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May 2015 FREE

ISSUE # 11

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MAY 2015

Info pg. 26

Chemdawg 120 micron Grown by Nelson and Co. Organics Processed by Pua Extractions & Novus Rosa

38

THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

10

National News

36

Strain of the Month

16

Legal Q & A

61

Product Reviews

20

Prison Dispatch

68

Health & Science

32

No Reservations

70

Behind the Strain

Steve Elliott with the roundup What do the feds think of us? The Human Solution’s latest news

A Cannabis ranch near Grants Pass

32

A beautiful bud shot, up close

Two Cannabis books to try

The benefits of going organic

Grandpa Larry has OG Kush vibes

24

Access Review

56

Tasty Recipes

64

Growtech

Herbal Grasslands

Medicating with avocados

Using water responsibly

EDITOR’S NOTE.......................9 OPINION.............................12 PAUL LONEY...........................16 DISPATCH............................20 ACCESS REVIEW......................24 TRAVELING MAN........................32 TASTY RECIPES..........................56 REVIEWS.....................................61 GROWTECH.............................64 DR. ROSE...................................68 BEHIND STRAIN.........................70 COVER PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN CONTENT PHOTOS BY CONTRIBUTORS

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CONCENTRATES

38 True North Extracts’ Buddha Kong CO2 Oil

Photo by Daniel Berman/Oregon Leaf


OREGON LEAF

the truth about the plant you thought you knew, IN every issue.

editor’s note

MAY 2015 ISSUE #11

Much of this issue explores the fascinating process of making and using concentrates Contact editor Wes Abney to place an ad

all across the world, Cannabis concentrates are making headlines. From explosions of homes to disappearing tumors, people are hearing about the use of Cannabis concentrates. Widely used and loved, many patients have turned to using them for a variety of reasons. Easier and more accurate dosing, less smoking, and increased potency all come with a good sample of concentrate. This issue of Oregon Leaf explores a variety of different forms of oil, and has great information about which type is right for you! We also look at how to dose your dab, the best gear to dab with, and have Concentrates 101 for you to brush up on education. This issue also highlights more than 30 products from companies all over Oregon, with some of the prettiest oils I have ever seen. Check out the 16-page special section and break out the dab rig, because you got a whole lot of concentrating to do. Our issue this month is full of other great information, including a noteworthy opinion from Will Ferguson about how the OLCC is handling the transition towards legalization. We also have a great news roundup, a book review from Steve Elliott, new Growtech, a Dr. Rose column and a new Q&A from attorney Paul Loney. Durban Poison is our strain of the month, and it is truly spectacular. Check out the review and go pick up a sample from Oregon’s Finest in Portland. For those culinary specialists, the new recipes are delicious. We have a new Behind the Strain to get your genetics knowledge up to date. Overall this is a great issue to read and share with a loved one, especially if they are interested in using Cannabis concentrates as medicine!

or to become a monthly drop-off location. Please feel free to share your thoughts, pitches, articles, story ideas and news tips. This is all our plant and we want to hear from you. Thank you for reading and supporting Oregon Leaf!

FOUNDER & EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

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Daniel Berman Daniel@ORLeaf.com REGIONAL DIRECTOR

Jacob thom Jacob@ORLeaf.com ISSUE CONTRIBUTORS Wes and Kori Marie

STEVE ELLIOTT WILL FERGUSON PAUL GRZELAK, COPY TYLER J. MARKWART SEAN O’NEILL ANTHONY PIDGEON DR. SCANDERSON DR. SCOTT ROSE ERIC SKELTON, DESIGN JACOB THOM LAURIE & BRUCE WOLF

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Department of Corrections

On page 51 of the April 2015 Glass Issue, we should have written that “Untitled Purple Bong” was by John Ambrose, (not Josh), and it costs $1,750, not $300. @AmbroseGlass

May 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

/9


STEVE ELLIOTT is the editor behind tokesignals.com, an independent blog of Cannabis news and opinion

Over half the nation wants legal Since 2006, approval is up 20 percent

A

new poll from Pew Research Center finds that 53 percent of people in the U.S. support the legalization of marijuana, with 44 percent opposed. As recently as 2006, just 32 percent supported legalization, while nearly twice as many — 60 percent — were opposed, according to Pew. Crucially, the poll finds that people are much more likely to change their minds from opposing legalization to supporting it than vice versa. Among the general public, 21 percent of people support legalization now, but once opposed it. In contrast, just 7 percent of people used to support legalization but now oppose it. Those ages 18 to 34 lead the change, with 68 percent in favor. But across all generations, with the exception of those ages 70-87, support for legal marijuana has risen sharply during the past decade. “The more that people learn about marijuana and look at the benefits of legalization, the more likely they are to support reform,” Tom Angell of Marijuana Majority told Northwest Leaf. “Our opponents sure do have a lot to say about what they see as the benefits of continuing prohibition, but voters don’t want to hear it.” The most frequently mentioned reasons for supporting marijuana legalization are its medical benefits (41 percent) and the belief that Cannabis is no worse than other drugs (36 percent), with many specifically mentioning they think pot is no more dangerous than alcohol or tobacco.

Those ages 18 to 34 lead the change, with 68 percent in favor of legalizing pot.

10/may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

Federal

Obama Declares Full Support for

Medical Marijuana

President announces change of heart during weed TV documentary

In

Official White House Photo by Pete Souza

national

a dramatic CNN interview April 19, low the science as opposed to ideology on this President Barack Obama shared a long issue, but I’m also on record as saying that the overdue if still surprising bit of intel: more we treat some of these issues related to medical marijuana states have his full support. drug abuse from a public health model and not It was all part of “Weed 3,” a show featuring just from an incarceration model, the better off CNN chief medical correspondent Dr. Sanjay we’re going to be,” the president responded. Gupta, a neurosurgeon who changed his mind Obama said that more states will legaland began supporting medicinal Cannabis after ize recreational Cannabis and confirmed that reviewing the evidence. while marijuana remains illegal under federal During the program, Gupta delves into the law, the feds will not interfere in state pot laws. often frustrating politics of medical Gupta and Obama also took marijuana research and state by state time to briefly discuss the recent laws, and then sits down with Obama. “I think carefully bill on the Senate floor introThe president advocated for alterna- prescribed duced by Democratic Sen. Cory medical use tive models of drug abuse treatment that of marijuana Booker of New Jersey, which don’t involve imprisonment, and then may in fact be would reschedule Cannabis from said he also was supportive of medicinal appropriate and Schedule I to Schedule II under we should follow Cannabis in general. federal law. That would be huge, the science “You know, I think I’d have to take a as opposed to monumental news. Obama was look at the details, but I’m on record as ideology silent on that particular topic. saying that not only do I think carefully on this issue,” the president prescribed medical use of marijuana may said in a CNN View “Weed 3” on CNN www.Tinyurl.com/cnnweed3 in fact be appropriate and we should fol- interview 4/19.


this judge doesn’t care

Cannabis remains a Schedule I drug in latest roadblock

U.S. District Judge Kimberly Mueller issued the ruling on April 15 in response to a motion by defense lawyers to dismiss charges in a case the authorities claim involves a marijuana-growing operation. Marijuana’s classification as a Schedule I drug under the Uniform Controlled Substances Act means the U.S. federal government officially considers Cannabis to be roughly on par with heroin (also on Schedule I) in terms of danger. Schedule I drugs are considered to have no accepted medical uses and a high potential for abuse. To rule that Cannabis is It was the first time in decades that a federal judge seriously consida Schedule I substance ered marijuana’s classification. To rule that Cannabis is a Schedule I means ignoring the vast body of medical evidence controlled substance means ignoring the vast body of medical evidence that has accumulated in recent decades, including hundreds of clinical that has accumulated in recent decades, including studies and thousands of patient testimonials. Mueller’s move to hold a hearing last year to look at the issue is conhundreds of clinical sidered a significant step because it reflects growing skepticism about studies and thousands of federal marijuana laws, according to Sam Kamin, an expert on Cannapatient testimonials. bis regulation at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law. “While this one came out the other way, what you see is a lot of momentum in changing federal marijuana law,” Kamin said. Mueller claimed in a 15-minute hearing that she was “initially prepared” to grant the defense motion, but then decided from the facts of this one case that “this is not the court and this is not the time.” She explained away her unscientific decision by saying it was “up to Congress.” Oregon Marijuana Campaign Hires Lobbyist to Pass Expungement Law

New Approach Oregon has hired a lobby-

ist to help pass bills in the Oregon Legislature that would reduce marijuana offenders’ jail sentences and clear marijuana-related offenses from criminal records. The group behind Oregon’s law to legalize marijuana is also teaming up with the Bus Project to organize volunteers, host phone banks and win endorsements for House Bill 3372 and Senate Bill 364. Both bills await

hearings in the House Judiciary Committee. SB 364 has already passed the Senate. “We built a powerful organization to legalize marijuana,” said Anthony Johnson, executive director of New Approach Oregon, “and we plan to use it to make sure these bills are passed. Let’s stop ruining lives by treating marijuana as a crime and start saving money by getting people out of jail and giving them a fresh start.”

Quoted

Quick Hits! 2 6 7 11 98 160 407 150

The dispensary search service WeedMaps.com is donating $2 million to legalize Cannabis in California, lending big support to the Californians for Sensible Reform campaign. The town of Granger, Washington just passed a six-month moratorium on producing, processing or retailing recreational Cannabis, showing how well legal pot under I-502 is going. A family in Minnesota was raided over seven plants and accused of providing drugs to a minor after the father said he would “rather give a child Cannabis than Tylenol.” After a 11-year-old boy told teachers during an anti-drug class that his mother uses Cannabis as medicine, police in Kansas raided the mother’s home. Atlanta police busted a grow house last month with 320 plants and 98 pounds of marijuana, valued at $380,000, after investigating a call for a possible home invasion. More than 160 people have been hospitalized in New York in April from the synthetic marijuana drug, K2 or Spice. Remember, marijuana is safer. Michigan’s Ordinance 407 isolates medical Cannabis growers into a small strip of industrial zones, requires special use permits, and limits production. A petition to legalize Cannabis in Arizona has been filed and now needs to collect 150,000 signatures by July 7, 2016, to qualify for the ballot.

CHAINED TO THIS POLE, I FEEL MORE FREE THAN I HAVE IN MY MEMORY. WE ARE LIVING DEMOCRACY RIGHT NOW. -David Keniston, a Washington, D.C. activist who joined several others in shackling themselves to a 42-foot pole at a tax and pot protest 4/15 on the National Mall.

‘‘

(The protest ends April 20). D.C. residents pay federal taxes but lack political representation in Congress — and the state’s rec pot laws haven’t been implemented.

may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

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opinion

By WILL FERGUSON for OREGON LEAF | PHOTO ILLUSTRATION by DANIEL BERMAN

a step in the wrong direction The hearing for Senate Bill 844 (the implemen-

tation of Measure 91) did not go as planned for the representing members from the Oregon Liquor Control Commission in Salem on April 1. The meeting started with OLCC officials explaining how they had been meeting with representatives from Washington to discuss how the OLCC could implement certain aspects of Washington’s recreational market. Why would Oregon want to implement aspects of I-502? There is little that has worked out. I-502 is a poorly written initiative. It prohibits Washington residents from growing in their homes and taxes recreational Cannabis to the point where many people are turning to the black market, allowing state legislators to frame Washington’s medical marijuana program as the culprit. If this is the agenda of the OLCC, we will certainly see a push to abolish the Oregon

The Oregon liquor control commission should not look to follow washington’s rec marijuana laws

Medical Marijuana Program. Rep. Ann Lininger (D-Lake Oswego) had concerns for the OLCC, too. Constituents from her district came forth to discuss the excessive use of force the OLCC has been using on university campuses. This abuse of force will most certainly exist in the Cannabis trade once Cannabis is legal in July. Why are we even having the OLCC take over the medical dispensary program? They can’t keep alcohol out of minors’ hands let alone manage a program that has worked for 15-plus years. We should have a separate Cannabis commission for oversight of the OMMP. As Senate Republican Leader Ted Ferrioli stated, the “OLCC can’t even tell the difference between micrograms and milligrams.” What business do they have in regulating our medicine? One of the state’s major concerns is the amount of Cannabis flowing to the black market,

It’s ironic that alcohol is one of the most dangerous and abused drugs today, but we don’t see any limitations set by the OLCC on how many hops plants residents can grow or how much beer they can brew.

12/may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

prompting legislators to introduce bills including Senate Bill 936 and House Bill 3400, which limit patient plant amounts. Limiting patient plant amounts will not decrease flow to the black market, especially when, in July, every Oregon resident over the age of 21 will be allowed to grow four plants per household. Does anyone really believe that this Cannabis won’t leave the state? Many patients use 2 to 3 grams of Cannabis oil a day and rely on the growers to donate it for free if they are low income. Cannabis oil needs to be made from fresh material in order to capture the full cannabinoid spectrum. The proposed increase in the amount of dried Cannabis that growers and patients will be able to store cannot substitute for the need for more plants and fresh Cannabis. It’s ironic that alcohol is one of the most dangerous and abused drugs today, but we don’t see any limitations set by the OLCC on how many hops plants residents can grow or how much beer they can brew. The goal of the OLCC is to ensure that the recreational Cannabis market flourishes, even if it means framing the OMMP as the primary foe of Cannabis in Oregon.


opinion

LEGAL Q&A

By ATTORNEY PAUL LONEY for OREGON LEAF

1) Is it possible to break federal law even though I am an OMMP card holder or have received a Measure 91 license?

2) Did Congress tell the federal government not to prosecute people for marijuana crimes?

historically, the federal government was very active in

the u.s. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate re-

pursuing anyone who violated the Controlled Substances Act. However, it normally didn’t prosecute anyone whose conduct was limited to possession of small amounts of marijuana for personal use on private property; it left that to local law enforcement. Recently, the U.S. Department of Justice issued a series of memos clarifying its position on the potential prosecution of “marijuana crimes,” as a response to states passing medical marijuana laws. Its first memo stated that the federal government would take a hands-off approach regarding those patients who strictly followed state law. The second memo was in response to the opening of large medical marijuana grow operations and dispensaries. The federal government stated that if it thought such an organization were too big — without saying how big was too big — it would come after them. The third memo was drafted in response to Colorado and Washington passing recreational marijuana legalization initiatives. It addressed what the federal government saw as potential issues arising from the conflict between federal law and state law that allowed everyone to possess and use marijuana. It listed eight enforcement priorities:

cently voted to restrict the Department of Justice and the Drug Enforcement Administration from using taxpayer funds to interfere in state-sanctioned medical marijuana programs in the 20+ states that have enacted them. (The Hinchey-Rohrabacher Amendment). While this is good news, it only applies to the current budget year, which ends Sept. 30. In the next budget cycle this restriction could be removed.

‘‘

Preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors; Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs, and cartels; Preventing diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states; Preventing state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity; Preventing violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana; Preventing drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use; Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and preventing marijuana possession or use on federal property.

The federal government’s priorities should be considered as tripwires. However, the federal government also stated that people who don’t violate these priorities could still be prosecuted for violations of the Controlled Substances Act. It has the discretion to decide whom it will prosecute.

3) So, am I free from fear of government prosecution? nO. The Internal Revenue Service, Department of the

Traditionally, any money derived from illegal controlled substances was considered suspicious and the bank would freeze the suspicious account immediately. While the banks have some guidance in deciding whether to accept deposits from the legal marijuana industry, most banks don’t want to take the risk of being charged with money laundering until the banking laws are changed.

Treasury, and the U.S. Post Office still enforce their laws. You are required to pay taxes if you earn income in the marijuana industry as an individual or as a business. Section 280(e) of the tax code is a burden. It states that federally illegal businesses may not deduct standard business expenses. Still, people must find ways to comply with the federal tax code. The Department of the Treasury is the regulatory body for the banking industry and requires banks to report any suspicious activity. Traditionally, any money derived from illegal controlled substances was considered suspicious and the bank would freeze the suspicious account immediately. While the banks have some guidance in deciding whether to accept deposits from the legal marijuana industry, most banks don’t want to take the risk of being charged with money laundering until the banking laws are changed. The vast majority of banks will freeze the account and make a report to the federal government if they suspect that the proceeds are from marijuana-related businesses. The U.S. Post Office (USPS) has authority over all mail that goes through its mail system. The USPS prohibits contraband, which includes marijuana, from being placed into the U.S. mail system. It will also seize money that it believes are the proceeds of a marijuana transaction. Even if the USPS does not prosecute a person for money laundering, it will still apply for a forfeiture of the money. While there is more certainty now as to how the federal government will interact with states regarding marijuana laws, there still remains a great amount of uncertainty and room for the federal government to prosecute individuals and seize financial assets.

The author is a Portland attorney specializing in medical & recreational marijuana law. www.oregonmarijuanalaw.com

16/may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF


dispatch

By MIGGY420, MINDI GRIFFITHS, DANIELLE VITALE-O’BRIEN AND KRISTIN FLOR

MAY PRISONER UPDATE [ ]

>> NEWS FROM THE FRONT LINES of THE HUMAN SOLUTION

PRISON OUTREACH This year on memorial day, think about the

OREGON NEWS

JOY GRAVEs: On March 26, Circuit Judge soldiers that have given up their lives, but also the William Cramer presided over a motion to men and women who have lost their freedom due dismiss in the case of the State of Oregon vs. to the persecution of one of the most diverse plants Joy Graves and Raymond Martin. Both were on the planet. It’s a plant, it’s a sacred right, it’s a charged with manufacturing marijuana within medicine, it’s Cannabis. 1,000 feet of a school. The evidence? A vidPlease think about those who are incarcerateo taken during the search of Graves property ed and those who are being persecuted over this and testimony by Sheriff Glen Palmer. God-given seed we choose to plant. What separates Grave’s defense argued the search was illea farmer from being an outlaw? gal because the video shows That just ain’t right. Sheriff Palmer entering Here’s something positive, without permission. The though: Last month, ex-Marine judge agreed with the deLarry Duke was freed from a life fense and granted the mosentence after serving 26 years tion to dismiss the evidence for a marijuana crime with no on April 9. The next day, victim. The misery is over for the judge granted the state’s Larry, a prisoner of the war on motion to dismiss the case. drugs. Larry spoke to us at THSI On a side note, pictures Radio Live about 72 hours after of Deputy District Attorbeing released, saying he was sit- Ex-Marine Larry Duke was freed ney Matt Ipson smoking ting around in his old bathrobe Cannabis and supporting from a life sentence after serving legalization have circulatand slippers. Molly Fry was released from 26 years for a victimless crime. ed on the Internet. Graves Dublin Federal Prison Camp in appeared in court sporting California on March 30. Molly grew Cannabis to one of these images on her T-shirt, along with treat her breast cancer but regardless of the state’s a message about jury nullification. laws, the feds forced her to live shackled behind bars Graves approached Ipson with a flier of his for five years. Tom Korby, THSI Nor-Cal Chapter picture. He smiled, but declined Joy’s request coordinator, is helping Molly find a place to live for his autograph and promptly removed the when she must leave the halfway house. Molly is photos from his Facebook profile. To order a thankful for all the support and said she wants to T-shirt commemorating this case, go to thsinjoin our mission to end prohibition. tl.org/solidarity_store. Last month, activist and compassion caregiver Todd Stimson lost a battle against the state of JASON ENDICOTT: He faces extradition from North Carolina. Todd tried his best to run a leOregon to his former home in Texas, which gitimate business; he purchased the state’s drug has threatened a 40-year prison term. The tax stamp allowing him to grow marijuana. A waiting game is very difficult. The attitude tojury found him guilty, but if just one juror had ward Cannabis seems to be quickly changing said “this is an unjust law, not guilty,” he would in Texas and Jason’s supporters are hoping all be free today. He was a contributing member of charges will be dropped swiftly so the Endisociety even as he stood up to an ignorant law. cott family can move on with their lives.

20/may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

WASHINGTON NEWS Josh & debbie: On April 15, the federal

court in Seattle indicted Josh Mauk and Debbie Brechler on several counts after picking up their charges from the state of Washington. The indictment included counts of endangering human life while manufacturing a controlled substance, maintaining a drug involved premises, and manufacturing hash oil and marijuana. If convicted, the couple will have to forfeit any property constituting or derived from any proceeds obtained, directly or indirectly, as the result of the alleged offenses. The feds plan to take anything and everything the couple owns. Times are quite frightening for Josh and Debbie as they face the might of the federal government. The couple have very generously given back to our MMJ community and now need as much community support as possible. Please visit www.thsintl.org/calendar for details on when and where you can show up for court support. On social media, Debbie wrote she was feeling like “we’ve done nothing wrong.” Look for an update in the next issue.

Kettle Falls: Sentencing is scheduled for Rolland Gregg, Michelle Gregg and Rhonda Firestack-Harvey on June 10. They were indicted federally for manufacturing 50 to 100 plants. The charge doesn’t carry a mandatory minimum sentence so regardless of the prosecutor’s recommendation, the judge can refuse to send them to jail. The family thanks everyone for their continued support and wants to remind everyone that this is not over. Go to facebook.com/KettleFallsFive and find out how you can help save them from prison.

Bellingham 3: In March, several protests

were held outside the Whatcom County Courthouse, and pretrial was scheduled to begin April 20. The outcome of their trial will


be provided in the next issue. THSI honors the Bellingham 3 for their sacrifices. We salute their bravery to stand up and fight this war, regardless of the odds being against them. They are heroes. We thank them for their selfless contributions to the movement.

NATIONAL NEWS las vegas: In February of 2014, Terisa Deming, a

medical marijuana card holder from Las Vegas was in a motorcycle accident that left her hospitalized and unconscious for several days. Upon returning home, still wearing her hospital gown via Medicaid-paid transportation, Terisa was met at her home by the same officers who had responded to her accident. At this time, Terisa was charged with one misdemeanor DUI, resulting from her allegedly telling an officer at the scene that she was a medical marijuana card holder and had been drinking, which she denies. Terisa has in fact been clean from alcohol for 30 years. Police confiscated the majority of Terisa’s Cannabis and equipment, and left without further charges. Eight months later, Terisa was charged with a felony for possessing more than 1 ounce of Cannabis, a felony for having too many plants and two felony gun charges for guns that were legally registered. The previous misdemeanor DUI charge was dropped and replaced with two felony DUI charges. The police were aware that Terisa was, and still is, a medical marijuana cardholder. Go to thsintl.org/ calendar for upcoming court support updates.

Kansas: On March 24, Shona Banda, a mother of

two, realized that her 11-year-old child had been detained by authorities during a school drug education program. Banda is a published author who has been a Cannabis activist for many years and is a well-known inspirational figure within the medical Cannabis movement. They took her son right after he spoke up after the misinformation being given to the class. He was questioned by authorities, which resulted in a raid on her home. Confiscated were 2 ounces of Cannabis flower and 1 ounce of Cannabis oil. Banda has yet to be charged and was able to go home after the raid. Shona’s next court date is ironically scheduled for 4/20, and her son has not been returned. She has no idea what will ensue next as a result of her

son’s courageous words, but says, “They don’t have a clue that I’m walking in with [my] head held high, proud of who I am and what I do.”

Northern California: Jury nullification has set

Charred Richey and Linda Silvery free! The owners of Planet Herb have been fully exonerated of their charges. Shasta County was prosecuting them on eight charges. After six were dropped, they went to trial. A jury refused to convict them and found them not guilty of manufacturing. A trial is scary, but these brave women stood up against their charges. Jury nullification can save all of us — if our jurors are fully informed before entering the courtroom. They have the power to not only judge if the law has been broken, but to judge the law itself.

Events: Members of THSI will be proudly repre-

senting our organization at the Denver High Times event on 4/20. We are thankful to High Times for the booth, and to Danielle Muggi and Audra Ross for their devotion and organization of the event!

Hash Bash: THSI Executive Director Danielle Vi-

tale-O’Brien represented THSI at Michigan’s Hash Bash and ran into one of our newest members — Tommy Chong. Tommy was very happy to see THSI all the way out in the great Midwest after meeting other members previously all across the West. He even recorded an endorsement sound bite for THSI Radio, which can be heard at blogtalkradio/thsiradio.

Defendants: Have you recently been charged with

a Cannabis crime? Are you a new defendant who needs support from THSI? Please hurry and go to our website, go to “forms” and tell us your story. We will help organize community support or even a local chapter to help support your case. THSI has a system built to help keep you out of prison and to end the war on drugs. THSI recently launched our new operations manual, which will give our organization structure. Remember: No victim = no crime = not guilty. No one should go to jail or die for our plant.

Learn more about The Human Solution You can help end the drug war! Please call 951-934-0055 to speak with a team coordinator. We need caring volunteers to help interview prisoners, write press releases, and prepare articles for release to the media. We are also looking for talented graphic artists, social media ambassadors & videographers. Please visit the national team website at www.ThsIntl.org to learn about this important and deserving mission today.

Members of the Kettle Falls family were indicted federally for manufacturing 50 to 100 plants but the charge doesn’t carry a mandatory minimum sentence so regardless of the prosecutor’s recommendation, the judge could actually refuse to send them to jail. may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

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access Cindy and Mark, married co-owners

Herbal grasslands Strains 4/5 THE SHELVES were stocked with more than 30 good-

looking strains from around the region ranging in price from $5-$12 a gram. Herbal Grasslands has struck a fine balance between quality and quantity. Still, one qualm: let’s give more information about the farmers who grew it and expand on that local connection and community. That’s something all dispensaries should demand.

24/may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

Reviewed

By JACOB THOM for OREGON LEAF | PHOTOS by ANTHONY PIDGEON for OREGON LEAF

Edibles 3/5 INSIDE a large fridge near the counter was a

large selection of refreshing looking drinks and scrumptious sweets. Sorted among some hemp-based products and gummies were local favorites, including Medi-Bliss Chocolate Peppermint Bars, the curiously pleasant in-house “Q” Infusions tincture and several items from Red’s CannaProducts.

Concentrates 4/5 AMPLE SELECTION with many of the major

CO2 brands available on the shelves in a pleasantly wide range of forms. A total of 15 different BHO and PHO products, along with some local Salem products, were available for purchase. The friendly owners ably guided us toward the best extract for our needs.


THE SCORE

arom a : d e nsi ty: c u re : appearance: f lavor: effe c t: tota l: 22/30

BLACK CHERRY SODA

Strain reviews

by WILL FERGUSON

TANGERINE DREAM Flavorful indica strain

Hybrid

THIS STRAIN, bred by the famous Barney’s Farm

THE SCORE

a r o ma : den si t y: c u r e: appearance: f lavo r : ef f ec t: t o ta l: 18/30

the buds smell like sweet licorice with a hint of berry. When smoked through a clean water pipe, the flavor was subtle with hints of fruit and berries. The smoke was rather smooth — the bowl was enjoyable to the end. This flower produced a nice even body buzz that eliminated our pain without lethargic effects. The strain burned to clean white ash, but the buds were a bit dried out. If you are particular to indica-leaning hybrids, Black Cherry Soda is one to try.

of Amsterdam, is a potent hybrid known for its couch-locking indica effects. This particular flower seems to have been sun-grown. When breaking down a few nugs, we didn’t notice the tangerine terpene profile we were expecting. When smoked in a raw cone, the flower didn’t have much flavor and was slightly harsh on the back of our throats. We felt a nice body buzz that faded quickly. This flower is effective for patients with low tolerances but still seeking relief.

13.4% THC // 0.05% CBD TEST results by 3b analytical

13.71% thc // 0.04% CBD TEST results by 3b analytical

THIS HYBRID bred by TGA has a dark purple appearance. When broken up,

Take your time and relax a bit.

Environment 4/5 YOUR CLASSIC mom and pop shop. The store is nestled next to a busy road with grand, out-facing windows that might be difficult to maneuver around during high-traffic. There are places to sit down and socialize and just take in all of the mellow vibes. The ambience is well-complemented by the cool local artwork and heady selection.

Overall 15/20 MARK AND CINDY dove headfirst into the Cannabis

business when given the legal opportunity in March 2014. The married and kind owners and operators of Herbal Grasslands are strongly involved with the Salem Cannabis Industry Association, which gets dispensaries and patients involved and helps support the local business community and increase awareness of the Salem Chamber of Commerce.

HERBAL GRASSLANDS

1130 Royvonne Ave SE, Salem, OR 97302 (503) 364-9522 Facebook/HerbalGrasslands

There is a lot going on inside visually but the ambience is well-complemented by the art. may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

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deliv r i g h er e d yo u r t t o door

and never miss an issue!

$5/month or $50/year

free gift with year subscription Email subscribe@orleaf.com to get signed up today!


Wide selection of nutrients and soil Friendly, knowledgeable, experienced staff 100% locally owned

6850 N. Interstate Ave Portland, OR 97217 || 503-285-4768


guide

By WES ABNEY

Hiding Spots When patients travel with medicine or medicating devices, keeping a low profile is essential to staying out of law enforcement’s way. Stash cans and secure hiding spots are great for those with roommates and also anyone wary of tipping people off to their MMJ patient status. Although we can’t guarantee you won’t get in trouble using these, they are a solid way to remain just a little bit safer and better organized.

Being Safe 1. Always keep your medicine in a secure container, stored out of reach and visibility of children or non-patients. Don’t get casual with leaving medicine laying around. Keeping it airtight is also a plus — it will help preserve the freshness of the flower or bud.

2. Keep all medicated products

FOOT POWDER STASH CAN

Embassy Wall Clock With Hidden Safe

Hanging Closet Safe

$16.99, bewild.com

$11.48, Amazon.com

$14.99, Bewild.com

This “value size” stash can is perfect for hiding meds in plain sight. Besides, the last thing a burglar would ever touch is a persons foot fungus treatment. If the desenex isn’t your style, there’s insect spray cans, high life cans, furniture polish cans...the list goes on. One thing to keep in mind is that any stash can that looks like a drink is liable to be confused for one!

This fully functioning wall clock pops open to reveal a hidden space inside. Something like this is ideal for keeping an extra copy of your recommendation, an emergency amount of cash, and even keep meds safe. With the non-assuming design and the fact it actually works, it’s definitely time to get an Embassy wall clock.

Of all the products for hiding personal documents, this hanging closet safe is the best choice. It looks like a plain black tanktop, and mixed into a closet of clothes is completely unassuming. But, it could easily be holding everything you need in a tough situation. The shirt unzips to feature nine different compartments capable of holding your medicine or even an extra copy of your authorization.

Knowing where to stash your stuff is essential for people from all walks of life — apartment renters, college students, professional types and anyone concerned with handling that one pesky odor.

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or devices out of reach of children. So important, we had to mention it twice. If you only medicate in one room, get a lock for that room right now!

3. If you have a personal garden, keep it secure! This includes cutting down on the smell, which is the number one way that grows get busted.

4. Keep an extra copy of your recommendation in a safe and secure space. Much like a passport, it’s only good if you have access to it. Also, if you lose a wallet/purse, you’ll still have proof of legal use of cannabis!

5. Invest in an air filtration system even if your not growing. It doesn’t have to be costly, you can buy a HEPA air filter that is designed for smoke at Walmart for about $50. It cuts the odor of stagnant smoke and encourages a healthy lifestyle.


South Coast Compassion Coalition

FLOWERS EDIBLES CONCENTRATES INFUSIONS CLONES PIPES

www.southcoastcompassion.com Doctor evaluations available by appopintment

← To Downtown Coos Bay

GREELEY GALLERY 6512 NORTH GREELEY AVE. PORTLAND 97217 // 503-889-0729

OPEN M-SAT 11A-7P


feature

STORY AND PHOTOS by BOB MONTOYA for OREGON LEAF

NO RESERVATIONS Finding solace at Crooks Creek Cannabis Ranch and Private Resort

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Spring has sprung right into summer. I took a ride south to the Illinois Valley of Southern Oregon with Farmer Tom riding shotgun. Our destination was a secluded valley tucked away in a stunningly quiet forest just outside of Selma. Rumors of a new Cannabis-friendly private resort drew me out to see Mr. & Mrs. B’s vision of what this paradise can become.


The ranch is a half-hour drive from Grants Pass. If you are heading to the Oregon Caves or the beach town of Brookings, you are in the neighborhood. The happy little valley is home to a variety of wildlife. With no pressure to move, an amazing flock of wild turkeys has taken up residence there. Birds of every shape and size are prevalent. The gobbles of turkeys can be heard all day and into the evening. Mr. B wants to share this experience, and more. He began with a tour of the more than 100-acre property. The back 40 where camping will be is isolated in a box canyon. We sat for a short while and saw scurrying life everywhere.

The Ranch is just a half hour from Grants Pass by road or a mere 13 miles as the crow flies.

Our discussions about everything Cannabis went late into the night. Breakfast was all it was advertised to be. Cooked on a brick-oven stove in a vintage kitchen, the hearty meal would get us past lunch. A Cannabis dude ranch and private resort would be an excellent destination for adults who like to mix the good leaf with fun. A lodge-style resort surrounded by rough-hewn cabins and an infinity pool and spa would be the center of activity. You might zipline down to the valley and enjoy a variety of outdoor activities, including hiking, mountain biking and camping in the valley. Some sports lend themselves to the Cannabis life — disc

golf is one of them. There is room on the property for a PDGA-approved 18-hole course. The ranch will be a seed-to-shelf Cannabis farm and guests might participate in a variety of gardening and production practices. For those eager to get right at it, a stop at the country store at the resort would have every Cannabis product made on the property for sale to guests. Educational seminars on every aspect of the plant could be had for groups and individuals. Topics could include organic growing, concentrate techniques and how to use the plant in its many forms. The ride back north with Farmer Tom was a blur of ideas after hearing Mr. B lay out his vision. It seems we have all been doing a portion of this man’s dream. A critical mass of like minds is forming. Out of the shadows and into the light, Cannasapiens will have their day. Mr. & Mrs. B are making the history right before our eyes.

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OREGON LEAF

STRAIN OF THE MONTH By WILL FERGUSON | PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN

Dense nugs are coated with layers of

properly cured trichomes in this sweet-smelling Durban Poison. Fresh off a first place victory at the Oregon Medical Marijuana Cup, sofresh farm’s Durban Poison is one of the most impressive herbs we have smoked lately. This African landrace sativa was grown organically, using beneficial insects and microbe-rich soil, just as nature intended. When rolled and smoked in a RAW paper, we noticed a strong lemon-lime flavor because of the high levels of limonene and pinene terpines common in Durban Poison. As for the high, it’s energetic, clear and uplifting. This strain helped ease our anxiety and pain, making it perfect for daytime medicating. The flowers burned pure white ash, letting us know the medicine is clean and has been properly flushed and cured. This strain is ideal for patients suffering from depression, nausea, stress, pain and PTSD. The extreme care and attention given to the handling of this strain from start to finish makes for a quality smoke.

GROWN by SOFRESH FARMS Available From Oregon’s Finest

1327 NW Kearney St. Portland, OR 97209 (971) 254-4765 www.ofmeds.com Test Results by MRX Labs

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passes microbial test

26.7% thc 0.33% cbd This strain helped ease our anxiety and pain, making it perfect for daytime medicating.

DURBAN POISON


a variety of concentrates by Xtracted Labs @x_tracted

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By OREGON LEAF CONTRIBUTORS PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN STYLED by MALINA LOPEZ

THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

40 41 42 44 46 48 50 52

EXTRACTS 101 WHERE TO GO DABBING GUIDE BUTANE HASH OIL CO2 OIL SOLVENTLESS HEAT-PRESS HASH BUBBLE HASH

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

By OREGON LEAF STAFF | PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN

EXTRACTS 101 One of the best parts of the medical Cannabis world is that new products and innovations are constantly emerging. The downside can be a lack of information, especially for innovations that haven’t reached the average user. A perfect example? Cannabis concentrates. While most veteran patients are familiar with Rick Simpson Oil and high-grade bubble hash, the dabbing movement has caught many by surprise. The following primer is meant to break down the types of concentrates, the attributes to look for and avoid, and the common lingo, prices, and best practices you should expect.

What is a concentrate? A concentrate is an extraction of Cannabis and can be produced with or without a solvent such as butane, ethanol or CO2. Anyone consuming concentrates for the first time should do so with extreme caution. THC levels in concentrates range from 20 percent to 90 percent, so they can be overwhelming for many initial users.

Butane Hash Oil Butane hash oil refers to Cannabis concentrate processed with butane. All BHO should be tested by a lab for residual solvency, which is the amount of butane or other potentially harmful hydrocarbons left in the mixture. All medicinal use should be less than 500 parts per million, with the best range being 0 to 50 parts per million, especially for those at risk of cancer and other serious diseases. BHO commonly donates for $30-$50 per gram for quality product.

CO 2 Oil CO2 extraction is one of the cleanest and safest methods of extracting any type of plant matter. Carbon dioxide is pumped at supercritical temperatures under high pressure to pull cannabinoids from the plant material, leaving a pure and intensely flavorful concentrate. CO2 is not toxic to humans and kills any microbial growth in the process Be mindful of the of extraction. Plus, CO2 can three-second rule: be used for more than just Don’t hold your hit in Cannabis concentrates. It can longer than three to be used to create natural essenfive seconds because tial oils. Mainstream products you’re not increasing processed with CO2 include the amount of herbal essential oils, hops for cannabinoids beer and decaffeinated coffee. absorbed into your Because of the considerable system. You are investment required to process merely decreasing CO2 (roughly $75,000), the the amount of oxygen your lungs average gram sells for about are able to take in. $30 to $60 per gram.

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GIRL SCOUT COOKIES SAP BHO by left coast farms

@Left_Coast_Farms

Solventless Hash & Bubble Hash Solventless or bubble hash refers to hash or keif that has been processed using just water and ice or a dry-sift method to gather Cannabis trichomes and cannabinoids into a smokable form.

Full Extract Cannabis Oil Full extract Cannabis oil, or Rick Simpson Oil as it’s commonly referred to, is a pure Cannabis extract that has been used for decades to fight cancer and other diseases. FECO pulls a range of beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes and flavinoids that are successful in treating a variety of conditions. It should only be made with pure alcohol (food-grade ethanol or grain alcohol) and should be properly purged of residual alcohol before ingestion. FECO should never be vaporized or dabbed because inhaling alcohol is bad for the central nervous system and the brain. When eaten, the alcohol is safe for use. With the average dose being the size of a grain of rice, a little FECO goes a long way. While FECO should be made available at a compassion rate at most collectives, the average price is $25 to $50 per gram.

What is dabbing? Dabbing refers to vaporizing a herbal concentrate. But it does often involve a torch, and a vaporization surface commonly called a nail attached to a water pipe. The nail is heated until hot (see our dab temperature article for more on this) before a small amount of concentrate is touched to the surface. The user inhales through a water pipe, and the clean and easy vapor is exhaled without excessive smoke or coughing. Patients can also use dab pens or vapor cartridges, both of which allow for portable vaporization of concentrates without the use of a torch.

Dosing Your Dab Few health risks are associated with secondary or residual butane consumption in small amounts, including dabbing or smoking Cannabis by using a butane lighter. However, conflicting reports have been posted on the Internet about people suffering from collapsed lungs because of excessive dabbing. Because dabbing is relatively new to the community, no major media reports address hospital admissions with patients who are strictly dabbers. People who are at higher risk of collapsed lungs should take that into consideration in their Cannabis consumption by smoking and dabbing. When smokers inhale — especially Cannabis smokers — they tend to inhale as deeply as possible and then hold the smoke as long as they can. Coupled with the action of coughing, it could accelerate small tears inside the lungs that could lead to a pocket of air being created between the lung and another organ, or the rib cage, resulting in a lung collapse. Be mindful of the three-second rule: Don’t hold a hit in longer than three to five seconds because you’re not increasing the amount of cannabinoids absorbed into your system. You are merely decreasing the amount of oxygen your lungs are able to take in.


THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

WHERE TO GO &WHAT TO KNOW By WILL FERGUSON for OREGON LEAF

Many collectives offer concentrate specials on certain days of the week, which you can plan your trip around in order to save a few bucks.

40 41 42 44 46 48 49 50 52

EXTRACTS 101 WHERE TO GO DABBING GUIDE BUTANE HASH OIL CO2 OIL SOLVENTLESS DAB GEAR GUIDE HEAT-PRESS HASH BUBBLE HASH

When shopping for quality concentrates, I always keep a few things in mind. If I’m searching for solvent extracts such as BHO and PHO I’ll consider a couple of important questions: who is the processor? Was it processed in a Closed Loop System or not? Was the starting material grown with synthetic nutrients or not (you don’t want to be ingesting concentrated pesticides, do you?) Many extractors are transparent with their processes on

Lobster butter by clear concentrate

@TheClearConcentrate

social media, which is a good way to tell whether you want to be ingesting their products. Quality BHO and PHO extracts should be light, golden in color and have good terpene retention. I always take a close-up look at the concentrate I have my eye on. Also, keeping a watchful eye on a collective’s social media information and Leafly menu helps me find the best deals. Many collectives have concentrate specials on certain days of the week, and I sometimes plan my trip around those specials to save a few bucks. As far as prices, I usually won’t pay more than $30 per gram for a trim-run concentrate and no more than $40 per gram for a nug-run concentrate. Solventless full melt/ice wax is another concentrate I often shop for. Water hash is hard to find at many access points, so finding it can be difficult at times, but some shops carry them when they can. What I look for in good bubble hash is solid terpene retention, stable trichome heads (not greasy or cakey), a light blond color with little to no contaminants and a full melt with little to no residue left behind. Clean, organic starting materials are also of utmost importance to me because it truly captures the flavor of the plant and indicates how it was grown. Good bubble hash is more expensive than solvent extracts because of its lower yields, so my price cap is around $60 per gram. I don’t often shop for CO2 concentrates, but when I do, I ensure they meet my requirements. When looking for a CO2 concentrates, I look for extracts that have a nice amber color, are derived from organic material and are processed using a state-of-the-art, supercritical C02 system. CO2 concentrates are more costly than BHO extracts so my price cap is around $40 per gram. Processed correctly, concentrates are worth the time and money to be able to use — it’s just a matter of knowing what to look for.

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

PHOTO by DANIEL BERMAN Tyler J. Markwart prepares to dab

Dabbing Guide By TYLER J. MARKWART, WES ABNEY & WILL FERGUSON

Domeless Titanium Nail

With an array of new companies, accessories and technolo-

gies available to patients, the talk about the proper temperatures for dabbing Cannabis concentrates comes up in conversations repeatedly. With the focus of the topic of temperature on terpene and cannabinoid retention, patients have experimented with an array of temperatures when it comes to getting the most flavor and medicine out of each dab. Let’s take a look at a few of the industry standards when it comes to dabbing and what the pluses and minuses are of each product are. Butane gas torches are a common and convenient way to get your nail to its proper temperature. It’s quick and portable, but not sustainable. Because canned gas has to be purchased in order to refill and use the torch, it ends up costing you and the environment.

Very hot e-nail

Types of nails A nail is the part of the rig that is heated up in order to vaporize the Cannabis concentrate. But what kind to pick? Quartz and titanium have both been the industry standards for dab rigs using nails. With quartz, patients are able to get a clean hit because it does not emit gas when heated. Titanium, on the other hand, has several grades at which it is produced and sold. Because of the differences in the production of titanium alloys, some metal nails can off-gas, which is not desirable for medical patients. Thankfully, those grades are becoming more standardized within the industry. So which one is better? Depending on how you handle your equipment and what your goal is, the chart below can help you compare the advantages and disadvantages. E-nails are another dab accessory in which the nail is constantly heated by electricity. These stand-alone units plug into a standard wall socket, allowing patients to dab without having to use an open flame to heat the nail. With a high entry cost, the e-nail is not for everyone, but it works for patients who are constantly dabbing in the same location. Vape pens are fairly new in the last few years on the scene and have been growing in popularity. With many styles available for various types of concentrates, patients have a variety of options to help them medicate wherever and whenever they need to. Vape pens are effective because they are discrete, portable and work instantaneously. They don’t give the same size hit as a dab rig, but they are excellent for on-the-go use or in public places.

What temperature should you dab at? When dabbing, hitting the right temperature is tricky. Concentrates that are dabbed too hot will burn off the terpenes, leaving a bland

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Shatter Extract Wax Concentrate CO2 Syringe

taste behind. Concentrates that are dabbed too cool might leave pooled-up residue and not fully vaporize. The best way to reach a happy medium is to use a carb cap, which sits on top of a nail once a dab is applied and holds both heat and vapor in. A carb cap will vaporize an extract at the lowest possible temperature. I find that letting the nail cool down sufficiently and then using the carb cap will produce a flavorful, fully vaporized dab. Solventless extracts such as full melt bubble hash/ice wax should be dabbed at slightly higher temperatures. To determine whether your temperature is right, check the color of the residue. If the residue is a blackish, it means your dab was taken too hot. If the residue is a light brown, it means the dab was vaporized at the optimal temperature.

Concentrates that are dabbed too hot will burn off most of the terpenes, leaving a bland taste behind.

What are concentrates made up of? Looking at Analytical 360’s lab results for concentrates, we can see that


sample concentrate results have varied ratios of cannabinoids. A majority of the results are falling below the 70 percent cannabinoid range per sample, which means that there are other chemicals and matter present in the samples. Scientists have been able to identify hundreds of chemicals present in Cannabis flowers, ranging from cannabinoids to plant waxes. When flowers are processed into concentrates with solvents, they need to be purged and pasteurized for safe consumption. With CO2, dry sift and water extractions just the pasteurization process is needed to ensure proper processing because no residual solvents are left in the sample.

Patients should ask for test results that show the residual parts per million in the product that they are buying.

Proper purging is priceless Butane Torch

Oil Vape Pen

Electro-formed Dab Chubbler

Ethanol wash (winterizing)

Carb Tap & Dab Tool BHO

Quartz Titanium THE SCORE

d u r a bili ty: da b flavo r : da b w ind o w : heat up time: Ov e r a l l : 16/20

E-Nail Vape Pen THE SCORE

du r a b i l it y: da b f l avor : da b w i n dow : heat up time: Ov e r a ll: 15/20

THE SCORE

d u r a bilit y: da b flavo r : da b w ind o w : heat up time: Ov er al l : 16/20

RED = WINNER OR TIE FOR CATEGORY

THE SCORE

du r a b i l i t y: da b f l avor : da b w i n dow : heat up time: Ov e r a ll: 13/20

As far as the Leaf is concerned the first and foremost area to be testing concentrates in is residual solvency. Cannabinoid levels do not matter nearly as much as solvency, the testing of which is lacking in Oregon. There are a nearly a dozen different dangerous chemicals that can end up in concentrates, and they must be tested for to ensure a product is safe. In the purging process, pressure and heat are combined to help purify the concentrates by removing processing chemicals. Most medical patients can handle butane consumption in low levels of 50 to 1,000 parts per million, but it is not pleasant on the consumer. Butane can also cause serious side effects when consumed continuously and in larger amounts, especially by patients with compromised immune systems. With side effects ranging from excessive coughing to death by chemical poisoning, patients should ask for test results that show the residual parts per million in the product that they are buying. A properly purged product will dab fantastically at a lower temperature with less irritation on the throat and lungs, leaving the patient with more available medicine and flavor and an overall better experience.

The cell walls of the Cannabis plant can sometimes contain large wax concentrations. This is an evolutionary advantage for land race genetics because Cannabis has adopted itself in almost every single environmental condition on earth. Some areas such as mountain ranges and higher altitude locations are susceptible to colder weather and more intense solar radiation. The waxy coatings help protect the Cannabis plant against pests and radiation damage in more intense environments. For patients, these plant waxes often lead to excessive coughing when dabbing. When it is dropped onto a hot nail, the wax melts, exposing the water to the heat. By washing the concentrate sample with alcohol, the wax will remain in the container and the cannabinoids will be absorbed into the alcohol and distilled off as the alcohol evaporates in a separate container. Concentrates with higher amounts of plant waxes and lipids will require a higher temperature to dab and as pointed out earlier, will cause more irritation on the throat and lungs. Special note- Any concentrate that has an ethanol wash should be tested for residual alcohol. Residual alcohol can be harmful if vaporized at high ppm’s.

Pasteurize your dabs? Pasteurizing is a process that heats a product to a certain temperature for a determined period to reduce the amount of pathogens that can be harmful to humans when eaten. Heat at 160 F for five seconds can help reduce the amount of pathogens such as E. coli when cooking with extracts.

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Butane Hash Oil

Blackberry Kush Honeycomb by White Label Extracts

Harlequin Tsunami CBD sap by Dirty Arm Farm

Silvertip Cola Nug Run Shatter by White Label Extracts

GIRL SCOUT COOKIES BHO by PROPER EXTRACTS

85.12% THC | 0.96% CBD A gorgeous dewaxed honeycomb testing at 0 ppm residual solvent.

82.04% THC | 0% CBD Terpy, golden goodness that elevates with true euphoria.

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4.44% THC | 70.1% CBD Delicately sweet high-CBD medicine offers relaxing relief.

86.7% THC | 0.31% CBD Delicious terpy wax full of mint and rich chocolate flavors.

RASPBERRY KUSH shatter by dab society extracts

96.83% THC | 0.20% CBD A pink colored shatter that tastes like fresh raspberries.

pure white bubblegum by jolly bee extracts

99.02% THC | 0.29% CBD If it’s energy you’re after, this is a lip-smacker to try.


mystery haze Shatter by White Label Extracts

Liberty Bell BHO by 1859 concentrates

Girl Scout Cookie Sap by left coast farms

blue dream BHO by 1859 concentrates

F.I. Harlequin Shatter by left coast farms

blue dream x gc shatter by dab society extracts

76.3% THC | 0.4% CBD An incredibly tasty extract with an energetic, productive high.

70.4% THC | 0.62% CBD Sweet dreamy floral notes with a smooth finish you’ll crave.

74.8% THC | 0.97% CBD Heady oil that hits the cerebral cortex with a near-audible thud.

57.09% THC | 20.69% CBD Provides near-instant pain relief and anxiety-quashing power.

70.5% THC | 0.16% CBD Mint meets Cannabis, love ensues, and now they’re hitched.

76.64% THC | 0% CBD A heady blend of two classic sativa dominant hybrids!

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

CO2 Oil

cannatonic shatter by pop naturals

outer space cartridge by golden xtrax

Canna tsu cARTRIDGE by the co 2 company

betty mix cartridge by golden xtrax

trinity dripper syringe by nug run enterprise

BLACK CHERRY SODA cartridge by o.pen vape

56.5% THC | 31.34% CBD Beautiful high CBD oil that tastes of dark cherries.

71.24% THC | 1.56% CBD Custom blend of strains mixes all the best effects in one cartridge.

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76.63% THC | 0.76% CBD Super high potency cartridge that delivers solid THC high.

45.48% THC | 6.96% CBD Flavorful and easy to dose with relaxing blend of CBD strains.

34.6% THC | 34% CBD Powerhouse mixture of CBD and THC — wow.

43.58% THC | 0.85% CBD Smooth and tasty vapor with a sweet and skunky taste.


blueberry vape cartridge by pop naturals

jack herer Oil by the co 2 company

platinum og CARTRIDGE by true north extracts

venice og cartridge by o.pen vape

39.07% THC | 6.06% CBD Easy and mild vapor with a wonderful fresh blueberry flavor.

58.94% THC | 0.91% CBD Just like the mineral, this CO2 is a truly Platinum concentrate.

59.8% THC | 1.16% CBD Perfect oil for daytime use and for maintaining energy.

54.30% THC | 0.64% CBD Smooth and relaxed vibes with that signature OG family flavor.

girl scout cookies by pop naturals

52.91% THC | 5.21% CBD Heady oil that hits the cerebral cortex with a near-audible thud.

purple kush pure dripper by NUG RUN ENTERPRISES

66.06% THC | 1.41% CBD A perfectly relaxing and effective manageable dripper system.

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Solventless Concentrates

hash plant 45iu rosin by kush kirk

58.54% THC | 0.15% CBD You really get the full flavor of the plant with this Rosin hash.

Sour diesel ice wax by Davis Farms

69.3% THC | 0.18% CBD An incredible smelling hash, testing in at over 15% terpenes.

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chem dawg 70 micron grown by nelson & co ORganics 74.65% THC | 0.14% CBD Processed by Pua Extractions and Novus Rosa with high-end material.

OG KUSH HASH by permaculture solutions 71.9% THC | 0.92% CBD Classic OG flavor and taste with super heady effects you’ll feel.

green queen ice wax by davis farms

64.6% THC | 0.25% CBD A beautiful, floral smelling large micron water hash.

blue goo rosin hash by kush kirk

68.39 THC | 0.19% CBD Fantastic and cerebral hybrid Rosin pressed hash worth trying.


Dabbing Gear Guide

By WES ABNEY | MAIN PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Helpful products to let you carry out your consuming in a safe and easy manner. Don’t forget to explore your favorite local shop for an array of unique dab tools.

Kind Tray Art Set $119 Master the

art of the dab with this custom Kind Tray artists set. The silicon containers and pad are permanently attached to this hand-cut wooden frame, making it perfect for traveling. This release will be launching at the beginning of the new year. Check out more than a dozen styles and types on its website. www.kindtray.com

Titanium Carb Cap $30

We found this quality generic carb cap at Third Eye in Portland for only $30. Made out of grade 2 titanium, it’s a trustworthy and solid tool that will last. Carb caps range in price from $20 to $60, so pick the one that works best for your budget and your life.

Amazon.com or any local glass shop

Nail Crown $30

Love medicating on the go but hate worrying about dealing with a scorching hot nail? Worry no more. This useful 100 percent pure silicon travel case opens up to hold your hot nail on the go, no burns required.

www.dabkings.com/collections/nail-crown

Happy Daddy Machete pick $40

When it comes to dab tools the Happy Daddy crew is the best around, period. They take quality metals and innovative design and bring it all together in an affordable form. We love this Machete dab tool! It makes you feel like a bad-ass dab ninja and is functional for a variety of concentrates. Check out their line of products and nails online! Happydaddyproducts.net

The Hollow Splatter Dab Rig $120

These sick little dab rigs hit hard everywhere but the wallet. The splatter comes in a variety of colors, including slime green or amber/gold. It looks like real oil is dripping off the piece. Check out their website for custom work and other dabbing options. www.thehollow.me

710 Oil Whip Electronic Ceramic Nail (seen above) $145

If you are looking for a quality e-nail on a budget, check out the 710 Oil Whip. This is an easy-to-clean and transport setup that can instantly transform any bong into a dabbing station.www.710.life

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

By TYLER J. MARKWART for OREGON LEAF | PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Heat-Pressed Hash (Rosin Tech)

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Tools needed:

Rosin Tech, a new spin

on an old processing technique, requires a hair straightener, parchment paper and full buds to create high-quality hash in seconds. In the past year, the First, take some well-cured buds that have process has caught on quickly decent water content. You don’t want them because it is safe, cheap and the too dry and you also won’t want to grind the results are fantastic … as long buds up — that makes it harder to collect the as you begin with fantastic buds. material at the end. With dabbing becoming more popular, different techniques for Take a large piece of parchment paper and fold processing will emerge and be it in half. refined. Rosin Tech seems to be able to get the best of all worlds, Place a nice-size bud of your favorite flower combining flavor, potency, yield between the edge of the paper and the crease. and quality into one beautiful little golden dab. Fold the paper so the bud is trapped inside the Many cultures have considered parchment paper. hash the standard way to smoke because it stores better and hits Place the paper and bud in the hair straightener harder than flower. With the and press hard for three to five seconds. application of heat-controlled hair straighteners, T-shirt pressRelease pressure and remove paper. Remove es and shirt irons, Cannabis bud and let rosin dry. consumers can now prepare and make their own high-quality dabs Repeat on the same bud for second, third and within minutes without the worry even fourth runs, depending on the quality and of blowing themselves up from size of the bud. using an explosive solvent. If you plan to use a hair Scrape and collect the rosin and enjoy. straightener, we suggest you buy a new one. Most hair straighteners are Justin Ruiz from HypeHerbally The basic technique used after has seen the rapid growth in is not new; humans chemicals the concentrate market and has have been pressing have treated moved quickly to set up a rosin and heating hash someone’s processing company called Raw for quite a while. hair, which Zen. Keeping a focus on knowing contamwhat’s in your medicine, Raw inates them and raises the Zen is working with producers Mana Gardens’ possibility of contaminating your Purple Nepal and Crop Circle’s Hindu Kush to sample. Think before you just bring this product to market. grab something to press your Rosin Tech at home requires some trial and buds with. error, but once you have the technique down it becomes simple. Take a few seconds to check the Internet for a slew of videos that show the technique in a step-by-step process and you will save yourself from some burned nugs — or worse — a burned hand. Simple, cheap and produced by raw zen straightforward, this technique is not new but @HypeHerbally small-batch home processing is achievable.

1) Hair straightener or T-shirt press 2) Parchment paper 3) Oven mitt or silicon pad

The finished hindu kush rosin tech by raw zen is a light-golden wafer

east coast white diesel + tangie rosin tech by a greener today may 2015 FACEBOOK.COM/NWLEAF

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THE CONCENTRATES ISSUE

By WES ABNEY | PHOTOS by DANIEL BERMAN

Bubble Hash Guide (3 to 6-stars)

When it comes to bubble hash,

not all products are created equal. While there isn’t necessarily a bad hash, products can vary by strain and method of extraction. The hash rated here is made using bubble bags, hence bubble hash. It is considered a solvent-free concentrate and is safe for consumption by all patients. While much of the medical Cannabis world has turned to solventbased concentrates, superior bubble hash has attracted connoisseurs, with some of the best in the world produced in the Northwest. As trends go, the latest craze in the dabbing world has been full–melt, dabbable five- and even six-star hash. This guide will help you pick the best products for your needs and budget.

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ANCIENT MEDICINE: Hash is thought to have originated in the Middle East, with its use dating back thousands of years. In places

such as India, Cannabis grows naturally. Over time, specific strains were chosen and cultivated for their hash-making properties. Traditionally, hash was made in two ways. The first method is to take the flowers of the plant and rub/roll them with your hands until enough trichomes are on your fingers to scrape off. The second method was perfected in Morocco, where hash makers slap cured branches over a silk screen to shake off the trichomes. It isn’t easy, but it can produce large yields. Today, a huge variety of extraction methods and tools exist for making hash. Still, we find the best way involves ice, water and a little bit of elbow grease.

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3-star

Dark brown & earthy with hints of original strain flavor. When heated, forms small bubbles on surface then combusts. Perfect for loading on a bowl of flower or rolling into a joint. Not dabbable, but with 35 to 50 percent melt. About $20/g.

4-star Light brown, less pronounced flavor profile but with stronger hints of original strain flavor. Bubbles into a puddle with heat. This is the lowest star level for dabbing, as it leaves a lot of residue on the nail and has a very earthy flavor. About $30/g. 5-star Blond, full flavor profile that invokes the strain it is processed from in smell and taste. When heated, fully melts into oil but still leaves a slight residue and flavor of plant matter when smoked. It’s dabbable and costs about $50/g or higher.

Produced by A Greener Today @Agreenertoday Row 1: Rudeboi OG Row 2: Alien Express

6-star Light-blond resinous gold, super fine texture. When pressed, forms into an almost transparent slab. This should taste and

smell like the purest nectar of the strain, which it essentially is. Dabs easily on a nail, leaving zero plant matter taste and an extremely smooth smoke. It costs about $60/g or more.

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5 the Micro Myth:

Bubble hash is made by filtering Cannabis trim/buds through bubble bags. The bags act as a net to catch THC trichomes, which separate and gather at the bottom of the bags. Much like fishing, the bag size, measured in microns, varies depending on the size of the trichomes the maker is hoping to catch. The quality of the hash is not necessarily dependent on the size, it’s based on two factors: harvest time and strain phenotype. If a crop is harvested before the trichomes fully develop, the chances of having a four- to five-star yield are minimal. You simply won’t have enough

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trichomes. The second factor comes down to the strain being used. Some strains tend to have larger crystals, so a larger micron bag will yield higher quality hash, while other strains tend to have smaller crystals, making a smaller micron bag necessary for a good yield. It is good to experiment with various methods. Another pro tip for producing top-quality solventless hash is the adage, “put good in, get good out.” Treat your trim with respect and fresh freeze it for best possible results.

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recipes

By LAURIE WOLF for OREGON LEAF | PHOTO by BRUCE WOLF for OREGON LEAF

Makes 4 servings

MEDICATED

AVOCADO SQUARES Spring is here and farmers

markets throughout the Northwest are again bursting with fruits and vegetables that have revived after the dark, rainy days of winter. Going shopping at these markets is always a treat. Although I pay a little more, our meals tend to be vegetable-centric, hence, less expensive. A farmer from southern Washington had early corn this past week that I couldn’t resist. If I do add meat or poultry to a meal it is as more of a side rather than centerstage. Heavy dressings and sauces are no longer how we roll; we prefer fruity olive oils and a splash of lemon or vinegar. From now through fall, you can count on some pretty sweet seasonal offerings. Light and lovely, no shortage of taste, easy and fast. When adding Cannabis, the dishes are taken to a new delightful level of enjoyment. High expectations? Good, we aim to please.

INGREDIENTS

12 small slices black bread 3 tbs. cream cheese, softened 1 tbs. canna-butter, softened 1 avocado, peeled, cored, and cut into small chunks 3 tbs. fresh lemon juice 8 radishes, thinly sliced 1 scallion, chopped Âź cup dill sprigs Salt & pepper

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1. Place the bread on your work surface, then, in a small bowl, mix the cream cheese and canna-butter. 2. Spread the bread with the cream cheese mixture. 3. Toss the avocado with 1 tablespoon of the lemon juice and mix with the radishes, scallion and dill. 4. Add salt and pepper to taste. 5. Divide the mixture between the open face sandwiches and garnish with additional dill.

More recipes pg. 58


recipes

By LAURIE WOLF for OREGON LEAF | PHOTOS by BRUCE WOLF for OREGON LEAF

Continued from pg. 56

LETTUCE CUP CHICKEN INGREDIENTS

8 lettuce cups, cleaned and patted dry 1 cup cooked chicken, cut or shredded 1 small stalk celery, sliced 2 tbs. chopped scallion 2 tbs. mayonnaise 1 tbs. canna-oil Salt and pepper 2 tbs. blue cheese, crumbled

Serves four 1. Place lettuce on your work surface. 2. Combine the chicken, celery and scallion in a medium bowl and set aside. 3. In a small bowl, combine the mayonnaise, oil and spices. Lightly toss the mayonnaise with the chicken mixture. Divide the chicken between the lettuce cups. 4. Distribute blue cheese between cups and serve.

INGREDIENTS

1 tbs. canna-oil 1 tbs. regular olive oil ½ cup bell peppers, any color. ¼ cup corn niblets 2 cups fresh spinach 1 scallion, chopped 4 eggs, lightly beaten ½ cup goat cheese ¼ cup cheddar cheese Smoked paprika Salt and pepper

Serves two 1. Heat oven to 340 F.

In an oven-proof sauté pan, heat the oils. Do not sauté on high because that would affect the THC potency. Add the peppers and sauté 6-7 min. Add the corn and sauté 4-5 min. Add spinach and sauté until wilted.

TWO-CHEESE FRITTATA

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2. Pour the eggs into the pan and stir for a minute or two to mix well. Shred the cheeses and sprinkle over the egg mixture along with the spices and place into heated oven. 3. Cook until eggs are set and the cheese is melted — about 15 min. If you want the top to brown, place under the broiler just before serving. Slide the frittata onto a serving plate.


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product

Reviews Saltwater cowboy

By STEVE ELLIOTT Editor, Tokesignals.com

mary jane

The Complete Marijuana Handbook for Women

The Rise and Fall of a Marijuana Empire

By TIM MCBRIDE with RALPH BERRIER JR.

ST. MARTIN’S PRESS, 2015 | 272 PAGES | $25.99

I

n 1979, Wisconsin native Tim McBride hopped into his Mustang and drove south. He was 21 years old, and his best friend had offered him a job working as a crab fisherman in Chokoloskee Island, a sleepy town of fewer than 500 people on Florida’s Gulf Coast. Eager to experience life, McBride jumped in. He quickly learned this was far from your average fishing outfit. Tim had been recruited into a band of weed smugglers — middlemen between a Colombian Cannabis cartel and their Miami distributors. “The Gulf of Mexico smelled like cow shit,” the book begins, and right off the bat you start to get the idea that this isn’t going to be a boring ride. (On McBride’s first weed pickup on the open water, the Colombian smuggling boat carried a load of cattle as camouflage.) He was soon handling tons of marijuana, and living the life of wealth. His operation caught the attention of the federal government in 1984, and very quickly the boss and most of the key players were out of commission. McBride somehow avoided the roundup and by default became the new go-to guy for the Colombians, the boss of an operation that was ultimately responsible for smuggling 30 million pounds of marijuana into the United States. A self-proclaimed “saltwater cowboy,” McBride evaded the Coast Guard and the Drug Enforcement Administration for years, facing volatile Colombian drug lords and risking betrayal by romantic partners until his luck finally ran out. He ended up pulling a 10-year federal prison sentence. McBride’s wild tale of crime and excess rings true and reads well; his book is one of those that, as you near the final page, you start reading more slowly because you don’t want it to end. The book won me over, and this was after some initial skepticism. Upon first examining the cover, I was ready to dislike McBride and his book, for no better reason than the cocky photo of the author. But once I got started reading the thing, I realized this was the real deal: An actual story of how all that delicious, red and gold Colombian marijuana I enjoyed in Alabama in the 1970s had found its way to my rolling tray. And if you successfully bring in 30 million pounds of weed, maybe you’ve earned the right to be a little cocky. Tim McBride rebuilt his life after being released from prison, and today he owns a construction business and is a father of two on the Gulf Coast of Florida.

By CHERI SICARD

ST. MARTIN’S PRESS, 2015 | 232 PAGES | $18.00

I

t’s not often that one gets to witness the birth of a major volume that is going to change the way thousands of people think about the Cannabis plant. It was my privilege to do exactly that as my friend Cheri Sicard (Cannabis Cheri) wrote “Mary Jane,” the women’s interest and lifestyle guide to Cannabis released by the publisher on 4/20. Sicard shared with me, as the book was written, the frustrations and joys of preparing a 200-plus page book covering the history, culture and politics of our favorite weed. And I’m happy to report that what emerged is nothing less than a masterpiece. As women across the nation are finally coming out of the Cannabis closet, they are learning that marijuana offers many benefits. As Sicard’s book points out in its easy, conversational style, weed complements many aspects of women’s lives, and can even help treat problems that are distinctive to women’s health. Far from a lofty theoretical treatise, “Mary Jane” is packed with practical tips and facts to help women make informed decisions about Cannabis. From cooking with marijuana to responsible parenting, this informal handbook gives women the information they need to embrace the culture and lifestyle of Cannabis in any way they choose. Topics in the book include extracts, concentrates, medicinal applications, using weed to spice up your sex life and Cannabis careers. Sicard covers all the important bases, including an absolutely stellar final chapter on “How To Win Any Argument About Marijuana” which every activist — male or female — would do well to read. Once a closeted marijuana user, Sicard now works with numerous reform groups, frequently helping organize rallies, speaking at city council meetings, and giving classes on various aspects of marijuana. She is also a powerful and prominent advocate for prisoners serving life sentences for nonviolent marijuana offenses and authors the “Life For Pot” series at TokeSignals.com.

Once a closeted marijuana user, Sicard now works with numerous reform groups, frequently helping organize rallies, speaking at city council meetings, and giving classes on various aspects of marijuana.

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growtech Crops in Kansas viewed from above

AN INCONVENIENT FRUIT

Bound by laws and forces we are only beginning to understand, Mother Nature offers countless lessons for those willing to learn.

In

Western society, many of the lessons and practices responsible for our initial survival on this continent have unfortunately fallen prey to industrial agricultural practices. These practices in the past 100 years have created a consumption model of natural resources that has left our agricultural land barren. Technologies have been invented and applied to account for the damage we have done in our desperate attempt to improve our agricultural practices and produce heavy yields, relying increasingly on technology to remedy our damage. With each step, however, an essential element is missing and continues to set us further from creating a sustainable solution. All of these behaviors have one detrimen-

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tal characteristic in common: They continue to im- Farmers then plant crops in this fertile soil and pose on nature our desire to grow more food. initially see explosive growth in the crops. But The practice of tilling or plowing the soil is just this practice doesn’t consider the plan that nature one farming practice that demonstrates that has already set forth to grow food-producing point. In this practice, the top layer of the crops. Instead, it emphasizes our desire earth, which includes the fragile and to produce more food in the way we BY OREGON LEAF limited topsoil, is dug up and exposed think is best. By plowing the soil and SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR to the air to remove all the ground covaccelerating the rate of decomposition, DR. SCANDERSON er. The benefit of this practice is that all many nutrients become available, but the organic elements embedded in the in doing so much of the organic matsoil become exposed to oxygen. ter where those nutrients come from are This dramatic increase in oxygen rapidly depleted. In the case of the Great Plains, it accelerates the rate of decomposition of the ortook only two generations of plowing the soil and ganic compounds in the soil, making huge amounts replacing nothing before the drier southern region of nutrients rapidly available. was depleted and the Dust Bowl began.

Continues pg. 66


growtech

AN INCONVENIENT FRUIT

Continued from pg. 64

D r i e d a n d c r a c k e d e a r t h i s v i s i b l e o n a n u n p l a n t e d f i e l d a t a f a r m i n c a l i f o r n i a . PHOTO BY NBC NEWS

We

never learned from these mistakes. After conventional agricultural practices depleted the soil, the ground was deemed infertile. Synthetic chemical fertilizers soon were introduced into commercial agriculture once it was discovered that the petroleum molecule, controlled by the country’s largest private economic monopoly, could be made into fertilizer for commercial agriculture. These chemicals provided the crop with all the nutrients they needed, but they are salt-based. The buildup of salts and application of chemical-based fertilizers continued to deplete and erode the land and the crops became entirely dependent on humans for nutrients. The practice of monocropping and row planting created a magnet for pathogens. With the land so depleted of any sort of life that would otherwise balance the infestation, the plants were treated with still more toxic chemicals. Our effort to produce Frankenfood in soil that is so badly damaged has left us with farming practices that more closely resemble a medical experiment then food production. We are so intent on imposing our will on nature and disregarding the system she has in place that we think we can genetically modify

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the food we grow to be resistant to insanely toxic compounds and poisons that kill absolutely everything but the food crop. It’s not all gloom and doom, at least if we don’t want it to be. In the past 30 to 40 years, a movement has emerged in the United States that offers a solution. We now can surely see that this approach not only heals the earth and accelerates the rate at which our agricultural lands return to a living, breathing, productive, natural substrate but it also is a more productive, lower-cost, lower-energy, lower-labor approach that also produces more food. This is permaculture. Bill Mollison is considered the father of the movement, which has an ever-evolving definition. It is an approach to interacting with nature that models itself after existing symbiotic relationships and yields a regenerative result benefitting all beings and the earth. At its heart, it models itself after what has been working since long before we arrived and will continue to work long after we perish. Many free and low-cost courses on permaculture are available locally and online. Because the topic is so vast, I’d like to examine just one small way that permaculture can change the way you approach

gardening, especially in outdoor applications. Most people in the U.S. consider water to be an abundant and inexpensive resource. We pay hundreds of millions of dollars per year for Nestle to bottle our tap water and sell it back to us and we have building codes requiring the water that receives our excrement to be the same potable quality as the water that comes out our kitchen faucet. Imagine: We have so much clean water we shit in it. But the value and scarcity of water is deeply disguised by government subsidies that make the access, along with our reliance on it, all but invisible. Travel to most places in the world and you’ll see the measures that farmers, businesses and citizens take to preserve one of our most precious resources. Changing the way we treat water will allow us to stop the continued deterioration of our clean water supply and increase the production of our food and medicinal crops. Clearly, our plants can’t hear our bullshit and are strictly concerned with efficiency. They simply respond to the variances from nature and adapt as best they can. They respond and perform best with untreated, natural rainwater, especially in many areas of the Pacific Northwest, where air pollution rates haven’t yet become tragic.


THREE ESSENTIAL WAYS you can change the way you treat water and start gaining the benefits at work all around us.

1) HARVEST IT.

In Western Washington, most places average over 35 inches of precipitation yearly. Use a rain collection barrel that channels your roof ’s water or other large sloped areas to a collection bin for reuse. Permaculture provides another method to harvest water. Inspired by the ancient farming practice of terrace farming, notably employed by the Mayan and Inca civilizations, is the use of swales. A swale is a long, wide trench dug horizontally to the fall line of a property with the purpose of preserving the rainwater and keeping it on the land for use. A typical roof is a large area that obviously collects a bit of rain and is clearly angled, but so is all land. It will have a overall slope, however gradual, one way or another that continues down toward a creek, river or ocean and is bound by the water table. With a post and level line, you can determine a rough topographic map of any area of land. Digging swales into the land, especially in hilly or obviously angled areas that can otherwise be difficult to produce food in, turns this land both into a water harvesting and filtering station. Besides becoming productive areas for crops of all kinds, swales provide habitat for animals, insects, bacteria and other beings. Swales can be dug in one long connecting switchback traversing laterally along a grade or individually. Both drop incrementally in elevation as they transverse an area and harvest an astounding amount of water — enough to return a barren area of land to a thriving ecosystem at an accelerated rate.

Build a swale to direct water underground

water we dispose of that comes from areas that usually don’t involve biological waste contaminants, including water from your shower, bathroom sink, kitchen sink and washing machine. Section-off any food that comes in contact with the soil to swales higher than the gray water deposit. All of this requires only the effort to create and plant the swale system. Afterward, allow the rainwater, land grade and the natural succession of the plant system to do the work. Little effort or maintenance is needed.

3) REUSE IT.

You might find that after digging swales to collect and channel water you’re able to collect some runoff. You can reuse water that is spilling over the banks by digging a pond. Not only will a pond allow you to collect the balance of any runoff, but it creates an amazing habitat for many beneficial creatures. Reuse your gray water. With the exception of certain clothes, most of this water starts out as potable and then is only exposed to soaps and cleaners. While it’s no longer safe for drinking, it has many other beneficial uses. In areas where it’s needed, such as Arizona, they have finally created building codes that provide for the shower, sink and other gray water to fill the toilet and be used for sewage (black)water disposal. While it’s still illegal in many states and is governed through the permitting process, you can easily and legally use the gray water from your washing machine and collect it for your garden. Look on the back of your A swale has far more uses than trapping water. Planting machine and you’ll see what’s usually a black flexible hose coming off the trees and other large rooting, long-living plants on the lower bank takes advanwasher and into the wall. That’s a drain. All the water from the multiple tage of the newly moistened soil, filters the water itself and provides structural fills and drains of your washing machine is pumped out of this hose and integrity to the land. These trees and plants can be harvested. For instance, fruit down the drain. Take the option to use it by removing the hose and extrees, which have deep roots to provide structural integrity and water filtration, tending it to a collection bin. can produce fruit as the swale matures. As the swale habitat ages, other plants As long as you use all-natural washing machine soaps, your garden’s will have the opportunity to thrive, improving soil conditions even further. soil and root systems will turn that gray water into water that can be used Eventually, the bank will be so rich with life and the swale will provide enough on other crops. Don’t worry about leftover commerefficiency that the soil will begin storing the extra water cial detergents in your machine. Most use some form trapped below the swale and the hardpan as it travels Get in Touch of ammonia as a cleaning agent, which is quickly and downward with the grade. thegreengardengroup@gmail.com efficiently broken down into nitrogen for the plants. It’s You can improve the efficiency of a swale by filling it with not uncommon to see gray water being used to “green a mulch or compost, then mulch. Although this detracts Like my Instagram up” areas. from the physical area, the mulch will absorb a lot more Follow @DrScanderson_gT These examples are just a tiny speck of an insight into water. During rainfalls, the water penetrates the mulch a more holistic way of living. It creates more harmony gathering at the low point created by the swale, effectively by acknowledging that we are just one of many facets of a system of genius harvesting the water. The mulch or mulch and compost will continue to hold provided through nature. One of my favorite teachers, Max Myers, is one water long after a rainfall allowing the land to absorb and ultimately store even of the pioneers of intermingling the principles of permaculture and aquamore water. ponics. One of his book’s chapters has a title that perfectly expresses this If you’re using compost and mulch, you can plant some annuals into one side ethos: “Waste is a resource not to be wasted.” of the mixture so the swale itself produces food right away. The other side you Our ability to observe nature and create systems that mimic it is the can save for a walking path. foundation for a more productive, more colorful, higher-flavor, lower-cost, You can direct any gray water to a swale and take advantage of the complex lower-labor and lower-energy way of living. HAPPY GARDENING! root systems and regenerated soil to filter and clean the water. Gray water is the

2) USE IT.

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health & science

Growing Organic Keeping it organic has tremendous benefits. Growing your own or-

BY OREGON LEAF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR DR. SCOTT D. ROSE

Why sustainable agriculture matters in a time of chemicals

magazine. Beginning in the 1940s, Rodale provided the most informaganic garden in your backyard, shopping locally at the farmers market or tion about chemical-free farming methods and was heavily influential in visiting a farm and getting to know the farmer who grew your food, bendeveloping crucial organic production methods. efits yourself and the planet. Organic farming and food processing methBy the 1970s, increased environmental awareness and consumer deods support health for the people who eat them and for the planet. With mand fueled the growth of the organic industry. General agreement exthe use of proper crop rotations and organically derived soil enrichments isted on philosophical approaches, but no standards or regulations existand fertilizers, soil fertility is maintained and pests are controlled without ed in defining organic agriculture. Each state or certifying agent could introducing toxins to humans or the environment. This is in contrast to determine standards based on production practices and constraints in the over-farming of the soil in conventional agriculture, where only one their region. This decentralized approach prompted Congress to pass the or two crops are grown at a farm. Organic Foods Production Act in 1990 to develop a national standard Where there is less biodiversity, crops are more prone to the rapid for organic food and fiber production. National standards were not imspread of disease. Also, chemical fertilizers and pesticides often are used plemented under the OFPA until 2002. “Organic” then became a labelin mounting quantities with increasingly adverse environmental effects. ing term that indicates that food has been grown following the Organic One of the founders of organic farming was Lady Evelyn “Eve” Balfour, Foods Production Act. a British farmer who helped pioneer many production techniques central to the movement. In 1943, Balfour famously noted that “The criteria for All agricultural farms and products claiming to be organic must be a sustainable agriculture can be summed up in one word — permanence guaranteed by a U.S. Department of Agriculture-approved independent — which means adopting techniques that maintain soil fertility indefiagency and must meet the following guidelines: No application of pronitely, that utilize, as far as possible, only renewable resources; that do not hibited materials for three years prior to certification and thereafter while grossly pollute the environment; and that foster licensed; no genetically modified organisms or biological activity within the soil and throughirradiation (the Food and Drug Administration out the cycles of all the involved food chains.” has approved a variety of foods for irradiation Organic farming was known simply as farmin the United States, including beef, pork, crusing until the early 1920s. Later, synthetic pestaceans, fresh fruits, vegetables, lettuce, spinach, ticides for controlling pests, herbicides for conshellfish, poultry and seeds for sprouting (e.g., trolling weeds, fungicides for controlling fungal alfalfa sprouts); employ positive soil building, infections and large-scale growing operations conservation, manure management and crop were being introduced. rotation practices; provide outdoor access and The U.S. landscape of small, environmentalpasture for livestock; refrain from antibiotic ly friendly family farms began to morph into and hormone use in animals; sustain animals What’s In Your Basket? agribusinesses. But not all who succeeded gave on 100 percent organic feed; avoid contaminaup their green-conscious roots. J.I. Rodale is tion during processing, and keep records of all Consumer Reports suggests buying organic commonly regarded as the father of the modoperations. peaches, apples, sweet bell peppers, celery, ern organic farming movement, helped found Again, this was standard up until the 1920s. nectarines, strawberries, cherries, pears, grapes, the Rodale Research Institute, and started Remember the old saying? “Try organic food, spinach, lettuce and potatoes, otherwise they are highly susceptible to retaining harmful pesticides. or as our grandparents called it — food!” publishing Organic Farming and Gardening

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In some quarters,

organic is considered expensive and elitist. Organic food often does cost slightly more, on average, than conventionally grown food. However, society bears the cost of conventional agriculture due to crop subsidies, a governmental payout to farmers and agribusinesses using taxpayers’ dollars to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities and influence the cost and supply of such commodities. The cost to society is borne also in food-borne illnesses such as E. coli, antibiotic resistance, water pollution and other hidden costs to the environment. The choice really comes down to buying responsibly priced foods or buying irresponsibly priced foods. That huge pile of conventionally grown GMO Arctic apples that don’t bruise at the grocery store might cost less money, but with organically grown foods, the cost is upfront. The FDA approved GMO apples in March, along with six varieties of GMO potatoes that refuse to bruise. Organically grown foods might be the cheapest health insurance you can buy. Research findings are correlating environmental chemical exposures with autism, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and many cancers — no surprise, since 55 million tons of chemical fertilizer are used in the U.S. alone per year, and 5.6 billion pounds of chemical pesticides worldwide. Many of these chemical compounds are retained in the soil and food as residue that, when eaten, can bioaccumulate in the body. Organic food is one way to reduce exposure to these harmful chemicals. Organically grown food contains substantially higher levels of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals than conventionally grown food. Organic foods contain up to 69 percent more of certain antioxidants, including vitamin C, thanks mostly to the fertility of the soil, said Alyson Mitchell, an associate professor of food science and technology at the University of California-Davis.

Organically grown foods might be the cheapest health insurance you can buy. Research findings are correlating environmental chemical/pesticide exposure with autism, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and many cancers — no surprise when 55 million tons of chemical fertilizer are used in the U.S. annually alone. 5.6 billion pounds of chemical pesticides are used worldwide.

People You May Know

tHE ORGANIC PIONEER

The modern farmer

The small-big guy

Lady Evelyn Balfour (1898-1990), a British farmer and educator, and founding figure in the organic movement.

J.I. Rodale (1898-1971), influential agribusiness expert, helped develop organic growing methods in the 1940s and 1970s.

Joel Salatin (1957-) has become a national leader on small-farm high-volume growing from his fields in the Shenandoah Valley.

“With organic methods, the nitrogen present in composted soil is released slowly and therefore plants grow at a normal rate, with their nutrients in balance. Vegetables fertilized with conventional fertilizers grow very rapidly and allocate less energy to develop nutrients,” Mitchell explained. The more intense flavors in organic fruits and vegetables probably stem from two factors: The higher average levels of antioxidants and lower average crop yields. The high yields achieved today through chemical pesticide use on some crops have come at the expense of nutrition and taste. Joel Salatin of Polyface Farms in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley runs one of the most productive and sustainable small farms in the United States. He urges “relationship marketing” — people taking the trouble and expense to buy directly from the farmer. His approach is outlined in his book “Holy Cows and Hog Heaven: The Food Buyer’s Guide to Farm Friendly Food.” Salatin recommends local farms serving the nearby community, not organic food grown on a large scale to supply large grocers. This approach reduces fossil fuels burned in shipping. Fruits and vegetables typically travel up to as much as 1,500 miles to reach the end consumer. Community Supported Agriculture organizations are a locally based economic model for agriculture and food distribution. A CSA refers to a network or association of people that have pledged

to support one or more local farms, with growers and consumers sharing the risks and benefits of food production. CSA members pay at the onset of the growing season for a share of the anticipated harvest. Once harvesting begins, they periodically receive shares of produce. In addition to produce, some CSA services include farm products such as honey, eggs, dairy and meat. Some provide for contributions of labor in lieu of a portion of costs. With summer approaching, the farmers markets are opening up. Consider joining a CSA, visiting an organic farm or doing some relationship marketing by reaching out to the growers personally. Plant a garden and enjoy the pleasures of creating your own sustenance. It’s always best to buy organic meats and dairy products. At the very least, try organic food for three weeks and see what you taste and notice. Organic cooking can even be done on a budget — rice and beans are a cheap and easy way to start on this healthful journey. Planting, growing, harvesting and eating delicious organic food that you grew is an enriching experience. The Seattle Tilth is an excellent resource at seattletilth.org. Organic farming techniques are proving to be healthier for people and the planet. It is, in a way, a revival of past practices.

Dr. Scott D. Rose has written about Cannabis and health for years in the Northwest Leaf. He is an acupuncturist with a pain resolution clinic in the Crown Hill area of Seattle.

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BEHIND THE STRAIN

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GRANDPA LARRY With deep forest-green leaves, the formerly green- and orangehaired buds begin to shimmer with unmistakable violet hues that are deceptively rich in color.

BAG APPEAL & SMOKE REPORT This is one beautiful, chunky, dense bud. Bulky nugs display the

coveted “rainbow” look. The combination of evergreen and bright orange hairs is further accentuated by the dark purples that display the copious amount of trichomes. These blooms are definitely some of the most beautiful to be found on any shelf. Unlike other blooms with comparable looks and frost coverage, these flowers hit high and hard in the terp department. The danky Kush scent only dances momentarily on the senses before being overrun by a sweet and a bit of a sour Kush lemon candy fragrance that has a definitive Lysol and cleaner quality to it. Ground up and ready to roll, I get pungent redberry lemonade. Skunky, gassy, sour Kush flavors creep down my lungs and assume attack position as they explode with lung-busting expansion. Pillows of smoke pour from my mouth with such exquisite candied-lemon flavor that I cock my head to the side in curiosity. The flavor of these blooms is one of the most durable of any Kush variety I’ve sampled. Candied lemonheads and Lysol flavors stay bright and prevalent, giving way to a sour cucumber-melon taste. It’s rare that I come across Cannabis that has such potent and lasting flavors.

HOW IT GROWS these plants start a bit on the slow side, similar to many of the

BY OREGON LEAF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR DR. SCANDERSON

Pillows of smoke pour from my mouth with such exquisite candied-lemon flavor that I cock my head to the side in curiosity.

LINEAGE

The lemon Larry OG Kush cut is a coveted cutting that unites some of the best lemon and Kush flavors. Taking a powerhouse like that and adding to it can be a tricky endeavor, but this wonderful strain pulls it off. Although I selected a pheno that only showed up twice out of two packs, the search was worth it.

GENETICS: LARRY OG (LUMPSTATUS’ CUT) X GRAND DADDY PURPLE NO. 5 BREEDER:

DUNGEON VAULT GENETICS (ORIGINALLY BY GRAND DADDY PURPLE)

FLOWER TIME:

65-68 DAYS

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elite OGs. The pheno I selected for is slow to get started in the first two weeks, and compared to the others appears shorter, bushier and features more indica in its growth pattern. It sports a more uniform growth structure but it’s combined with deep, dark, three-blade leaves. She’s a medium feeder and responds very well to topping, creating a balanced and even pattern with little bending and training. In flower, she is also a bit slow to transition and doesn’t stretch much, a welcome change from other elite OGs. She can take flower formula and higher levels of P and C earlier than most Kush varieties. Like her speed in veg, she’s a slow and steady winner. You have to be patient with this strain because during her last 30 days, and especially the last two weeks, she really starts to flex. In fact, everything seemed rather average until those last three to four weeks. It’s at that point that she starts throwing triches out like an East Coast snowstorm, adding chunk and girth at an alarming rate. With deep forest-green leaves, the formerly green- and orange-haired buds begin to shimmer with unmistakable violet hues that are deceptively rich in color.

EFFECTS a nearly instant head change hits hard with a nicely balanced

hybrid effect. The clear and inspired feelings I’ve come to love from many a sativa-leaning Kush is an excellent daytime medicine or anytime when inspiration is needed. With flavors like these, Cannabis enthusiast may not even need a second helping. With one bowl, I experience my scalp morphing into a rushing river, complete with waterfalls cascading behind my ears. It’s a gentle reminder of the indica heritage that makes this an exceptionally well-balanced medicine.

PHOTO BY SEEDFINDER.ORG


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Oregon Leaf - May 2015  

The Concentrates Issue! Our in-depth guide to everything dabbing, extracting, and producing concentrates — plus features on the changing law...

Oregon Leaf - May 2015  

The Concentrates Issue! Our in-depth guide to everything dabbing, extracting, and producing concentrates — plus features on the changing law...

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