita Greene Architect, Educator, Theorist Carmen Córdova Architect Ruth Alvarado Archit Hedda Beese Architect, Industrial Designer Chie Eve Blau Historian, Theorist, Educator Julie Bargmann Landscape Architect Ksenija Bulatović Architect Monica öck Landscape Architect, Educator Anna Maria Indrio Architect Ксенија Булатовић Carme Pigem Architect, Educator Catherine Howett Educator, Historian Sherry Ahrentzen Educator, Theorist, Histo t Michelle Kaufmann Fani Danadjieva Hansen Architect, Historian Ann Chaintreuil Architect Isabelle Greene Landscape Architect, Bo Arza Churchman Psychologist, Urban Planner, Educator Elizabeth Huyghe L n Architect, Social Worker, Educator, Historian Ana María Durán Calisto Diana Balmori Landscape Architect, Urban Designer, Theorist Zoe Samourkas Architect Jane Wolff Landscape Architect Masako Hayashi Marine Biologist, Explorer, Author Ζωή Σαμούρκα Rosa Montserrat Palmer Educator, Editor ator Olajumoke Adenowo Architect, Radio Host, Philanthropist Rocio Romero Architect Deborah B Jane Wernick Engineer Saskia Sassen Sociologist Margot Siegel Architect Lindy Roy Architect, Educator Benedetta Tagliabue Architect, Judge Patty Hopkins Architect Rosalind Williams Educator, Scientist Graciela Silvestri Architect, Theorist, Educat Karen Fairbanks Architect, Educator Fuensanta Nieto Architect Tatiana Bilbao Architect Ching Ho E Marillyn Hewson CEO, Lockheed Martin Sylvia Earle Marine Biologist, Explorer, Author Arlette Schneiders Architect Gulnara Mehmandarova Architect, Preservationist, Historian olicy Maker Gülnarə Linda Flint McClelland Historian Leonie Sandercock Urban Planner, Educ i Landscape Architect, Theorist Paola Antonelli Curator oser Amadó Architect, Urban Planner Beatriz Colomina Educator, Historian, Theorist Sofía von Ellrichshausen Architect An Sara Gramática Architect Hisila Yami Architect, Politician Liane Lefaivre Curator, Theorist, Edu Itsuko Hasegawa Architect Buen Richkarday Architect Sho-Ping Chin Architect Kathryn H. Anthony Educato Sarah Susanka Architec Marion Weiss Urban Designer nner, Architect Daphne Spain Educator, Urban Planne Amanda Levete Architect, Theorist Laurie Mutchnik Maurer Architect Jennifer S Elizabeth Meyer Educator, Theorist ator, Architect Hanne Kjærholm Architect, Educator Dalila Chebbi Architect Sarah Wigglesworth Architect, Educator Carme Pinós Architect Gwynne Shotwell COO, SpaceX Melind dine Isaacs Architect, Educator Angela Brady Architect ducator, Architect Marianne McKenna Architect Susan Fainstein Urban Planner, Theorist Galia Carol Ross Barney Architect, Urban Designer Toni Griffin Urban Planner, Educator ator, Historian Mary Margaret Jones Landscape Architec Mayumi Watanabe de Souza Lima Architect, Educator, Theorist Elizabeth Diller Architect, Educator, Theorist Susan Maxman Architect, Environmentalist Lin Architect Ila Berman Educator, Architect, Theorist Micaela di Leonardo Cultural Anthropologist Inessa Hansch Arch Keller Easterling Educator, Theorist, Urban Planner oriana Mandrelli Architect Sheila O'Donnell Architect Karin Bucher Architec nevro Architectural Historian, Curator, Educator Anne Fougeron Architect Tatiana Fabeck Architect Nitza Metzger Szmuk Architect elecka Architect, Educator Diane Davis Chitra Vishwanath Architect, Environmentalist ct, Historian Ana Elvira Vélez Architect Merrill Elam Architect Diana Agrest Architect, Urban Designer, Educator, Theo Khaleda Ekram Educator, Architect ores Hayden Educator, Historian, Architect Jeanne G Judith B. Tankard Historian, Preservationist Martha Schwartz Landscape Architect Sonia Tschorne Architect, Urban Plann Sho-Ping Chin Architect ustrial Designer Diana Spencer Princess of Wales Thaïsa Way Historian, Educator Debra M. Brown Architect, Judge Beatriz del Cueto Architect, Conservationist Rebecca Carpenter Architect Vyjayanthi Rao Theorist, E ler Architect Anne Lacaton Architect Billie Tsien Architect Anne Fairfax Paulina Courard Délano Architect Hui Huang Architect nd Rena Sakellariou Architect Heather Woofter Arc Paola Viganò Urban Designer, Educator ect Ρένα Σακελλαρίου Teresa Táboas Architect, Po Zaha Hadid Architect, Theorist Arza Churchman Psychologist, Urban Planner, Educator Heidi Nepf Engi Kamath Architect Susan Osborne Landscape Architect Vict Teresa Moller Landscape Architect m Clinton Politician Catharina Nolin Landscape Historian Claudia Thomet Architect Rossana Hu Ar Julia Barfield Architect Karen Bausman Architect, Educator, Theorist Dörte Politician Louisa Hutton Architect Peggy Deamer Educator, Theorist Svetlana Boym Educator, Theorist, Historian Françoise-Hélène Jourda Architect, Educator Mary Reynolds Garden Designer Светлана Юрьевна Бойм prah Winfrey Producer, Publisher, Philanthropist Hisila Yami Architect, Politician Habibeh Madjda Samira Rathod Architect, Designer, Writer nson Artist Deborah Nevins Landscape Architect, Historian Homa Farjadi Architect Sarah Nettleton Architect, Landscape Archite Nadia Bakhurji Interior Designer chitect Cheong K Felicity D. Scott Architectural Historian ct Glenda Kapstein Lombo Farshid Moussavi Architect, Theorist Anupama Kundoo Architect heus Architect Adriana Hoffmann Biologist and Ecolog er, Landscape Architect Morpho Papanikolaou Architect Shahira Fahmy Matilda McQuaid Curator, Historian Μόρφω Παπανικολάου řičná Architect, Educator Kate Otten Architect Nancy Turner Ethnobiologist Mimi Sheller Sociolog Nadya Aisenberg Historian Nathalie de Vries Architect, Theorist Ann Forsyth Urban Planner ical Activist Áine Brazil Vice C Martha Stewart Media Mogul, Business Woman Virginia Tanzmann Architect Odile Decq Architect, Ed Georgina Huljich Architect, Educator Architect, Urban Planner, Educator Nina Tsukumo Urbanist Deborah Ryan Architect, Urban Designe Christine Conix Architect, Urban Planner Susan Leigh Star Sociologist, Infrastructural Ethnographer Architect Margaret Peil Urbanist, Researcher Dorothée Imbert L Kyna Leski Architect,Educator Elaine Carbrey Architect, Urban Planner Benazir Bhutto Politician Kathryn Gustafson Landscape Architect Barbara Adam Sociologist May artographer Susan L. Klaus Historian Julia Bolles Architect, Educator Mona Harrington Historian Rivka Oxman Architect, Educator, Theorist Eva Castro Architect, Educator N Caroline Bos Architect Architec Marjetica Potrč Margaret Helfand Architect, Urban Planner Kathryn Findlay Architect Robin Karson Landscape Historian Petra Blaisse Architect, Designer Cazú Ze Patricia M. O'Donnell Landscape Architect, Urban Planner Sarah Williams Goldhagen Architecture Critic ker, Urban Planner Valerie Hassett Architect, Interior Designer Gloria Montenegro Botanist, Biologist, Educator Laurinda Hope Spear Architect, Landscape Architect likanova Human Rights Activist, Mathematician, Editor Jane M. Jacobs Urbanist, Educator Jennifer Marmon Architect Kristin Михайловна Великанова Kathryn Dean Architect Ellen Johnson Sirleaf President, Liberia Angela Merkel Stateswoman, G


Maria N. Kokkinou Architect

Μαρία Ν Κοκκίνου

Janette Sadik-Khan Urban Planner, Policy Maker

Liat Margolis Landscape Architect, Engineer

Mariana Ibañez Architect, Engineer andscape Architect Fiona Cousins Engineer a Petrescu Architect Carolina Contreras Architect Arakawa Gins Theorist, Architect Safra Catz CEO, Oracle chitect Sarah Whiting Architect, Educator Klein Journalist, Filmmaker, Social Activist Patama Roonrakwit Architect Ellen Dunham-Jones Urban Designer, Educator, Theorist ucator rchitect Mia Hägg Architect Ulrike Krippner Landscape Architect, Historian ni Architect, Landscape Architect, Educator Mariana Ibañez Architect, Engineer Alla G. Vronskaya Architectural Historian tect Malala Yousafzai Women’s Right Activist Esther Sperber Architect eshima Architect Helena Weber Architect Lise Anne Couture Architect, Educator Stephanie Carlisle Environmental Engineer, Architect Arundhati Bhattacharya Chair-Managing Director, State Bank of India tect Róisín Heneghan Architect Rebecca Solnit Writer, Editor e Nabeshima Architect Emma Miloyo Architect Jacky Bowring Editor, Theorist a Adams Architect Antonia Lehmann Architect Julia Czerniak Urban Designer, Landscape Architect, Educator Anna Heringer Architect orian Gina Ford Urban Designer n Architect Martha Thorne Educator, Historian otanist, Artist Alessandra Ponte Architect, Educator Landscape Architect Lucía Cano Architect Mariana Leguía Architect, Editor Theorist, Urban Designer Adèle Naudé Santos Architect, Educator t, Educator Sai Balakrishnan Urban Planner, Policy Maker Julie Eizenberg Architect a Barbara Visual Artist Christine Lagarde Lawyer, Politician Berke Architect, Educator Diane Jones Allen Urban Planner r Jing Liu Architect Nina Rappaport Editor Mimi Hoang Architect Manuelle Gautrand Architect Mikyoung Kim Urban Planner tor Susan K. Trautman CPRP, The Great Rivers Greenway District Engineer Eva Franch Architect, Curator, Educator Barbara Kuit Architect Allison Williams Architect Lisa Iwamoto Architect, Engineer, Educator cator, Theorist Laura Alzarev Architect Kristine Jensen Landscape Architect, Educator r, Theorist Feng Han Theorist, Educator, Landscape Architect nnabelle Selldorf Architect Alison Brooks Architect ucator Natalie Jeremijenko Artist, Engineer or, Historian Susan Herrington Landscape Architect, Theorist Wenyu Lu Architect ct, Theorist, Speaker Amale Andraos Architect, Educator er, Historian Tabitha Ponte Architect S. Light Historian Alison B. Hirsch Landscape Historian, Theorist, Educator Anuradha Mathur Educator, Landscape Architect, Historian da Gates Philanthropist Silvia Benedito Landscape Architect, Educator Mónica Ponce de León Architect, Educator, Theorist Euneika Rogers-Sipp Design Activist Alexia León Angell Architect Solomonoff Architect, Educator ct Iris Medler Curator, Historian Aziza Chaouni Architect, Educator Toshiko Mori Architect Sarah Primeau Landscape Architect Aleksandra Jaeschke Architect Alessandra Cianchetta Architect Ellen Neises Landscape Architect, Urban Planner hitect Emily Talen Urban Planner, Editor Sheila Kennedy Architect, Theorist, Educator ct Sonja Dümpelmann Landscape Architect, Historian, Educator Nanako Umemoto Architect Inès Lamunière Architect, Educator, Editor Urban Planner, Educator, Theorist Rosa Sheng Architect orist Jo Guldi Historian Zeynep Fadıllıoğlu Architect Nina Chase Urban Designer Gang Architect Kate Orff Landscape Architect, Educator, Theorist Kirsteen Mackay Architect Anita Berrizbeitia Landscape Architect, Educator, Theorist ner, Policy Maker Alpa Nawre Educator, Urban Planner Ananya Roy Educator Lola Sheppard Urban Designer, Theorist, Educator Educator Ruth Reed Architect Nette Compton Landscape Architect Architect Rosetta Elkin Landscape Architect, Educator chitect, Educator Claudia Amico Tudela Architect, Director, Educator Ellen Braae Landscape Architect, Educator Cecilia Puga Architect, Educator olitician Jane Hutton Landscape Architect, Educator Despina Stratigakos Educator, Theorist, Historian ineer

Δέσποινα Στρατηγάκος Sue Courtenay Architect toria Meyers Architect Zaida Muxí Urban Planner, Politician rchitect Claire Weisz Urban Designer e Gatermann Architect Pascale Guédot Architect Carla Juaçaba Architect, Educator Lori Brown Educator, Theorist, Architect

Céline Cousteau Film Director & Producer, Explorer, Designer Elizabeth Chu Richter Architect abadi Architect Louise Cox Architect, Educator Rania Ghosn Architect, Geographer Miho Mazereeuw Educator, Theorist Sara Valente Architect ect, Author Tamarah Begay Architect Teresa Borsuk Architect Koon Hean Architect, Urban Planner Elizabeth Añaños Architect, Urban Designer, Educator Iris Meder Curator, Historian oy Architect gist, Writer Catherine Hall Historian Caroline O'Donnell Architect, Educator Architect, Educator Andrea Cochran Landscape Architect Neri Oxman Architect, Educator, Theorist Ing-wen Tsai Politician Sonali Rastogi Architect Kelly Shannon Landscape Architect, Urban Designer gist Chair Woman, Thornton Tomasetti Maria Goula Architect, Landscape Architect, Theorist Michelle Llona Architect Elizabeth Grant Historian, Anthropologist ducator er Leila Araghian Architect Suad Amiry Author, Architect Pilar Cereceda Geographer Kathryn Moore Landscape Architect, Theorist Landscape Architect, Educator Architect Barbie Architect, Fictional Figure Karen M’Closkey Landscape Architect, Educator Esther Ayuso Architect, Politician ya Ballén Architect Antje Stokman Landscape Architect, Educator Jessica Sabogal Graffiti Artist Margit Mayer Urban Theorist Nicole Dosso Architect Sylvia Lavin Architect, Historian, Educator ct, Artist Katja Grillner Educator, Theorist, Historian Marta Morelli Architect Bernaderre Blanchon Educator, Landscape Architect egers Architect Hiba Bou Akar Urban Planner, Educator c Juliette Bekkering Architect Andrea Hansen Landscape Architect, Graphic Designer Laura Alvarez Architect na Hill Landscape Architect, Educator Helaine Kaplan-Prentice Urban Planner, Educator Nina-Marie Lister Urban Planner, Landscape Architect Germany Patricia Llosa Architect


regulatory conventions? Can these new representations of identity, multiplicity, and difference, instead of oppositions, lead to new spatial equities and spatial justices, environments originally conceived on the perpetuation of male-dominated narratives? Could a feminist rereading of architecture and a more feminine narrative of urbanism open new territorial practices and living systems? Would this lens reclaim the absence and marginalization of other voices, lives, histories, and practices?

The Missing 400

Undressing Jencks’ Diagram

Here, in the matter and manner of praxis, at the intersection of gender and history, the voice of radical and revolutionary feminist Hélène Cixous in “The Laugh of the Medusa” resonates: “As subject for history, [the] woman always occurs simultaneously in several places. Woman un-thinks the unifying, regulating history that homogenizes and channels forces, herding contradictions into a single battlefield. In woman, personal history blends together with the history of all women, as well as national and world history. As a militant, she is an integral part of all liberations. She must be farsighted, not limited to a blow-by-blow interaction. She foresees that her liberation will do more than modify power relations or toss the ball over to the other camp; she will bring about a mutation in human relations, in thought, in all praxis: hers is not simply a class struggle, which she carries forward into a much vaster movement.

[…] The new history is coming; it’s not a dream, though it does extend beyond men’s imagination, and for good reason. It’s going to deprive them of their conceptual orthopedics, beginning with the destruction of their enticement machine. It is impossible to define a feminine practice of writing, and this is an impossibility that will remain, for this practice can never be theorized, enclosed, coded—which doesn’t mean that it doesn’t exist. But it will always surpass the discourse that regulates the phallocentric system; it does and will take place in areas other than those subordinated to philosophico-theoretical domination. It will be conceived of only by subjects who are breakers of automatisms, by peripheral figures that no authority can ever subjugate.”38


Not that in order to be a woman-in-struggle(s) you have to leave the class struggle or repudiate it; but you have to split it open, spread it out, push it forward, fill it with the fundamental struggle so as to prevent the class struggle, or any other struggle for the liberation of a class or people, from operating as a form of repression, pretext for postponing the inevitable, the staggering alteration in power relations and in the production of individualities.


Cixous’ 1976 profile of the suppression, repression, and misrepresentation of the woman is instructive, a battlefield that she qualifies and contextualizes as “an arid millennial ground […] to break up, to destroy; and to foresee the unforeseeable, to project”39

The Missing 400

Opening the Urban Field

Opening the Urban Field The review of Jencks’ diagram—his own enticement machine enthralled with movements of architecture and carefully selected segments of practice—then provides a base to be blown up, a system to be destroyed, for not only exposing the awkward silence and absence of women but, it also builds the foundation of a new platform—a new ground—that cuts through the confines and complexes of the architectural establishment that has so closely guarded its jurisdiction and its boundary through entitlement, isolation, and toxic masculinity. Rebased and redefined though the lens of the missing gender in the history of architectural realms and the urban fields, the architects and architectures of the present—when seen in a feminist, reconstituted context that includes a range of practices and territorial possibilities—illustrate a much greater repertoire of creators and entrepreneurs, by engaging difference and identity through gender, race, class, creed, nationality, and ideology.40

In her 1994 book, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom, bell hooks further explains: “If black women and white women continue to express fear and rage without a commitment to move on through these emotions in order to explore new grounds for contact, our efforts to build an inclusive feminist movement will fail. Much depends on the strength of our commitment to feminist process and feminist movement. There have been so many feminist occasions where differences surface, and with them expressions of pain, rage, hostility. Rather than coping with these emotions and continuing to probe intellectually and search for insight and strategies of confrontation, all avenues for discussions become blocked and no dialogue occurs. I am confident that wom-


However, as black feminist scholar bell hooks explains that with “the increasing institutionalization and professionalization of feminist work focused on the construction of feminist theory and the dissemination of feminist knowledge,” extreme care in coalitions must be taken to avoid co-opting this movement or perpetuating complicity in “positions of power that enable [women] to reproduce the servant-served paradigm in a radically different context.”41 Gender parity as a collective project is thus deeply embedded in racial equality and racial justice.

40 The Missing 400

A Radical New Majority Creative Entrepreneurs, Models, Architects, Thinkers, Writers, Rulers, Scholars, Philanthropists, and Fighters of Urban Environments, featuring (left to right) Queen Victoria Regina, at the height of the British Empire (1901), Phyllis Lambert (1963), Architect Zaha Hadid explains her competition winning proposal for The Peak in Hong Kong to UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1984), Jane Jacobs in New York (1967), Martha

41 *Image credits, p. 57 Stewart’s Living (1996), Denise Scott Brown in Las Vegas (1972), Liberia’s Iron Lady and Prime Minister Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (2007), Diane Jones Allen, landscape architecture program director at UT Arlington (2017), Kate Orff, the first landscape architect to receive the MacArthur Fellowship (2017), Mattel’s Architect Barbie (2006), Architect Jeanne Gang in Chicago (2013)*

42 Opening the Urban Field The Missing 400

en have the skills (developed in interpersonal relations where we confront gender difference) to make productive space for critical dissent dialogue even as we express intense emotions. We need to examine why we suddenly lose the capacity to exercise skill and care when we confront one another across race and class differences. It may be that we give up so easily with one another because women have internalized the racist assumption that we can never overcome the barrier separating white women and black women. If this is so then we are seriously complicit. To counter this complicity, we must have more written work and oral testimony documenting ways barriers are broken down, coalitions formed, and solidarity shared. It is this evidence that will renew our hope and provide strategies and direction for future feminist movement. Producing this work is not the exclusive task of white or black women; it is collective work. The presence of racism in feminist settings does not exempt black women or women of color from actively participating in the effort to find ways to communicate, to exchange ideas, to have fierce debate. If revitalized feminist movement is to have a transformative impact on women, then creating a context where we can engage in open critical dialogue with one another, where we can debate and discuss without fear of emotional collapse,

Throughout urban history then, these differences and complexities extend far beyond the legacy of the recent twentieth century in forms of heteropatriarchy and settler colonialism. They consequently surpass the historic periods of Victorianism, Militarism, and Academism of the profession of Architecture, so blatantly organized in neat, discreet decades. Histories of resistance and solidarity must be rewritten and revised, consequently making the list of the “missing 400” look more like a cloud of overlapping lifelines and timelines— both diachronic and synchronic—where relations, collaborations, and kinships brush and rush into one another: signs, signals, and symbols that are co-dependent effects and co-constituent forces of the times themselves. The restitution, then, of the “missing 400” women in Jencks’ diagram43 delineates a new ground for rebasing the bounded practice of architecture, while at the same time provides an important turn-of-the-century opportunity to demonstrate a field of influence of another 400 (if not much


where we can hear and know one another in the difference and complexities of our experience, is essential. Collective feminist movement cannot go forward if this step is never taken. When we create this woman space where we can value difference and complexity, sisterhood based on political solidarity will emerge.”42

44 Opening the Urban Field The Missing 400

more), absent creators and erased practitioners that have contributed towards an understanding, changing, and shaping of built environments—as pluralistic architectures… an urban field that is quite obviously more than just the sum of buildings or the exclusive domain of their male designers. This restitution is also a political inscription and temporal transcription of interconnected lives and influences that have shaped ages, generations, communities, and minds from the ground of gardens, to the idol of dolls, to the words of critics, to the lens of photographers, through to the materials of craftwork. These extensive worlds and realms of urban creators and shapers are vast, extensive, and exhilarating. From the iconic influence of Architect Barbie44 hitting the market with more than one million dolls sold since she was born in 2006, to the media mogul and lifestyle designer Martha Stewart who built the Omni Media empire from the late 1980s onward,45 to the illustrious Queen Victoria—arguably, the most powerful woman to roam the face of the Earth,46 to Liberia’s recent “Iron Lady” President Ellen Sirleaf Johnson who is barcoding every single tree of its imperiled rain forest,47 there is a multitude of gendered realms and dimensions that reshape the profession, dismantle its predisposition towards erasure and exclusion, to rebuild imaginations premised on influence, inspiration, innovation, intervention, inhabitation, and interrelation. From architect of state and UK Prime Min-

By grounding the influence of all these spatial entrepreneurs, community makers that have been either exorcised or censored from matters of space, place, and territory (and thereby of history) across a range of scales (territorial and temporal), the landscape of alter-architectures and the counter-plans of this urban history unfold across a terrain of shapers and movers of the urban environment, in a cloud of accumulating practices affecting and effecting the built environment from the interior of households to the borders of nation states, from engineering thresholds to designing livelihoods, from the fashioning of furniture to the cultivation of kitchen gardens woven through a colorful yet powerful play of different people, politics, and publics. Gender thus effectively displaces the limits of professional authority and diffuses boundaries of guarded practice while avoiding the facile stereotyping that dominated historical perception at a time in the design professions when “during the nineteenth century,” for example, “gardening was a


ister Margaret Thatcher to architect of history and criticism Ada Louise Huxtable, from architectural gardener Gertrude Jekyll to architectural innovator Jeanne Gang to interior designer Petra Blaisse, the diagram of this collective project spans not only practices, but also societal classes and racial identities—all possibilities when seen across the ages of generations of influence.

46 Opening the Urban Field The Missing 400

hobby suitable for women in the socially constricted environment,”48 or when “something in the air of the Anglo-Saxon countries let it be known that landscape art was a suitable profession for women.”49 Gender distributes and disseminates intellectual thought concentrated around a movement and an academy to form new clouds and concentrations to displace what has historically been venerated as the province of European aesthetics and paternalistic pragmatism of American economics: its privilege as stylistic affiliations or fashionable trends replaced and repositioned through social justice and interactive participation in a living world, beyond that of man or binary identity, and radically beyond that of Architecture, and its disciplinary confines.50 As a transgressive technique, gender therefore provides (as part of the resurgence of LGBTQIA+ communities) more than just a revision to past histories and past practices, it delineates the contours and future focus on a field through alternative lenses and dimensions beyond commonly-held assumptions and conventions: ––

beyond the categorization and classification of the Architect


beyond the industrial professionalization of the Architect


beyond the exclusive definition of Architectural practice through buildings

beyond the European periodization of Architectural history


beyond the exclusive focus on the history of Architecture through the history of buildings


beyond the stylistic affiliations and schools of thought across the Academy


beyond the widespread cultures of appropriation of the discipline of Architecture


beyond the predominant Eurocentric geographies and Anglo-Saxon languages of Western Scholarship

…Thus what is revolutionary about the diagram, this field of political proto-creators, is what is found in the process of its revision, of the retrieval and recuperation of nearly 800 agents that are rethinking the structure of the foundations of not only architecture, but of professions and disciplines themselves. The only limits that are drawn are guided by the contours of their lives, their families, their abilities, their exchanges, their relations, their overlaps, their influences, their embodied experiences. Here, the explicit representational lens and language of landscape is strategic in the transfiguration of design disciplines towards environments as ‘urban field,’ entailing a transfiguration that is historical as much as it is contemporary. Design



The Missing 400

Opening the Urban Field


historian Dell Upton explained this sharp distinction in the incisive article “Architectural History or Landscape History?” back in 1991: “As an accident of its historical development, architectural history suffers from captivity to analytical assumptions that were invented in the nineteenth century to justify the claims of the architectural profession. This [research] questions the utility of several of the elementary categories of architectural history, including the assumption of aesthetic universals, of the individual work as the unit of analysis, and the distinction between creator and audience, and proposes a ‘landscape’ approach to architectural history that acknowledges the multiplicity and fragmentation of environmental meaning. […] Since there can be no normative perception, the human environment is necessarily the product of powerful yet diffuse imaginations, fractured by the fault lines of class, culture, and personality. It cannot be universalized, canonized, or even unified.”51 In this process of transfiguration, the parallel systems of representation by inscription and transcription—not reconciliation—is and must remain the objective of this collective project. Moving forward, Spivak is again instructive, in her 1993 book Outside in the Teaching Machine:

As a force-field then, gender not only recognizes and reidentifies the presence of voices within a given discipline or profession: it rethinks the psychology of how not only we represent the environment, but how we see, understand, organize, and influence the worlds we live in. In order to avoid the captivity and ‘imprisonment’ of the professional design disciplines that they themselves have emerged out of a provincially-British, -Victorian, bureaucratic, and industrial tradition, this seismic transformation will require not only “the [transgression of] frontiers” and “the crossing of borders,”53 but will require a productive weakening54 of closely guarded jurisdictions, idealized models, and categorical stereotypes in favor of stronger, more diverse, and pluralistic practices. In an undisciplined, unbounded, yet precise and spatial way, gender—in all its permutations and variations, in all its mutability and fluidity, in all its vibrance and presence, in all its weakness and temporariness—becomes the great liberator


“For the long haul emancipatory social intervention is not primarily a question of redressing victimage by the assertion of (class-, or gender-, or ethno-cultural) identity. It is a question of developing vigilance for systemic appropriations of the unacknowledged social production of a differential that is one basis of exchange into the networks of the cultural politics of class- or gender-identification.”52


of possibilities and practices shown here in the multitude of entrepreneurs, activists, elders, poets, researchers, funders, and fighters that have shaped and continue to transform the urban environment around us—and the freedoms and liberties upon which it survives and thrives.

The Missing 400

Opening the Urban Field

Fortunately, for the next generation unwilling to accept the status-quo of the past one-hundredand-fifty years or unsatisfied with the unequal world they are inheriting, the twenty-first century is just beginning‌


2 The five titles include: “Evolutionary Tree to the Year 2000,” in Architecture 2000: Predictions and Methods (London, UK: Studio Vista, 1971), 46–47; “Evolutionary Tree,” in The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, enl. ed. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 1977), 80; “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution,” 77; “Post-Modern Evolution – Evolutionary Tree,” in The New Paradigm in Architecture: The Language of Postmodernism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), 50–51; and “In What Style Shall We Build?” The Architectural Review, March 12, 2015, https://www.architectural-review. com/essays/viewpoints/in-what-style-shall-we-build/8679048. article. 3 Jencks, “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution”, 76. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. According to Jencks’ explanation and interpretation in the article footnotes: “The Century is Over, Evolutionary Tree of Twentieth-Century Architecture. This simplified diagram is based on six major traditions of architecture […Logical, Idealist, Self-Conscious, Intuitive, Activist, Unself Conscious 80% of the Environment] that oscillate with respect to each other, like species. About 60 explicit movements, or schools, emerged in the twentieth century and 100 or so social trends, new technologies and building types. In general the evaluation of an architect’s significance—400 of them—is based on consensus, although there [sic] some judgements that are arguable, such as the supreme importance of Gaudí, and the presence of historians and critics who have formed opinion or theory. It shows creative, conscious movements rather than amount of buildings. Furthermore, it should be in three dimensions showing how all the traditions related simultaneously. The fact it is collapsed in two dimensions sometimes creates two kinds of anomaly. For instance, Eisenman and Cardboard Architecture, are next to Foster, Rogers, and High-Tech, 1973, because these different approaches are variants of the Logical tradition. Second, sometimes architects are in more than one tradition, such as Mackintosh and Le Corbusier, either because they move around or cut across many categories. All diagrams produce some distortions.” Ibid., 79n1, emphasis added. 6 Ibid., 76.


1 Charles Jencks, “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution: An Overview of Twentieth-Century Architecture,” The Architectural Review 208, no. 1,241 (July 2000): 76–79 (76).

7 Ibid.


8 Howard Gardner, Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi (New York, NY: Basic Books, [1993] 2011), 122. 9 See Jencks’ Architecture 2000 (1971), 46–47; and Post-Modern Architecture (1977), 80. Cf. Charles Jencks, “Evolutionary Tree,” in Language of Post-Modern Architecture, 4th enl. rev. ed. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 1984), 80; where “Jacobs” is removed. 10 Jencks, “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution,” 76. 11 Gardner, Creating Minds, xv, xvii. 12 Gayle Rubin, “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex,” in Toward an Anthropology of Women, ed. Rayna R. Reiter (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 1975), 157–210 (160). 13 Ibid., 168.

The Missing 400


14 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012), 124. 15 According to Jencks, “structural diagram or semantic space that generates the evolutionary tree. The structuralist method of analysis, derived from Claude Lévi-Strauss and others, is based on the notion of underlying types and ‘strange attractors.’ Any architect may operate in several opposed traditions at once— e.g. Intuitive/Logical—but on the whole is attracted to consistent semantic centres. The reason is that training, friendships, the marketplace, specialization, ideology, and taste form ‘basins of attraction’, centres of gravity. The semantic space is based on a curious truth: the specific words to which these attractors refer are not as important as the fact that they are as opposite as possible. Such opposition keeps fields of discourse open and from collapsing their axes onto other fields.” See “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution,” 79n2. 16 For a greater discussion of the asymmetry of language and problems of muted groups in communications theory as they pertain to the separation and division of sex and gender in modes of production and labour, see Shirley Ardener and Edwin Ardener, in Perceiving Women, ed. Shirley Ardener (London, UK: Malaby Press, 1975), xii, 19–27. 17 Reyner Banham, “Stocktaking,” The Architectural Review 127, no. 756 (February 1960): 93–100 (93).

19 This “dark” space directly references Hélène Cixous’ sharp and incisive feminist view of the “inevitable struggle [of woman] against conventional man” and “the enormity of the repression that has kept them in the ‘dark’—that dark which people have


18 According to the American Institute of Architects, “the growth of the Women’s Movement in the early 1970’s [sic] provided the impetus for women architects to speak out on their own behalf and to take action to redress the inequities experienced by women in the profession. In 1972 organizations of women architects were formed, independently from each other, in Boston, New York, and the San Francisco Bay Area. The following year, […] three component organizations submitted resolutions on the subject to be presented at the 1973 Convention. [Despite stiff opposition,] the resolution called for the study of the status of women in the architectural profession, including a survey of existing statistics and employment practices relative to women and the formulation of the AIA policies and actions design to ‘integrate women in all aspects of the profession as full participants.’” See Judith Edelman, Marie Laleyan, Patricia Schiffelbein, Joan Sprague, and Jean Young, foreword to Status of Women in the Architectural Profession: Task Force Report (Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1975), 1. The Report mentions two conferences: the first national Symposium on Women in Architecture at Washington University in St. Louis in March 1974; and a month later, the West Coast Women in Design Conference at the School of Architecture at the University of Oregon. During these events, under-representation, discrimination, inequality, and alienation of women were central issues: “The rigid hierarchical office structure, which many women believe is a major barrier to equal opportunity and which general stifles creativity came under criticism, and alternatives such as the horizontal structure and the team concept were discussed” (ibid., 23). Commemorating the 40th anniversary of these milestones, a recent symposium and exhibition at the University of Washington in St. Louis, “Women in Architecture 1974–2014,” reminds how “students, scholars, and practitioners from across the country came to Washington University in St. Louis to have courageous conversations about the status of women in architecture and allied fields” ( wia). This historical research project is an extension and an expansion of those original efforts with, and for a new generation, especially in response to Despina Stratigakos’ call “to be vocal and make trouble.” See introduction to Where Are the Women Architects? (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016), 4.


been trying to make them accept as their attribute.” See Hélène Cixous, “The Laugh of the Medusa,” trans. Keith Cohen and Paula Cohen, Signs 1, no. 4 (Summer 1976): 875–93 (875–76). 20 Since feminism is not a metaphor (nor a trend), this brief summary of accumulated processes of subjugation and marginalization at work avoids the use of certain conventional and widely used metaphors. “If we look back at other periods in US history where that kind of activism was also not present, say for example, in the period between the 1920s and the 1960s, the lack of such very public activity does not necessarily mean the lack of changes in gender norms and gender ideology. Consequently, younger feminists are correct in claiming that there are possibilities for gender activism today that are different from the forms of activism that flourished in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. We can acknowledge those differences and also acknowledge the connections such activism might have to the activism of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s without the use of the ‘wave’ metaphor.” See Linda Nicholson, “Feminism in ‘Waves’: Useful Metaphor or Not?” New Politics 12, no. 4 (Winter 2010): 34–39,

The Missing 400


21 In 1869, political economist and philosopher John Stuart Mill argued that “the legal subordination of one sex to the other—is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances to human improvement.” See The Subjection of Women (London, UK: Longman, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1869), 1, a book that, according to the British Library, was arguably written in close consultation with spouse Harriet Taylor. Also quoted by the British Library in their “Collection Items,” 22 One of the earliest accounts is Catherine Marshall, Charles Kay Ogden, and Mary Sargant Florence, Militarism Versus Feminism: An Enquiry and a Policy Demonstrating that Militarism Involves the Subjection of Women (London, UK: George Allen & Unwin, 1915). See also, Mary Runte and Albert J. Mills, “I Love Lucid: The Cold War, Feminism, and The Ideation of The American Family” (paper presented at Critical Management Studies Conference 3, University of Lancaster, UK, July 2003), http://www. thecoldwar/runte.pdf. See also Andrew R. Hoy, “The Relationship Between Male Dominance and Militarism: Quantitative Tests of Several Theories,” World Cultures 8, no.2 (1994): 40–57. It is worth noting and underscoring the ongoing violence against

23 Eugene Rabinowitch, “Editorial: Scientific Womanpower,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 7, no. 2 (1951): 34–37. 24 Stephanie Coontz and Peta Henderson, eds., Women’s Work, Men’s Property: The Origins of Gender and Class (London, UK: Verso, 1986). 25 See Rosalind Williams’ original essay on Mumford: “Lewis Mumford as a Historian of Technology in Technics and Civilization,” in Lewis Mumford: Public Intellectual, ed. Thomas P. Hughes and Agatha C. Hughes (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1990), 43–65. 26 See Rosalind Williams’ 2002 revision of her 1990 review of Mumford’s life and work in “Classics Revisited: Lewis Mumford’s Technics and Civilization,” Technology and Culture 43, no.1 (January 2002): 139–49 (140). 27 Esther Sperber, “Revising Our Ideas About Collective Inspiration,” Lilith 38, no. 3 (Fall 2013), gender-and-genius/. 28 See Sperber’s provocative question in 2013, “Did I mention that in 105 years no woman has received the AIA Gold Medal Award?” in her “Revising our Ideas about Collective Inspiration” article. As a rereading of this history of reconciliation, it is also imperative to understand that so-called women’s ‘firsts’ maintain and perpetuate women’s achievements in the context of predominant male categories in society at large and the need for entirely new categories, new structures, and new nomenclatures. “Gold Medal,” American Institute of Architects, 2018, https:// 29 Robin Pogrebin, “No Pritzker Prize for Denise Scott Brown,” The New York Times, June 14, 2013, https://artsbeat.blogs. 30 Vanessa Quirk, “Pritzker Rejects Petition for Denise Scott Brown’s Retroactive Award,” Archdaily, June 16, 2013, http://


women, especially in the atrocious pattern of systemic violence against Indigenous women and girls (#MMIWG), including their communities, in territories of resource extraction that are both remote and in the vicinity of metropolitan regions. See the fact sheets “Violence Against Aboriginal Women” and “Root Causes of Violence Against Aboriginal Women and the Impact of Colonization” by the Native Women’s Association of Canada, https://


31 “How to Nominate,” The Pritzker Architecture Prize, The Hyatt Foundation, 2018, 32 For a current understanding of the state of the discipline of Architecture, see Megan Jett’s “Infographic: Women in Architecture,” Archdaily, March 14, 2012, https://www.archdaily. com/216844/infographic-women-in-architecture; and the earlier RIBA-published technical report by Ann de Graft-Johnson, Sandra Manley, and Clara Greed, Why Do Women Leave Architecture? (Bristol, UK: University of the West of England, 2003).

The Missing 400


33 See Footnote 8 in Michael Hays’ introduction to his anthology Architecture Theory Since 1968 (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998), xv. Most notably, for example, of the 59 contributing authors in Hays’ anthology, only six are women. Similarly, in Joan Ockman’s preceding anthology Architecture Culture 1943–1968: A Documentary Anthology, ed. with Edward Eigen (New York, NY: Columbia Books on Architecture/Rizzoli, 1993), there were 81 contributors, five of which are women. 34 In her 2016 book, Despina Stratigakos bluntly asked this paraphrased question, Where Are the Women Architects? See also her recent article “Architecture Has a Woman Problem: Zaha Hadid Knew It Well,” Slate, April 11, 2016, http://www.slate. com/blogs/the_eye/2016/04/11/where_are_all_the_women_architects_by_despina_stratigakos_examines_the_gender.html. In the third chapter of the same book “What I Learned from Architect Barbie” (pp. 38–49 [38]) quoted in a recent interview with Archdaily’s Karen Cilento, on the novel contribution that Architect Barbie has brought to the field, Despina explains: “As a feminist scholar, I am interested in analyzing the ideological fences that architecture has built around the profession—the barriers that determine outsiders and insiders. One starting point is the idealized image of the architect that has been nurtured within the profession and reinforced in popular culture. Here we find a pervasive insistence on the incompatibility of the architectural and the feminine.” Cf. “Architect Barbie / A Social Experiment,” Archdaily, August 15, 2012, http://www.archdaily. com/263765/architect-barbie-a-social-experiment. 35 As quoted in William R. Ware, “On the Condition of Architecture and of Architectural Education in the United States,” (read at the Ordinary General meeting, 28th January, 1867) in Papers Read at The Royal Institute of British Architects: Session 1866–67

36 The American Institute of Architects, “Constitution of the Consolidated American Institute of Architects and Western Association of Architects,” The American Architect and Building News 25, no. 727 (November 30, 1889): 256. 37 In 1997, cultural theorist Sanford Kwinter declared that “we have no choice today but to deal with the new ‘soft’ infrastructures: knowledge infrastructure, program infrastructure, cultural infrastructure, virtual infrastructure. The demand for design— and de-design—in our overengineered, overmediated world (and this too one day will wane) is both enormous and pervasive, yet the majority of architects still respond to it with the medieval language of the stoic, autonomous building.” See Sanford Kwinter, “FFE: Mach 1 (and Other Mystic Visitations),” in “How the Critic Sees: Seven Critics on Seven Buildings,” ANY: Architecture New York 21 (1997): 54–55 (54); reprinted in Far From Equilibrium, ed. Cynthia Davidson and Michael Kubo (Barcelona: Actar, 2007), 36–45 (38). 38 Cixous, “The Laugh of the Medusa,” 882–83. 39 Ibid., 875. 40 Feminist scholar bell hooks explains that simplifying feminist movements to women’s struggle for equal status with men in the established structures of heteropatriarchy may lead to the “dismissal of race and class as factors that, in conjunction with sexism, determine the extent to which an individual will be discriminated against, exploited, or oppressed.” hooks continues: “Consequently, it is now necessary for advocates of feminism to collectively acknowledge that our struggle cannot be defined as a movement to gain social equality with men; that terms like ‘liberal feminist’ and ‘bourgeois feminist’ represent contradictions that must be resolved so that feminism will not be continually co-opted to serve the opportunistic ends of special interest groups.” Correspondingly, the feminist rereading of architecture, and design disciplines at large, does not assume the recognition of women in urban environments as an end goal; rather a beginning of resistance against structures of inequality that are upheld by complex systems of discrimination, exploitation, and oppression. See bell hooks, “Feminism: A Movement to End Sexist Oppression,” chap. 2 in Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1984), 17–31 (18, 31).


(London, UK: J. Davy and sons, 1867), 81–90 (82), emphasis added. See also “AIA Mission Statement,” AIA Middle East, 2015,

41 bell hooks, “Holding My Sister’s Hand,” chap. 7 in Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom (New York, NY: Routledge, 1994), 93–110 (103). 58

42 Ibid., 109–10. 43 In reference to the “400 protean creators” described in AR by Jencks, “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution,” 77.

The Missing 400


44 Despina Stratigakos, “What I Learned from Architect Barbie,” Places (June 2011), Although the value of Mattel’s “Barbie I Can Be… Architect Doll” is contested. Cf. Alexandra Lange, “Girl Talk,” Dwell (June 27, 2012), https://www.dwell. com/article/girl-talk-34a2a41a: “The World’s Most Popular Doll, Dressed in Architect’s Garb: Friend or Foe to a Profession Already Suffering from a Pronounced Gender Gap?” Claiming its widespread attention as alternative media, carries public impact: “It’s not only the seventeen percent [of women’s representation in Architecture] we should be alarmed about. It’s the fact that a seven-year-old in the twenty-first century could think all architects are men. How does that happen? For Stratigakos, it is the reach of Barbie, the affordable price tag of Barbie, and the universality of Barbie that are so alluring. I started to wonder: If toy blocks have to be pink for parents to buy them for their daughters, is that so bad? If seeing Architect Barbie next to Cinderella at the store overturns a stereotype, is that so terrible? I realized I’d been subconsciously policing the borders of the profession, thinking that a particular category of toy (structural, nonfigurative) makes the architect. Sneering at Architect Barbie’s dress (real architects wear pants!) is actually a form of prejudice: sexism.” 45 See Beatriz Colomina and Rem Koolhaas, “Martha Stewart Is Editing Your Life (That Includes You, Bill Gates)” Wired, June 1, 2003, 46 G.A. Bremner, ed., Architecture and Urbanism in the British Empire (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2016). 47 Fred Pearce, “By Barcoding Trees, Liberia Looks to Save its Rainforests,” Yale Environment 360, May 23, 2011, https://e360. rainforests. 48 Eran Ben-Joseph, Holly D. Ben-Joseph, and Anne C. Dodge, Against all Odds: MIT’s Pioneering Women of Landscape Architecture (Cambridge, MA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning, City Design and Development Group, 2006), 3.

50 See Dell Upton, “Architectural History or Landscape History?” Journal of Architectural Education 44, no.4 (August 1991): 195–99. 51 Ibid., 195, 198. 52 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Marginality in the Teaching Machine,” chap. 3 in Outside in the Teaching Machine (New York, NY: Routledge, 1993), 53–76 (63). 53 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Crossing Borders,” chap. 1 in Death of a Discipline (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2003), 1–24 (7). 54 See Gianni Vattimo, “Dialectics, Difference, and Weak Thought,” chap. 1 in Weak Thought, ed. Gianni Vattimo and Pier Aldo Rovatti, trans. Peter Carravetta (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2012), 39–52.

*Image Credits (A Radical New Majority, pp. 38–39, left to right): Queen Victoria Regina (1883 painting taken from a 1882 photograph by Alexander Bassano); Phyllis Lambert (CCA); Zaha Hadid and Margaret Thatcher (Anealla Safdar, Al Jazeera); Jane Jacobs (Glenna Lang and Marjory Wunsch, Genius of Common Sense [Boston, MA: David R. Godine, 2009], front cover); Martha Stewart (Meredith Corporation); Denise Scott Brown (Robert Venturi); Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (Chatham House, The Royal Institute of International Affairs); Diane Jones Allen (The University of Texas at Arlington); Kate Orff (The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation); Architect Barbie (Mattel Inc.); Jeanne Gang (Alex García, Chicago Tribune)


49 Karen Madsen and John F. Furlong, “Women, Land, Design: Considering Connections,” Landscape Journal 13, no.2 (Fall 1994): 88–101 (89), emphasis added.



Ardener, Shirley, ed. Perceiving Women. London, UK: Malaby Press, 1975. Banham, Reyner. “Stocktaking.” The Architectural Review 127, no. 756 (February 1960): 93–100. Ben-Joseph, Eran, Holly D. Ben-Joseph, and Anne C. Dodge. Against all Odds: MIT’s Pioneering Women of Landscape Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning, City Design and Development Group, 2006. Bremner, G. Alex, ed. Architecture and Urbanism in the British Empire. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2016. Cilento, Karen. “Architect Barbie / A Social Experiment.” Archdaily, August 15, 2012. architect-barbie-a-social-experiment. Cixous, Hélène. “The Laugh of the Medusa.” Translated by Keith Cohen and Paula Cohen. Signs 1, no. 4 (Summer, 1976): 875–93. Colomina, Beatriz and Rem Koolhaas. “Martha Stewart Is Editing Your Life (That Includes You, Bill Gates).” Wired, June 1, 2003.

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Coontz, Stephanie and Peta Henderson, eds. Women’s Work, Men’s Property: The Origins of Gender and Class. London, UK: Verso, 1986. de Graft-Johnson, Ann, Sandra Manley, and Clara Greed. Why Do Women Leave Architecture? Bristol, UK: University of the West of England, 2003. Dümpelmann, Sonja and John Beardsley, eds. Women, Modernity, and Landscape Architecture. London, UK: Routledge, 2015. Edelman, Judith, Marie Laleyan, Patricia Schiffelbein, Joan Sprague, and Jean Young. Status of Women in the Architectural Profession: Task Force Report. Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 1975. Gardner, Howard. Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi. New York, NY: Basic Books, [1993] 2011. Hays, K. Michael. Architecture Theory Since 1968. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998. hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of

Hoy, Andrew R. “The Relationship Between Male Dominance and Militarism: Quantitative Tests of Several Theories.” World Cultures 8, no.2 (1994): 40–57. Jencks, Charles. “Modern Architecture: The Tradition Since 1945.” PhD diss., Bartlett School of Architecture at University College London, ca.1970. ______. Architecture 2000: Predictions and Methods. London, UK: Studio Vista, 1971. ______. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. Enl. ed. New York, NY: Rizzoli, 1977. ______. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. 4th enl. rev. ed. New York, NY: Rizzoli, 1984. ______. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. 5th rev. enl. ed. London, UK: Academy Editions, 1987. ______. “Jencks’ Theory of Evolution: An Overview of Twentieth-Century Architecture.” The Architectural Review 208, no. 1,241 (July 2000): 76–79. ______. The New Paradigm in Architecture: The Language of Post-Modernism. 7th ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002. ______. “In what Style Shall we Build?” The Architectural Review 237, no. 1,417 (March 2015): 90–101. Jett, Megan. “Infographic: Women in Architecture.” Archdaily, March 14, 2012. Kwinter, Sanford. “FFE: Mach 1 (and Other Mystic Visitations).” In “How the Critic Sees: Seven Critics on Seven Buildings,” ANY: Architecture New York 21 (1997): 54–55. ______. Far From Equilibrium, edited by Cynthia Davidson and Michael Kubo, 36–45. Barcelona: Actar, 2007. Lange, Alexandra. “Girl Talk.” Dwell 12, no. 8 (2012): 92–94. Madsen, Karen and John F. Furlong. “Women, Land, Design: Considering Connections.” Landscape Journal 13, no.2 (Fall 1994): 88–101. Marot, Sébastien. “L’alternative du paysage.” Le Visiteur: Ville,


Freedom. New York, NY: Routledge, 1994.


Territoire, Paysage, Architecture 1 (1995): 54–81. Marshall, Catherine, Charles Kay Ogden, and Mary Sargant Florence. Militarism Versus Feminism: An Enquiry and a Policy Demonstrating that Militarism Involves the Subjection of Women. London, UK: George Allen & Unwin, 1915. Mill, John Stuart. The Subjection of Women. London, UK: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, 1869. Native Women’s Association of Canada. “Understanding MMIWG.” National Inquiry into MMIWG [Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls]. 2018. national-inquiry-mmiwg/understanding-mmiwg/. Nicholson, Linda. “Feminism in ‘Waves’: Useful Metaphor or Not?” New Politics 12, no. 4 (Winter 2010): 34–39. Pearce, Fred. “By Barcoding Trees, Liberia Looks to Save its Rainforests.” Yale Environment 360, May 23, 2011. https://e360. rainforests. Pogrebin, Robin. “No Pritzker Prize for Denise Scott Brown,” The New York Times, June 14, 2013. https://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes. com/2013/06/14/no-pritzker-prize-for-denise-scott-brown/.

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Quirk, Vanessa. “Pritzker Rejects Petition for Denise Scott Brown’s Retroactive Award.” Archdaily, June 16, 2013. http:// Rabinowitch, Eugene. “Editorial: Scientific Womanpower.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 7, no. 2 (1951): 34–37. Rubin, Gayle. “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex.” In Toward an Anthropology of Women, edited by Rayna R. Reiter, 157–210. New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 1975. Runte, Mary and Albert J. Mills. “I Love Lucid: The Cold War, Feminism, and The Ideation of The American Family.” Paper presented at Critical Management Studies Conference 3, University of Lancaster, UK, July 2003. ejrot/cmsconference/2003/proceedings/thecoldwar/runte.pdf. Sperber, Esther. “Revising Our Ideas About Collective Inspiration.” Lilith 38, no. 3 (Fall, 2013): 11–14. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. Outside in the Teaching Machine. New York, NY: Routledge, 1993.

______. Death of a Discipline. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Stratigakos, Despina. “What I Learned from Architect Barbie.” Places (June 2011). what-i-learned-from-architect-barbie/. ______. “Architecture Has a Woman Problem: Zaha Hadid Knew It Well.” Slate, April 11, 2016. the_eye/2016/04/11/where_are_all_the_women_architects_by_ despina_stratigakos_examines_the_gender.html. ______. Where are the Women Architects? Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016. The American Institute of Architects. “Constitution of the Consolidated American Institute of Architects and Western Association of Architects.” The American Architect and Building News 25, no. 727 (November 30, 1889): 256. ______. “About AIA.” 2018. AIAB028819. The Hyatt Foundation. “How to Nominate.” The Pritzker Architecture Prize. 2018. Upton, Dell. “Architectural History or Landscape History?” Journal of Architectural Education 44, no.4 (August 1991): 195–99. Vattimo, Gianni and Pier Aldo Rovatti, eds. Weak Thought. Translated by Peter Carravetta. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2012. Washington University in St. Louis. Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts. “Women in Architecture 1974 | 2014 [Symposium].” November 7–9, 2014. http://www.samfoxschool.wustl. edu/wia. Williams, Rosalind. “Lewis Mumford as a Historian of Technology in Technics and Civilization.” In Lewis Mumford: Public Intellectual, edited by Thomas P. Hughes and Agatha C. Hughes, 43–65. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1990. ______. “Classics Revisited: Lewis Mumford’s Technics and Civilization.” Technology and Culture 43, no.1 (January 2002): 139–49.


______. An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

About the Authors

Pierre BĂŠlanger is a Canadian-American landscape architect, educator, curator, author, and builder Ghazal Jafari is a Persian-Canadian architect, urban designer, land researcher, and Assistant Professor at the University of Virginia School of Architecture HernĂĄn Bianchi Benguria is a Chilean-Italian architect, planner, and a doctoral fellow at the University of Toronto School of Geography and Planning

Special thanks to HÊlène Cixous, French-Algerian feminist critic and theorist, novelist, and playwright

This booklet accompanies an 8-minute videographic essay that re-examines the institutional structures of sexism and historical roots of racism in architecture that have led to the systematic erasure of women from the design disciplines of the built environment. This multimedia project features a live diagram that maps out the names of over 800 women, whose lives—as designers, builders, writers, historians, photographers, philanthropists, and more—have shaped over 800 years of urban history. Narrated by Hélène Cixous, one of the most influential feminist authors in the world, with Ghazal Jafari. Video 2017 8:26 minutes Produced in Canada and the United States of America. Credits Narration: Hélène Cixous & Ghazal Jafari Concept & Production: Pierre Bélanger, Ghazal Jafari, Hernán Bianchi Benguria Research Assistance: Alexandra Mei, Shira Grossman, Timothy Clark, Tiffany Dang As part of this project, the original list of women compiled since its creation in 2016 has expanded to over 800 names and will continue to grow over time as a live document: The content of this booklet is based on an original Open Letter (published on October 7, 2016), that led to this multimedia project; available online: An original performance of this project was created with students at the Harvard Graduate School of Design on October 28, 2016: Thank you to LeeAnn Suen, editor of Open Letters, as well as students in the Programs of Landscape Architecture, and Design Studies, at Harvard University. OPEN SYSTEMS ISBN 978-0-359-27115-3 (First Edition)

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