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OREGON LEAF THE PATIENT’S VOICE SINCE 2010

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THE HARVEST ISSUE

novemBER 2014

OUTDOOR GROWING SPECIAL VANCOUVER / BEND / APPLEGATE VALLEY / PG. 32

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contents

NOVEMBER 2014

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24

46 Mountain Sun Botanical’s Black Cherry Cheese grows near the Applegate Valley and Siskiyou Mountains.

THE HARVEST ISSUE PROFILE

32

Oregon has an impressive amount of intensely beautiful scenery. You come to learn this with even the briefest explorations of the place. We were fortunate to be able to take a road trip from Vancouver to nearly the California border to be able to document outdoor Cannabis grows across this region. Won’t you come along?

10

Northwest News

24

Three Tasty Treats

14

Hempstalk Photos

44

Chocolate Medibles

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8 Questions for...

50

Health and Science

52

Grow Tech Tips

20

Steve Elliott with the roundup Rehashing the protestival

Norris Monson, the processor

Portland Access

Review: Thurman Street Collective

16

Medicated Thanksgiving recipes

Which is better? Brownie or bar?

Helping out your immune system Portable AC Nightmares

EDITOR’S NOTE......................9 NATIONAL NEWS....................10 HEMPSTALK............................14 8 QUESTIONS........................................16 STRAIN SHOT.........................28 MEDIBLE REVIEWS.....................44 CONCENTRATES........................46 BOTANICAL.........................48 HEALTH & SCIENCE.....................50 GROWTECH GUIDE....................52 BEHIND THE STRAIN..................54

COVER PHOTO by

Daniel Berman/Oregon Leaf

CONTENTS PHOTOS by

Oregon Leaf contributors


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contents

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THE HARVEST ISSUE Broken Top Farms’ Max McCurdy has his Alien Fire Kush finishing indoors as Central Oregon become too chill.

Photo by Daniel Berman/Oregon Leaf


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editor’s note

NOVEMBER 2014

Thank you for checking out the 5 th issue of oregon leaf! A time for traveling and cooking and negotiating with your immune system

I

am super excited to bring our first Oregon harvest issue to print. I love outdoor flowers, and the connection back to nature that it brings us. Don’t get me wrong, indoor gardens produce great medicine, but there is something sterile about being inside a white-walled indoor grow. Our plants came from the earth, and they always seem happier outdoors. The natural elements like fog and rain and sun all work together to create some of the best medicine on earth. One of the featured growers described how the birds wake up the plants each morning. As the sun creeps up so do the fan leaves and the rest of the outdoor world! This month also features one of my other favorite parts of fall...Thanksgiving recipes! We have medicated stuffing, a chocolate pie and more for you to try out at home. But don’t stop there. I encourage everyone to try and infuse (starting with a small dose) their

favorite recipe with a local oil or butter and get creatively medicated. In the reviews section this month we have a couple tasty edibles, a beautiful Girl Scout Cookies shatter, and a cool collective from Portland with in-house organic strains. Don’t miss our 8 Questions interview with master extraction specialist Norris Monson. We also have a fantastic budshot in the centerspread, plenty of Northwest news and photo coverage from Hempstalk, which is in this issue due to last month’s deadline. You can also read up on a new growtech and behind the strain, and learn from Dr. Rose about how to boost your immune system this winter and not get sick! Sit down with another fun issue and explore our harvest travels and the rest of this Cannabis journalism on the pages ahead.

WES ABNEY, EDITOR

Contact oregon Leaf editor Wes Abney to discuss advertising or displaying our magazine in a new location. We want to hear from you! Feel free to send submissions, share news tips, your take on a story or one we should hear.

Phone 206-235-6721 Email nwleaf@gmail.com

JACOB THOM Oregon Director of Sales

Oregonleafsales@gmail.com 503-516-5934

founder & editor-in-chief

Wes Abney photographer & designer

the truth about the plant you thought you knew, IN every issue.

Daniel Berman contributors STEVE ELLIOTT KIRK ERICSON WILL FERGUSON DAVID KASNIC JACOB NEWTON DR. SCANDERSON DR. SCOTT D. ROSE LAURIE WOLF & BRUCE WOLF

Department of Corrections

Our Oct. 2014 story on the Oregon Medical Marijuana Cup should have said Dab Society Extracts won 3rd place Concentrates with their Jack Herer. A review in the same issue of Canna Candy Co.’s Dank Cup left out the price, $6, and the test results, 21.1% THC.

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national

STEVE ELLIOTT is the editor behind tokesignals.com, an independent blog of Cannabis news and opinion

Outreach

OREGON NEWS

Rick Steves hits the road for Measure 91 TV show host pitches legalization to OR voters

R

ick Steves is best known as the mild-mannered travel promoter who was a key supporter of Washington’s marijuana legalization initiative, but now he is embarking on a nine-city tour throughout Oregon to push for Measure 91, the Cannabis legalization measure on the November ballot. Steves called Measure 91 a “smart law” designed to address the reality of marijuana use, according to an Oct. 7 Oregonian article, detailing the launch. “Marijuana is a drug,” wrote Steves, a NORML board member. “It’s not good for you. It can be addictive. But marijuana is here to stay. No amount of wishing will bring us a utopian ‘drug-free society.’ ” Steves explained that owning his own business has given him the freedom to express his views about marijuana without fear of being fired. “When it comes to America’s prohibition on marijuana, I can consider lessons learned from my travels and say what I really believe when I’m back home,” Steves said. The travel writer last year was named one of the 50 most influential consumers by the Marijuana Policy Project. In a 2013 High Times interview, Steves said he is not a user of marijuana but still has his reasons. “I just believe that if somebody wants to smoke it, that’s their right,” he said. “When it comes to marijuana, some societies simply moralize and criminalize,” Steves said. “Others are more pragmatic and work to reduce harm by taking the crime out of the equation, treating marijuana as a health and education issue instead ... And it’s clear to me, we need to end our nation’s prohibition against marijuana.”

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Politics

Oregon’s First Lady admits to an illegal WA pot grow Cylvia Hayes says the transgressions occurred nearly 20 years ago in a different time

G

ov. John Kitzhaber’s fiancée, Cylvia that never materialized.” Hayes, has admitted planning an ilThe man who sold the property, then relegal marijuana grow operation with possessed it, indicated that a marijuana grow her then-boyfriend back in 1997. The revelawas already in progress. tion comes less than a week after Hayes ad“There was a full-sized pool table upstairs mitted she illegally married an Ethiopian imin the house and that was the first clue,” bromigrant that same year. ker Patrick Siemion Hayes said she was told KGW’s Mike living on the property Benner. “There were i WAS ASSOCIATING WITH with her then-boyfriend marijuana trimmings THE WRONG KIND OF PEOPLE... in Okanogan, Washingon the table. ton, near the Canadian “They had drilled border, for the purpose holes in the walls of of growing and selling marijuana, reports the log house for the irrigation tubes,” SieSara Roth at KGW. mion said. “Last Thursday, I admitted that 17 years “Then I went out to the shed and there was ago I was in the middle of a very difficult marijuana-grow specific paraphernalia, more and unstable period of my life,” Hayes said. bloom, nitrogen fertilizers.” “I said then, and I’ll say again ... I was asWhile Hayes says her then-boyfriend, Karl sociating with the wrong kind of people and A. Topinka, led the operation, Siemion said making mistakes. Hayes had been in charge. “I am not proud of that brief period of “The idea that she was an unwitting or time,” Hayes said. “I was involved in an unwilling participant in my eyes is totally erabusive relationship with a dangerous man. roneous,” Siemion said. “She did a lot of the We lived together for several months on talking is all I can say.” the property in Okanogan that was intended Kitzhaber, a Democrat, is running against to be the site of a marijuana grow operation Republican Dennis Richardson.

‘‘


Washington

Explosive pot soda bottles removed from 3 legal stores Makers blame over-pressurization for error that “sounded like a shotgun going off.”

L

egal Pomegranate marijuana-infused soda has more bang for the buck than its manufacturers and distributors expected. The drink has been removed from three Washington recreational marijuana stores after bottles started exploding on the shelves. Top Shelf Cannabis in Bellingham took delivery of 330 bottles of the soda Sept. 28. Employees said they were excited to promote it to their customers, reports Matt Markovich at KOMO News. They sold 10 bottles of the soda, made by Mirth Provisions of Longview, on the first day. When employees opened up the next day, they found broken bottles and shards of glass throughout the store. During the night, the bottles had exploded. The employees said they didn’t realize just how dangerous the problem was until they saw and heard bottles blow up. “It sounded like a shotgun going off,” said Top Shelf Cannabis manager Zach Henifin. Henifin donned a face shield and protective garb and placed cartons of the unexploded soda in a dumpster-size steel box outside the store. The “pot pop” continued to explode inside the steel container for the next 10 days. “It’s almost like a bomb box because they randomly go off during the day,” he said. Nobody was injured by the shards from the exploding bottles, but the store isn’t sure whether the 10 customers who bought the

Quick Hits!

1.4 5 15 25 25 55 800 4,500

Million dollars in cash, silver and gold were seized in Sebastopol, CA in one of the largest Cannabis busts ever recorded in the state, the AP reports.

Number of people arrested in Butte County, CA after detectives found grow sites, illegal weapons and a greenhouse less than 200 ft. from a school. Thousands of square feet at a site in Denver purchased last month by Advanced Cannabis Solutions, which wants to open the industry’s 1st-ever Cannabis bank.

Cost per gram on average of Cannabis being sold in 502 stores, though retailers and recreational users alike are hoping the this years outdoor harvest will bring down prices and effectively stabilize the new marketplace.

Legal Pomegranate soda by Mirth Provisions soda had their bottles explode on them. Top Shelf wasn’t the only shop reporting the exploding bottles, according to Adam Stites, founder of Mirth Provisions. Main Street Marijuana and New Vansterdam in Vancouver also reported problems with the bottles. “It was simply the fact that his batch had a higher yeast concentration, and one of the byproducts of yeast is excess carbon dioxide,” said Stites, who noted that Mirth Provisions tested the carbonated drink up to 14 pounds per square inch, in bottles able to handle 42 PSI. “The yeast was just building up the pressure in the bottles over a seven to 10-day period,” Stites said. Now that’s a sticky problem to solve.

Quoted

Cost of a fine for possession of less than one ounce of flower in The City of Brotherly Love, Philadelphia, after passing a new Cannabis law.

Percent of Delaware adults who want to legalize Cannabis, in the highest ever amount polled for the state, according to a story by the Associated Press. Thousands of dollars donated by two out of state groups with ties to wealthy donors in support of Oregon’s legalization Measure 91.

Dollar value of pot plants eaten by a group of hungry sheep in Surrey, England after finding black bags left at the edge of the property, presumably to be sold, if not for woolly thieves.

ANDREW CUOMO IS A VERY PROGRESSIVE MAN ON A WHOLE LOT OF ISSUES BUT HE WAS NO DIFFERENT THAN MOST PEOPLE IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK WHEN IT CAME TO DRUG POLICY.

‘‘

-New York State Sen. Diane Savino, speaking with sponsors of the medical marijuana law during a conference held by the International Cannabis Association last month in Manhattan. Detractors say that the New York governor crippled the law with needless restrictions and bizarre power grabs.

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national

STEVE ELLIOTT is the editor behind tokesignals.com, an independent blog of Cannabis news and opinion

Canada

WILL THE NORTH EVER GET LEGAL? Centre for Addiction and Mental Health recommends Cannabis Legalization

C

Moroccan the boat

Call us shocked, shocked, that the hash-producing nation could become first to back the green

A

law is being considered in Morocco that would legalize marijuana cultivation for medical and industrial uses, bringing the North African nation’s thriving hashish industry into the open. The proposal, however, faces stiff opposition in this conservative nation, despite a centuries-old tradition of growing Cannabis in the north, where the Rif Mountains have long been a haven for hashmaking, wrote Paul Schemm of the AP. Some farmers, including Abdelkhalek Benabdallah, openly grow marijuana, despite its illegal status. “We are regularly subject to blackmail by the gendarmes,” he said as he prepared his September harvest. The new law could alleviate widespread poverty and unrest. Suspicious farmers, accustomed to an adversarial relationship with authorities, don’t believe the government will do anything to help them. Some fear legalization might lower the $8 a kilogram price that farmers receive for their hash. “If legalization happened for all of Morocco, we could never compete with the other farmers that have lots of land and the price of Cannabis

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wouldn’t be any different from that of carrots,” said Mohammed Benabdallah, an activist in the village of Oued Abdel Ghaya. Under the current system, farmers complain about having to dodge police and avoiding the major towns for fear of arrest, unless they are willing to pay bribes. Farmers are paid little, with the bulk of profits going to buyers and smugglers who reap huge profits in Europe. Morocco is one of the world’s top producers of hashish, according to the World Customs Authority, which reports that in 2013, 65 percent of hashish seized at customs worldwide came from this North African nation, with most of that going to Europe. About 80,000 families in the Rif Mountains make their living from growing marijuana, according to United Nations estimates. They typically make $3,000 to $4,000 a year. Growers can spend months or years in prison if they don’t pay bribes. About 15,000 people from the marijuana-growing area of Morocco are in jail, with another 30,000 being sought by law enforcement, according to news reports by the AP.

anada’s Centre for Addiction and Mental Health has released a new evidence-informed report on Cannabis control. The Cannabis Policy Framework released by CAMH recommends marijuana legalization with a strict regulation approach to Cannabis control. Canada has one of the highest rates of Cannabis use in the world, with 40 percent of Canadians having used it at least once in their lifetimes. CAMH’s Cannabis Policy Framework was developed to provide evidence-based principles for reducing Cannabis-related harm. To do this, CAMH scientists and policy experts conducted in-depth analysis of the health, social and legal implications of Cannabis use, and examined Cannabis policy in other jurisdictions. “Canada’s current system of Cannabis control is failing to prevent or reduce the harms associated with Cannabis use,” said Dr. Jürgen Rehm, director of the Social and Epidemiological Research Department at CAMH. “Based on a thorough review of the evidence, we believe that legalization combined with strict regulation of Cannabis is the most effective means of reducing the harms associated with its use. Any reform of Canada’s system of Cannabis control must include a strong focus on prevention and a range of interventions aimed at groups that are at higher risk of harm, including youth and people with a personal or family history of mental illness.” Rehm also said evidence indicates that the criminalization of Cannabis does not deter people from using it. Instead, criminalization drives Cannabis users away from prevention, risk reduction and treatment services. “Legalization of Cannabis must be governed by strict regulations that ensure it is not sold like other commodities,” Rehm said. “This would include a government monopoly on sales, limits on availability, a pricing system that discourages use of higher-harm products and a ban on marketing.” PHOTO: FLICKR/NWARDEZ


rehashed

By OREGON LEAF STAFF | PHOTOS by DAVID KASNIC for OREGON LEAF Clockwise from left: Organizer Paul Stanford; attendee Gryfyn Heimburg, 13; A vendor sports a modified University of Oregon shirt; The mainstage crowd; Kimberly Hasty relaxes with her four and a half month-old daughter, Ocreata.

The annual event promoted Cannabis legalization and descheduling and

HEMPSTALK Tom McCall Waterfront Park, Portland, OR - Sept. 27, 2014

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removing barriers to hemp production, but only after finally obtaining the permit that city officials dangled and delayed in an ever-twisting joke of policies. Organizer Paul Stanford promised the event would be the only pot-free place in all of Portland that day and he wasn’t wrong. Police officers and anxious security guards searched every person going in or out of the park for anything even close to resembling pot or paraphernalia — going so far as to kick attendees out for using e-cigs. The city’s unreasonably stern crackdown on public consumption of pot is a strong contrast to its support for the Oktoberfest celebration that will occur soon in that very same park. A meaningful event like Hempstalk deserves better treatment.


PROFILE

8 Questions for the processor norris monson

on the business, science and politics of industrial Cannabis By JACOB THOM | PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN

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‘‘

THERE’S HUGE CONSUMER DEMAND FOR CONCENTRATES, WHETHER CO2, PROPANE OR BHO, AND IF YOU BAN IT FROM DISPENSARIES OR REC SHOPS, IT’S GOING TO GO UNDERGROUND. WHY ARE WE LEGALIZING CANNABIS? BECAUSE WE WANT TO ENCOURAGE SAFE BEHAVIOR AND PROHIBITION DOESN’T NECESSARILY ENCOURAGE THAT.

#1 You’re president of the Oregon Cannabis Industry Association and the president of nugrun enterprises. What does your company do and how did you become involved? I’m the chief facilitator at our facility. I make sure everyone in their segment is doing what they need to do, operating in the fashion that they should be. We process Cannabis, grow Cannabis and manage the distribution of pens and flowers throughout a better portion of the state. I’m pretty passionate about the industry and a self-learner, but I grew up not smoking marijuana, and believing everything I heard about it. “It’s terrible stuff, it’ll rot your brain” and all that. Then near the end of high school I realized it was a bunch of shit and within a year I grew a marijuana plant. I was 19. I’m 40 now.

#2 Processing Cannabis has been around since the beginning of man, but manufacturing it at large quantities is a much bigger beast. How big is the learning curve there? The learning curve is steep in some regards, but if you use the power of the Google it’s pretty easy to find out about a bunch of this stuff. It’s managing a lot of small steps that must be done correctly within each phase and seeing how they fit together. It’s much more difficult than blasting in a back yard, with a turkey baster, collecting in a Pyrex, which is extremely unsafe on so many levels. To go from that to operating a closed-loop system and legitimized process becomes much more difficult. You have people working for you, your cost structure changes, including more equipment and building space, with a larger organizational element where you have a name to identify you.

#3 Tell us about vertical integration (seed to process to sale)...

#5 You do a CO2 extraction method for O.penVAPE, but there is a murmuring negative buzz about the dangers of BHO and other forms of extraction being harmful to patients. What’s your take on other methods? I’m not at all against BHO. If it’s done safely to themselves and those around them, in a closed-loop system, with a gas that is the correct gas and no mystery oils, with the correct compatible metals, it’s fine. And should the state want to over-regulate other methods of extraction and ban them, it is the wrong choice. There is a huge consumer demand for concentrates, whether it’s CO2, propane or BHO, and if you ban it from dispensaries or rec shops, it’s all going to go underground. And you’ll encourage the lowest-tech blasting in his basement or bathroom. Why are we legalizing Cannabis? Because we want to encourage safe behavior and prohibition doesn’t necessarily encourage that.

#6 How is O.penVAPE involved with the patient aspect? Our company has patients for all of our plants. There are a few that come to our facility, but some of our patients are very ill, so it just depends on who they are. Duff Johnson Consulting helps with connecting our patients. We allot a certain amount based on their needs and the excess goes into production for oils. We are the licensed distributor for the O.penVAPE brand. We create all the oils as an Oregon-based company and then we purchase the branded carbonizers (bases) to distribute.

#7 Be honest, are you a flower guy at heart?

That doesn’t truly pertain to us as we don’t own any dispensaries. So we aren’t truly integrated, though we try to be up to a point. We do have seeds that we start, varieties we create, and strains we prep as it gives us more control over it, including specific flavor profiles. But we don’t have the mandated Colorado model (which is actually being decoupled right now). There is no right or wrong, we just choose differently.

Yeah, I really like smoking a big old fat joint. It’s great! I like it. But … on a Saturday night in your backyard with your neighbors next door, they might not want to see a Cheech and Chong smoke cloud over the fence. If you had a 5-acre property, it’d be a little different. But, you can smoke concentrates where the amount of aroma and smoke is much less.

#4 How does the industry need to move forward? New regs?

#8 What’s the most difficult part of your job?

One of the big challenges I see, that the state is trying to wrap their head around, is tax vs. untaxed Cannabis. For concentrates, there is a tax on matter at $160 a pound. But what the state worries about is untaxed marijuana making it into concentrates due to variable yields. It’s not magic to where I put in a 100 grams I get 20 back. That doesn’t happen. Sometimes you get 22, 12 or 27. It depends on the starting material, the parameters and the process. Any number of things are going to affect, ever so slightly, the yield. It’s a tough one. Establishing norms for seed to sale tracking is what it comes down to. But, we are happy to be in a position to produce concentrates legally, and are more than willing do to what is necessary to facilitate transparency.

A lot of this has changed from the fear of the law to a more of a traditional business sense that is very competitive. Competition is increasing and that is causing a need for an increased awareness and engagement of the “outside.” It’s about going through the growth process and answering all the questions that should have been asked all along, but because it was illegal, never were. Now there is an increased political front, networking front, employment and employees, management, production, quality control, and … smoking all the weed is pretty tough.

nugrun enterprises Search on Facebook/IG

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access

THURMAN STreet COLLECTIVE

Strains 3/5 THURMAN STREET COLLECTIVE has a variety of indoor, in-house

grown strains to meet patient needs. All grams are capped out at $10 per gram for various staple strains, including Blue Dream, Alien OG and a few in-house exclusives such as the beautiful Pineapple Punch and Early Girl. All strains are grown organically, by the owner, and the quality of smoke is undeniably reflected. We were particularly drawn to the Pineapple Punch because it’s an in-house favorite that patients keep returning for.

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Reviewed

By WILL FERGUSON for OREGON LEAF | PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Edibles 4/5

Concentrates 3/5

THE MEDIBLE FRIDGE was stocked at Thurman

A FEW STRAINS of BHO, water hash and

Street with products including Cheeba Chews, Gold Leaf, Coma Treats and Baked by Coco. Several treats and dosages were available for patients, as were a variety of medicated products sure to suit any palate. Prices were reasonable and reflected the quality of ingredients sourced for these locally created baked goods and sweets.

CO2 concentrates were available at Thurman Street Collective. Vendors such as Golden XTRX, Open Vape and Primo Extracts were featured on the concentrate shelves.Thurman also offers water hash processed in-house by the owner! Prices range $15-$40 per gram, depending on strain and vendor.


HARLEQUIN

SATIVA

THE SCORE

TEST results by Cascadia labs

a r om a : d e nsi ty: c u re : appearance: flavor: e ffe c t: tota l: 22/30

PINEAPPLE PUNCH

INDICA

THE SCORE

a r o ma : den si t y: c u r e: appearance: f lavo r : ef f ec t: t o ta l: 21/30

2.72% THC // 7.18% CBD

21.14% THC // 0.44% CBD // 0.1% CBN

HARLEQUIN, grown organically by Lopaka Farms is pure medicine. Testing in

at more than 7 percent CBD, this organically grown sativa-dominant hybrid is especially helpful for patients suffering from chronic pain, nausea, stress and anxiety. When smoked through an OCB organic paper, we noticed immediate calming effects that coated our bodies in medicinal relief. This strain tasted and smoked like outdoor herb, so I feel $10 per gram is too much for reimbursement.

THIS INDICA-DOMINANT HYBRID, when combusted, tasted exactly like pineap-

ples and burned clean white ash, reflective of a proper nutrient flush. With close lineage to that of Pineapple Kush, Pineapple Punch is effective at alleviating pain, nausea, anxiety and depression. This strain, grown by Lopaka Farms, was a little harsh on the lungs and looked like outdoor or greenhouse grown medicine, but it was effective and got the job done.

All strains are grown organically, by the owner, and the quality of smoke is undeniably reflected.

Environment 5/5 PATIENTS ARE WELCOMED by an inviting and

modern waiting room that features local artwork from some of Portland’s best artists. Comfortable chairs, a coffee table filled with medical marijuana magazines and complimentary drinks make this an enjoyable space while waiting for the medicine room to free up.

Overall 15/20 NORTHWEST PORTLAND is a vibrant, modern

neighborhood that harbors a sense of distance from the hubbub of the city, but it still maintains an active nightlife. Thurman Street reflects that atmosphere. Located in an eclectic neighborhood near good food and restautants, Thurman Street Collective is sure to become a staple among patients.

THURMAN STREET COLLECTIVE

2384 NW Thurman St, Portland, OR 97210 (971) 803-7970 www.ThurmanCollective.com

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recipes

By LAURIE WOLF for OREGON LEAF | PHOTOS by BRUCE WOLF for OREGON LEAF

Thanksgiving was on my mind while creating these recipes, but you don’t need to wait for the holiday to medicate with any of these yummy items. None of the dishes are complicated, and lots of the steps can be prepared a day ahead. Behold: one appetizer, one side and one dessert. Remember: You can always use less canna-butter, especially if you are making all three of these beauties for your guests to enjoy in one sitting.

MEDICATED HERB ONION STUFFING 1) Heat oven to 340 F. In a large skillet, melt the canna-butter. Add onion and cook until soft, 8-10 minutes. Add the sage and stir. Add the bread pieces, sour cream, salt and pepper. Mix to coat evenly. 2) Turn the stuffing mixture into a baking dish and drizzle with some of the stock. Check a couple of times and if it seems very dry, drizzle with more liquid. Cook for an additional 5-7 minutes after the last addition of stock. 3) Bake until the crust begins to brown, about 35-40 minutes.

INGREDIENTS

4-6 tablespoons canna-butter. 1 big onion, peeled, halved, sliced thin 1 large loaf of bread, preferably a few days old, crust torn into small pieces. 1-2 cups chicken or turkey stock 3/4 cup sour cream, room temp. 2 tablespoons dried sage

TASTY TIP: If you feel the recipe calls for additional butter, add the non-medicated butter variety. This dish would make an excellent side year-round but it is practically required Nov. 27. Serves 10-12.

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Salt and pepper to taste


STONED STUFFED MUSHROOMS 1) Remove the caps from the mushrooms and finely chop 4-5. Place the mushroom caps on a greased cookie sheet with sides. 2) In a medium skillet, heat the canna-butter. Add the onion and chopped mushrooms and cook until soft, 5-7 minutes. Never let the butter get too hot; keep the temperature at medium or lower. 3) Add the breadcrumbs to the pan and mix with the onion and mushrooms. Turn into a large bowl. Add the bacon and cheese. Mix. Add salt and pepper to taste. 4) Stuff the filling into the mushrooms, pressing down to pack tightly. 5. Bake until mushrooms are cooked, 25-30 min. Serves 12, 2 each.

INGREDIENTS 2 dozen medium-sized white mushrooms 3-4 tablespoons canna-butter 2 tablespoons finely chopped onion 3 strips bacon, cooked crisp, drained & chopped 2/3 cup shredded sharp cheddar cheese 1 cup plain breadcrumbs Salt and pepper to taste

CANNA-CHOCOLATE CHESS PIE 1) Heat oven to 340 F and line a 9-inch greased pie pan with favorite pie crust. Use a fork and make indentations around the edge. Place in the refrigerator. 2) In a large bowl, combine the melted butter with the sugar. Stir mixture to incorporate. Beat in the cocoa and the evaporated milk with a whisk. Add the eggs and vanilla and whisk until incorporated again. 3) Pour the mixture into the pie shell. Bake until set, 30-35 min. 4) Top pie with whipped cream and cutout shapes. Serves 10-12.

INGREDIENTS

If you want to

1 crust for a 9-10 inch pie 4 tablespoons melted canna-butter 1 1/4 cups white sugar 1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa powder 2 eggs, lightly beaten 1 teaspoon vanilla Extra crust for pie toppers

decorate your pie with leaves, either use a cookie cutter or cut a rolled-out crust into the desired shapes. Bake on a parchment-covered baking sheet at 350 F until light golden brown, 7-9 min.

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* Your business doesn’t actually need water or light. But it does need the best legal and business advice.

Cannabis Lawyers NW, LLC

Real Business Lawyers for Real Businesses 503.828.3031 | 360.334.6288 | www.cannabislawyersnw.com


OREGON LEAF

STRAIN OF THE MONTH By WES ABNEY | PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN

The spark of a lighter, a deep pull on a

percolating piece and, just like that, intense Indica pleasures have arrived for our medicating delight. The term master tends to bring a certain weight with it, and it is well deserved with this Master Kush. The bud structure is solid and chunky, with frosty tips and a heavenly stickiness upon snapping open. The flower smells sweet and earthy, with lemon-lime tones that rush into the nostrils alongside a heady, sour skunk after-tone. This is one flower that gets the double bag warning! But it really comes down to the strain’s flavor, which is nothing short of out-of-control tasty. For being a denser flower, the Master Kush burns easily with a smooth but expansive smoke. You won’t be coughing on these lightly sweetened notes of sour kush — but we had a wonderful tingling in the mouth and lungs. Effects set in quickly and start right behind the eyes, seemingly melting through the rest of the body like a pleasant Cannabinoid fog. For those with lower tolerances this is definitely one of those sleepy-time, end-of-your-day-strains. Expect to be stuck on the Grown by couch in pain-free bliss 7 Points Farm and thoroughly enjoying whatever entertainment you are consuming. For those with heavier tolerances or high levels of pain, this strain is useful all day, and can provide a friendly euphoria that makes the heavy Indica effects more manageable. Either way, you can’t go

Available From Pure Green

3738 N.E. Sandy Blvd. Portland, OR 97232 (971) 242-8561 www.puregreenpdx.com

Test Results by 3b Analytical

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>> It really comes down to the strain’s flavor, which is nothing short of out-of-control tasty.


passes microbial test

22.25% thc-total / .07% cbd-total / .568% cbg-total

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feature

STORY & PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN | INTERVIEWS BY WES ABNEY & JACOB THOM

THE HARVEST ISSUE Our photographer recounts his rare access to photograph f ields of outdoor Cannabis growing throughout the region.

Th ere’s no thi n g q ui t e li ke a r oa d t r ip.

The wind rolling through your trashed car as you blur past trees and vistas and new sights, great tunes from the radio or maybe your halfcharged phone blaring. But for now, it was stormy and too early. It was raining in Portland and I was up at the unenviable time of 5 a.m. The only sight was darkness and rain. My windshield wipers whimpered. This is what it takes if you want to be in Medford by noon. I was sitting in my car waiting for Jacob, our reporter, to come outside. The day before had been sunny when I left my own home in Seattle and traveled a few hours south to visit the property of Farmer Tom Lauerman, an organic grower out in Battle Ground, near Vancouver. Every trip back to this spot reveals something new about what can be achieved in the Northwest. We walk down a dirt path toward a duo of stunning greenhouses containing dozens of Cannabis plants stretching skyward. Everything is meticulously maintained. Where others might opt for plastic stakes to note a strain, Tom’s have his artistically rendered beard and logo. He shows me a sunflower taller than this outdoor showroom. Before I go, he hands me an Altoids tin stuffed with joints he has just rolled. I considered lighting one as Jacob finally emerged from his house. Rain fell in fat droplets, obscuring the road. We were fortunate to find sunshine by the time we reached the other side of Grant’s Pass. In Ashland and the Applegate Valley area, the tan and treelined Siskiyou Mountains jutted against a rich blue sky all day long. We stopped first to meet Karen and David at Emerald Organics Farms for a tour of their backyard grow. A neatly arranged grid of fat, towering plants demanded attention in all directions. Agent Orange is the predominant strain, high in THC, but at another facility called Sweden,

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a half hour drive away, Emerald Organics cultivates a bevy of CBD-rich Cannabis. Grower Mama Lou stands out in a cheerful, pink, plaid shirt in a setting that recalls a winery out of the movie “Sideways.” She looks out on a dozen or more rows of bright-green, short, squat plants cascading in neat levels down the hillside. It’s quite a workout to tend to all of them, she says, letting a pair of trimmers drop to her side. Everything is bred for maximum medicinal impact. We’re interrupted by a dog close to the size of a polar bear. He had barely let up barking since exiting my Escape an hour earlier. MamaLou held back the dog, and he watched as we made our way back down the steep gravel driveway. I barely noticed in time that the black metal swing gate was still shut. I took a breath. We were losing light quickly and there was another stop in an area nearby. The only problem was the address took us absolutely nowhere. A quick consultation with the growers revealed a missed turn 10 minutes back. We cautiously approached the grow, nestled at the bottom of a twisting riot of private roads. Thousands of madrone trees had made the location discreet, if not invisible. Black Mountain Sun Botanicals occupies the northern reach of the the Emerald Triangle, the

best climate for growing Cannabis. At the helm are growers Greg and Lauren, who talk about how proud they are to be able to grow healthy, huge plants for patients around the state. Jake and I pile into a Gator ATV to descend into the hilly site. Their grow overlooks a postcard view of the mountains, all pink and blue in the sunset afterglow. Their team hurried to trim several large tubs of frosty Black Cherry Cheese as night approached. They will keep doing this for a week. Our hotel was 30 minutes away and shared a parking lot with a busy truck stop that emptied out by the morning. We powered through a perfectly adequate continental breakfast and figured out the route toward Central Oregon. We took a brisk detour to Crater Lake, all stoic and reflecting in the crisp early sunlight, trees glowing, before we continued on a few hours up and over clogged state Route 138. I had grown weary of driving and the next stop in Bend was a welcome chance to stretch my legs and lungs. The growers at Broken Top Farms don’t smoke, citing health reasons, but they pointed out their small swath of outdoor still standing in the sunlight. They had moved most of the crop indoors to finish budding in a climate-controlled trailer — running on an automated timer setup — ever since cold weather had begun to brew in the region. Their Fire Alien Kush needed just a little more time. And soon it was it our time to make the journey north to Portland, and eventually Seattle. Jacob mentioned all the places we hadn’t stopped at, the ones I needed to get to next year, next harvest. Despite seeing so much in a few short days, we had hardly touched the surface and it felt wrong to leave. I found myself unable to focus on the long drive up U.S. Route 97. I kept glancing over at the Three Sisters Mountains, silhouettes against a flame-hued sky, beckoning west.


@nwleaf Views from the road Tom Lauerman’s Vancouver grows; Sunset over the 97; Vancouver fan leaves; Detour to Crater Lake, Sweden Farms has kind of a winery vibe.

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feature

T H E HARVE S T I S S UE

Rogue Valley farm: Emerald Organics Farms growers: Karen S. and David T. Specialty: Grown from seed

nINE Y E A R S AG O W E S TA R T ED growing out

here and life has gotten smoother as we’ve looked at the laws and slowly progressed to try to keep it within legal limits. We are hoping for Measure 91 to pass and for things to change again to do a commercial production facility. As we’ve slowly progressed, we have worked with our neighbors and refined the different strains based on patients’ needs, especially for cancer patients. Agent Orange is the main strain we chose to grow at this garden, which is our high THC and high-yield strain. We do a lot of strains that don’t always yield, such as the CBD strains we have been experimenting with. Some patients like high THC, and the A.O. is around 25 percent THC. Others are low THC and high CBD — we balance it out for the patients and dispensaries. We grow organically in soil here in the valley and the reason we like it so much is the area has a much better outdoor growing season than other parts of the state. We have had gorgeous weather this season, with no hard rain at the end, making it easier on growers. We cracked our seeds in March, and got into the ground in the beginning of June. We start little ones inside, and then progress them out to a greenhouse for a short time, and then we acclimate them fully outdoors, so it’s a threestep process. It’s a weather issue, with temperature acclimation being a carefully controlled issue. It’s a really good feeling to watch the whole cycle. We grow from seed here, and when you crack the seeds, there’s a special feeling of potential when you start it. At the end, it’s your harvest, a time of abundance, and a nice feeling to have gotten through and done a good job. We’re always looking to see what we have done right or could do better, but it’s definitely a dance with nature and environment. Our biggest plant this year is still in process, probably 14-feet tall by 13-feet around. It’s still beautiful weather down here, and we really are enjoying getting work done outside to produce medicine for our patients.

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PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Continued from previous page


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T H E HARVE S T I S S UE

CBD Kush

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PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Continued from previous page


Applegate Valley farm: Sweden Farms growers: MamaLou Specialty: Strains are CBD-dominant and destined for The CO2 Company.

THERE HASN’T BEEN A HISTORY OF FARMING CBD PLANTS DOWN HERE, BUT IT IS COMING IN NOW AS THE MEDICINAL ASPECTS OF THE PLANT BECOME KNOWN.

T his is our cbd fa r m, which features about

16 types of CBD plants. We have four types of Harlequin, AC/DC, CBD Yummy, CBD Critical, CBD Mortal and a lot more that are new and that we are trying out. That’s our experiment this year: coming out with a CBD pen and seeing what blends we can make out of a full CBD garden. Over the years, we’ve produced many strains, and we do a lot of experimentation, a huge amount over the past few years. This harvest we did Super Sour Silver Diesel Haze, a 13 percent CBD and 8 percent THC strain last season, and this year we did a lot of unknown CBD strains and are waiting to get those tested and see what we have created. This CBD garden started later than our others this year, based on a last-minute idea to start because a lot of farmers aren’t growing CBD plants. There hasn’t been a history of farming CBD plants down here, but it is coming in now as the medicinal aspects of the plant become known. I believe a shift toward CBD will happen in the coming years, but for now we are worried about

having a good supply of CBD for patients and are trying to produce as much as possible. I think the science is coming out for CBD, and I think the demand will be there for it in the medical market. We cracked seeds in March and did a feminized line. It’s working fine, though CBD strains are definitely much smaller plants, meaning a smaller garden. They don’t yield and get as big as traditional THC plants. We started processing CO2 in June. People have been really receptive and we are trying to do our best to keep up with demand and do good things. With our cartridges, we’re using all-natural CO2 in a holistic approach. I’ve had medical issues and I don’t want to be smoking propylene glycol or other additives. Ours is more of a natural concentrate, and I like to focus on the patient, not profit. If I don’t want to smoke it, I don’t want to let someone else smoke it. The all-natural CBD flower, produced locally, will be available in cartridges at dispensaries next month. It has been a huge undertaking but we’re excited and proud of what we’ve accomplished.

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T H E HARVE S T I S S UE

Southern Oregon farm: Mountain Sun Botanicals growers: Greg B. & Lauren K. Specialty: Clean Green-certified,

organic farm, member of Growers PAC.

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PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

w e’ v e g a r dened her e f or si x y e a r s and

are running 48 plants total for this season. We grow organically with compost teas, in elevated 600 gallon smart pots, all outside and open to the elements. The plants are open to the stars and the sounds of the birds and the animals. When birds chirp at sunrise, it wakes up the plants, and it all adds to the natural environment. We try to follow a biodynamic calendar, using the moon to help us decide when to make decisions about chores for plants, whether it be planting seeds on a full moon or looking at moons for when to harvest. The process can be very deep, but basically we let the moon help us know what to do with the plants. It’s all ancient knowledge, but we apply it here to Cannabis. We put our plants outside on May 6; they were maturing in a greenhouse before that. It’s been a wonderful season with plenty of sun, and smoke from the wildfires has been a good and bad element. The smoke diffuses light while still being good for the plant, so the fire problem wasn’t too bad. The weather was definitely hot, which the plants responded to well. Applegate genetics are what we mainly run in the garden. People have been doing this for years and years, so we backcross onto the strongest phenotypes and share them with other growers. It’s a communal effort, and we all share seeds each year. In flower this year is the Afghan Dream. We’ve got Black Cherry Cheese Blue Dream, we’ve got

Continued from previous page

Blue Head Cheese, Cherry Cola, Bubba Kush Goo Tooth, and we also have a NYCD Goo Tooth. All of the strains do outstanding outdoors, and have been bred specifically for our unique climate. Our climate isn’t typical of the Northwest, it’s more of a Mediterranean climate here in the valley, which is why grapes grow well and we have such a heavy agricultural presence. It’s really more of a high desert than a wetland. The climate changes dramatically once you hit south of Grants Pass. We have had a much drier and longer summer than the rest of the Northwest, which lends itself to the perfect growing climate for Cannabis. This is the first year we grew CBD plants. Those plants were successful and we are excited to get them into the labs and see how they test. We give props to the CBD crew, because we grew their Critical Mass and Sweet and Sour Widow. We’re really interested in the medicine of the plant and helping people. THC is a huge pain-reliever and healer, but so is CBD, and we want to learn more to help people feel better. That’s what Cannabis is for. We are focused on medicinal ways that this plant can be able to help people. We are excited to share our crop with the patients of Oregon. Mountain Sun Botanicals will have a new salve and new tincture products out this fall, and our medicinal Cannabis oil extractions are out now. Everything will soon be in collectives around the state, including Oregon’s Finest!


THE CLIMATE CHANGES DRAMATICALLY ONCE YOU HIT SOUTH OF GRANTS PASS. WE HAVE HAD A MUCH DRIER AND LONGER SUMMER THAN THE REST OF THE NORTHWEST, WHICH LENDS ITSELF TO THE PERFECT GROWING CLIMATE FOR CANNABIS.

Black Cherry Cheese

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T H E HARVE S T I S S UE

PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Continued from previous page

Fire Alien Kush

w e’ v e been gro w ing ou t her e for about

two years, and we produce year-round, indoor and outdoor. We grow in containers that have been insulated and modified for climate control, with heating units for the environment, and inside we use the latest hoods and Gavita ballasts, with Pyco nutrients from Australia. We exclusively use them because we get extreme crystal production, and the nutes are scientifically developed in labs. It’s a bit more expensive than most nutrients but we’ve found that by using them all, it’s no comparison. We ran five main strains this year to make it easier to maintain the type of environment that each strain does well in. Some strains require variations, so we keep it simple. We grew Jack Herer, Mango Tango, Cinex, Fire Alien Kush and Blackberry. We started the plants in our baby barn, which we had to do because we are 4,000 feet in the air, so our growing season is only about 90 days. When they reached a certain size and we were sure it wasn’t going to freeze, we moved them outside around the first of May. We’ve been babying them every day. This was our first outdoor crop, and initially we didn’t think it could grow this high in the mountains. But I do think the elevation has actually helped, because the sun we get is more intense. I would encourage people to try growing at higher

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elevations, but people need to choose strains that are 60 to 65 day runs to flower. Next year, we won’t run the Fire Alien Kush because it takes too long to flower for the environment. I would encourage people doing outdoor to pick quicker strains than some of the longer ones, and to grow them in pots and not put them in dirt. Then you can move the plants if any issues arise. We moved our crop inside to finish because of weather and security. We have a lot of medicine that we didn’t want to risk losing. We are going to be opening a dispensary that will have some of this medicine, but a good portion will be given free to the Bend Hospice program for terminally ill patients who can’t afford their medicine. The rest will go to different spots, like Diamond Tree in Bend, where people will be able to find Fire Alien Kush. Overall, our first outdoor crop has been great. We have not had one freeze on these plants this year. You have to be aware of the climate. We have lived here all our lives, but this year was a really exceptional: not too hot, not too cold; right in the spectrum where the plants just loved it. The sick patients need this medicine, and I am excited for this harvest, and even more for next year. Look for the Broken Top Farms dispensary coming soon in Bend, where we will have Girl Scout Cookie hash and several new exclusive strains for patients to try.

Deschutes River farm: Broken Top Farms growers: Max McCurdy Specialty: 4,000-foot elevation

WE’VE LIVED HERE ALL OUR LIVES, BUT THIS YEAR WAS REALLY EXCEPTIONAL: NOT TOO HOT, NOT TOO COLD; RIGHT IN THE SPECTRUM WHERE THE PLANTS JUST LOVED IT.


A close-up of the frosty kola of some DW Indica.

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Wide selection of nutrients and soil Friendly, knowledgeable, experienced staff 100% locally owned

6850 N. Interstate Ave Portland, OR 97217 || 503-285-4768


TASTY

Reviews

The Brownie

by Big Foot Cactus Cookie Company

64% THC/0.2% CBD/0.6% CBN

TESTED by sunrise analytical

By Will ferguson for oREGON lEAF Photos by Daniel Berman/oregon leaf

Heavy-Strength Tiger Budder Chocolate Bar by Coma Treats

350mg THC/no cbd This brownie loaded with kief did not quite live up to expectations. First, we were confused at the dose. The labeled package said the brownie contained 600mg of kief, which doesn’t do justice to the potency of the product. When consumed, we noticed strong meTHE SCORE dicinal effects, however, Va l ue: not nearly as strong as we Ta ste: would have thought from a E ffec t: brownie made with 600mg of kief. While this medible Packaging: contained strong effects, it Overa l l : was difficult to determine the proper dose and the amount patients would need depending on their tolerance. While this was a tasty treat, it doesn’t contain the necessary medicinal qualities to make this edible a staple in the industry. We recommend further QC testing.

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TESTED by Canna lab

The first bite of this extra-strength Coma Treats chocolate bar revealed a very heavy chocolate taste with no hint of Cannabis. We consumed the whole chocolate bar, which was a tad rich but carried exceptional medicinal effects. After about 90 minutes, the medicinal effects began to set in. We noticed an intense psychoactive buzz that mellows out into a relaxing body THE SCORE high that is helpful Valu e: for depression, pain Taste: and stress. The considerable effects lasted Effect: for about eight hours, Packaging: making this medible Overall: well worth the price for any serious patient.


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concentrates

By WILL FERGUSON for OREGON LEAF | PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN/OREGON LEAF

THE SCORE

Va l ue : Ta s t e : Effec t: Packaging: Ove ra l l :

The pleasant effects arrive instantly, providing a euphoric and uplifting body buzz.

TEST RESULTS

85% THC 2.5% cbd

Processed by White Label Extracts

Girl Scout Cookies Shatter T

his Girl Scout Cookies shatter is one of the cleanest, terpiest extracts we have ever dabbed. The shatter was packaged in unbleached parchment paper in a small plastic envelope with test results displayed on the outside. When breaking off a piece for a dab, our nostrils were filled with the distinctive, sweet, earthy smell that Girl Scout Cookies is known for. It is optimal to

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store the extract in a refrigerated environment has proven to be especially effective to ensure stability. When vaporized, the for patients suffering from depression, shatter melts into a golden, terpene-filled anxiety and chronic pain. This extract was puddle that coated our mouths with intense processed through a closed-loop system cookie-dough flavor. The pleasant effects with distilled, research-grade N-Butane arrive instantly, providing a euphoric and then purged in a vacuum and uplifting body buzz. Bred by Berner 1 GRAM oven to ensure a clean product. PRICE $30 of San Francisco, Girl Scout Cookies This extract is worth checking out!

TESTED by OG ANALYTICAL


health & science A BOTANICAL MONOGRAPH

THE SECRET POWER of

arnica

BY NORTHWEST LEAF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR SCOTT D. ROSE

BY OREGON LEAF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR DR. SCOTT D. ROSE

Commonly known as Mountain tobacco, wolf ’s bane and leopard’s bane. Stems 1 to 2 feet tall, with usually a single flower head atop. Leaves are mostly at the base with one to two opposite leaf arrangements coming up the stem. The flower heads are yellow, about 2 inches in diameter.

Parts used:

The roots and dried orange-yellow flower heads are used medicinally.

Active constituents:

Volatile oil containing fatty acids, aromatic terpenes, flavonoids, tannins and sesquiterpenes.

(A. Montana) is found widely in mountainous areas of Washington, British Columbia and Europe.

Historical uses:

Drug interactions:

Arnica was discovered as a medicinal plant by Europeans in the 16th century and has been used in homeopathic treatments for years. In Russian traditional medicine, Arnica Montana flower extracts were used for the treatment of inflammation of the heart, heart pain, uterine bleeding, heart failure and many other uses. The American variety was used by American Indians and the early settlers.

PHOTO BY CREATIVE COMMONS

Arnica might slow blood clotting. Taking arnica along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Never take arnica internally, unless it’s in the form of homeopathic pills that contain too little arnica to cause harm, or under direct supervision of a physician or registered herbalist. Homeopathic arnica is safe.

Dosage:

Arnica compresses — 2 grams of herb per 100 milliliters of water or 1 tablespoon of arnica tincture in 1 pint of purified water. Apply topically with gauze. External ointments and tinctures — Not more than 20 percent to 25 percent tincture. Rub or massage the tincture freely onto injured area, and only on unbroken skin. Use ointments with no more than 15 percent arnica oil.

Medicinal uses:

Arnica soothes sore muscles and reduces pain and inflammation. The Commission E reports that when applied topically, arnica preparations have anti-inflammatory activity. In cases of inflammation, arnica preparations also show analgesic (pain relieving) and antibacterial activity. Bruises are reabsorbed faster after the use or application of arnica. British ambulance crews have long carried arnica to administer to victims of motor

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Contraindications:

Prolonged treatment of damaged skin often causes a puffy rash with the formation of pustules. Longer use can also give rise to eczema. Do not take if you have an asteraceae (daisy, ragweed) allergy, most common reaction is a rash indicating a sensitivity to helenalin. Arnica contains the toxin helenalin, which can be poisonous in large quantities. It produces severe stomach pain and internal bleeding of the digestive tract if enough material is ingested. Even contacting the plant can also cause skin irritation.

Side effects & toxicity:

This herb is for topical applications only. Do not take arnica internally. Even a small amount of pure arnica can kill or cause permanent damage.

vehicle accidents. Arnica is a common homeopathic remedy. Homeopathic arnica is indicated for acute injuries, including bruises, sprains, soreness, swelling and muscle spasms from sports activities, arthritis set off by seasonal changes, and general muscle and joint pain. At least one study has shown a decrease in postsurgical bruising when homeopathic arnica is administered around the time of surgery.

learn more about arnica: www.tinyurl.com/nwleafArnica


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health & science

SIMPLE

WAYS for you to

N O T G

M

ET SICK

THIS WEEK

any people begin to worry and improve your peace of mind headed into the around Autum what germs cold and flu season? they’ll encounter while in public and how they will A healthful life promotes a healthy immune be affected if they become infected. system. Fundamental elements of health such as Many people are paranoid about germs, perclean air, clean water, a healthful diet and qualhaps rightly so, with ever-emerging viruses such as ity sleep largely dictate the health of the imswine flu, SARS and Ebola. Many fear we’ll mune system. Water goes into the body encounter new and never-before-seen clean and comes out dirty, primarily viruses that our immune systems can’t as urine, sweat and feces, ridding the readily overcome. body of toxins that inhibit immunity. BY OREGON LEAF However, the human immune Too much sugar in the diet makes SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR system is a highly adaptable system the white blood cells of the immune DR. SCANDERSON with innate and acquired intelligence. system go to sleep, when they should The immune system is wired to heal. be active and vigilant. And pulling an If scratched on the skin or infected by a all-nighter and going short on sleep has pathogen, such as bacteria, virus, no thought powerfully detrimental effects by reducing process is necessary to activate the healing mechathe immune system’s killer cells. Basically, the imnisms in a healthy, competent immune system. mune system is wired to heal the body — espeThe job of the immune system is essentially to cially if given the opportunity. evolve and react to environmental stimuli so it beSome foods can be incorporated into the diet comes more effective at recognizing what needs to to improve immunity. Beef is high in the imbe annihilated and eliminated. An unhealthy immune-bolstering mineral zinc. Zinc deficiency is mune system leaves the body wide open to infecone of the most common nutritional deficiencies tion, especially chronic infection. among adults in the United States. Studies show So, how can you enhance your immune function that mushrooms, including shiitake, maitake and

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reishi, increase the production and activity of white blood cells, making them more aggressive. Dark green leafy vegetables such as collards and kale are full of disease-fighting compounds called phytochemicals. Sweet potatoes and carrots are two sources rich in beta-carotene, an orange pigment that is converted to much-needed vitamin A in the body during times of immune activation. Vitamins A and D have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. A and D are fortified in cow’s milk. To attain adequate levels, a vitamin supplement of D should be consumed in addition to the diet. In the fruit department, blueberries pack a huge vitamin C punch, as do strawberries. Few animals can synthesize their own vitamin C, rendering that nutrient essential — it must be acquired from the diet. Humans are one of the few. Vitamin C is found in high concentrations in immune cells, and is expended quickly during infections. Vitamin C supplements are beneficial to the immune system during times of infection. The adage that one should, “starve a cold and feed a fever” might be somewhat true. While starvation is not beneficial for the body,


calorie restriction increases immune function. Scientists at the University of Southern California have demonstrated that fasting, or not consuming solid foods for three days, “resets” the immune system, which could benefit the common cold. Herbs are the basis of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine from India and Western herbology, with its roots in the teachings of Hippocrates. Plants such as the Chinese herb astragalus, or huang chi, are potent immuno-stimulants. One study of more than 500 people with significant previous histories of frequent colds and flus had almost three times fewer infections while taking astragalus. They also had shorter recovery times. Echinacea, or the purple cone flower, can prevent or limit the severity of colds. One should not consume echinacea long term due to its effectiveness at boosting the numbers of white blood cells, which over time might start to run deficient. Green tea is an herb that is rich in antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals beneficial to the immune system. One of the more powerful compounds in green tea is the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate. During the fight-or-flight response (short-term stress), the brain sends a signal to the adrenal glands to create hormones called cortisol and adrenaline (the stress hormones), which increase heart rate and breathing, and dilate the blood vessels to bring more blood to the muscles. This type of acute reaction not only helps with the fight and or the flight, but also in the healing response with increased immunity for three to five days after the stressful event. This is a normal response to stress that humans are designed to recover from, given adequate rest from stressors. Humans often have trouble getting back to a routine after stressful events, whether it’s a car accident or a divorce. Thinking about the event, dreaming about it and worrying about it creates long-term problems. Activating the stress response in this way interferes with the immune system. Depression, lack of social support and social ties cause significant stress and are injurious to immune function. Social ties are thought to strengthen the immune system because like-minded health-conscious individuals support one another in beneficial behaviors such as eating, sleeping and exercising. Good friends can also help dissipate negative events. Exercise is beneficial for immunity, as long as it’s not too intense. In a study using mice, one group rested, one group ran leisurely for 20 to 30 minutes and the third group ran at high intensity for 2.5 hours. All were exposed to the flu at the start, and this routine was repeated for three days. About half of the sedentary group died, 12 percent of the lei-

A HALF HOUR of aerobic exercise sweeps white blood

cells back into circulation and optimizes your immune system to work its best. It’s as simple as taking a brisk daily 20-30 minute walk and going to the gym every other day, or incorporating biking a few times a week or maybe golfing 18 holes regularly (just skip the cart!) surely runners died and 70 percent of the high-intensity group died. Moderate intensity seems to be best. Marathon runners are prone to lowered immunity and higher infection rates after they complete a race up to weeks later. It takes just 30 minutes of aerobic exercise — a brisk walk counts — to sweep white blood cells back into circulation, making your immune system run more smoothly. Moderate exercise can consist of biking a few times a week, 20 to 30 minute walks daily, going to the gym every other day, and even playing golf regularly (walking the course).

C

old temperatures do not seem to play a factor in a person’s susceptibility to infection. The reason winter is the cold and flu season is not because of the cold temperatures; it’s because people are indoors more and in closer contact with others for germ transmission. Heat however, has shown to be beneficial within certain temperature ranges. Treatments that raise the core body temperature and simulate the fever response in the body are called hyperthermia treatments. Fever is a natural mechanism of the body for fighting infection. A fever is one of the first elements of immune defense. Many pathogens cannot live at the elevated temperatures, lowering the number of active pathogens. Some will take fever reducers such as acetaminophen in products such as Tylenol and Excedrin, but fever is not the disease. The fever is the body working hard doing what it knows how to do; the fatigue and joint aches force people to be still and rest.

A way to work with the fever response instead of against it is the warming sock treatment. You can find many references to this technique online, so I will just give the basics here. Grab a pair of cotton socks, mid-calf — not kneehighs — and soak them in ice cold water. Soak your feet in hot water for 5 to 10 minutes (add epsom salts, if available, at 1 cup per gallon). Take the cotton socks out of the ice cold water, wring them out and put them on your feet. Then put wool or acrylic socks, which should be a bit higher than the cotton ones, over the wet socks. Go to bed and in the morning the socks will be dry and warm. The pumping effect induced in the vasculature by the hot foot soak, then the cold wet socks, and then the wicking action of the wool or acrylic drying and warming the feet all stimulate the immune cells. The initial cold phase shunts blood out of the legs and into the core of the body, allowing the body to mount and maintain a higher core body temperature. This technique can be used for colds, flu, sinus infections, headaches and even insomnia. Perform three nights in a row. A proper diet, social interactions, vitamins, minerals, herbs and exercise can aid the immune response and bolster its reserves. Washing those hands frequently and coughing/sneezing into your elbow are critical to reducing exposure to pathogens. Listening to the bodies’ symptoms, acting accordingly and resting when sick, are the essential things you must do for you.

Dr. Scott D. Rose has written about Cannabis and health for years in the Northwest Leaf. He is an acupuncturist with a pain resolution practice in the Crown Hill neighborhood of Seattle.

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GROWTECH

PORTABLE NIGHTMARE

T he h id de n cos t s a n d b l ata n t i n e f f i c i en c i es o f r un n i n g p o r ta b l e AC u n i t s

W

e want the light, but we don’t want the heat that comes with it. Welcome to the tail-chasing experience of dialing in the environment for an indoor garden. Welcome to the heat. Many people start their first gardens small. Lower watts and air-cooled hoods can be effective in the Northwest at removing heat from small garden environments — so much so that many growers become interested in graduating to a larger garden. But when you introduce more watts, you get the heat and you’ll need to explore the many mechanisms and devices that exist to remove it. Many gardeners hit a point where introducing air conditioning is the next step. Several clever formulas are out there to calculate the total BTUs (a measurement of energy that’s equivalent to about 1,055 joules) needed to remove the amount of heat generated by your lights. Most estimate 3,000 to 4,000 BTUs for every 1,000 watts of naked light (non-air cooled) being used. For air-cooled lights, you’ll have a lot of room for variance, depending on the efficiency of the air cooling setup you run. When you run the numbers and start shopping, you’ll quickly learn that air conditioning can be expensive. Many gardeners choose portable air conditioning units to save money and for convenience — or so they think. In this month’s Grow Tech, I will shed light on the inefficiencies, deficiencies and high costs I have found with portable AC units when it comes to indoor Cannabis farming. Let’s start with the basic mechanism all AC units

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use to remove heat. To remove heat from cools, it changes back to a liquid and is your room, air conditioning units use a sent back to the air-chilled coils that sit compressor along with two sets of coils inside the garden to remove more heat. BY OREGON LEAF filled with a refrigerant to carry out a And round and round it goes. convenient physical law called phase The primary flaw with portaSPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR conversion. The laws of phase converble AC units is their design. Unlike DR. SCANDERSON sion dictate that when matter changes central HVAC, mini split and winstates, an energy exchange takes place. dow-mounted units in which the comWhen liquids convert to gas, it absorbs pressor and the heat it generates is carried heat; when gas converts to liquid, it gives off through the compressor coils to the outside heat. That’s why steam burns can be so severe. Gasto evacuate the heat, the portable unit has to create eous water vapor in the form of steam hits your skin and evacuate the heat from inside the garden. It and condenses into water, making your hand wet. does this by using a fan to pass air over the warm Because condensation is a cooling process, heat is givcondenser coils and into a hose that is attached to en out, namely to your skin, causing an instant burn. the exterior, where the heat is evacuated. So what’s this all got to do with cooling my The design has several critical flaws. The unit is garden? designed to remove heat from your garden, but it When liquid turns into gas, it’s a heating proends up generating lots of heat inside your garden. cess and so heat is absorbed in the phase converIt does this because all the heat from the condenssion of the liquid. In air conditioners, a refriger exists in the garden. A portable uses another erant or a liquid that converts to a gas at a low heat-expending device — a fan —to blow this temperature is used. This liquid is passed through heat out of your garden. The air a single-hosed the coils in the unit that sits inside the garden. unit uses to evacuate the heat it generates cooling A fan is used to pass the warm air in the garden your garden (does your head hurt yet?) comes from over the cold coils containing the refrigerant. The the ambient cooled air around it. warm air heats the refrigerant, turning it into a The unit is cooling itself using the freshly cooled gas and absorbing the heat from the air and passair it just created. This is not only inefficient but also ing it back into the garden without the heat. creates negative pressure in the garden, further chalThis now gaseous refrigerant is then sent back lenging your insulation and pulling ambient hot or to the compressor. The compressor compresses moist air right into your garden. If a double hose is the refrigerant inside, which creates more heat. used, the majority of the air used is pulled from the This heat is then evacuated through another set output of the second hose, which alleviates much of of coils called the condenser coils. As the comthe negative pressure created by a single-hose unit. pressed gas refrigerant inside the compressor The problem with double-hosed units is you real-


ly need a separate window for the intake hose and another for the outake. If you follow the manufacturer’s recommended installation, you will have the intake air needed to cool the compressor coils right next to the exhaust port, which pushes out all the hot air. Putting a high heat output next to what should be a cool-air intake means still less cooling efficiency. Compounding this is that the exhaust fan decreases efficiency based on the length and shape of the ducting run it takes before reaching its evacuation point, much like a run of air-cooled lights. All of this inefficiency is expressed in the low EER (energy efficient rating) these units carry. When a unit is rated at a 5 EER, it means 50 percent of the energy used isn’t going toward cooling — it’s going toward evacuating the heat it generates. When calculating the size AC you need, use effective BTUs, not advertised BTUs. One of the lesser-known distinguishing facts about portable units is that unlike mini splits, they are not regulated by the Department of Energy. All mini splits sold in this country must meet exacting energy-efficiency standards. With portables, anything goes. This loophole is leveraged by manufacturers to reduce manufacturing costs, use lower-quality parts and designs, and deliver a lower-cost looking product with big BTU values printed front and center. Let me assure you, they are good at their jobs.

BASIC EVAPORATION CYCLE

L

et’s say you are looking to cool your 3,000 watt garden. You run the numbers and decide 12,000 BTUs will be sufficient, so you get a 12,000 BTU portable unit. The problem, though, is the unit is rated at a 5 EER. This means that of the 12,000 BTUs, 6,000 BTUs aren’t useable and you are massively undercooling your garden. The rest of the BTUs are being used to cool the compressor coils, the fan, replace the lost ambient-cooled air it uses to cool itself and account for the garden is space and to properly use a portable you ambient heat brought in through the leaks created use a lot of space that otherwise could be occuby the negative pressure. This assumes perfect placepied by plants. ment and exhaust hose runs, among other variables. If you’re considering adding air conditioning to If it’s less than ideal, that waste number will your garden, you might be at a critical part of your be even higher. Unlike a mini gardening experience. Take a split or even a window unit, hard look at what you’re tryboth of which can boast EER ing to accomplish and strongly Get in Touch ratings of 9 or 9.5, you need consider creating your air-conthegreengardengroup@gmail.com literally twice the amount of ditioning unit as a priority that Like my Instagram AC to do the same job. you build around, rather than That means twice the eleccompromising on your coolFollow @DrScanderson_gT tricity, twice the venting caing capacity in favor of moving pacity, twice the noise and, by toward bigger and faster. You the way, all that air you vent is might just be moving backstinky air. Even if the unit is double-hosed, it’s by no ward. When you consider useable BTUs, mini splits means airtight and will make a neighborhood stink are not that much more expensive to acquire, they in a quick minute if you’re growing anything of meare easy to install with precharged coolant lines and dicinal quality. Also, take into account that they sit YouTube, and will not only perform as intended but on the ground and must be in the garden area with also will recapture the acquisition costs in energy efno less than 12 to 18 inches of clearance on all sides ficiency in about the first two cycles, in most cases. to work efficiently. If you have more questions on climate control, Know what else I like to use large ground send me a message at thegreengardengroup@ areas of my garden for, besides inefficient energmail.com. Follow me on Instagram at DrScangy mongering boxes? You guessed it. Cannabis. derson_gT. Many people’s most valuable commodity in the As always, happy gardening!

©2009 HOWSTUFFWORKS

d r . s c a n d e r s o n s ay s . . .

Space is many people’s most valuable commodity in the garden and to properly use a portable air conditioner means losing and using a lot of space that otherwise could be occupied by your Cannabis plants.

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BEHIND THE STRAIN

Drop me a line

thegreengardengroup@gmail.com

Watch a video

Youtube.com/DrScandersonGt

gorilla glue #4

BAG APPEAL & SMOKE REPORT this is another jump-off-the-shelf type of bloom, which is all the

more impressive because it isn’t purple. Caked on cakes of cakey trichomes demolish any chance of the plants color to come through. It’s simply a blond, sandy, white mess of resin covering all parts of the pointy blooms. What I admire is that in spite of it being so committed to creating frost, it’s not at all at the cost of the smell. Living up fully and truly to its name, these are some of the stickiest blooms when properly dried and cured. What a pure delight it is to see a strain rise to the top with this terpene profile. Gorilla Glue #4 has the pungent smell of old school diesel and minty fuel combined with an epically greasy and metallic finish that pries the pupils wide open.

HOW IT GROWS One of the fastest rooting plants, dropping roots in less-than-ideal

Living up fully to its name, these are some of the stickiest blooms when properly cured. LINEAGE

BY NORTHWEST LEAF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR DR. SCANDERSON

A crazy love triangle of lesbian self’d crosses, or so the story goes, creator Josey Wales entered this into the LA Cannabis Cup earlier in the year. This previously unknown strain rocketed into stardom with a first place victory.

CHEM SISTER X SOUR DUBB X CHOCOLATE DIESEL

BREEDER: CREATOR JOSEY WALES

conditions in five to seven days. But when cloning is dialed in, you can expect roots in 48 to 72 hours. Fast and vigorous in veg, she likes to drink a lot and isn’t nutrient sensitive. She will take off fast and start stretching and throwing side branches almost immediately, so training and topping is a must to maximize yields in a horizontally lit garden. I found she ran best when branch selection was moderate to aggressive. In bloom, you can expect a 100 percent stretch and if your branch selection is sound, the need for support will still be fairly high. If you missed in branch selection, watch out for chaotic stretching branching. Either way, support and heavy training is most beneficial in the first three weeks of bloom. This plant is not an easy one to shape and shows more of her diesel heritage in this department. Get the stretch right, though, and you’re home free to watch as unbelievable amounts of resin frost every part of the high calyx-to-leaf ratio. She will develop medium to large spear-shaped blooms that are so calyx heavy that one can look forward to an easy trim job. Like most of the frost monsters, she benefits from higher levels of phosphorous, potassium and magnesium.

EFFECTS Sour, dark chocolate menthol flavors translate into mild lung

expansion, making large single doses almost too easy. The sour, gassy, burned rubber exhale leaves and you get an immediate tongue-tingling, head-wringing feeling that only the most potent meds deliver. The instant change in head state is generously complemented by a relaxing body effect. Comfortable and alert without a noticeable spike in appetite, the glue leaves its users happy, euphoric and in a creative state. Unless multiple doses are indulged, one can expect the body effect not to interfere with the uplifting cerebral effect. Use caution. Like most meds that test in the mid-20s for THC, indulgence can bring narcosis quickly and unexpectedly.

SUMMARY: While not ideal for inexperienced gardeners, Gorilla Glue #4 delivers medium to high yields of blooms of the absolute frostiest nature.

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Oregon Leaf — November 2014  

The Harvest Issue! All outdoor Cannabis growing across Oregon! PLUS: Coverage of Hempstalk, national news, growing, health and science and m...

Oregon Leaf — November 2014  

The Harvest Issue! All outdoor Cannabis growing across Oregon! PLUS: Coverage of Hempstalk, national news, growing, health and science and m...