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JANUARY 2018 • Vol. 24 No. 1

New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists

www.nyscc.org

Air Pollution and the Skin Table of Contents Air Pollution and the Skin 1 Letter from the Chair 2

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…by Giorgio Dell’Acqua

ir pollution is from industrial waste that originates from fossil fuel combustion, vehicle gas exhaust, and environmental elements such as sunlight (UV), heat, humidity, ozone, dust, and soot that can synergize and further activate pollutants or function as pollution carriers. The high level of air pollution measured in large cities (such as New Delhi, Beijing, Mexico City, etc.) and the visual presence of it (pollution clouds, haze) together with constant warnings and safety indications from authorities

NYSCC Air-Pollution Seminar 8 Protein Carbonylation Studies on Air Pollution and Protection 11 NYSCC and LISCC Joint Ski Trip 14

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(daily pollution level information, use of masks and protective gear, anti-pollution products and devices, etc.) have created a strong awareness in the general population about air pollution, raising concerns of the possible long- and short-term effects of air pollution on general health. Air pollution is recognized as a global health threat. Recent statistics from the World Health Organization report that in 2012 around 7 million people died as a result of air pollution exposure.1 More than four in ten Americans (almost 150 million) live in counties that have unhealthy levels of ozone or particle pollution,2 and more than 90% of people in European cities breathe dangerous air.3 (Continued on page 4)

N Y S C C A N T I - P O L L U T I O N S E M I N A R J a n u a r y 1 7 t h • S e a s o n s C a t e r i n g , W a s h i n g t o n To w n s h i p , N J


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2018 NYSCC BOARD OF DIRECTORS & PROGRAM CHAIRS CHAIR Cathy Piterski chair@nyscc.org

CHAIR-ELECT Sonia Dawson sonia.dawson@dsm.com

TREASURER Michael Smith Treasurer@nyscc.org

SECRETARY Roumelia Alina secretary@nyscc.org

ADVISOR Marie Thadal advisor@nyscc.org

HOUSE Giorgino Macalino giorgino.macalino@croda.com

MEMBERSHIP Mohamed Abdulla mohamed.abdulla@airliquide.com

PROGRAM Steve Herman steveh50@optonline.net

COMMUNICATIONS Theresa Phamduy webmaster@nyscc.org

SPECIAL EVENTS Amy Marshall amy.marshall@altana.com

COSMETISCOPE EDITOR Roger McMullen roger_mcmullen@fdu.edu

COSMETISCOPE ADVERTISING Bret Clark rbclark@ashland.com

Make note of it… Send news of interest, guest editorials, and comments to Roger McMullen, Editor • E-mail: roger_mcmullen @fdu.edu

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Letter from the Chair

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…Cathy Piterski

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must say that I never expected to be the Chair of the NYSCC. Thinking back to when I became a member in 1999, I thought that perhaps I would help out in some way when my children were older or give a presentation at some point down the road. Which topic? I had no idea. Then, Steve Herman asked me if I would be the Program Chair when he became Chair (again) in 2013. And the rest, as they say, is history. I have many adjectives to describe my feelings about this role: humbled, honored, thankful, but the two that rise to the top of the list are excited and daunted. Excited due to the extraordinary year the NYSCC had in 2017 with such momentum and change including Suppliers’ Day moving to the Javits Center as well as stellar programs like Open Innovation, #BeyondTheBrief, and Innovations in Textured Hair. At the same time I feel daunted as there are some really big shoes to fill as we enter 2018. We have a great year of programs planned for 2018. The first up is Anti-Pollution chaired by Dr. Alex Chan. This has been a hot topic for a couple of years now and is still in the press as an issue that consumers have concerns about. The Educational Hour will feature Dr. Stephen R. Schwartz from International Research Services, Inc. who will show us how to develop claims substantiation methodologies for environmental toxins. We are also fortunate to host Dr. Anne Young from BASF who will be on hand after dinner to discuss the effects of pollution on hair along with Cristiane Pacheco from Chemyunion, Inc USA and her presentation about a novel approach to environmental stress. I am looking forward to another exciting year for the NYSCC filled with new partnerships, exciting programs, and, of course, Suppliers’ Day. I am very grateful for the opportunity to serve the membership in this manner and hope to be worthy of the honor you have bestowed upon me.

Upcoming 2018 NYSCC Events Calendar • For updated NYSCC information, visit us on the web at: www.nyscc.org • For National SCC information: www.scconline.org January 17 Anti-Pollution Seminar – Seasons Catering, Washington Township, NJ February 9-11 NYSCC Ski Trip – Killington, VT February 21 Packaging and Your Products Seminar – The Venetian, Garfield, NJ March 22 Fragrance: Science, Regulation, and Creation Symposium – The Legacy Castle, Pompton Plains, NJ April 25 The Middle East: Cosmetic Trends and Regulations Symposium – Liberty Science Center, Jersey City, NJ May 15-16 NYSCC Suppliers’ Day – Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York, NY July 23 NYSCC Golf Outing – Crystal Springs Golf Course, Hamburg, NJ September TBD Sunscreen Symposium: Extending Your Invisible Umbrella – Renaissance Woodbridge Hotel, Iselin, NJ September 20 Culinary Event – Midtown Loft & Terrace, New York, NY October 17 Sustainable Cosmetic Science Seminar – Chart House, Weehawken, NJ November 7 Inflammatory Skin Diseases and Barrier Function Seminar – Valley Regency, Clifton, NJ

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Monthly Meeting Group Discount The NYSCC is offering a group discount of 15% to companies who send 5 or more employees to a monthly meeting. All five employees would need to be registered at the same time to receive the discount. Once purchased, registrations are non-refundable.

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(Continued from page 1)

In quickly developing countries such as India, China, and Mexico, with increasing population (and transportation) and industrial waste, air pollution is now a primary health care concern.

Effects of Air Pollution on the Skin Scientific evidence and clinical studies around the globe suggest air pollution is a primary damaging factor in skin.4-9 Clinical studies in Germany, Korea, and China have demonstrated a link between air pollution and skin damage. Particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone (O3) are the principal pollutants involved in damage to skin tissue. Subjects living in polluted areas showed visible and physical skin damage. In Germany, individuals living in industrial areas with high levels of PM had increased skin pigmentation (dark spots) and wrinkle formation (nasolabial furrows) as compared to people living in rural areas and not exposed to PMs.10 In Korea, seasonal fluctuations of air pollutant concentrations (such as PM, oxides, and VOCs) correlated with exacerbation of atopic dermatitis (AD) symptoms and barrier dysfunction in AD patients.8 In China, O3 pollution exposure in 70,000 individuals over a period of two years correlated with increased AD, eczema, and pruritus.11

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Principal Pollutants in the Skin Particulate Matter (PM) PM is a mixture of very small particles and liquid droplets. They are characterized as PM10 (larger than 2.5 micrometers and smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter) and PM2.5 (2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller), and are composed of a number of elements including acids, organic chemicals, metals, soil, and/or dust particles. PM10 accumulates Figure 1: Relative size of PM and PM as compared to a human 2.5 10 near roadways and dusty industries. PM2.5 is hair fiber, sand, and dust particles. Illustration courtesy of the U.S: found in smoke and haze, and can form by Environmental Protection Agency, United States (airnow.gov). oxidation of combustible gases.12 Although still debated, PM2.5 can penetrate the skin either through the pores or trans-epidermally.10 In fact, pore diameter is on average about 50-80 micrometers. PM2.5 could act as a vehicle for toxic pollutants such as heavy metals (cadmium and lead), oxides, organic compounds, bacteria, and viruses. Toxic pollutants adhering to the fine particle would diffuse through the skin inducing oxidative stress with consequent skin barrier damage and delayed skin repair.10,13 Indeed, clinical studies on subjects living in polluted areas with a high daily level of exposure to PM found increased visible skin damage (dark spots and wrinkles) and reduced barrier function.10

Oxides Carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO2) are pollutant gases. CO is produced by vehicle exhaust, but it also occurs naturally during wildfires and volcanos. SO2, on the other hand, is created by burning coal and petroleum. NO2 production stems from high temperature combustion of fuel, and like CO, is a good indicator of traffic-related pollution. Oxides, such as NO2, induce free radical formation causing skin protein and lipid damage.14 Clinical studies comparing children living in urban versus suburban areas found a strong correlation between the high level of outdoor oxides (related to traffic exhaust gases) and increased prevalence of skin sensitization (atopic dermatitis and allergies).15-17 4

Figure 2: Sources contributing to primary PM and secondary PM. Primary PM is carbon (soot) emitted from automobiles, forest fires, and crustal material. Secondary PM, usually in the form of a gas, consists of sulfates, nitrates, and carbon. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, The Particle Pollution Report, EPA 454-R-04-002, December 2004.

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Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) VOCs are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals emitted from paints, cleaning products, pesticides, building materials, copiers, printers, correction fluids, glues, etc. VOCs are also typically associated with indoor pollution as many chemicals present and used in the household or the office contain organic solvents that emit VOCs. Also, VOCs in combination with oxides (e.g., NO2) and sunlight cause the formation of O3 at ground level. This phenomenon is commonly known as photochemical smog.18 Studies suggest that transdermal uptake of VOCs is comparable to exposure during inhalation.19 Skin exposure to VOCs leads to an increase of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and increased skin reaction to allergens, suggesting an altered skin barrier.20

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. They also are produced by combustion of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, and tobacco. PAHs generated from these sources can bind to or form small particles in the air. High-temperature cooking will also form PAHs in meat and in other foods. Cigarette smoke also contains many PAHs. PAHs are frequently bound to the surface of PM.21 Toxic organic compounds such as PAHs induce free radical formation to generate oxidative damage in the skin,22 but they can also activate the aryl receptor (Ahr). Ahr is involved in the response to environmental stress,23,24 and its activation by PAHs induces skin inflammation,25 melanogenesis,26 and skin aging.27 Exposure to PAHs bound to PM has been postulated as the cause of increased melanin spots in subjects living in industrial areas exposed to high PM levels.8

Ozone (O3 ) Although O3 is mostly known as the gas in the stratosphere (ozone layer) that forms a shield around the Earth, keeping out most of the UV Figure 3: The aryl receptor radiation from the Sun (UVC and most of the UVB), (Ahr) responds to pollutants it is also a powerful oxidant when found at ground such Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to level (troposphere). Ozone in the troposphere can activate oxidation and in fact form from the chemical reaction between inflammation inducing skin ground pollutants (VOCs and oxides) in the aging. Diagram copyright Giorgio Dell’Acqua (2018); presence of sunlight. reproduction requires O3 induces formation of reactive oxygen written permission from species (ROS), such as H2O2, as well as lipid the author. peroxidation products, which trigger skin oxidation with consequent skin damage.28 Although the skin possesses antioxidants and barrier protection mechanisms to fight O3-induced oxidation, experimental studies have shown that O3 is able to rapidly deplete levels endogenous antioxidants in skin (vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione)29-31 and induce the production of pro-inflammatory markers (e.g., cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B).31 This effect was correlated with skin barrier damage and an inflammatory response.30 In clinical studies, O3 exposure was correlated to an increased manifestation of atopic dermatitis, eczema, and pruritus.32 O3 also affects the dermis of the skin by upregulating matrixmetalloproteinase-9, resulting in consequent skin degradation.31 Finally, O3 has been associated with Ahr activation33 leading to pigmentation and skin aging.23, 26

UV Synergizes with Pollution It has been shown that in the presence of UV the damaging effects of pollutants on the skin worsen, particularly in the stratum corneum.28,34 In combination, UV and O3 also produce an additive effect in terms of antioxidant depletion and lipid peroxidation induction.35

Pollution and Aged Skin Epidemiological studies suggest that the response to air pollutants is age related.36 Experimental evidence demonstrates that older skin experiences higher oxidative stress, as compared to younger skin, when exposed to O3 or cigarette smoke (containing VOCs and PAHs).37 This stress is associated with an increase in oxidized (Continued on page 6)

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proteins, oxidized lipids, and inflammatory markers as well as greater activity of skin degrading proteases.38 Furthermore, in mice models for skin wounds, older skin exposed to O3 has a significant delay in wound healing comparing to younger skin.39 This evidence—although still experimental and only tested on a few pollutants—suggest a less robust reaction to pollutants by older skin.

References

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1. World Health Organization, November 2014. 2. American Lung Association, April 2013. 3. European Environment Agency, October 2013. 4. J. Krutmann, W. Liu, L. Li, X. Pan, M. Crawford, G. Sore, and S. Seite, Pollution and skin: from epidemiological and mechanistic studies to clinical implications, J. Dermatol. Sci., 76, 163-168 (2014). 5. Z.D. Draelos, Aging in a polluted world, J. Cosmet. Dermatol., 13, 85 (2014). 6. E. Drakaki, C. Dessinioti, and C.V. Antoniou, Air pollution and the skin, Front. Environ. Sci., 2, Article 11, 1-6 (2014). 7. A. Vierkötter and J. Krutmann, Environmental influences on skin aging and ethnic-specific manifestations, Dermatoendocrinol., 4, 227-231 (2012). 8. J. Kim, E.H. Kim, I. Oh, K. Jung, Y. Han, H.K. Cheong, and K. Ahn, Symptoms of atopic dermatitis are influenced by outdoor air pollution, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 132, 495-498 (2013). 9. M.A. Lefebvre, D.M. Pham, B. Boussouira, D. Bernard, C. Camus, and Q.L. Nguyen, Evaluation of the impact of urban pollution on the quality of skin: a multicentre study in Mexico, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 37, 329-338 (2015). 10. A. Vierkötter, T. Schikowski, U. Ranft, D. Sugiri, M. Matsui, U. Krämer, and J. Krutmann, Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging, J. Invest. Dermatol., 130, 2719-2726 (2010). 11. F. Xu, S. Yan, M. Wu, F. Li, X. Xu, W. Song, J. Zhao, J. Xu, and H. Kan, Ambient ozone pollution as a risk factor for skin disorders, Br. J. Dermatol., 165, 224-225 (2011). 12. United States Environmental Protection Agency, November 2014. 13. S. Ejaz, M. Ashraf, M. Nawaz, and C.W. Lim, Total particulate matter and wound healing: an in vivo study with histological insights, Biomed. Environ. Sci., 22, 278-287 (2009). 14. B. Eberlein-König, B. Przybilla, P. Kühnl, J. Pechak, I. Gebefügi, J. Kleinschmidt, and J. Ring, Influence of airborne nitrogen dioxide or formaldehyde on parameters of skin function and cellular activation in patients with atopic eczema and control subjects, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 101(1 Pt 1), 141-143 (1998). 15. U. Krämer, T. Koch, U. Ranft, J. Ring, and H. Behrendt, Traffic-related air pollution is associated with atopy in children living in urban areas, Epidemiology, 11, 64-70 (2000). 16. T. Schäfer and J. Ring, Epidemiology of allergic diseases, Allergy, 52(38 Suppl), 14-22 (1997). 17. Y.L. Lee, H.J. Su, H.M. Sheu, H.S. Yu, and Y.L. Guo, Traffic-related air pollution, climate, and prevalence of eczema in Taiwanese school children, J. Invest. Dermatol., 128, 2412-2420 (2008). 18. P. Schroeder, S.M. Schieke, and A. Morita, “Premature skin aging by infrared radiation, tobacco smoke and ozone” In Skin Aging, Eds. B.A. Gilchrest and J. Krutmann, Springer: Berlin, 2008. 19. C.J. Weschler and W.W. Nazaroff, SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways, Indoor Air, 22, 356-377 (2012). 20. J. Huss-Marp, B. Eberlein-König, K. Breuer, S. Mair, A. Ansel, U. Darsow, U. Krämer, E. Mayer, J. Ring, and H. Behrendt, Influence of short-term exposure to airborne Der p 1 and volatile organic compounds on skin barrier function and dermal blood flow in patients with atopic eczema and healthy individuals, Clin. Exp. Allergy, 36, 338-345 (2006). 21. E. Menichini, Urban air pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: levels and sources of variability, Sci. Total Environ., 116, 109-135 (1992). 22. P.P. Fu, Q. Xia, X. Sun, and H. Yu, Phototoxicity and environmental transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-light-induced reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage, J. Environ. Sci. Health C Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev., 30, 1-41 (2012). 23. J. Krutmann, A. Morita, and J.H. Chung, Sun exposure: what molecular photodermatology tells us about its good and bad sides, J. Invest. Dermatol., 132(3 Pt 2), 976-984 (2012). 24. T. Haarmann-Stemmann, C. Esser, and J. Krutmann, The Janus-faced role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the skin: consequences for prevention and treatment of skin disorders, J. Invest. Dermatol., 135, 2572-2576 (2015). J A N U A R Y

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25. M. Tauchi, A. Hida, T. Negishi, F. Katsuoka, S. Noda, J. Mimura, T. Hosoya, A. Yanaka, H. Aburatani, Y. Fujii-Kuriyama, H. Motohashi, and M. Yamamoto, Constitutive expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in keratinocytes causes inflammatory skin lesions, Mol. Cell Biol., 25, 9360-9368 (2005). 26. S. Luecke, M. Backlund, B. Jux, C. Esser, J. Krutmann, and A. Rannug, The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a novel regulator of human melanogenesis, Pigment Cell Melanoma Res., 23, 828-833 (2010). 27. A. Morita, K. Torii, A. Maeda, and Y. Yamaguchi, Molecular basis of tobacco smoke-induced premature skin aging, J Invest. Dermatol. Symp. Proc., 14, 53-55 (2009). 28. G. Valacchi, C. Sticozzi, A. Pecorelli, F. Cervellati, C. Cervellati, and E. Maioli, Cutaneous responses to environmental stressors, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1271, 75-81 (2012). 29. S.U. Weber, J.J. Thiele, C.E. Cross, and L. Packer, Vitamin C, uric acid, and glutathione gradients in murine stratum corneum and their susceptibility to ozone exposure, J. Invest. Dermatol., 113, 11281132 (1999). 30. J.J. Thiele, M. Podda, and L. Packer, Tropospheric ozone: an emerging environmental stress to skin, Biol. Chem., 378, 1299-1305 (1997). 31. G. Valacchi, E. Pagnin, A.M. Corbacho, E. Olano, P.A. Davis, L. Packer, and C.E. Cross, In vivo ozone exposure induces antioxidant/stress-related responses in murine lung and skin, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 36, 673-681 (2004). 32. F. Xu, S. Yan, M. Wu, F. Li, X. Xu, W. Song, J. Zhao, J. Xu, and H. Kan, Ambient ozone pollution as a risk factor for skin disorders, Br. J. Dermatol., 165, 224-225 (2011). 33. F. Afaq, M.A. Zaid, E. Pelle, N. Khan, D.N. Syed, M.S. Matsui, D. Maes, and H. Mukhtar, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is an ozone sensor in human skin, J. Invest. Dermatol., 129, 2396-403 (2009). 34. K.E. Burke and H. Wei, Synergistic damage by UVA radiation and pollutants, Toxicol. Ind. Health., 25, 219-224 (2009). 35. G. Valacchi, S.U. Weber, C. Luu, C.E. Cross, and L. Packer, Ozone potentiates vitamin E depletion by ultraviolet radiation in the murine stratum corneum, FEBS Lett., 466, 165-168 (2000). 36. Y.C. Huang and A.J. Ghio, Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations, Environ. Health, 8, 33, doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-33 (2009). 37. C. Sticozzi, A. Pecorelli, Y. Lim, E. Maioli, E. Pagnin, P.A. Davis, and G. Valacchi, Modulation of skin oxidative stress and inflammatory markers by environmental stressors. Differences between young and old, J. Dermatol. Sci., 65, 226-228 (2012). 38. V. Fortino, E. Maioli, C. Torricelli, P. Davis, and G. Valacchi, Cutaneous MMPs are differently modulated by environmental stressors in old and young mice, Toxicol. Lett., 173, 73-79 (2007). 39. Y. Lim, A.D. Phung, A.M. Corbacho, H.H. Aung, E. Maioli, A.Z. Reznick, C.E. Cross, P.A. Davis, and G. Valacchi, Modulation of cutaneous wound healing by ozone: differences between young and aged mice, Toxicol. Lett., 160, 127-134 (2006). _____________________________________________

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r. Dell’Acqua is a scientist and consultant for the personal care industry. He graduated from The University of Rome, Italy and worked for 15 years as an investigator in applied medical research in Universities such as Mount Sinai Medical School in New York, United States and Harvard Medical School in Boston, United States. Giorgio has spent the last 17 years as an executive and cosmetic scientist in the personal care industry. He is specialized in skin and hair care ingredients, finished product development, and technical marketing. Dr. Dell’Acqua has covered multiple roles as a manager and director in different companies specialized in active ingredients and product development. He has helped bring more than 200 successful active ingredients and finished products to market and has authored more than 60 publications in medicine and cosmetic science. In the last 10 years Giorgio has been writing and lecturing on natural cosmetic ingredients and sustainable supply chain, as well as helping to source, develop, and bring to market many natural ingredients. He is an award winning speaker on natural ingredients, a regular columnist on sustainable cosmetic science, and an adjunct professor in Cosmetic Science at Fairleigh Dickinson University. He is also the chair of the Scientific Affairs Committee for the New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists and its scientific blogger. V O L U M E

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NYSCC Anti-Pollution Seminar January 17, 2018 • 4:00 – 8:00 PM Seasons Catering • Washington Township, NJ

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t is a fact that air pollution over the world has been growing at an alarming rate in recent decades. As a result, our lives have been affected. To say the least, the surface of our body must suffer since it is in constant contact with the pollutants suspended in the air around us. However, it is interesting to note that awareness of the damaging effect from these pollutants has emerged only recently. As we can imagine, air pollutants come in many sources. Particulate matter originates from the exhaust of motor vehicles, fossil fuel burning power plants, cigarette smoke, volcananic eruptions, etc. Making matters worse, sunlight has been found to enhance the damaging effect of these pollutants in our body. We organized this symposium hoping to arouse the curiosity of more people to this serious matter. We are honored to have expert speakers to update us on how the industry is addressing this issue. Two of our speakers will discuss various aspects to protect skin and hair from pollution, while a third speaker will show us how the damage is being measured from a claims substantiation standpoint. _____________________________________________

Agenda 4:00 - 4:45 p.m.

Registration and Cocktail Reception

4:45 - 4:50 p.m.

Opening Remarks – Alex Chan, Seminar Chair

4:50 – 5:35 p.m.

Developing Claims Substantiation Methodologies for Environmental Toxins – Stephen R. Schwartz (International Research Services, Inc.)

5:35 – 6:20 p.m.

A New Approach to Environmental Stress – Cristiane Pacheco (Chemyunion, Inc. US)

6:20 – 7:05 p.m.

Dinner

7:05 – 7:50 p.m.

Effects of Pollution on Hair and Solutions to Address the Concerns – Anne Young (BASF)

7:50 – 8:00 p.m.

Closing Remarks – Cathy Piterski, NYSCC Chair

n Seminar Planning Committee Event Chair: Alex Chan, Ph.D. (acbchan543@gmail.com) Co-chairs: Mavis Dennis (mavis_dennis@colpal.com) and Esinam Agbley (esinam_agbley@colpal.com) _____________________________________________

About the Chair

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lex Chan earned his doctorate degree in Organic Chemistry from New York University. He has been working in the personal care industry for over 35 years. In particular, his work has been focused on the field of hair care innovation. Alex is interested in the kinetics of indo-dye formation and delivery systems in hair dye products. He has published numerous articles and has been granted dozens of patents for his work in this area. After working in several international companies, four manufacturers, and one ingredient supplier, Alex is currently an independent investigator and exploring personal care science from a multitude of aspects.

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Registration Information • Pre-registered SCC members: $40 • Onsite registration: $80 For registration and more information: www.nyscc.org. _____________________________________________

Chapter Meeting Speaker Speaker: Stephen R. Schwartz Time: 4:50 – 5:35 p.m. Topic: Developing Claims Substantiation Methodologies for Environmental Toxins Abstract: The skin is susceptible to two major external environmental factors that damage the skin and accelerate aging, UV exposure and environmental toxins. UV damage is limited to sun exposure and the seasonal solar cycle, which results in less exposure at certain times of the year. However, environmental toxins, although subject to seasonal intensities, never sleep. Decades of research in consumer care products have resulted in excellent products to minimize sun damage, but product development is needed for protection against environmental toxins. Remember, the skin is the largest body organ and has limited natural defense against pollution, whereas the respiratory system does have a means to protect, to some extent. As early as the mid-1980s Estée Lauder presented data showing the effect of smoking on skin aging. Now, there is a strong effort to develop products to protect the skin. The largest effort comes out of the Far East as that is an area with very high pollution. In the United States, it is the coastal regions and iron belt that have the greatest concentration of pollutants. With this need for products comes the necessity to be able to support claims for new and novel products. This presentation will provide an overview of the toxins, which are the most problematic, and how to design a clinical study that will support the benefits of products designed to both protect and cleanse.

Innovation Comes Naturally

Biography: Stephen R. Schwartz is currently President and CEO of International Research Services, Inc. (IRSI) headquartered in Port Chester, New York and founded in 1977 in Los Angeles, California. IRSI specializes in human safety and claim support work, qualitative and quantitative, for the drug, food, and cosmetic industry. These projects are currently run at one of its two facilities, Port Chester, New York and Rockland, Maine. The company is recognized as a leader in the use of instrumentation for evaluating topical applications, drugs, and cosmetics as well as their use in supporting advertising claims. Mr. Schwartz received an A.B. in Mathematics from Cornell University and an M.S. in Theoretical Chemistry from New York University. He is the author or co-author of over sixty papers and presentations and has been an instructor for courses in the field of safety and claim support. He has been called on as an expert witness in certain court cases relating to claim substantiation. In addition, Mr. Schwartz has appeared as an expert witness before two OTC Review Panels: 1) Miscellaneous Internal Medication (for pioneering work in in vivo evaluations of antacids) and 2) OTC Miscellaneous External Drug Product (for his work in anti-dandruff clinicals, specifically work done in substantiating the efficacy of sulfur). _____________________________________________

Chapter Meeting Speaker Speaker: Cristiane Pacheco Time: 5:35 – 6:20 p.m. Topic: A New Approach to Environmental Stress Abstract: More than 80% of people living in urban areas are exposed to air quality that exceeds the World Health Organization (WHO) pollution limits for ambient (outdoor) air. Studies have shown that exposure to pollution is associated with extrinsic skin aging, accelerating a key consumer demand for anti-pollution products. Chemyunion offers a smart solution for consumer protection in the face of one of the most pressing issues (Continued on page 10)

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in today's society. Through its unique mechanism of action, this innovation demonstrates, in an unprecedented way, the ability to prevent permeation of pollution components in skin.

Biography: Cristiane Pacheco is New Business Vice-president of Chemyunion, Inc. U.S. Pacheco joined Chemyunion in 1998 and has 24 years of professional global personal care experience, holding leadership roles in Research and Development. Cristiane is a Pharmacist and holds an MBA, and has also completed post-graduate work in Cosmetology. _____________________________________________

Chapter Meeting Speaker Speaker: Anne Young, Ph.D. Time: 7:05 – 7:50 p.m. Topic: Effects of Pollution on Hair and Solutions to Address the Concerns Abstract: In September 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 92% of the world’s population live in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits. South East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Western Pacific regions were found to have the highest pollution levels.1 The negative impact of pollutants such as dust, industrial gases, car exhaust, spray propellants, household chemicals, and cigarette smoke on skin aging are well-known and have resulted in the rise of anti-pollution products. Anti-pollution products are not limited to skin care; they have also become more prevalent in the hair care sector. Unlike skin, hair is not able to repair itself and this leads to visibly dull and brittle hair. We will discuss the impact of pollution on hair and the multi-faceted approach needed to find a holistic solution. Reference 1. World Health Organization (www.who.int).

Biography: Anne Young is the Technical Service Specialist for Personal Care Actives in North America at BASF. She works with BASF R&D and customers to provide new skin care actives. From exciting botanicals to synthetic chemistries, she utilizes the strength of BASF’s science to provide efficacious solutions for customers. Anne has a Ph.D. in Chemistry from New York University and has published over a dozen publications and patents in the personal care field. _____________________________________________

Meeting location: Seasons Catering, 644 Pascack Road, Washington Township, NJ • Tel: (201) 664-6141

Call for Papers

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he Cosmetiscope editorial committee invites all interested parties to submit feature technical articles for publication in the NYSCC monthly newsletter. Authors of feature articles are eligible to win the prestigous NYSCC Literature Award ($1,000) for the best front-page article published during the calendar year. Also, authors receive $200 reimbursement to attend a theatrical performance of their choice. Writing an article for your peers is a very rewarding experience, both personally and professionally, and would reserve your place in NYSCC history. You may choose whatever topic you feel would be interesting to fellow colleagues in our industry. We also welcome any other types of commentaries or articles that may be published in the Career Corner, Technical Tidbit section, or as a Letter to the Editor. Please send correspondence to: roger_mcmullen@fdu.edu.

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Protein Carbonylation Studies on Air Pollution and Protection

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…by Xin Qu, Xiaomin Zhao, Yueming Jiang, and Linda Foltis

he stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of human skin, mainly consisting of intercellular lipids and keratinocytes, rich in protein. It is the outermost physical barrier the human body has to protect itself against the damage that can be caused by excessive exposure to UV light and environmental sources of pollution. Many studies have been conducted to investigate how pollution causes skin damage,1,2 but few have developed specific methods in clinical studies to evaluate it quantitively. As a further manifestation of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation results from oxidative stress and the protein oxidation level can reflect the level of skin damage induced by excessive pollution exposure since protein is such a major component of the SC layer.3

Stratum Corneum Carbonylated Protein (SCCP) The stratum corneum carbonylated protein (SCCP) level was measured by a modified method reported in the literature.4 The fluorescence intensity of tape-stripped SC samples was obtained by using fluorescent tagging and image analysis software. The higher the fluorescence intensity, the more the SC protein is carbonylated. In this study, 34 healthy human subjects with an average age of 40—including 21 women (40.5 years old on average) and 13 men (39.5 years old on average—were selected to participate. We evaluated the SCCP levels of their epidermis from various anatomical locations. The clinical studies (carried out during the winter season in Shanghai) were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and passed toxicological and safety evaluations. As shown in Figure 1, UV/pollution exposed body parts, such as the cheek and forehead, exhibited much higher SCCP levels than anatomical locations that are less frequently exposed to UV light and environmental sources of pollution, such as the forearm and lower back (one-way analysis of variance, p<0.001). Therefore, we chose to place the forearms of the study subjects in the pollution simulation chamber in the subsequent clinical studies.

Figure 1: Fluorescence images of tape-stripped SC samples showing protein carbonylation of the skin at different anatomical locations (100x magnification).

Pollution Damage We customized a pollution chamber to simulate a polluted environment by inserting cigarette smoke into the chamber. The subjects kept their inner arms facing up and exposed to the cigarette smoke in the chamber for a period of one to five hours. We calculated the concentrations of PM2.5/PM10 to be above 1,000 µg/m3 (six cigarettes in a 41 L container). Non-exposed skin (before exposure to the pollution chamber) was used as a negative control and compared to skin that was exposed to pollution. The SCCP level change with the time of exposure to pollution is shown in Figure 2. The SCCP level of the inner arm continued to rise with an increase of the exposure time to the cigarette smoke (one-way analysis of variance, p<0.001), indicating that the skin damage from pollution exposure was cumulative. Using image analysis software, the fluorescence intensity in the light micrographs could be calculated quantitatively (data not shown).

Figure 2: Fluorescence images of tape-stripped SC samples demonstrating protein carbonylation levels after cigarette smoke exposure as a function of time (100x magnification). (Continued on page 12)

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Protein Carbonylation Studies on Air Pollution and Protection With strong roots, we’re green and growing.

It’s only Bio.Logical. to contact us: (800) 223-7054 acme-hardesty.com

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(Continued from page 11)

Schinus Molle Extract With origins in Peru, Schinus molle (Peruvian pink pepper tree) is a drought tolerant, long-living evergreen tree. The medicinal uses of Schinus molle have been passed down from generation to generation by traditions of the Quechua people along the Andean Cordillera. Today, it is used in traditional medicine in many countries of the world for numerous health benefits. Elixiance™ (INCI: propanediol (and) water/aqua (and) bioflavonoids) is extracted from the leaves of the Peruvian pink pepper tree, resulting in an extract that is rich in the polyphenols, quercitin, and miquelianin (quercetin 3-O-glucuronide), which are known for their antioxidant, antibacterial, and rejuvenating properties. In vitro and ex vivo experiments have proven that Elixiance™ can protect keratinocytes and influence specific biomarkers to help improve the barrier function of the stratum corneum, and thus help enhance the skin’s ability to protect itself against damage from excessive exposure to certain types of air pollutants.5 The SCCP levels of skin samples, after short-term exposure to smoke, were used to evaluate the efficacy of the Elixiance™ biofunctional in clinical studies.

Enhancing Skin’s Pollution Protection Capabilities

Inspire. Create. Captivate. Creating memorable fragrances that captivate your market.

Four healthy human subjects in Shanghai were selected to evaluate the efficacy of the Elixiance™ biofunctional. The subjects placed their forearms in the pollution chamber for 5 hours, and stratum corneum samples were collected from specific skin regions before and after exposure to smoke. The sampled skin sections (5 cm x 5 cm) consisted of three regions on the inner forearm in which the following treatments were administered: 1% Elixiance™ aqueous solution, deionized water, and blank (no treatment). As shown in Figure 3, the skin sections to which the 1% Elixiance™ solution were applied demonstrated lower levels of SCCP, as compared to deionized water and the blank.

Contact Perry Pellegrino or Jane Pinda to learn more.

678.361.8717 connect@fragrancewest.com fragrancewest.com

Figure 3: Fluorescence images of tape-stripped SC samples illustrating the skin sections to which the Elixiance™ extract was applied reveal lower levels of protein carbonylation (100x magnification).

Image analysis software was used to calculate fluorescence intensity by analyzing the luminosity of the images in Figure 3. The analyzed values showed a significant difference (one-way analysis of variance, p=0.026) among the 1% aqueous Elixiance™ solution, deionized water, and blank control in terms of the observed levels of skin oxidation as shown in Figure 4. A separate long-term double-blind clinical test on twenty healthy human subjects was conducted during the winter season in Shanghai. We applied to each side of the subjects’ faces (twice Figure 4: Fluorescence intensity values of the images presented in Figure 3 portrayed in graphical form (100x magnification; n=4). per day; 2 mg/cm2) either a cream containing Elixiance™ (1% w/w) or a placebo cream containing no extract; the selection of which cream was applied on which side was done randomly. D-Squame discs were used to collect the stratum corneum samples from the cheek and forehead of the subjects to measure the protein carbonylation levels of the samples at Day 0 and Day 56 (8 weeks). After 8 weeks of application, we observed that the protein carbonylation levels of 12

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the samples to which the cream containing Elixiance™ had been applied were 340% lower than those to which the placebo was applied (p=0.022 in the t-test, applicable to 70% of the human subjects).

Concluding Remarks In summary, SCCP levels can be used as an indicator to reflect the skin protein oxidation by environmental pollution in the clinical studies. The established SCCP method was employed to evaluate cosmetic ingredients or products for their efficacy in the area of pollution protection. As a conclusion from short-term and long-term clinical studies, Elixiance™ as an ingredient in skin care applications exhibited significant efficacy in helping the skin to protect itself against damage caused by excessive exposure to certain types of air pollution.

References 1. E. Drakaki, C. Dessinioti, and C.V. Antoniou, Air pollution and the skin, Front. Environ. Sci., 2, Article 11, 1-6 (2014). 2. A. Vierkötter, T. Schikowski, U. Ranft, D. Sugiri, M. Matsui, U. Krämer, and J. Krutmann, Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging, J. Invest. Dermatol., 130, 2719-2726 (2010). 3. I. Iwai, K.I. Murayama, and T. Hirao, Change in optical properties of stratum corneum induced by protein carbonylation in vitro, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 30, 41-46 (2008). 4. I. Iwai, K. Shimadzu, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hirao, and T. Etou, Increased carbonyl protein level in the stratum corneum of inflammatory skin disorders: a non-invasive approach, J. Dermatol., 37, 693-698 (2010). 5. A. Clay, V. Busuttil, I. Imbert, C. Capallere, L. Bergeron, C. Serre, C. Plaza, G. Oberto, K. Cucumel, J.-M. Botto, and N. Domloge, When the dust settles: keratinocyte differentiation is the anti-pollution solution, Cosmet. & Toil., 132(7), 51-57 (2017). _____________________________________________

About the Authors

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Xin Qu, Ph.D.

Dr. Qu received his B.S. from University of Science and Technology of China in 1994, and a Ph.D. in Polymer Technology from Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in 1999. After graduation, he worked as Postdoc in Columbia University, New York City for two years. In 2006, Dr. Qu joined ISP Corporation, which merged with Ashland Inc. in 2010, as Global R&D lab manager in their Shanghai Technical Center. n

Xiaoming Zhao

Xiaomin Zhao received an M.S. in Biomedical Engineering from Tongji University, Shanghai in 2005. She joined Ashland China in 2009 where she holds the title of Skincare R&D Manager. The scope of her research covers clinical efficacy evaluation method development for skincare ingredients, scalp care clinical efficacy evaluation method development, sensory evaluation platform establishment, and tape-stripping technology applications to analyze specific proteins expressed in the stratum corneum. n Yueming Jiang Yueming Jiang received a B.S. in Food Science and Engineering from Tianjin University of Science and Technology in 2007, and an M.S. in Nutrition and Food Safety at the same university in 2010. She is currently a Skincare Scientist in Ashland’s Shanghai technical center. The scope of her research ranges across efficacy evaluation of cosmetic formulations and ingredients, skin damage induced by air pollution, and other skin-related research. n

Linda C. Foltis

Linda Foltis is Vice-president, global R&D for Personal and Home Care Applications at Ashland Specialty Ingredients. She leads a talented team of scientists located in laboratories in the Americas, Europe, and Asia with a focus on the development of new ingredients, new applications, and customer collaboration across personal and home care. Her previous experience includes ISP, L’Oréal USA, Playtex (now Edgewell), and Unilever. Linda holds an M.S. in Chemistry from Seton Hall University, New Jersey, United States, with a minor in Business. V O L U M E

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NYSCC and Long Island SCC Joint Ski Trip February 9-11, 2018 Killington, Vermont

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oin fellow NYSCC and LISCC Chapter members and their invited guests for one to three days of skiing or snow boarding. We have deeply discounted lift tickets for either one, two, or three days: Friday, February 9th; Saturday, February 10th; and Sunday, February 11th. Some people will be traveling to Killington after work on Thursday, February 8th and returning the morning of Sunday, February 11th. We’ve added the third day for those diehards who might want to get in a few more downhill runs before departing on Sunday.

Brewery Tour and Technical Presentation As part of the 2018 NYSCC Ski Trip the New York Chapter will sponsor an educational speaker along with a tour of local breweries on Saturday. Come learn a thing or two about K-Beauty from guest speaker Marc Cornell (Vice-president, Product Development at Englewood Laboratories) and taste test some local brewskies in the process. Bus Brewery tour transportation to and from the ski resort will be provided. This option certainly will appeal partially sponsored to non-skiers or those who prefer to ski only one or two of the three days. The brewery by Princeton tour is a full day, starting at 10:00 a.m. and finishing at 6:00 p.m. Consumer Research. Event Chair: Joe Albanese (joealbanese2@gmail.com; (908) 456-2968). NYSCC Committee: Brian Ecclefield (brianecclefield@princetonconsumer.com; (845) 558-2258) LISCC Committee: Ina Schlenoff (ischleno@estee.com) and Glen Muoio (gmuoio@estee.com; (631) 501-5832) Lodging at Killington will not be provided. Try getting together with friends and colleagues to find a hotel or condo to share. Transportation to/from Killington will also not be provided. Car-pooling is recommended. Individuals seeking ride-sharing opportunities may contact: • NYSCC: Joe Albanese (joealbanese@gmail.com; (908) 456-2968) • LISCC: Glen Muoio (gmuoio@estee.com; (631) 501-5832)

Non-members are Welcome! This is a family event, so children and other invited guests are welcome. Same ski lift and equipment rental rates apply for SCC members and their invited guests. Discounted group lift tickets and rentals are available for purchase through the LISCC. Please make all checks payable to: SCC – Long Island Chapter. If paying by check, mail to Glenn Muoio, Estée Lauder Companies, 125 Pinelawn Road, Melville, NY 11747. To purchase tickets via PayPal, please visit the LISCC website. Go to www.liscc.org/2018_ski.html.

n Adult, Ages 19-64 • Adult ticket 1-day (Friday) – $51 • Adult ticket 1-day (Saturday) – $69 • Adult ticket 2-day (Friday and Saturday) – $120 • Adult ticket 2-day (Saturday and Sunday) – $132 • Adult ticket 3-day (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday) – $151 14

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n Youth, Ages 7-18 and Senior, Ages 65+ • Youth/senior ticket 1-day (Friday) – $47 • Youth/senior ticket 1-day (Saturday) – $63 • Youth/senior ticket 2-day (Friday and Saturday) – $110 • Youth/senior ticket 2-day (Saturday and Sunday) – $114 • Youth/senior ticket 3-day (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday) – $130

n Rentals (includes skis/boots/poles or snowboard/boots): • Adult (19-64): 1-day, $39; 2-day, $68 ; 3-day, $91 • Youth/Senior (18 & under/65+): 1-day, $29; 2-day, $46; 3-day, $64 n Questions about skiing/snowboarding, please contact: • Joe Albanese (joealbanese2@gmail.com; (908) 456-2968) • Glen Muolo (gmuolo@estee.com; (631) 501-5832)

n Questions about educational program and touring microbreweries, please contact: • Brian Ecclefield (brianecclefield@princetonconsumer.com; (845) 558-2258) n Registration closes February 5, 2018. _____________________________________________

NYSCC Ski Trip Educational Program K-Beauty: The Science Behind the Transformational Texture Phenomenon

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osmetics have been around forever. The skincare routine has been refined over the years, but up until recently cosmetics have not been exclusively positioned as “fun”. The K-Beauty trend continues to sweep through the cosmetic world using social media and playful skin care application techniques. Underneath this fun, surprising image-driven cosmetic trend lies a host of applied scientific principles. We will explore K-Beauty not through the lens of social media but more appropriately under the microscope of science (colloid and interface science, skin biology, and physics). Join me for a hands on demonstration while we look behind the curtain on K-Beauty trends from a scientist point of view.

COMMITTED TO TECHNOLOGY, FORMULATION AND SUPERIOR NATION-WIDE DISTRIBUTION.

800.296.4942 LINCOLNFINEINGREDIENTS.COM 50 INDUSTRIAL CR., LINCOLN, R.I., 02865

About the Speaker: Marc Cornell Marc Cornell is Vice-president of Innovation at Englewood Lab in Englewood, NJ. During his thirty-year career, he has worked in an R&D role for large (Merck, L’Oréal, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Union Carbide) and medium sized companies (Neostrata, ChemAid Labs, KV Pharmaceutical). For the last twenty years he has worked primarily on the research and formulation development of cosmeceuticals for various brands (Skinceuticals, Neostrata, Biomedic, Strivectin, and La Roche-Posay). In his current role, he has researched K-Beauty skincare trends and developed numerous transformational textures which continue to trend for this surprising sensorial skin care category.

Employment Opportunities For complete ads please go to the NYSCC website: https://www.nyscc.org/employment-listings.html.

n Lead Applications Scientist – Beauty Formulations Croda, Inc. • Edison, NJ n Sales and Marketing Development Manager – Performance Materials Vertellus Any remote location (requires 50% travel) n Applications Team Leader – PVCS Croda • Edison, NJ

n Inside Sales Representative – Personal Care Croda • Edison, NJ

n Senior Chemist – Makeup The Estée Lauder Companies • Melville, NY V O L U M E

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n Senior Chemist Paramount Cosmetics • Clifton, NJ n Senior Scientist – Skin Care Melaleuca • Idaho Falls, ID

n Supervising Formulation Chemist Sombra Cosmetics • Albuquerque, NM n Director of Laboratory Sciences/QC Sombra Cosmetics • Albuquerque, NM

n Quality Control and Compliance Manager Repechage Beauty from the Sea Secaucus, NJ

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Cosmetiscope JAN 2018  
Cosmetiscope JAN 2018