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Northwestern Undergraduate

nurj NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

The Skinny on Stress

Effect of maternal stress on birth weight PAGE 7

Research Journal

Northwestern University • Evanston, Illinois

Volume 5 • 2009 - 2010


NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL NORTHWESTER

4

FEATURE

  

6 7

FEATURE

 

ANTHROPOLOGY

  

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BIOLOGY

    



18

SLAVIC STUDIES/HISTORY

    

26

ANTHROPOLOGY

  

33

CIVIL ENGINEERING

  

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STAFF INFORMATION LETTER FROM THE EDITORS LETTER OF CORRECTION


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to express gratitude and appreciation to all of those who contributed to our endeavors. Without their support, we would be unable to produce the 2009 Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal (NURJ). First, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to Provost Ronald R. Braeutigam and the Office of the Provost for their generous financial backing, without which this publication would not be possible. We are especially appreciative of our faculty advisor, Professor Allen Taflove of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, for his constant enthusiasm and interest in making NURJ the utmost success. We would like to thank Kyle Delaney, Assistant Director of Marketing and External Communications at the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, for giving us logistical guidance and support during the publication process. We would also like to thank the Graphic Arts Studio for their quality print job and willingness to work closely with us during the publication process. In addition, we would like to thank Dr. Christopher Hayden for all his support and contributions to NURJ. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the members of the Faculty and Student Review Board for contributing their time and expertise to maintaining the quality and integrity of the 2009 Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal.

 NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL VOLUME FIVE

STAFF

STUDENT REVIEW BOARD

NURJ OFFICE

E-MAIL NORTHWESTERN.URJ@GMAIL.COM

ONLINE PUBLICATION HTTP://WWW.NURJ.ORG

       

          

GRAPHICS AND LAYOUT DESIGN

2009 - 2010        

   

FACULTY REVIEW BOARD

PUBLISHER TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE ROOM M471 2145 SHERIDAN ROAD EVANSTON, IL 60208

 

             


   

 



    



    



      

Danwen Song Editor-in-Chief

Sara Dubbury Co-Editor-in-Chief

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

3


FEATURE

Economic Stimulus Means More Opportunity, More Research for NU JESSICA GOTTESMAN

D

                            

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


FEATURE                                 

VOLUME 4, MAY 2008

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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FEATURE Breast Cancer and Early Development NOEL SLESINGER

T

                                           

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


RESEARCH The Skinny on Stress: Maternal Psychosocial Stress and Birth Weight in the Philippines LDEPARTMENT AURA M. ROGERS OF ANTHROPOLOGY THOMAS MCDADE FACULTY ADVISOR, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

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Low birth weight is a major cause of perinatal mortality and childhood morbidity and it has also been found to increase disease risk in adulthood and decrease fecundity. Despite previous birth weight research and nutritional intervention programs, the proportion of the world’s low birth weight infants has changed little in the past 30 years (Phung et al., 2003). The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of maternal psychosocial stress on birth weight in a large population-based cohort of Filipino women and their infants (n=2891). Measures of maternal psychosocial stress from economic stressors, life event stressors, home stressors and work stressors were collected during pregnancy. These stress measurements were combined to create a continuous measurement of maternal psychosocial stress, ranging from 0 stressors to 8 stressors, which was used to predict infant birth weight. After accounting for alternate variables that influence birth weight, each psychosocial stressor that mothers suffered during pregnancy was found to decrease their infants’ birth weights by 27 grams and increase the likelihood of low birth weight classification by 15%. These findings suggest an effect of maternal psychological health on birth weight.

INTRODUCTION

                     

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

                       

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH              

MATERIALS AND METHODS           

                       

RESULTS                            

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                            


RESEARCH                    

Nordentoft M, Lou HC, Hansen D, Nim J, Pryds O, Rubin P, Hemmingsen R. 1996. Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Premature Delivery: the Influence of Maternal Smoking and Psychosocial Factors. American Journal of Public Health 86: 347-54. Ogden CL, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. 2004. Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States 1960-2002. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics 347. Phung H, Bauman A, Nguyen TV, Young L, Tran M, Hillman K. 2003. Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight in a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Population: Parity, Marital Status, Ethnicity and Cigarette Smoking. European Journal of Epidemiology 18: 235-243. Pike, IL. 2005. Maternal Stress and Fetal Responses: Evolutionary Perspectives on Preterm Delivery. American Journal of Human Biology 17: 55-65. Pritchard CW, Mfphm TPYK. 2002. Preterm Birth, Low Birthweight and the Stressfullness of the Household Role for Pregnant Women. Social Science and Medicine 38: 89-96. Roberts EM. 1997. Neighborhood Social Environments and the Distribution of Low Birth Weight in Chicago. American Journal of Public Health 87: 597-603. Rondo PHC, Ferreira RF, Nogueira F, Ribeiro MCN, Lobert H, Artes R. 2003. Maternal Psychological Stress and distress as predictors of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57: 266-272. Thame M, Wilks RJ, McFarlane-Anderson N, Bennett FI, Forrester TE. 1997. Relationship between maternal nutritional status and infant’s weight and body proportions at birth. Europe Jrnl of Clin Nutri 51: 134-138.

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RESEARCH Examining the effects of predator exclusion structures associated with geoduck aquaculture on mobile benthic macrofauna in South Puget Sound, Washington

RDEPARTMENT ACHEL SMITH OF BIOLOGY P. SEAN MCDONALD FACULTY ADVISOR, SCHOOL OF AQUATIC AND FISHERY SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH EXPERIENCES FOR UNDERGRADUATES PROGRAM, SHANNON POINT MARINE CENTER, ANACORTES, WASHINGTON

T

Intertidal aquaculture of geoduck clams (Panopea abrupta) is a rapidly expanding industry in Puget Sound, Washington, yet little is known about the ecological impacts of disturbances associated with geoduck operations. This study examined the effects of predator exclusion structures associated with geoduck aquaculture on mobile benthic macrofauna in South Puget Sound, Washington. Species abundance and diversity were assessed on both structured and unstructured habitats; surveys revealed significantly more graceful crab (Cancer gracilis) on unstructured habitats, and significantly more Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) on structured habitats. Dietary patterns of L. armatus occupying both habitats were evaluated in relation to tide level. Stomachs of L. armatus were significantly more full on ebbing than flooding tides for both habitats, suggesting that sculpin migrate into intertidal areas to forage. However, results for small sculpin (52-81 mm TL) were equivocal, and these fish may use the complex structured habitat for refuge in addition to foraging. A significant difference in prey composition was observed between habitats, which is attributed to increased variability of prey on the structured habitat. Infaunal polychaetes were the main prey in unstructured habitats, while sculpin consumed more epibenthic gammarids in structured habitats. Predator exclusion structures used in geoduck aquaculture appear to alter the composition of macrofaunal communities relative to unstructured areas and affect the dietary patterns of L. armatus.

INTRODUCTION

                    

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

                       NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

Figure 1. Map of sampling locations in South Puget Sound, WA. Locations of sampling sites are indicated. Trapping surveys were performed at Butson, Lev, and Scarf sites, and Cancer gracilis and Leptocottus armatus samples for diet analysis were taken exclusively from the Butson site.

                 

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

  

MATERIALS AND METHODS           


RESEARCH                                

               

RESULTS               

Mean Catch per Trap on Structured and Unstructured Habitats 60

Mean Catch per Trap

50 Species 40

C. C.ggracilis L.L.aarmatus

30

C. C.aaggregata 20

C. C.ssordidus

10

Figure 2. Mean catch per trap across habitats. Mean catch per trap for species graceful crab Cancer gracilis, Pacific staghorn sculpin Leptocottus armatus, shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata, and Pacific sand dab Citharichthys sordidus on both structured (PVC tube + net) and unstructured (bare substrate) habitats. For both C. gracilis and L. armatus, differences in habitat were significant (P < 0.001).

0

Structured (PVC tube + net)

Unstructured (bare sediment)

Habitat

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH a) Figure 3. Leptocottus armatus stomach fullness across habitats with changing tides. Standardized weight (mg prey per grams fish) for L. armatus stomach contents on structured and unstructured habitats with both the flood and ebb tides. a) pooled data, b) large fish (82-147 mm), and c) small fish (52-81 mm).

b)

c)

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


RESEARCH                             

 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS                        

Figure 4. Percent Index of Relative Importance for large and small Leptocottus armatus across habitats. Percent IRI for 13 major prey categories of large and small L. armatus on structured and unstructured habitats.

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

15


RESEARCH                                                         

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        

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS           

E NDNOTES 1. Straus K.M.; Crosson L.M.; Vadopalas B. “Effects of Geoduck Aquaculture on the Environment: A Synthesis of Current Knowaledge.” Washington Sea Grant. 2008. 2. Gordon D. “Geoduck Studies: Washington Sea Grant Coordinates Effort to Understand What’s at Stake”. Sea Star. University of Washington, Washington Sea Grant. 2007. 3. Dubois S; Marin-Léal J.C.; Ropert M; Lefebvre S. “Effects of oyster farming on macrofaunal assemblages associated with Lanice conchilega tubeworm populations: A trophic analysis using natural stable isotopes.” Aquaculture. 2007, 271: 336-349. 4. Crawford C.M.; Macleod C.K.A.; Mitchell I.M.; “Effects of shellfish farming on the benthic environment.” Aquaculture. 2003, 224: 117-140. 5. Inglis G.J.; Gust N. “Potential indirect effects of shellfish culture on the reproductive success of benthic predators.” Journal of Applied Ecology. 2003, 40: 1077-1089. 6. Bulleri F; Chapman M.G.“Intertidal assemblages on artificial and natural habitats in marinas on the north-west coast of Italy.” Marine Biology. 2004, 145: 381-391. 7. Bacchiocchi F; Airoldi L. “Distribution and dynamics of epibiota on hard structures for coastal protection.” Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science. 2003, 56: 1157-1166. 8. VanBlaricom G.R.; Cornwell J.C.; Newell R.I.; Armstrong D.A.; Essington T.E. “Geochemical and ecological consequences of disturbances associated with geoduck aquaculture operations in Washington.” Washington Sea Grant. 2007. 9. Holsman K.K.; McDonald P.S.; Armstrong D. “Intertidal migration and habitat use by subadult Dungeness crab Cancer magister in a Northeast Pacific estuary.” Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2006, 308: 183-195. 10. Jones A.C. “The biology of the euryhaline fish Leptocottus armatus Girard (Cottidae).” University of California Publications in Zoology. 1962, 67: 321-367.


RESEARCH 11. Hart J.L. “Pacific fishes of Canada.” Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin. 1974, 180, 740 p. 12. Dinnel P.A.; Armstrong D.A.; McMillan R.O.; “Evidence for multiple recruitment-cohorts of Puget Sound Dungeness crab, Cancer magister. Marine Biology. 1992, 115: 53-63. 13. Armstrong J; Armstrong D; Mathews S. “Food habits of estuarine staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus, with focus on consumption of juvenile Dungeness crab, Cancer magister.” Fishery Bulletin. 1995, 93: 456-470. 14. Redekopp R. “Intertidal migration, habitat use, and feeding ecology of Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus.” Capstone Report, University of Washington, School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences, Seattle WA, 2006, pg 178. 15. Gibson R.N. “Go with the flow: tidal migration in marine animals.” Hydrobiologia. 2003, 503:153-161. 16. Holsman K.K. “Structural Complexity Associated with Habitat Created by Autogenic Ecosystem Engineers Shapes the Littoral Ecology of a Mobile Benthic Predator, Cancer magister, in Willipa Bay, Washington.” PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences, Seattle WA, 2006. 17. Iribarne O; Armstrong D; Fernandez M. “Environmental impact of intertidal juvenile Dungeness crab habitat enhancement: effects on bivalves and crab foraging rate.” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 1995, 192: 173-194. 18. Dealteris J.T.; Kilpatrick B.D.; Rheault R.B. “A comparative evaluation of the habitat value of shellfish aquaculture gear, submerged aquatic vegetation and a non-vegetated seabed.” Journal of Shellfish Research. 2004, 23(3): 867-874. 19. Rodney W.S.; Paynter K.T. “Comparisons of macrofaunal assemblages on restored and non-restored oyster reefs in mesohaline regions of Chesapeake Bay in Maryland.” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 2006, 335: 39-51. 20. Tallman J.C.; Forrester G.E. “Oyster Grow-Out Cages Function as Artificial Reefs for Temperate Fishes.” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 2007, 136: 790-799.

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RESEARCH Interactions Along the Fault Lines of Civilizations; Investigating Literary Transitions and Legacies in Russian Accounts of the Caucasian Conquest (1817-1864) MICHAEL M ARSH-SOLOWAY DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

JOHN BUSHNELL FACULTY ADVISOR, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

GARY SAUL MORSON FACULTY ADVISOR, DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

BRADLEY ZAKARIN SEMINAR INSTRUCTOR, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY, NORTHWESTERN

T

My project extends the arguments of Susan Layton’s 1995 book Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy. While Layton explores how literature of the Caucasian conquest helped shaped conceptions of Russian nationality and statehood, this paper probes the corollary influences of the war on literature and its associated criticism. Textual presentations of the Caucasian theater contributed to the rise of a literary perspective that emphasized individual consciousness and experiential authenticity within the dynamic progression of the conquest from 1817 to 1864. By contesting fanciful Caucasian storytelling traditions, these innovative narrative methods opposed established conventions of romanticism affirming instead emerging tenets of realism. How then did Russian authors experience the Caucasus and how did they convey their impressions to Russia’s educated elite? What sentiments did writers express and how did their convictions serve to inspire more objective portrayals of the character’s unique deliberations within his complex environments? This paper accordingly examines primary source literary accounts of the conquest to investigate how narrative developments evolved within their simultaneously changing historical contexts. While these works illustrate the remarkable artistic imaginations of Alexander Pushkin, Alexander BestuzhevMarlinsky, and Mikhail Lermontov, they additionally demonstrate cumulatively momentous transitions of descriptive procedure and form. While these three authors subscribed to numerous and even opposing writing traditions, the sum succession and consequences of their Caucasian works promoted a critical legacy that endorsed realism as a preeminent literary style of modernity.

               

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                


RESEARCH                                                          VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

                                                        NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

19


RESEARCH                                                         

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                                         


RESEARCH                                                         VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

                          

                        NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH                                                        

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                                     


RESEARCH    

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                             

5. Said, Edward W. Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 32-37. See also Foucault, Michel et al. Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucalt (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988), 9-31. 6. Fischer, Olga; Nänny, Max. “Introduction: Veni, Vidi, Vici” to The Motivated Sign: Iconicity in Language and Literature 2 (Amsterdam: John Benjamin’s Publishing, 2001), 1-2. 7. Ibid. See also Shriver, Donald W., Jr. Honest Patriots Loving a Country Enough to Remember Its Misdeeds (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 232-233.

8. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 1. 9. Ibid. 10. Ibid. 1-12. 11. Todd, William Mills, III. Fiction and Society in the Age of Pushkin. Ideology, Institutions and Narrative (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986), 100. See also Brooks, Jeffrey. When Russia Learned to Read. Literacy and Popular Literature 1861-1917 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985), 1-32, 141-146, 207-209. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 11, 297. Hear also Weil, Irwin. Classics of Russian Literature, CD audio recordings (Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 2006), Lectures 6-12.

12. Said, Edward W. Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 31-49. See also Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (London: Routledge, 1992), 6-7. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995),15, 298.

13. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 1. See also Fisher, Alan W. The Crimean Tatars (New York: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 58.

14. Semin, G. Sevastopol’: Istoricheskii Ocherk (Moscow: Voennoe izdatel’stvo, 1955), 24. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 1, 295. See also O'Malley, Lurana Donnels. The Dramatic Works of Catherine the Great: Theatre And Politics in Eighteenth-Century Russia (Grand Rapids: Ashgate, 2006), 72.

15. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 1-2.

A UTHOR ’S N OTE This article is a portion of the Senior Interdisciplinary Honors Thesis Paper. Research began in August of 2008 with a Weinberg College Summer Research Grant.

16. Terras, Victor. Handbook of Russian Literature (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), 248-250 349, 356-361, 475-479. 17. Ram, Harsha. The Imperial Sublime: A Russian Poetics of Empire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 6. See also Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 15, 16, 21.

E NDNOTES i

Auls: Caucasian hilltop communities

R EFERENCES 1. Blanch, Lesley. Sabres of Paradise: Conquest and Vengeance in the Caucasus (London: L.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2004), x. 2. Luzbetak, Louis J. Marriage and the Family in Caucasia (Vienna-Modling: St. Gabriel’s Mission Press, 1951), 1-5. 3. Ibid. 4. Burbank, Jane; Von Hagen, Mark; Remnev, A.V. Russian Empire: Space, People, Power, 1700-1930 (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies: Indiana University Press, 2007), 240, 257.

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18. Ibid. 19. Viazemskii, P.A. Russkaia kriticheskaia literatura o proizvedeniiakh A.S. Pushkina. Khronologicheskii sbornik kritiko-bibliograficheskikh statei, vol. 1, compiled by V. Zelinskii, (Moscow: E. Lissner and Iu. Roman, 1887), 102. For other reviews, see also 87, 91-92. See also Viazemskii, P.A. Staraia zapisnaia knizhka (Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo pisatelei, 1929), 161. See also Belinskii, V.G. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 7 (Moscow: Akademiia Nauk, 1953-59), 372-380. As cited Susan Layton, Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 16, 27, 298, 301-302.

20. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 29. 21. Allen, Elizabeth Cheresh. Beyond Realism Turgenev's Poetics of Secular Salvation (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992), 15-16.

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RESEARCH 22. Ibid. See also Levin, Harry. The Gates of Horn; A Study of Five Realists (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966), 13.

38. Nikitenko, A.V. “Entry on January 24, 1826” in Diary of a Russian Censor, trans. and ed. Helen Saltz Jacobson (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1975), 4-5.

23. Levine, George. The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction From Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 11.

39. Müller, Beate. Censorship & Cultural Regulation in the Modern Age (New York: Rodopi, 2004), 5, 29.

24. Fanger, Donald. Dostoevsky and Romantic Realism: a Study of Dostoevsky in Relation to Balzac, Dickens, and Gogol (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1998), x.

See also Losev, Lev. On the Beneficence of Censorship: Aesopian Language in Modern Russian Literature (Munich: Otto Sagner, 1984), x.

See also Allen, Elizabeth Cheresh. Beyond Realism Turgenev's Poetics of Secular Salvation (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992), 17.

25. Zhirmunskii, V.M. Bairon I Pushkin (1924; Reprint. Leningrad: Nauka, 1978), 28-29, 43-48, 292-331. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 17, 298.

26. Mckean, Erin. "Romanticism," in The New Oxford American Dictionary 2nd ed., (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 1471. See Also: Berlin, Isaiah. The Roots of Romanticism, ed. Henry Hardy (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001), 18.

27. D.S. Likhachev. The National Nature of Russian History (New York: Harriman Institute, Columbia University Press, 1990), 18. See Also: Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 12.

28. Belinskii, V.G. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. Moscow: Akademiia nauk, 1953-59, vol. 8, 376-377. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 15, 298.

29. Carmichael, Joel. A Cultural History of Russia (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968), 131.

41. Ibid. 42. Ermarth, Elizabeth Deeds. Preface to Realism and Consensus in the English Novel, xv- xxv, 2nd ed. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998), xxi. See also Stern, J. P. On Realism (London: Routledge, 1973), 113-142.

43. Pawson Ray; Tilley, Nick. Realistic Evaluation (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1997), xiii, 8, 12, 16. 44. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 90. 45. Pushkin, A. S. Kavkazskii plennik in Sobranie sochinenii v desiati tomakh (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1960), vol.3, 90. As cited in Sandler, Stephanie. Distant Pleasures Alexander Pushkin and the Writing of Exile (Stanford, Calif: Stanford UP, 1989), 149.

46. Said, Edward W. Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 32-37. See also Foucault, Michel et al., Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucalt (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988), 9-31.

47. Pushkin, A. S., Kavkazskii plennik, Sobranie sochinenii v desiati tomakh (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1960), vol.3, 91-92.

See also: Kennan, George. Vagabond Life: the Caucasus Journals of George Kennan (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003), 222.

As cited in Sandler, Stephanie. Distant Pleasures Alexander Pushkin and the Writing of Exile (Stanford, Calif: Stanford UP, 1989), 151.

30. Butor, Michel. "Traveling and Writing," Trans. John Powers and K. Lisker, Mosaic 8 (Fall 1974), 1-3.

48. Sandler, Stephanie. Distant Pleasures Alexander Pushkin and the Writing of Exile (Stanford, Calif: Stanford UP, 1989), 158.

As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 23, 27. See also Brückner, Aleksander. Literary History of Russia, ed. Ellis H. Minns, trans. H. Havelock (London: T.F. Unwin, 1908), 240.

31. Saburov, Ia. I. Poezdka v Saratov, Astrakhan I na Kavkaz, Moskovshii Nabliudatel’ (May 1835): kn.2, ch. II, 176-177. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 24, 300.

32. Ibid. 33. Ram, Harsha. The Imperial Sublime: A Russian Poetics of Empire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 250-251. 34. Zhukovskii, V.A. “v Voeikov” in Izbrannoe (Leningrad: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1954), 70. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 41, 303.

35. Belinskii, V.G. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 9 (Moscow: Akademiia Nauk, 1953-59), 241-299. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 38.

36. Terras, Victor. Handbook of Russian Literature (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), 74-76. See also Senelick, Laurence. National Theatre in Northern and Eastern Europe, 17461900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.), 335.

37. Ibid. See also: Nabokov, V. V. Lectures on Russian Literature (New York: Harvest Books, 2002). 1-12. See also Riasanovsky, N.V. Russian Identities a Historical Survey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 127, 133-137, 148.

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40. Berlin, Isaiah. The Hedgehog and the Fox: an Essay on Tolstoy’s View of History (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee Inc., 1993), 12.

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49. Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 90. 50. Pushkin v vospminaniaakh I rasskazakh sovermennikov, ed. S. Ia. Gessen (Leningrad: GIKhL, 1936). Pp 611-12, n. 238. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 7.

51. Pushkin v vospminaniaakh I rasskazakh sovermennikov, ed. S. Ia. Gessen (Leningrad: GIKhL, 1936). Pp 611-12, n. 238. See Also: Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 7.

52. Pushkin, A. S. Kavkazskii plennik, Sobranie sochinenii v desiati tomakh (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1960), vol.3, chast. 1, 468 Epilogue. As cited in Ram, Harsha. The Imperial Sublime: A Russian Poetics of Empire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 194.

53. Ram, Harsha. The Imperial Sublime: A Russian Poetics of Empire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 11. 54. Horowitz, Brian. Myth of A.S. Pushkin in Russia’s Silver Age (Evanston, Northwestern UP, 1996, 34). See also Powelstock, David. Becoming Mikhail Lermontov: The Ironies of Romantic Individualist and Nicholas I’s Russia (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2005), 22.

55. Besthushev-Marlinskii, Alexander. Sochineniia, vol. II, pp. 8-59. See Also: Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 111-113.

56. Austin, Paul M. Exotic prisoner in Russian Romanticism. New York: Peter Lang, 1997, 1-15. 57. Leighton, Lauren G. Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1975), 7.


RESEARCH 58. Bagby, Lewis. Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky and Russian Byronism (New York: Pennsylvania State UP, 1995), 3. 59. Golstein, Vladimir. Lermontov’s Narratives of Heroism (Evanston: Northwestern UP, 1998), 134. See Also: Bagby, Lewis. Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky and Russian Byronism (New York: Pennsylvania State UP, 1995), 5, 78-79, 1995.

60. Ram, Harsha. The Imperial Sublime: A Russian Poetics of Empire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 9. See also Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 16, 21.

61. [Bestuzhev-] Marlinskii, A. A. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 3rd edn., (St. Petersburg, III Otdelenie, 1838-1839), vol. 10, 20. See also Bagby, Lewis. Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky and Russian Byronism (New York: Pennsylvania State UP, 1995), 342. As cited in Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 112, 315.

62. Belinskii, A.A. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii (Moscow: Akademiia nauk, 1953-1959), vol. 8, 231-32. As cited in Susan Layton, Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995),115-116, 316.

63. Ibid. See also Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 115-116, 316.

64. Ram, Harsha. The Imperial Sublime: A Russian Poetics of Empire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 9. 65. Lermotov, M.I. Izmail-Bey, Sobranie Scohinenii, vol. II, 247. For More on Auls: See Tolstoy, Leo, and John Bayley. Tolstoy’s Collected Shorter Fiction: The Raid. Trans. Louise Maude, Aylmer Maude, and Nigel J. Cooper. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Everyman, 2001. 1-35. See Also: Layton, Susan. Russian Literature and Empire: Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 142.

66. Lermontov, M.I. Hero of our time. London, Eng: Penguin Books, 2001. 1,43. 67. Jones, Gareth. Tolstoi and Britain. Oxford: Berg Publishing, 1995. 2

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RESEARCH A Well-Baby Checkup - A Ghanaian Perspective: Maternal Factors and Childhood Health SDEPARTMENT ARAH MIHALOV OF ANTHROPOLOGY THOMAS MCDADE FACULTY ADVISOR, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

F

Poor nutritional status during childhood has major effects on long-term health. In the setting of rural Ghana, childhood malnutrition is prevalent, despite the fact proper nutrition guidelines have been incorporated into intervention programs. Thus, barriers may be preventing mothers from using their nutritional knowledge to make healthy decisions in the household. This study assesses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors affecting it as seen in a sample of Ghanaian women and their children aged 3-24 months (n=33). Anthropometric measurements were collected on the children and interviews were conducted with the mothers. Analysis found that malnourished children were more likely to be the offspring of mothers who were married (p=0.012) and lacked national health insurance (p=0.176). Low maternal nutritional knowledge was not significantly related to low child nutritional status (p=0.221), however a statistical trend was visible. Because marital status was related to other variables including nutritional knowledge (p=0.040) and number of people in the home (p=0.201), it is possible that relationships in the home are a barrier to childhood health. Efforts to improve the home dynamics and increase the use of national health insurance may decrease the level of childhood malnutrition in this setting.

INTRODUCTION

                         

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                          


RESEARCH                                       Figure.

                  

MATERIALS AND METHODS               

Maternal Nutritional Knowledge Scale

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

27


RESEARCH

Table 1.

Characteristics of mothers and their children.

                           

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                

RESULTS         


RESEARCH                     

Table 2.

Table 3.

                      

Nutrition: Chi-Squared Test Results (p-values)

Marital Status: Chi-Squared Test (p-values)

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Table 4.

Decision-Making: Chi-Squared p-values

Table 5.

NHIS: Chi-Squared p-values

                   

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

   

               


RESEARCH            

DISCUSSION                                           VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

                                                   

CONCLUSION   NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH           

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS           

A UTHOR ’S N OTE This article is a shorter version of a larger piece that is being written for an Anthropology Senior Honors Thesis.

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10. Tolhurst, R., Amekudzi, Y., Nyonator, F., Bertel Squire, S., Theobald, S (2007). “He will ask why the child gets sick so often:” The gendered dynamics of intra-houshold bargaining over healthcare for children with fever in the Volta Region of Ghana. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1106-1117. 11. Gibson, RS. (1990). Anthropometric Assessment of Growth. Principles of Nutritional Assesment. Oxford. 12. World Health Organization Multi-center Growth Reference Study Group: WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-age, Weight-for-age, Weight-for-length, Weight-for-height and Body mass index-for-age: Methods and Development. In World Health Organization, Geneva; 2006. 13. Wahab, Hassan. (2008). Universal Healthcare Coverage: Assessing the Implementation of Ghana’s NHIS Law. Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis Mini-Conference. April 2008: Indiana University. 14. Fantahun, M., Berhande, Y., Wall, S., Byass, P., Hogberg, U. (2007). Women’s involvement in household decision-making and strengthening social capital- crucial factors for child survival in Ethiopia. Acta Paediatrica, 96: 582-589.


RESEARCH An Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Urban Passenger Transportation BDEPARTMENT RENDAN HIGGINS OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

JOSEPH SCHOFER

MENTOR, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

I

The goal of this research was to determine which modes, drive systems, and fuels produce the lowest CO2 emissions per passenger-mile in urban passenger transportation. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET model as well as real world fuel economy data, carbon dioxide emissions were determined for each transportation pathway (combination of mode, drive system, and fuel). The results show that the transit bus mode had slightly higher carbon dioxide emissions per passenger-mile than the automobile mode. The drive system results show that hybrid drive systems and electric vehicles both offered a 30% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to vehicles that use conventional combustion engine technology. Plug-in hybrids released slightly more carbon dioxide emissions than standard gasoline hybrids while hydrogen fuel cell emissions were heavily dependent on the source of the hydrogen. Biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol and B100 biodiesel had the lowest carbon dioxide emissions of any fuel. The results provided a sense of what technologies offer the greatest reductions in carbon dioxide emissions but this information should be used with caution. Many other factors such as cost, system scalability, and consumer preference play a critical role in the viability of each transportation pathway.

1. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE

                        

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

                  

2. METHODOLOGY       NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH             

3. MODES       

               

4. DRIVE SYSTEMS 

5. FUELS 

        Table 1.

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Drive Systems

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

       


RESEARCH                Table 2. Fuels          

Figure 1.

                         

Emissions per MJ of fuel energy, *Fuel measured in gallons at 3000 psi, **Fuel measured in KW-h

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH                                  Figure 2.

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                       

6. COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE VEHICLE RESULTS         

U.S. feedstocks for electricity production as projected by GREET model for the year 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


RESEARCH

Table 3.

Commercially available vehicles used in the analysis

                                   

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

            

7. NON-COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE VEHICLE RESULTS

                       

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RESEARCH Figure 3. Carbon dioxide emissions comparison among buses from NYCT (New York City Transit) and CTA (Chicago Transit Authority). *Vehicle is not currently offered in this drive system/ fuel combination.

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RESEARCH Figure 4. Carbon dioxide emissions from an SUV (Chevrolet Tahoe), and 2 Sedans (Toyota Camry and Volkswagen Jetta). *Vehicle is not currently offered in this drive system/ fuel combination.

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

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Table 4.

Non-commercially available vehicles used in analysis

Figure 5. Theoretical carbon dioxide emissions for non-commercially available vehicles. “Grid Mode” driving indicates that the vehicle is running off of a battery that has been charged by grid supplied electricity.

   

8. CONCLUSIONS    

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RESEARCH                             

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS      

(Chester, 2008) Chester, Mikhail, Arpad Horvath. March, 2008. “Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail, and Air.” UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport. (CTA, 2008a) Chicago Transit Authority. 6/17/2008. “CTA to Evaluate BatteryPowered Hybrid Electric Bus.” http://www.transitchicago.com/news/ default.aspx?ArticleId=134 (Accessed 11/8/2008) (CTA, 2008b) Chicago Transit Authority. 3/19/2008. “CTA Takes Action to Stem Rising Fuel Costs.” http://www.transitchicago.com/news/default. aspx?Archive=y&pg=6&All=y&ArticleId=227 (Accessed 12/2/2008) (Davis, 2006) Davis, Stacy C., Susan W. Diegel. 2006. “Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (DOE, 2008b) US Department of Energy Hydrogen Program. November, 2008. “Hydrogen Production.” http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/doe_h2_production.pdf (Accessed 1/17/2009) (EERE, 2008b) US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 12/15/2008. “Natural Gas Reforming.” http://www1.eere.energy. gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/production/natural_gas.html (Accessed 1/17/2009) (EIA, 2008a) US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. December 2008. “Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Report.” http://www.eia. doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/carbon.html (Accessed 12/20/2008) (EIA, 2008c) US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. October 22, 2008. “Net Generation by Energy Source by Type of Producer.” http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat1p1.html (Accessed 11/12/2008) (EPA, 2008) Environmental Protection Agency. December 2008. “Detailed Test Information.” http://www.fueleconomy.gov/FEG/fe_test_schedules. shtml (Accessed 12/28/2008) (IPCC, 2007) Summary for Policymakers. Page 10. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. (Ivy, 2004) Ivy, Johanna. September, 2004. “Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory. http://www.nrel. gov/hydrogen/pdfs/36734.pdf (Accessed 1/17/2009)

 

(NRDC, 2006) National Resources Defense Council and Climate Solutions. February 2006. “Ethanol: Energy Well Spent, A Survey of Studies Published Since 1990.”

A UTHOR ’S N OTE

(Puchalksy, 2005) Puchalksy, Christopher. January 2005. Transportation Research Record. “Comparison of Emissions from Light Rail Transit and Bus Rapid Transit.” http://www.innerpurpleline.org/LRT%20vs%20BRT%20 emmissions.pdf (Accessed 4/15/09)

This article is originally a Civil Engineering 399 Independent Research Project.

R EFERENCES (ANL, 2008) Argonne National Laboratory. 2008. GREET Model 1.8b. (Chandler, 2006) Chandler, K., E. Eberts, L. Eudy. January 2006. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results.”

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   



           

Danwen Song Editor-in-Chief

Sara Dubbury Co-Editor-in-Chief

VOLUME 5, 2009 - 2010

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

42

Profile for Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal (NURJ)

2009-2010 Issue  

Volume 5

2009-2010 Issue  

Volume 5

Profile for nurj
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