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STILL I’m not a Racist, but...

2ND Report on Cultural Respect, Racial Discrimination, Lateral Violence & related Policy at Australia’s Universities published by NATIONAL ABORIGINAL & TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER UNIT OF National Tertiary Education Union

www.nteu.org.au/atsi october 2018


Contents Introduction Methodology NTEU Branch Survey Sample Indicators NTEU A&TSI Members Survey Sample Indicators Executive Summary Branch Survey University Policies: Anti-Racism, Anti-Discrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity Policy Review Mechanisms Equal Employment Opportunity Officers Members Survey Racial Discrimination in Australian society Cultural Respect in the Workplace Racial Discrimination in the Workplace Lateral Violence in the Workplace Recommendations Branch Survey: Detailed Findings Introduction Detailed Findings Member Survey: Detailed Findings Introduction Detailed Findings Section 1 – Racism and Discrimination in Australia Section 2 – Cultural Respect in the Workplace Section 3 – Racial Discrimination in the Workplace Section 4 – Lateral Violence in the Workplace Recommendations from the Surveys Acknowledgements References Attachments Attachment 1: Responses to Question 1.4 Attachment 2: Responses to Question 2.3 Attachment 3: Responses to Question 3.3 Attachment 4: Responses to Question 4.3 I’m Still Not A Racist, But... © NTEU 2018. All rights reserved. ISBN 978-0-9806500-5-1 Published by National Tertiary Education Union, PO Box 1323, Sth Melbourne VIC 3205 Australia Ph +61 3 9254 1910 national@nteu.org.au Available online as a PDF and e-book at www.nteu.org.au/atsi/publications 2

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Introduction In May 2018 the National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy Committee (A&TSIPC) undertook a process to again determine the levels of racial discrimination, cultural respect and lateral violence in both society and the workplace. This project was undertaken as a follow-up to the 2011 ‘I’m not a racist, but…’ 1 report, with a view to gauge the levels of racism, discrimination and lateral violence amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander union members today and to compare findings from the 2011 report to the 2018 survey findings. In 2011, the initial report detailed that racism, discrimination and lateral violence not only exists both in society and the workplace, but is having ongoing detrimental impact on those individuals, their families and communities. The Australian Human Rights Commission defines discrimination as: “Discrimination is when a person is treated unfairly compared to someone else in the same situation because of a particular characteristic, such as their race, sex, age or disability.” Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have historically and through to current day, experience both invisible and systematic racism and discrimination. Along with invisible and systematic racism, racial profiling is an insidious and sinister practice that acts to continue discrimination in society today. The Race Discrimination Commissioner, Dr Tim Soutphommasane gave a presentation to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Thematic Discussion on Racial Discrimination in Today’s World in November 2017. In the presentation Dr Soutphommasane noted: “Racial profiling is one manifestation of prejudice’s stubborn presence.” 2 And “There are a number of groups who would experience racial profiling in the most acute way in Australia. This includes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. While they make up only 3 per cent of the population in Australia, 27 per cent of prisoners in Australia are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in background” 3 To amplify the comments of the Race Discrimination Commissioner, in 2012 a survey of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Victoria found that 97 per cent had experienced racism within the last year, with two out of every three people had experienced eight or more incidences in a year. 4 Conclusions from the VicHealth report ‘Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Victorian Aboriginal Communities’ 5 found:

1 2

2011, National Tertiary Education Union, I’m not a racist, but, http://www.nteu.org.au/library/view/id/4743, viewed September 2018

2017, Human Rights Commission, Fighting Racism in Australia, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/fighting-racismaustralia, viewed September 2018 3 ibid 4

2012, Pg2, VicHealth, Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Victorian Aboriginal Communities, http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/Publications/Freedom-from-discrimination, viewed September 2018 5 ibid published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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• • • •

Racism is prevalent in the lives of many Aboriginal Victorians. Racism is associated with poorer mental health and reduced life chances for Aboriginal Victorians. Individual coping strategies do not appear to provide sufficient protection from harm. & Organisational and community interventions are needed to reduce racism.

Universities as employers are duty bound to ensure the safety of their employees. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, places of cultural safety on campus remain fundamental today, and while the majority of Australian universities have implemented policy to combat racism and discrimination, it would appear these policies and their associated procedures do little to prevent the prevalence of these attitudes in the workplace. Aggregated findings in this report detail that 75 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members and staff employed in the Australian higher education sector experience racism and discrimination in the workplace – an increase of 3.5 per cent from the 2011 survey. In the main, the perpetrators of racism and discrimination in the workplace are colleagues of those staff members, making attempts to combat racism in the workplace more difficult. One outcome of ongoing racism and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is lateral violence. Lateral violence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities has been described as ‘internalised colonialism’ or “The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation.” 6 Lateral violence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities has been expressed as: “The organised, harmful behaviours that we do to each other collectively as part of an oppressed group: within our families; within our organisations and; within our communities. When we are consistently oppressed we live with great fear and great anger and we often turn on those who are closest to us.” 7 Findings from the ‘I’m not a racist, but…’ report found that 60 per cent of survey respondents stated they had at times, experienced lateral violence in the workplace, and almost 58 per cent stated that colleagues were the main perpetrators of lateral violence in the workplace. Results from the current member survey showed that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are being subjected to lateral violence, with 66 per cent of respondents being exposed to lateral violence in the workplace – a 6 per cent increase from 2011.

6

2002, Pg 5, World Health Organisation, World report on violence and health, http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/chapters/en/index.html, viewed September 2018 7 2011, R Frankland and P Lewis, Presentation to Social Justice Unit staff, Australian Human Rights Commission, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/chapter-2-lateral-violence-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-communitiessocial#fn3, viewed September 2018 4

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Universities must work in a more strident manner to ensure the occupational safety of all staff; particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff and creating places of cultural safety. “No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background or his religion. People learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.� – Nelson Mandela

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Methodology NTEU Branch Survey Sample All National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU) Branches were sent a link to an online survey (SurveyMonkey) that was designed to be completed by local Elected Officials or Union staff. The link to the online survey was sent to all NTEU Branches via email, to be completed by the 2nd of July 2018. Indicators All NTEU Braches were requested to provide detailed information on specific university policies (anti-racism, anti-discrimination and equal opportunity/affirmative action). Information request as part of the Branch survey included: • • • • • • •

The existence of the above-mentioned policies (or so named) When the policies were implemented and when they were last reviewed Procedures for administering and, if required, enforcing the policy The current status of the university committee that reviews the policies If a committee exists, does an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff member has membership on that committee? If a committee does not exist, will the university seek to implement a committee If the university has an Equal Opportunity Officer (or so named) and the level of awareness/understanding amongst university staff of the role and location of the Equal Opportunity Officer.

Questions were designed to ascertain and gauge the university policy stance, procedure and measures to combat racial discrimination and strategies/policies to ensure equal employment opportunity and affirmative action at their institution. NTEU Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Members Survey Sample An online survey (SurveyMonkey) was sent to all NTEU Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members working in the Australian higher education sector. The online survey was opened on the 18th of May 2018 and closed on the 2nd of July 2018. Indicators All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members were asked to provide their feedback on a range of questions pertaining to racial discrimination in society, cultural respect, racial discrimination and lateral violence in the workplace. Questions were designed to gauge the survey respondent’s views and experiences of the above-mentioned topics, both in the workplace and in society more broadly.

6

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Executive Summary In the period 2009 to 2011 the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy Committee (A&TSIPC) of the National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU) undertook a survey of NTEU Branches and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander union members to ascertain the extent to which racism, discrimination and lateral violence impact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff work in the Australian higher education sector. In November 2011, the report ‘I’m not a racist, but…’ was released with the findings from these NTEU Branch and member surveys detailing that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander are experiencing racism, discrimination, a lack of cultural respect and lateral violence; both in the workplace and within the wider Australian society in alarming rates. This second report on racial discrimination, cultural respect and lateral violence has been produced to again ascertain the extent to which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members are experiencing discrimination, a lack of cultural respect and lateral violence in society and the workplace today; as well as making comparison to the findings from the 2011 report ‘I’m not a racist, but…’. Overview of NTEU Branch survey findings – 2011 The 2011 Branch survey, as part of the ‘I’m not a racist, but…’ report found: • • •

All Australian universities have developed and implemented Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action policies. The majority of Australian universities have reviewed their Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action policies in the last 6 years. 20 per cent of all Australian universities had a specific Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Harassment dispute resolution clause in their university Collective Agreement. Only 23.3 per cent of university policies were identified as being useful in resolving grievances at their institution.

Overview of NTEU member survey findings - 2011 The 2011 member survey, as part of the ‘I’m not a racist, but…’ report found: • •

• •

93.1 per cent of respondents and their families have experienced racial discrimination in their daily lives. 79.5 per cent of respondents stated they had been treated less respectfully in the workplace as a result of others perceptions of their culture and/or cultural obligations. 71.5 per cent of respondents have experienced direct racial discrimination and racist attitudes in the workplace, and 60.6 per cent of respondents stated that they had, at times, experienced lateral violence in the workplace.

When examining the findings from the NTEU Branch surveys undertaken in both 2011 and 2018 it can be seen that little has changed in the eight years since the previous report.

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University Policies: Anti-Racism, Anti-Discrimination and Equal Opportunity • • • • • •

All Australian universities have developed and implemented Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action policies (or so named) Of this, 68 per cent of universities have implemented Anti-Racism policies - an increase of 28 per cent from 2011. 50 per cent of universities have implemented Anti-Discrimination policies – a decrease of 20 per cent from 2011. 86 per cent of universities have implemented Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Policies – an increase of 6 per cent from 2011. Policy reviews have been undertaken by most universities in the previous 3 to 5 years. 20 per cent of Australian universities have a specific Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Harassment dispute resolution clause in their university Collective Agreement. There has been no change since 2011. In 4.5 per cent of cases the NTEU Branch was aware of, current university policies were useful in resolving issues of racism, discrimination and harassment in the workplace – this is a decrease in the usefulness of policies by almost 19 per cent from 2011.

Policy Review Mechanisms • • •

59.1 per cent of Australian universities have a committee that works to oversee and review these university policies. This is a 2.4 per cent increase from 2011. 45.5 per cent of those committees have met in the previous six month period. For those universities that do not have a specific review committee, 33.3 per cent indicated they would look to develop and institute a review committee (or so named). 68.8 per cent of universities that have implemented a review committee currently have an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander representative as part of the committee membership; an increase of 4.1 per cent from 2011.

Equal Opportunity Officers • •

72.7 per cent of Australian universities have employed an Equal Opportunity Officer (or so named). 54.6 per cent of universities have located their Equal Opportunity Officers within either Human Resources and/or a specific Equity and/or Diversity Unit. This is a decrease of 24 per cent from 2011. 63.6 per cent of NTEU Branches indicate that university staff are aware of the existence, location and role of the officer, a decrease of 7.8 per cent from 2011.

Concerning factors that have been made evident as a result of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander member survey include: Racial Discrimination in society •

8

Individuals and families are experiencing racial discrimination in Australian society in greater numbers, with a 13.8 per cent increase from 2011.

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Disrespect toward culture and cultural obligations in the workplace •

• •

Respect for culture and cultural obligations in the workplace has decreased; with an aggregated increase of 11.2 per cent seen for those individuals experiencing disrespect of culture and cultural obligations. Disrespect for culture and cultural obligations in the workplace was displayed mostly by colleagues with a 12.9 per cent increase since 2011. Actions undertaken and outcomes to address issues of disrespect toward culture and cultural obligations has been found to be wanting, with positive actions to address issues and situations decreasing by 10.7 per cent. The approach universities are taking to address situations has seen no action increased by 7.2 per cent from 2011.

Racial Discrimination in the workplace •

• •

Racial discrimination in the workplace has not reduced since 2011. Respondents to the member survey expressed a 13.1 per cent increase in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff often experiencing racial discrimination. 47.7 per cent of survey responses expressed that colleagues are the main perpetrators of racial discrimination in the workplace. In attempting to address issues of racial discrimination in the workplace, survey respondents indicated that little action is being undertaken. Only 21.7 per cent of respondents stated that action was taken, 12.2 per cent indicated positive action was instigated yet only 11.6 per cent of survey respondents stated that the action taken by their university was successful in addressing issues of racial discrimination in the workplace.

Lateral Violence • • •

Survey respondents have stated they are experiencing lateral violence very often in the workplace, with a 3.8 per cent since 2011. 40.3 per cent of respondents have indicated that colleagues are the main instigators of lateral violence in the workplace. In attempting to address issues of lateral violence in the workplace, survey respondents indicated that very little action is being undertaken. Only 8.3 per cent of respondents stated that action was taken, 9.4 per cent indicated positive action was instigated yet only 3.2 per cent of survey respondents stated that the action taken by their university was successful in addressing issues of lateral violence in the workplace.

Recommendations 1. Racism and lateral violence are both moral and ethical issues that must be addressed from within Universities as an urgent matter. Institutions such as universities largely contribute to the creation of the future. As such Hannah Arendt’s work on the power of silence in relation to the evil behaviours of the Germans is an important conceptualisation to relations of power and how silence condones tyranny. Those who are silent about evil are as evil as the actual perpetrators; silence condones. To this

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end, we ask University’s to uphold those changes that will end racism and lateral violence. 8 2. Universities to examine current policy and procedures to ensure those policies and procedures are current, effective and developed to provide clarity to allow for positive outcomes in the workplace. 3. Universities to ensure relevant policies and procedures (e.g. anti-racism, antidiscrimination and equal opportunity or so named) are reviewed every two years to ensure those policies and procedures are operational. 4. Universities to commit that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff will form part of policy and procedures review/monitoring and implementation committee membership. 5. Universities to ensure all staff are aware of the role and location of the Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Officer (or so named). 6. That governments at all levels, particularly the Federal Government, commit to attribution of additional funding and resources to ensure campaign/s to address racism and racial discrimination (i.e. Racism. It stops with me) in Australian society. 7. Universities assisted by NTEU, commit to combat racial discrimination in the workplace; particularly specific clauses in University Collective Agreement and internal procedures that work positively to address racial discrimination. 8. With racism in the workplace increasing, Universities must commit to work in partnership with relevant stakeholders (including NTEU) to develop a plan; including appropriate Collective Agreement clauses, policies, procedures and staff training/information sessions that will seek to tackle racism in the workplace. 9. Lateral violence continues to impact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff in the workplace and Universities must commit to developing an understanding of lateral violence, its underpinnings, how lateral violence differs from bullying/harassment and how lateral violence presents in the workplace today. Universities in partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, culturally appropriate mental health practitioners and NTEU to develop appropriate Collective Agreement clauses and internal policies and procedures.

8

10

2006, Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York, 2006)

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Branch Survey: Detailed Findings Introduction An online survey of all NTEU Branches on university policies, procedures and their effectiveness was distributed in the period May to July 2018. A total of 58 per cent of NTEU Branches responded to the request by the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Unit.

42% 58%

Responding

Not Responding

Table 1.1 – Branches Responding 2018

NTEU Branches not responding Branches not Responding

Division

University of Canberra

Australian Capital Territory

Australian Catholic University

New South Wales

Charles Sturt University

New South Wales

University of Sydney

New South Wales

University of Technology, Sydney

New South Wales

University of Wollongong

New South Wales

Charles Darwin University

Northern Territory

Central Queensland University

Queensland

University of Sunshine Coast

Queensland

James Cook University

Queensland

University of Adelaide

South Australian

University of Tasmania

Tasmania

Federation University

Victoria

La Trobe University

Victoria

Monash University

Victoria

RMIT University

Victoria

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Detailed Findings Existence of University Policies Question 1: Does your institution have one of the following policies or a similar policy under a different name? (1) Anti-Racism (2) Anti-Discrimination (3) Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action While all Australian universities have implemented policies that are either stand-alone policies or policies under a similar name, the Branch survey found that the existence of AntiDiscrimination and Equal Opportunity policies remain the preference, while the existence of Anti-Racism policies has declined from the previous survey. 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Anti-Discrimination (or so named)

Anti-Racism (or so named)

2018

Equal Opportunity (or so named)

2011

Table 1.2 – Anti Discrimination, Racism and Equal Opportunity Policies

Question 2: (1) When were the policies implemented? (2) When was the last review of the policy undertaken? Policy Implementation and Review The Branch survey found the majority of Anti-Discrimination, Anti-Racism and Equal Opportunity policies were implemented over the past thirteen years; with the bulk of policies being reviewed in the previous three years. 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%

Anti-Discrimination (or so named)

Anti-Racism (or so named)

Equal Opportunity (or so named)

Table 2.1 – When were the policies implemented? 12

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80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

2005-2009

2010-2014

2015-2018

Anti-Discrimination (or so named)

Unknown

Currently under review

Anti-Racism (or so named)

Equal Opportunity (or so named)

Table 2.2 – When was the last review of the policy undertaken?

Question 3: (1) How is the policy enforced? (Procedure?) (2) To your knowledge, has the policy been enforced in the last 12 months? (3) If enforced, was the policy useful in resolving the situation? Policy Enforcement In examining policy enforcement and usefulness of the policy in addressing situations of discrimination, racism and equal opportunity, it was found that the inclusion of specific clauses in the University Collective Agreement alone with associated policy has seen little change from 2011. In the majority it was found that Branches were unsure (unknown) if the policy had been enforced in the previous twelve months (54 per cent), while only 4.5 per cent of Branches responded to state that the policy was usefulness in addressing and/or resolving situations of racism and discrimination in the workplace. It is interesting to note that there was an 18.8 per cent decrease from 2011 in how useful those policies have been to address and resolve racism and discrimination in the workplace. 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Specific Clause in UCA & Associated Policy

Policy/Proceedures Only

2018

Unknown

2011

Table 3.1 – What mechanism is utilised to enforce the policies?

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60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

Unknown 2018

No

2011

Table 3.2 – Has the policy been enforced in the previous 12 months?

60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

Unknown 2018

No

2011

Table 3.3 – Was the policy useful in resolving the situation?

Question 4: (1) Does your institution have a committee that oversees the implementation/review & monitoring of the policy? (2) If yes, when did the committee meet last? (3) If no, has the implementation of a committee been touted? Policy Implementation/Review and Monitoring 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

Unknown 2018

No

2011

Table 4.1 – Committee to oversee policy

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Branches have reported that approximately 60 per cent of universities do have a committee that oversees the implementation/review and monitoring of the policy/s. While the existence of the policy review committee is welcomed, approximately 50 per cent of NTEU Branches stated they were unsure (unknown) when the committee last met. 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Last Month

Last Six Months Last twelve months - 7 to Ago - 2 to 6 months ago 12 months ago

2018

Over twelve months

Unknown

2011

Table 4.2 – When did the committee last meet?

70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

Unknown 2018

No

2011

Table 4.3 – Will a committee be implemented?

Of the responses regarding the implementation of a review/implementation committee should one not exist it was found that while there was an increase amongst those institutions who formally did not have a review/implementation committee (17.9 per cent), there was also a decrease from 2011 data showing a greater number of institutions have either implemented a committee. While this is a positive outcome, approximately 50 per cent of institutions that have not implemented a committee are still to implement a review/implementation committee.

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Question 5: Should a committee exist; is there an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander representative as part of the committee membership? Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Committee Membership 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

No 2018

2011

Table 5.1 – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander as part of committee membership?

Branches have reported that a greater number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff hold membership on implementation/review committees. Although there has been a small increase of 4.1 per cent from 2011 reported data, there still remain 31.3 per cent of review/implementation committees that do not have Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff on that/those committees. Committee membership should closely represent the staff compliment of the institution and therefore it is strongly recommended that a greater number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff is invited to hold membership of those committees. Question 6: (1) Does your institution have an Equal Opportunity Officer (or similar)? (2) What is the location of the Officer (e.g. Human Resources)? (3) To your knowledge, are staff members aware of the existence of the Officers, their role and location? Equal Opportunity Officers 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

Unknown 2018

No

2011

Table 6.1 – Does your institution have an Equal Opportunity Officer?

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Equal Opportunity Officers employed within Australian universities remains high, with 72.7 per cent of Branches responding indicated their institution had a specific Equal Opportunity Officer. This is a decrease of 4 per cent from 2011 reported data. 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%

Human Resources

Specific Equity and Diversity Unit

2018

Other

Online Course Only

Unknown

2011

Table 6.2 – Location of the equal opportunity officer

The location of the institutions Equal Opportunity Officer has changed significantly since the 2011 report. In the majority (36.4 per cent) Equal Opportunity Officers are situated in Human Resources (or so named). In 2011 the location of the Equal Opportunity Officer was split between Human Resources and a specific Equity and Diversity Unit. Branches have also reported that the location of Equal Opportunity Officers is unknown; this is a marked increase from 2011 with an increase of 24.7 per cent identified. 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Yes

Unknown/Not Sure 2018

No

Online Course Only

2011

Table 6.3 – Awareness of the location and role of the EEO

Awareness of the location and role of the Equal Opportunity Officer has decreased from 2011, with a decrease of 7.8 per cent found. It would appear from the recent Branch survey that universities need to undertake further work to ensure all staff is aware of the location and role of the Equal Opportunity Officer.

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Member Survey: Detailed Findings Introduction An online survey was distributed to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander union members to seek their experiences and perceptions of racism, racial discrimination, cultural respect and lateral violence. Members were sent the link to the online survey on the 15th of May 2018, with the survey remaining open until the 2nd of July 2018. A total of 149 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members contributed to the member survey, this represents 29.9 per cent of all NTEU members and 11.1 per cent of all Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff (fixed-term and continuing) as reported to the Department of Education in May 2017. Respondents to the survey include general/professional and academic staff in teaching, research or teaching and research roles. 48.9 per cent of respondents identified as academic staff members, with 7.4 per cent identifying as research only, 9.6 per cent as teaching only and 31.9 per cent as teaching and research staff members. This represents 10.4 per cent of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander academic staff employed in the sector. General/professional staff comprised 47.9 per cent of all responses and this represents approximately 5 per cent of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff employed in general/professional staff roles. A total of 37 per cent of survey respondents did not indicate if they were academic or general/professional staff members. Detailed Findings – Location & Highest Qualification Obtained Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members reported their location (State/Territory) as part of the initial survey questions. Victoria had the highest level of responses to the member survey at 25.5 per cent. 0.0% 5.5% 10.0% 23.6% 25.5% 5.5% 10.0%

2.7%

ACT

NSW

NT

QLD

17.3%

SA

TAS

VIC

WA

N/A

Table 1A – Respondents by State and Territory

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In response to a question pertaining to their highest qualifications obtained it was found that 27.7 per cent of respondents held Degree level qualifications followed by Masters and PhD qualifications at 23.4 per cent and 25.5 per cent respectively. 3.2%

25.5%

12.8%

27.7% 23.4%

4.3%

0.0%

3.2%

Sceondary School to Year 12

TAFE Diploma/Advanced Diploma

Degree

Hons. Degree

Graduate Certificate

Graduate Diploma

Masters

PhD

Table 1B – Highest qualification obtained

SECTION 1 - RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION IN AUSTRALIA Racism and Discrimination in Australian Society Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members responded to state that racism and discrimination in Australian society remains very high. 85.9 per cent of responses strongly agree there is racial discrimination in Australian society, while a further 12.1 per cent (98.0 per cent aggregated) agree racism and discrimination impacts Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, their families and communities. 0.7%

1.3%

0.0%

12.1%

85.9%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Unsure

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Table 1.1 – Racial Discrimination in Australia

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When asked if racial discrimination is widespread in Australia today. 77.2 per cent strongly agree that racial discrimination is extensive, while 16.1 per cent (93.3 per cent aggregated) agree that racial discrimination is prevalent in Australian society. 2.7%

2.0%

2.0%

16.1%

77.2%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Unsure

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Table 1.2 – Racial Discrimination is widespread in Australia

Aggregated responses to being subjected to racial discrimination very often/often in society have seen a 68.4 per cent response rate to this question. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members indicated that 27.5 per cent had experienced racism and discrimination very often, while 40.9 per cent have experienced discrimination often. This is an increase of 13.8 per cent from 2011 and shows clearly that more needs to be done to address racism and discrimination in society today. 4.0% 4.0%

27.5% 23.5%

40.9%

Yes, Very Often

Yes, Often

Sometimes

Hardly Ever

No, Never

Table 1.3 – Have you or members of your family experienced racial discrimination?

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21.5%

78.5%

Comment

No Comment

Table 1.4 – If you have experienced racial discrimination, please provide examples

Survey respondents were asked if racial discrimination is a social problem that should be addressed by Government. 72.5 per cent of responses strongly agree that racism and discrimination is a social problem that Government must address; a further 15.4 per cent stated they agree, resulting in a total aggregated response of 87.9 per cent. Only 7.4 per cent disagreed or strongly disagree that discrimination is a social problem that should be addressed by Government. Member responses to this question can be found at page 33. 3.4%

4.0%

4.7%

15.4%

72.5%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Unsure

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Table 1.5 – Discrimination is a social problem that should be addressed by Government?

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SECTION 2 – CULTURAL RESPECT IN THE WORKPLACE Cultural Respect in the Workplace Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members are experiencing a lack of cultural respect in the workplace in greater numbers than previously recorded. Aggregated responses show 90.7 per cent of respondents are experiencing disrespect for culture and cultural obligations in the workplace; an 11.2 per cent increase from 2011, indicating strongly that no change has been seen. A particularly telling finding from the member responses was the 7.7 per cent increase in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff experiencing a lack of cultural respect in the workplace very often. 3.4% 5.9% 21.8%

44.5%

Yes, Very Often

Yes, Often

24.4%

Sometimes

Hardley Ever

No, Never

Table 2.1 – Have you been treated less respectfully as a result of others perceptions of your culture and/or cultural obligations.

When questioned as to whom in the workplace was the greatest protagonist of disrespect toward culture and cultural obligations, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members indicated that middle management (54.4 per cent) and colleagues (55.0 per cent) showed the greatest levels of disrespect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and cultural obligations. A 12.9 per cent increase in colleagues perpetrating a lack of cultural respect was recorded from 2011 findings. 16.8%

24.8%

40.9%

26.8% 54.4% 55.0%

Senior Management

Middle Management

Colleagues

Students

Members of the Public

Other

Table 2.2 – If you have been treated less respectfully, who was this directed to you by?

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A total of 86.6 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members gave telling detail of the impact a lack of culture and cultural respect in the workplace has upon those individuals, their families and communities. Member comments can be found at page 41.

13.4%

86.6%

Comment

No Comment

Table 2.3 – If you have been treated less respectfully, please detail your experiences

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members were asked if attempts were made by their employer to remedy reported instances of a lack of cultural respect in the workplace. 50.4 per cent of respondents indicated that no attempt was made by their university to effectively manage and remedy instances of cultural disrespect, while only 19.4 per cent of responses indicated that attempts were made to address a lack of cultural respect in the workplace.

19.4%

50.4% 30.2%

YES

Not Sure/Unsure

NO

Table 2.4 – Were attempts made by your employer to remedy instances?

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Of those members who responded to indicate that attempts were made by their employers to remedy instances of cultural disrespect and disrespect toward cultural obligations only 11.1 per cent of instances were resolved through positive action, while in the majority 88.9 per cent of responses (aggregated) state that little to no action was undertaken by their employer.

11.1%

31.5%

57.4%

Positive Action

Little Action

No Action

Table 2.5 – If so what action was instituted to address the situation?

Of the responses that indicate positive action was undertaken, only 18.2 per cent of members responding stated that this action was successful in resolving the situation. 60 per cent of member responses state that positive action implemented by their university to tackle issues of a lack of respect for culture and cultural obligations resulted in the situation not being resolved.

18.2%

21.8%

60.0%

Yes

Unsure

No

Table 2.6 – Was this action successful in addressing the situation?

To effectively address issues of disrespect toward culture and cultural obligations, much more needs to be done to not only implement a process, but to ensure that process is understood, works toward a positive outcome and is successful in addressing issues of cultural disrespect.

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SECTION 3 – RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE Racial Discrimination in the Workplace Racial discrimination in the workplace was identified in the 2011 ‘I’m not a racist, but…’ report as being an issue of great concern for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander member responses (aggregated) show that 75 per cent of members encounter racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes in the workplace. Of interest was the 13.1 per cent increase in the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members experiencing racial discrimination in the workplace. 5.8% 7.5% 17.5% 32.5%

36.7%

Yes, very often

Yes, often

Hardley ever

No, never

Sometimes

Table 3.1 – Encountered racial discrimination or attitudes in the workplace

Colleagues were identified by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members as being the main perpetrators of racial discrimination in the workplace, with 47.7 per cent of responses. 14.1% 15.4%

30.2%

20.8% 42.3% 47.7%

Senior Management

Middle Management

Colleagues

Students

Members of the Public

Other

Table 3.2 – If you have been treated less respectfully, who was this directed to you by?

Middle management (42.3 per cent) and senior management (30.2 per cent) were also identified as significant perpetrators of discrimination and racism in the workplace.

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48.3% 51.7%

Comment

No Comment

Table 3.3 – If you have experienced racial discrimination, please detail your experiences

Members were asked to detail their experiences of racial discrimination and racism in the workplace. A total of 48.3 per cent of members provided responses to this question. Member responses to this question can be found at page 48.

21.7% 44.2%

34.2%

Yes

Unsure/Not Sure

No

Table 3.4 – Were attempts made to remedy instances of racial discrimination?

Member responses to attempts by universities to address and remedy instances of racial discrimination and racism in the workplace found 44.2 per cent of members feel their university did not attempt to address issues of racism and racial discrimination in the workplace. While this finding is sobering, it was positive to see 21.7 per cent of members indicated that attempts were made to address racial discrimination.

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12.2%

51.2%

Positive Action

36.6%

Little Action

No Action

Table 3.5 – If so, what action was instituted?

Of those institutions that took action to address and remedy issues of racial discrimination it was found that only 12.2 per cent of cases were resolved with positive action. This is an increase of 4.7 per cent (no action) and 1.7 per cent (little action) from the 2011 report.

11.6%

20.9% 67.4%

Yes

Unsure

No

Table 3.6 – Was the action successful in addressing the situation?

Members were then asked to state if the action undertaken to address issues of racism and racial discrimination was successful. Only 11.6 per cent of responses indicated that the action undertaken did resolve the situation, while 67.4 per cent of responses stated that the action was not successful. This is a 13.6 per cent increase in unsuccessful action undertaken by universities from 2011. Although some institutions are attempting to deal and tackle racism and racial discrimination head-on, there remain a significant number of racial discrimination and racism cases that are not resolved, thus creating a culturally unsafe working environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff.

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SECTION 4 – LATERAL VIOLENCE IN THE WORKPLACE Lateral Violence in the Workplace Lateral violence in the workplace remains as a major issue for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff working in the Australian higher education sector. In 2011, 60.6 per cent of respondents detailed they have experienced lateral violence in the workplace and arising from the 2018 member survey, aggregated responses show an increase of 5.7 per cent in cases of lateral violence in the workplace to 66.3 per cent.

15.5%

17.2%

16.4%

19.8%

31.0%

Yes, very often

Yes, often

Sometimes

Hardley ever

No, never

Table 4.1 – Have you been subjected to Lateral Violence?

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members detailed that colleagues were the main instigators of lateral violence in the workplace at 40.3 per cent. While this is extremely concerning, lateral violence at the hands of Senior Management (20.1 per cent) and Middle Management (27.5 per cent) was also recorded. These findings show not only that lateral violence occurs, but that colleagues and Management do little to address lateral violence; rather they are the main instigators.

16.1%

40.3%

Senior Management

20.1%

27.5%

Middle Management

Colleagues

Other

Table 4.2 – If you encountered lateral violence, was this directed to you by?

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41.6% 58.4%

Comment

No Comment

Table 4.3 – If you encountered lateral violence, please detail your experiences

41.6 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members responding to this question detailed their experiences of lateral violence in the workplace. Member comments to this question can be found at page 52.

8.3%

29.8% 61.9%

Yes

Unsure/Not Sure

No

Table 4.4 – Were attempts made to remedy instances of lateral violence?

When members were asked if attempts were made to address and remedy instances of lateral violence it was found that only 8.3 per cent of responses indicated that attempts were made. Worryingly almost 62 per cent of responses stated that no attempt was made by the institution to address and attempt to rectify issues of lateral violence – a 2.9 per cent increase from 2011 data.

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9.4%

31.3% 59.4%

Postitve Action

Little Action

No Action

Table 4.5 – If so, what action was instituted?

Member responses detailed that only 9.4 per cent of incidents of lateral violence were addressed with positive action, thankfully this is an increase of 3.7 per cent from 2011 data. It remains very concerning that aggregated data shows 90.7 per cent of members responding indicate little action/no action was undertaken to address lateral violence. 3.2%

19.4%

77.4%

Yes

Unsure

No

Table 4.6 – Was this action successful?

Member responses also show that when action was undertaken to address lateral violence, this action was only successful in 3.2 per cent of cases. Overall, aggregated data shows that 96.8 per cent of lateral violence cases were not successfully dealt with or members were unsure if action taken was successful.

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Recommendations 1. Racism and lateral violence are both moral and ethical issues that must be addressed from within Universities as an urgent matter. Institutions such as universities largely contribute to the creation of the future. As such Hannah Arendt’s work on the power of silence in relation to the evil behaviours of the Germans is an important conceptualisation to relations of power and how silence condones tyranny. Those who are silent about evil are as evil as the actual perpetrators; silence condones. To this end, we ask University’s to uphold those changes that will end racism and lateral violence. 9 2. Universities to examine current policy and procedures to ensure those policies and procedures are current, effective and developed to provide clarity to allow for positive outcomes in the workplace. 3. Universities to ensure relevant policies and procedures (e.g. anti-racism, antidiscrimination and equal opportunity or so named) are reviewed every two years to ensure those policies and procedures are operational. 4. Universities to commit that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff will form part of policy and procedures review/monitoring and implementation committee membership. 5. Universities to ensure all staff are aware of the role and location of the Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Officer (or so named). 6. That governments at all levels, particularly the Federal Government, commit to attribution of additional funding and resources to ensure campaign/s to address racism and racial discrimination (i.e. Racism. It stops with me) in Australian society. 7. Universities assisted by NTEU, commit to combat racial discrimination in the workplace; particularly specific clauses in University Collective Agreement and internal procedures that work positively to address racial discrimination. 8. With racism in the workplace increasing, Universities must commit to work in partnership with relevant stakeholders (including NTEU) to develop a plan; including appropriate Collective Agreement clauses, policies, procedures and staff training/information sessions that will seek to tackle racism in the workplace. 9. Lateral violence continues to impact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff in the workplace and Universities must commit to developing an understanding of lateral violence, its underpinnings, how lateral violence differs from bullying/harassment and how lateral violence presents in the workplace today. Universities in partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, culturally appropriate mental health practitioners and NTEU to develop appropriate Collective Agreement clauses and internal policies and procedures.

9

2006, Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York, 2006) viewed October 2018

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Acknowledgements In drafting this report, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy Committee and National Unit would like to thank the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members who took time to complete the online survey; particularly in giving of themselves and providing so many important comments and feedback used in this report. Without our members there is no union. The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Unit would like to express our thanks to the NTEU Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Policy Committee membership and the National leadership of the Union. We would also like to thank Elected Officers and Staff at each NTEU Branch for their time in completing the online survey and providing such beneficial data and comment. Adam Frogley National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Unit Coordinator October 2018 References 2011, National Tertiary Education Union, I’m not a racist, but, http://www.nteu.org.au/library/view/id/4743, viewed September 2018 2017, Human Rights Commission, Fighting Racism in Australia, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/fighting-racism-australia, viewed September 2018 2012, Pg2, VicHealth, Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Victorian Aboriginal Communities, http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/Publications/Freedom-from-discrimination, viewed September 2018 2006, Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York, 2006) viewed October 2018 2002, Pg 5, World Health Organisation, World report on violence and health, http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/chapter s/en/index.html, viewed September 2018 2011, R Frankland and P Lewis, Presentation to Social Justice Unit staff, Australian Human Rights Commission, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/chapter-2-lateralviolence-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-communities-social#fn3, viewed September 2018

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Attachments – 1 to 4 Individual comments to question 1.4 If you or members of your family have experienced overt or implied racial discrimination, please provide an example of your individual or family experiences below. XXXXXXXXXX Trying to rent a property Trying to catch a taxi Being targeted by the police XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 12 months every day and multiple times during the day of being told of complaints which had no bases and no evidence only the Centre Manager's information of complaint. Union came out 4 times for meetings and in the end suggested that I get another position. This has resulted in me being diagnosed with PTSD and high blood pressure. Individual- negative comments, stereotyping, assumptions made, nasty things said about others, knowledge and expertise about Indigenous issues and decisions overlooked in favour of Anglo people's The way people treat you is different. Some people I am Italian or Greek and they don't realise that my husband is my husband (he has a much darker complexion) or that I am Aboriginal as well. It's the unspoken things, like the way that people treat him compared to me. It's disgusting Completed a leadership survey as a staff member, received two comments from staff members stating that it was okay for me to be Aboriginal when they needed me to be, but any other time they'd like me to keep that to myself. My line manager when I raised this, informed me that the comment was not perceived as racist as they agreed with it. (My line manager was a white middle aged woman). XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Stopped from entering a licensed premises as it was assumed we were intoxicated Being asked how much or percentage of Aboriginal I am, being referred to as a ‘cast’. Told invasion and colonialisation is in the past. Told that the first fleet didn’t have an impact in . They follow us in the shops, are rude to us at counters, serve us after other people, give us substandard things and make hurtful remarks about our colour... Racial slurs while at school and at sport match as adult. Airports - always singled out by security for drugs testing with the vacuum device On their appearance You got this job because of your Aboriginality Overt - cabs won't stop for my Mother (who is dark-skinned) and shop assistant ignore her. Implied - in meetings sometimes I draw attention to the fact that non-Indigenous people speak on my behalf and speak slower when addressing Indigenous staff members present. High school example 2017. My niece was called an 'Abo' in front of the class by the school teacher. My niece called the teacher out and reported her to the principal and to the local Aboriginal organisation. Racist notes left outside Indigenous unit at University, brushed under carpet by management. published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX I work in a university, on an Aboriginal project. Recently, I confronted a past employee of ours for committing cultural theft of culturally sensitive materials. I did this via email, and let her know that if she didn't return the materials, I would inform the Aboriginal communities that I am a member of, that she wants to work with, that unless she did so, I would be informing them of her and that it would be unwise to engage with her. She made a complaint, and I was dragged before being a bully, being racist, and for threatening her career as a 'professional'. No one has indicated any intent to make her accountable for her actions, yet I am the one who is on the end of disciplinary action because I confronted her about her unethical behaviour. My wife as a mother of Aboriginal children, was criticised by a colleague who said that she was too occupied with Aboriginal views and perspectives - apparently wasn't allowed to provide viewpoints and help fill knowledge gaps for other people. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Extra attention in shops. People making exceptions for you. The good side is I always get a seat to myself on the train! People will stand rather than sit next to you in a vacant seat. In the workplace where your course is not included or on a parallel with other courses due to the low numbers When shopping or getting served. I am an older Aboriginal woman and they insist on checking me when white fellas openly and brazenly shop lifting in same shop. Ignored at shop counters, followed in shops, complimented on my beautiful speech, daughters are told they cannot be Aboriginal because they are beautiful. Been assumed I had an alcohol problem when I was hospitalised - had to insist that I wasn’t and even then I don’t think they believed me Every time I go shopping I am followed around the shop and staff hover when I at the self-service counters at the supermarket. At work; I report to a non-Indigenous Manager in we work in an Indigenous service unit at a University. My knowledge and all my initiatives are always misappropriated by my manager and . The subtle forms of service in shops (not all shops). The type of interactions and the way in which staff talk and engage with you as a customer. Daughter and her mates when they visit stores are under scrutiny of staff (spied on). Denied customer service at a shop, and overtly followed within the shopping precinct. I don't believe I have personally experienced racism, but I do believe my mother did, as she was navigating the world in the 1950s and 1960s. I think she protected her children from her experiences though.... negative comments- myths- negative terminology overt racist comments, not sitting next to on packed bus, comments such as why do Aboriginal people spit at people, are aggressive, drink alcohol too much, followed by security in shopping centres and the list goes on ...........! When applying for rental accommodation

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Denial of paid cultural leave to attend funerals or other cultural events such as NAIDOC Week and Day. Recently at a dinner of establishment types I was asked if I was a quarter caste. Comments but you don't look Aboriginal are common experiences as I am required to justify my personal identity. Through work, shopping, trying to rent a house. Verbal aggression, verbal abuse, being checked unfairly at shopping centres, having my bag checked unfairly. ignored, served last, gut feeling, felt excluded, we just know Being asked to justify support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. Usually with a patronising tone which implies lack of understanding and support from within my work place. Mostly this is from other Aboriginal people mob because I have fair skin. When going for job interviews, at school, online, public events Too many to mention, but racism is the foundation stone of this country. One example, while in a shop get served last. My son was recently nicknamed "chocolate" by his school teacher. He is in Year 9 - it has opened the door for the children in the school to call him a range of names e.g. "Co-co" I was explicitly accused of stealing by a non-Aboriginal staff , where I am an Aboriginal student. As I am light-skinned, non-Aboriginal people often challenge my identity as an Aboriginal person. Denied eating at restaurant in Melbourne. A non-Aboriginal family moved away from my family at a footy game, I heard the Father of the 2 kids say “Let’s move away from the smelly, drunk Aborigines�. We were not drinking! Asked why we Identify as Aboriginal when we do not have black skin From subtle ostracisms and derogatory comments in the workplace to physical attacks in the broader community. Police harassment. silenced in meetings cultural resources for teaching not appropriate Being told I'm not dark enough to be Aboriginal XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.

I am often told that I am not really Aboriginal because I "don't look Aboriginal." Many of my family members have experienced discrimination by medical practitioners which had affected their health. Racism in the workplace. Never given a proper fraction. stereotyping, jokes etc. i get told i don't look Aboriginal or that i claim to be Aboriginal for the benefits it gets me (ignorance) Too numerous to mention. Mother and Aunties not being served in shops in the late 90's - 2000's, neighbour threatening to call police when family showed up to my sister's house, based on racial profiling. Being told I don't deserve my job because I am not a real 'aborigine', told I have no culture because I present as 'white' the list goes on... My darker skin younger cousin has been stopped and randomly searched in our local shopping centre on multiple occasions. His only crime is being a blackfulla.

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Denial of paid cultural leave to attend funerals or other cultural events such as NAIDOC Week and Day. Recently at a dinner of establishment types I was asked if I was a quarter caste. Comments but you don't look Aboriginal are common experiences as I am required to justify my personal identity. Through work, shopping, trying to rent a house. Verbal aggression, verbal abuse, being checked unfairly at shopping centres, having my bag checked unfairly. ignored, served last, gut feeling, felt excluded, we just know Being asked to justify support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. Usually with a patronising tone which implies lack of understanding and support from within my work place. Mostly this is from other Aboriginal people mob because I have fair skin. When going for job interviews, at school, online, public events Too many to mention, but racism is the foundation stone of this country. One example, while in a shop get served last. My son was recently nicknamed "chocolate" by his school teacher. He is in Year 9 - it has opened the door for the children in the school to call him a range of names e.g. "Co-co" I was explicitly accused of stealing by a non-Aboriginal staff , where I am an Aboriginal student. As I am light-skinned, non-Aboriginal people often challenge my identity as an Aboriginal person. Denied eating at restaurant in Melbourne. A non-Aboriginal family moved away from my family at a footy game, I heard the Father of the 2 kids say “Let’s move away from the smelly, drunk Aborigines”. We were not drinking! Asked why we Identify as Aboriginal when we do not have black skin From subtle ostracisms and derogatory comments in the workplace to physical attacks in the broader community. Police harassment. silenced in meetings cultural resources for teaching not appropriate Being told I'm not dark enough to be Aboriginal XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.

I am often told that I am not really Aboriginal because I "don't look Aboriginal." Many of my family members have experienced discrimination by medical practitioners which had affected their health. Racism in the workplace. Never given a proper fraction. stereotyping, jokes etc. i get told i don't look Aboriginal or that i claim to be Aboriginal for the benefits it gets me (ignorance) Too numerous to mention. Mother and Aunties not being served in shops in the late 90's - 2000's, neighbour threatening to call police when family showed up to my sister's house, based on racial profiling. Being told I don't deserve my job because I am not a real 'aborigine', told I have no culture because I present as 'white' the list goes on... My darker skin younger cousin has been stopped and randomly searched in our local shopping centre on multiple occasions. His only crime is being a blackfulla.

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My daughter being asked to write an essay on what she thinks it would be like to be Aboriginal. My son being told "I knew there was something about you" in a potential client meeting. My knowledge and experience as a member of the Stolen Generations being completely obliterated by a white woman, who then took umbrage at my reaction and has presented the situation as her being the victim. The whitening of Aboriginal policies in the university. Being called coon abo etc. physical attacks based on race, refusal to work with or speak to due to race, constant put downs about work ethic, behaviour, speech, false monetary benefits. Arrested through over-policing Deferred to others for service first at shops Constantly questioning my ethnicity and heritage Everything from I’m "not black enough to be Aboriginal" to "you wrought the system". As a black male in the academy my opinions around challenging the colonial narrative is perceived as argumentative and confrontational. Yet a white colleague points out the same issue and they are listened to Being served last or ignored in a shop. Excluded from information in a group. Just being told “ you don’t Look Aboriginal” almost every day I was asked to move away from a counter in a Brisbane store. The police were called. I left the store before the police arrived. I was wearing an Aboriginal Art T-shirt and the female behind the counter didn't like it. About two weeks later i was in the same store and the young man behind the counter who witnessed the events was very apologetic about the incident and gave excuses for her behaviour including, the noise from the road outside was aggravating My grandchildren play in a mostly Aboriginal football team, as they train people who are driving past the area they train in shout racist remarks at the children. throw away inappropriate comments that are laughed off as jokes I have lost boyfriends once I have disclosed that I am of indigenous decent and identify as an Aboriginal Australian. I was prevented from continuing my Bachelor of degree in 2000, when the friends I had made were introduced to friends I had made in the Indigenous Unit at the University we were studying; I to this day do not know what they said, but I was ostracized and excluded in my cohort and no one would speak to me; during this time we had an Indigenous lecturer as part of the mandatory subjects come to speak about Indigenous cultures and teaching indigenous students, and there was a mass walkout of the lecture, that I had moved down to be in front of him and he said, I’ll just speak to you then….. I ended up with reactive depression and left university. I was approached to tell my story for a student's PhD research at as I had come up in a retention report and they wanted to know why I left. My family has forever been marginalised for being indigenous - missing out on employment way back from the 50s and earlier to missing out on opportunities and promotions at work. Once staff found out I was indigenous, they've been competing against me as I was provided with good feedback and presentation for the work that I had been doing. There are up to 2 staff currently that actively compete with me since they asked "are you indigenous" and pulled a face in disbelief because in their words I’m "..not black enough and don't look indigenous" , and was told “you shouldn’t say anything if you don’t look it, that way people won’t know”…..this was 2017. I've developed processes that are unique and have been confirmed that no one else in the University has done before, yet I watch other staff doing same old same old get VC's published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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awards; and one of them is the staff member that commented to me that I'm not black enough and was shocked that someone of "indigenous decent can actually work well". This is a continual fight. I have been to dinner parties with my ex-husband and his workmates and in open company been told the same, (mind you these are children of Italian immigrants), that "Abo's get everything". For which I asked, so how many Mercedes do you see Aboriginals driving, how many corner stores have you been into that is owned by an indigenous person, how many indigenous kids to you have at your private school, how many indigenous people do you see own their own homes??? The same old misinformed, racist banter we must hear everywhere. This statement “Aboriginals get everything” goes hand in hand with "You don't look Aboriginal". There are many other instances, but these are the ones that have happened to me in recent years and are still poignant. I actually wish to leave Australia, and go to the US or the UK as Australia is so entrenched in racism towards Indigenous Australians, that I'm sick of it. And living in the , losing friends, boyfriends and being looked at differently at work, I want to leave. Australians think they aren't racist, but to me, in Australia, you can be any colour, of any race and you are accepted. Identify or be an “obviously identified” (i.e. “black enough”) Indigenous person, and suddenly you are worthless and treated as sub-human, have to explain yourself, your family and defend that no, you actually don’t “get everything”. Australia IS racist, and there is inter-generational racism. Australia needs to re-educate. I wasn’t studying education to become a teacher. I wanted to get into curriculum development and fight from the inside to change the curriculum to include Indigenous History. People have NO IDEA of the real history of this country. And this perpetuates the myths that we are continually faced with. Until it is recognised that Australia had first-peoples and were systematically wiped out by settlers and this land is ours and we have no treaty – this will continue. Generations from now, you’ll be hearing the same thing, “You don’t look Aboriginal”…”Aboriginals get everything”. Well, besides the same treatment, opportunities, respect, rights and so on… Not being of the language group or "tribe" where I am working. I personally experience covert racism within the workplace regularly and this is done through; having to justify any training or workplace development opportunities. On a professional level working with ATSI students I have experience and knowledge of assisting student who have experienced culturally unsafe environments during the course of their education. Boss in the mining industry kept me outside in 50 degree heat for 2 weeks after I lodged a complaint about his racist remarks at a dinner party. As we work in professional capacities, both my have faced the attitude that our University degrees ( ) are in fact worth nothing as they were just 'given' to us because we are Aboriginal I attended a local service station to obtain fuel and was photographed by the attendant separately from other people also getting fuel Mostly denial of history and identity, name calling, denial of promotion, unfair/condescending attention in the workplace.

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Even though I am very fair (or maybe because I am) I get things like 'oh they only get that because they are Aboriginal' or 'I'm darker than they are, how can they say they are Aboriginal' Non-indigenous people being served even though we were there first; arriving at motels and being told that there was no booking even though I had confirmation from the motels; being told that Indigenous history and culture is not important and that we should "get on with it"; XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Rudimentary context: We are an Aboriginal family, with 'Aboriginal features' Example one: While attending church, a member of the attendees noticed my family member in the crowd, pointed him out and commented: "I didn't know parole was allowed on weekends" The person he made this comment to a non-Indigenous close family friend of ours. My family member has never been in trouble with the law. Example two: I was a guest at a wedding and was walking to the reception along a Wollongong main street, a car slowed beside me and the males inside wolf whistled, one yelled out "Gee you're beautiful....for an Abo" then they laughed and drive off, I was frightened and embarrassed. Example Three: I was sitting on Bondi Beach minding my own business when an older man came up to me and pointed right at my face and said "So you think you can have native title do you, you think you get special treatment?" I was a young teenager I could list hundreds personal of examples. My dad is darker than me and people follow him in some stores. I am pale so there's another type of discrimination Change of attitude and behaviour when they find out. Violent attitudes. Difficulties dating because men do not want to date an Aboriginal woman. People not wanting to share a house with an Aboriginal person. we were in a coffee shop with a lot of other non-Indigenous academics, the police walked in, and one of them said, oh the ones around here are ok, but the ones in town are mongrels...everyone laughed,,, called a coon, nigger, also called black bastard Implied using race for advantage Expressed negative concerns for capability to perform due to being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander decent. Questioning ability because adopted siblings have been raised under guardianship of the minister. Followed in shops, comments about identity, ignorance around Invasion Day, comments about being alcoholics and on the dole etc. etc. etc. not going to amount to anything get hand outs Daughter and I followed around in shops. Refused entry into clubs when white friends allowed in. Micro aggressions at work, bias (conscious & unconscious), disbelief (when self-identifying), broad ill-informed statements, inappropriate posts on social media. What part of you is Aboriginal? Bullied in the workplace. published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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Dismissive attitude towards me and the work I do. Verbal abuse - name calling; racial profiling; refuse service at stores; kept waiting in line. Treating Aboriginal staff as 'token' and not giving value to what they can provide. Talking about "Aboriginal issues" too loudly in the workplace, not being Aboriginal enough (colour of skin) My mum was shopping at and with her groceries approached the service desk to but mentholated spirits for cleaning. The young girl told her the bottle shop opened in 10 minutes. People always say I'm not a racist but.... even my work colleagues who know I am aboriginal I am fair skinned and assume I am not aboriginal, so when I tell them I am Aboriginal and challenge people for their inappropriate and racist remarks they make they turn on me and accuse me of not really being Aboriginal and further vilify me rather than own up to their own racist behaviour Getting rejected from rental housing applications etc.

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Individual comments to question 2.3 If you believe that you have been treated less respectfully in the workplace as a result of perceptions of your culture and/or your cultural obligations, please detail your experience/s: Little recognition of the time required for community engagement. Being treated with distrust Not given responsibility given to others Over hearing racially insulting comments Being excessively criticised for minor or trivial matters Double standards that rule's that apply to me don't apply to other's Not being taken seriously and having senior colleague walk away during conversation. Statements made that are sweeping judgements about what I would like to work on or not, about what I would have experienced, or not. Assumptions, negative remarks, overt laughter, being excluded or expected to be involved more than others at my academic level. No follow through on my recommendations, funds promised but not delivered, evasive behaviour by others Made to feel inferior and my views were not valued Work members often ask personal questions and dig for more information relating to me my family my heritage my culture of course - refusal to consider scheduling to allow us to go to NAIDOC activities, continually asking me to do welcomes, even though i say no Dedicated Indigenous work area is micro-managed and not trusted. Workplace made decision to abolish Indigenous Employment Coordinator no consultation, even with the presence of Indigenous governance committee. A colleague complained to senior management that I was hired because of my relationship to my partner (who also worked at the University). I undertook 3 recruitment processes for each of the roles that I won at that university. HR did not bother to speak to me about the issue, they immediately notified my partner that I was to be moved to another unit (even through our work areas were separate) and needed to find another role (despite winning my position through a competitive process). When I notified the union about this situation the organiser challenged the university and they admitted that they were not aware that I had won my contracts through competitive processes. Not sure if I want too. Calls to include more critical race awareness in the in-house cultural awareness program ignored in favour of teaching not-Indigenous staff about local history. I'm Cultural Leave, Cultural responsibility Not knowing what I do and because I am Aboriginal I am the expert on everything being called a real Aboriginal Have had my qualifications questioned publicly and regularly asked inappropriate questions about my Aboriginal identity published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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I live with and when I was so unwell and I seeing a counsellor. There were times I would have an appointment before work and I would always let my manager know of my appointments. I went to an appointment one morning it was the wrong date. As a result I went to work earlier than anticipated and my manager said you're here early. I said I got that date wrong and said to me shit for brains. I said wow kick me while I'm down and he kept going. I said and the hits keep on coming. He thought I was joking and I said no, there's a line and don't cross it. He took me into his office and said he was joking and can't I take a joke. I said normally yes but when I'm unwell nothing is funny. He never apologised and he was never pulled up about his attitude or behaviour. A situation arose where my immediate supervisor, an Indigenous male who has a lot of institutional power, abused that power when he felt challenged by me. This is also by other Indigenous colleagues- who should know better- how to treat an elder Indigenous woman with more respect there are a range of reasons that I have this perception which is related to a range of events/incidents over many years that I have worked here but one of the major issues is the students/staff see my Cultural hat but not my professional hat this is disrespectful. Subsequently a student made a comment in a student evaluation 'to 'cull' the staff in our Aboriginal unit'. We have had a number of inappropriate comments from student evaluations which have not been acceptable. That I only received this job because I am Aboriginal and therefore tick their box. Meaning I didn't earn this job. Targeted by New re identity. Told we need to make sure the ‘right’ People get identified positions. Interference in recruitment processes. Consultation re New confirmation of introduced - lobbied through NTEU to get most draconian aspects removed, I.e. retrospective application, statutory declaration setting out how meet three part test. Lack of Indigenous governance structure at our Uni means there is little scrutiny of Indigenous programs, which at times feels like benign neglect. There have been many complaints of harassment and bullying however the Uni grievance processes leave a lot to be desired. One long standing staff member put in a complaint of bullying and it took months for the Uni to investigate. The staff member ended up leaving before the process was completed, in frustration. Uni seems to have a problem dealing with black-on-black issues. (High level meetings) Senior Management speaking about Aboriginal culture 'on behalf of' Aboriginal people (sometimes incorrectly) when there are Aboriginal professionals present who could be invited to speak. When suicides happen in my family as opposed to my colleges the response of support presents very different, less support and acknowledgement of the loss. Senior Management didn't deal with the complaint of racial discrimination with correct protocols or process. Having a foreign, young white woman check the toilets after an Aboriginal person uses to make sure we are not leaving it filthy and un-hygienic! Being told I'm a "good girl" even though I'm nearly 70!!! by much young white staff. As TO-Custodian working on country - total lack of respect, indeed total lack of civility. Constantly ridiculed and challenged by mostly non-Aboriginal staff, but some Aboriginal as well.

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grievance and complaint documented procedures were somehow not adhered to when complaints were escalated to a formal investigation about me and others within my work team For sorry business people dot get it. sometimes we lose lots of family / close family members, and the size of our families Expectations that I should know everything about Aboriginal culture. Low expectations from those discriminating of my academic abilities (this comes from both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal academics) There is an ongoing need to continual refer to my non-Indigenous manager to ensure my work practices are correct/accurate/approved. This never happens to my non-Indigenous colleague. Expectation that Indigenous people can only deal with Indigenous Issues. I was pushed out of a job by a non-Aboriginal person who wanted my job. They were manipulating my boss, who couldn't see it. I got a transfer within the University. Now much happier as I feel I am appreciated. The time it takes to participate in my Aboriginal community is not considered in my work load even though it is expected as a criteria and to almost "prove" my Aboriginality. Not invited to coffees, feeling excluded, just know Comments which imply that my position exists as tokenism to meet set requirements. As a result of having fair skin, I believe I am not asked to attend meetings related to cultural matters such as embedding Indigenous perspectives into the curriculum. A senior manager disrespected me, treated me like I did not understand my job role. I often felt mentally exhausted from working with sick patients and needed mental health days off, but was often criticised for that. When I was younger working on a mine site, because of my mixed heritage non-indigenous workers did not assume I was Indigenous, therefore I was included in group conversations that were about Indigenous Australians getting free everything. I felt so uncomfortable at the time and did not feel i could speak up. As I grew older I became more frustrated with the blatant racism and eventually found the courage to speak out. I would never speak out in a aggressive manner, but always tried to be informative and direct about how I was feeling. I think it's still the predominant view in this country that Indigenous people should be denied their rights over the white majority. Other staff members have this perception that I get extra leave, got my current position because I'm Aboriginal. My department are seeking to hire an Indigenous academic. I believe that it is because I am fairskinned so they do not recognise my Aboriginality. I often get asked on how to ‘deal’ with Aboriginal students. If I can be research assistant so they can apply for Aboriginal funding. Exclusion from Information My name used on Indigenous research projects without my permission

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perception that we have cultural leave to have 'fun' - I have experience a colleague complain that it isn’t fair I receive cultural leave to go back to my own country for NAIDOC celebrations As an Aboriginal woman I am overlooked for less qualified Aboriginal men, and Aboriginal women, who are happy for the job and willing to accept assimilationist approaches. The university does not include local Aboriginal leaders on selection panels Asking for cultural leave to attend an outside event and the doubt that I was entitled to take paid leave. A broadening number of people openly vilify my faith. I cautiously do not press my beliefs at anyone, but some strongly try to cause me distress, and/or bait me. Never given a proper fraction, even though the EFT was available. I am constantly having to justify the way i teach and why i do things differently to other academics There have been numerous instances which I won't have the space to outline here, however, to summarise: Then most frequent occurrence is when the need arises to attend sorry business. There are often questions posed to me about the familial links to draw out whether it's an 'authentic' absence from the workplace. These questions have been asked by managers & colleagues alike. "Oh I didn't realise you were an Abo" I have not taken cultural leave on a number of occasions because there is no 'squeeze' room to incorporate that leave into my teaching. Being called Abo, being told my liaise role was not a real job, being told that despite being the cultural expert and being asked that flags were not a good idea and that I was being racist. First are from students, next is from staff. Assumed knowledge and experiences. Assume you have a narrow knowledge of your culture ie: its the only thing you can teach or speak about and lack broader knowledge or skills. Assumptions that your comments are inherently bias towards Aboriginal people. I was working on a project that required me to engage with the community. It required me to spend considerable amounts of time out of the office meeting with elders, families and communities. It took a lot of time to work respectfully and gain trust. Towards the end of this process, by line manager and unit manager tool me aside to have a 'chat' where they interrogated me about the work I had been doing, and then requested that I do more 'visible work'. At no point did they define what that was, but it was implied that they expected me to spend more time in the office at my desk. After this incident I did not feel safe and started on my exit strategy. As a senior academic with PhD qualifications, I have in more Hannah e occasion been seen as not really ‘aboriginal’ as due to my ed atop al level and academic success Body language and gut feeling, know you are looked down on. Not invited to coffee. Being told “you don’t look Aboriginal” almost everyday I was once told by a white 'box ticker' Aboriginal that it is not our business to assist black aboriginals. Only they can help themselves she said as she combed her blond hair and walked away. Another time, i asked why we as a group were devoid of black Aboriginals. Most in the group cried, 'You can't talk about skin colour'. I said, why do white people say, 'you can't talk about skin colour, when it is the black skin which the point of discrimination?' 44

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Being overlooked for promotions and job opportunities. dismissive behaviour lack of inclusion XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Inviting the wider community to events where sometimes we could get an nasty email back about what we are doing or trying to achieve. Not being flexible in my hours after the death of a brother. I had to put in leave even though there were days I worked while on leave to get tasks finished. Evidence of this was presented. I was not allowed to reverse the leave and had to put in the leave for the day I did not turn up for work. I attained my Bachelor of Applied Science, Indigenous Community Management and Development. Non-Indigenous people think that it is just a 'blackfella' degree and most believe that any 'Aboriginal' studies doesn't have validity. Once colleagues/some management discovered my indigenous heritage disrespectful remarks were heard, for example, the classic, 'you don't look it'

, numerous

When asked to do a task we are micro managed, because clearly it is felt we are not capable. The same task offered in another way by someone who does not know you are Aboriginal is simply given to you due to your expertise. Not offered tenured position due to affirmative 'Indigenous job policy' that was disadvantaged when compared to mainstream policy. Undue attention by executives (e.g., stupid/stereotypical questions that have nothing to do with the job that literally no-one else gets asked due to their background), accusations of political correctness gone mad when I've put forward requests to consider Indigenous representatives standpoints on Indigenous issues. I have a really busy job and am often out and about but constantly get from Middle Management 'oh but people don't know where you are or what you do'. When I suggest they look at my Diary, it's 'oh but that doesn't tell us what you do'. At the same time no one really wants to know even when I try and tell them. They have no interest in 'my thing'. Colleagues and often Middle Management (some but less of SM) resent my being involved in lots of the bigger things in the workplace i.e. openings, special events. These are where I've been asked to participate by SM usually because I've been a cultural advisor or supported them in some way. I won two awards in my first two years for 'working across the organisation' trying to promote reconciliation, cultural awareness etc. but now that same work is a 'bad thing' and not my job and I'm getting caned for it. I've not really seen it as Racism as such until a couple of other non-Aboriginal pointed it out and I realised that yes it is and then thought of all the similar stories I'd heard about previous people in the role who 'did nothing' In meetings my input has been ignored and even though others verbalise that my opinion will be taken into account - their body language and action later confirm my perception.

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I was to give the Acknowledgement of Country at Graduation at so I went up to the lectern to do that and the sent over a to tell me to leave the lectern and sit down....in front of a whole of people...I was so shame that I would've left but another staff member was holding my car keys etc. so I couldn't...i just sat there feeling the biggest failure ever...a senior member of staff came up to me later to say that the was confused and thought that i should have done the acknowledgement before he even entered the building. I said it was embarrassing and that the could’ve let me say the Acknowledgement as it was important and wasn't long...the response was "well these things happen, change happens slowly in some cases." I felt so shame. grads were coming up to me wild and I felt I’d let them down. I never went to another graduation since and thankfully I’m in the faculty now so don't have to worry. But I reckon it’s still a problem. I had a moment here of stress thinking this story identifies me and my Uni but I’m too tired to care if I lose my job Surprisingly my management is Aboriginal, but they do not respect cultural obligations and give us a hard time if we use cultural time for funerals etc. one said 'i wish i was aboriginal, I’d be a professor by now'...another gives me demeaning work, and when i challenge him, he says, oh you're not a real academic anyway XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Implied that race was used as an advantage to negotiate more funding for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people whom are underrepresented in student bodies Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander issues always seem to be a last minute thought e.g. wanting things at the last minute instead of being core business - very frustrating and disrespectful Colleagues make fun of culturally significant date. NAIDOC, Sorry Day. They look down on indigenous students. Senior/middle management are largely White and their bias means Indigenous & people of colour do not progress or get promoted, even/especially if they are the most qualified. Lack of respect for Aboriginal culture and knowledges. Publicly running me down in social situations claiming my experience is not relevant to the Uni/faculty. Always overlooked for full-time appointments despite 13 years on the job. Undermining of workplace actions/advice/words by colleagues; constant ridiculing; refusal to acknowledge cultural status; incapacity and refusal to separate different roles within academic workplace - mostly regarded simply as 'workplace peer'; tokenistic acknowledgements - even by other Aboriginal staff, especially those from 'out of country'; being treated as part of the white possession and being interpreted/identified and managed from that position - being treated as part of whitefellas (and some blackfellas) 'cultural capital' of the organisation; having to continually endure the pan-Aboriginal thing that ensures the usual systemic violence of white colonialism that these hierarchical - read - heteropatriarchal organisations/Institutions keep in place. This treatment will never end while Aboriginal people and their cultures, knowledges etc. continue to be filtered "though whiteness, white bodies (both human and institutional)" Read Dr Sara Ahmed and her notion re white men as buildings. Of course it does not help that there is an increasing number of what I describe as compliant and or 'good natives' or as Zoe Todd describes 'white-coded' aboriginal/native/indigenous person. My personal experiences are too many to number and I do not expect anything to change - after almost 40 years in white public space - because the social construction of these institutional spaces governs all that is within, including beliefs, behaviours, practices, and even governs the 'white-coded' aboriginal/native captured in there. We have to lead the change in that white public space...stop being comfortable and get over 'grateful'.

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Having a degree in a particular area but not being able to teach in that area and having an outsider teach in that area. It's never blatant. It is usually that they don't know that I am Aboriginal and so they think no one will challenge their comments or if they do know they try to quantify themselves by disclaiming their not a racist but... It is covert and difficult to describe. It is due to a lack of awareness/ignorance

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Individual comments to question 3.3 If you have encountered direct racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes in the workplace please detail your experience/s: My colleagues "joke" about my lack appearance and not being a "real Aborigine" and my students often make negative remarks. Negative and deficit views of Aboriginal people is expected in my teaching as I am teaching Aboriginal history; students rarely have an understanding of any of the accurate truths of Aboriginal history and often direct their shock, anger and disrespectful comments at me. This level of resilience I have developed is neither considered in my job, nor acknowledged. Higher levels of management do not consider the effects these comments and treatment and fail to address the issue which has occurred for me for over 5 years. I went to present on Aboriginal history to the local non-Aboriginal educators. As I was listed first in the agenda of about four people, a large percentage of educators turned up to the presentation after I had finished. I felt embarrassed, and knew they had turned up after the "Aboriginal stuff" had finished. I am swallowed up by it - the absolute lack of critical evaluation on the part of the institution and individuals is overwhelming. A colleague asked me if my son (who is dark skinned and half African) was a "throwback". She justified this by saying, "I am just asking because you are so white. It's hard to imagine you as Indigenous that's all." A lack of understanding or willingness to learn about my role A staff member "joked" about getting a tan to access a program for indigenous students. Racists left notes mocking Aboriginal people outside the Indigenous unit. After speaking to students about the incident at the petrol station, a student advised that he wouldn't see that situation as racist, total disregard for my experience and me naming that experience as racist Again, simple the expectation that you are not really qualified, therefore your work is not up to par, cannot be trusted, etc. As before mentioned, being called slurs, comments about other Aboriginal people, refusal to be served by me. As the Cultural Advisor on a few projects for our (their SM/MM have asked me to do this) I have been left out of meetings, had my name used i.e. ' said this or that is ok' when I had no knowledge of this or that and it was certainly not ok. as the only Aboriginal team member undertaking a remote area outreach trip we experienced an extreme event on the last night of our trip as we were making our way back home. Some members of the team gave oxygen to the bigot we encountered and no one spoke up against them. I was left very isolated and lonely amongst my team who I thought had my back at all times. Asking me to film my interactions with other Aboriginal people for a video to promote Aboriginal Engagement. Put some Aboriginal paintings up on my walls in my office to make the place seem culturally inviting.

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Assumptions that Indigenous people receive a lot of financial support. People actually arguing that means testing is not required for Indigenous people. being called a 'real' Aboriginal Being challenged in an aggressive tone verbally, not being believed about my recommendations, knowledge or needs, inappropriate language used, name calling by others, assumptions, information displays being moved, things being added or removed without permission Being overworked and not provided the support of additional staff. bullying passive aggression, my qualifications challenged Comment from Senior Management that they had ‘got lost’ looking for the work function and instead found the Aboriginal Education Unit and ‘partied with them by the river bank drinking goon’ Comments in meetings referring to Aboriginal peoples and meeting participants not knowing I’m Aboriginal. Reviewing curriculum which has language referencing assimilation of indigenous music into mainstream. Comments such as... oh those people referring to Aboriginal people, inappropriate jokes and comments Constant questions over the content of my courses. Also constant questions about the relevance of my courses and I have a constant battle to prevent them from being cut. During a six month secondment with a large corporation as the Indigenous employment Officer I encountered racial discrimination by the very people who were supposedly trying to develop their RAP Plan - Reconciliation Action Plan. It was all lip service and Senior Management had no intention of making this a genuine corporation wide initiative at all. Every form of racism is direct from my standpoint. Overt/subtle, direct/indirect distinctions are dialogues from racists themselves (e.g., what they think). Every direct and subtle form of racism is just racism from my perspective. Technically speaking, you need to realize that this question is based on racist foundations because you are centring the racists' standpoints, not our understanding. for not allowing staff members cultural leave to attend funerals Given trivial gifts (almost like trinkets) assuming you should be satisfied with that. Assumption was that they assumed I was low SES and would be happy with that. Wtf? Had to ask students to not make racist statements in lectures - and also have met resistance from middle management to efforts to support Aboriginal students I am not sure... is it race, is it personality is it just incompetence by other staff at times. I have been called an impostor (because I was not known by the person who sent it) in an email which was sent to all of my colleagues. I have been told i am not dark skinned and therefore a 'fake Aborigine". i was also told that i got given my degree and PhD.. This was very hurtful because i worked hard and Aboriginal academics go through so many more hurdles than our white counterparts to prove ourselves.

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I have had a student make a complaint in a module I was running - one out of almost 200 hundred students - that one student's comment was seen to be more relevant than the other 200. I decided, due to the stress created, it wasn't worth presenting anymore, so worked out another way to provide the information for the students. I spent a lot of my childhood in a rural town and in remote communities on school holidays. I am subject to lateral violence on a daily basis at work. I live with mental health issues and my incapacity to function to my full potential when I'm unwell is always equated to my intelligence being diminished. I was wished a Happy Australia Day Ignored excluded from social/work invites. In past employment at a hospital people thinking I got the job because I'm Aboriginal and making it difficult to work with them as they would speak to me. In spite of being the most highly qualified Aboriginal academic my contract was not renewed - the reasons why were shrouded in mystery, gossip and innuendo Indigenous colleague placed racial discrimination complaint against myself and other Indigenous staff. Management did not want to deal with it because of the risk that the complainant would take things further It is covert and difficult to describe. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Justification of my role. Lack of respect for Aboriginal culture and knowledge. Made to work in hot conditions, had to listen to racist remarks involving the local people ( mining industry ) Mostly, a lack of respect for my prior community and academic experience. My first job was an identified position and people I knew and other work colleagues didn't think I was deserving and that I only got the job because I identified as Aboriginal. I have since gone on to mentor and support other identified entry level workers and found colleagues treated them the same. One referring to my trainee as 'nothing but a little gin' My knowledge and contribution are minimised because there is a perception that Aboriginal people are outside of academia, not within it. References to Aboriginal people as though I/we are not in the room. Invasive questions about myself and my family that other staff don't get asked. Negative student feedback is sometimes racially motivated. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Not being invited to meetings in my unit that discuss Indigenous issues as I have been told I am too sensitive. Not respectful to older or long term community workers or activist. Often hear racist attitudes about indigenous students and staff and in the wider community. one student said she didn't have to come to my lectures, as i don't know enough to teach Previously described - but also I am kept on 1 year contacts when non-Aboriginal staff seem to get 3 to 5 year contacts.

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Re: racist attitudes - I am approached by non-Indigenous staff to 'explain' the Indigenous content, culture or history. I am not recognised for my knowledge and expertise in other 'areas'. Staff member: we have a dedicated Aborigine unit and still no real outcomes. I never see any of the Aborigines on campus...well apart from you...but you're different...you’re not from the bush." Student: Indigenous people get too much and now I have to do a unit and pay HECS for it. The Uni should concentrate on real issues. Staff member (new to Uni): You don't look like an Aborigine. Your other genetics must be very strong Student in class suggested that it would be good to have a lecturer of the culture to speak with the class. Students and staff questioning existence of Indigenous support unit. The list is too long. Some of the regular ones include surprised reactions that I have qualifications equivalent to or more than work colleagues. Being told my direct line manager that perhaps I've misunderstood comments made to me. The type of racism I've experienced is the covert style. Systems, workload, attitudes, stereotypes and the invisibility. The usual comments - if i was aboriginal, I’d be a professor by now; and of course - are you coming back from holidays, or going walkabout... There are up to 2 staff currently that actively compete with me since they asked "are you indigenous" and pulled a face in disbelief because in their words I’m "not black enough and don't look indigenous" , and was told “you shouldn’t say anything if you don’t look it, that way people won’t know”…..this was 2017. I've developed processes that are unique and have been confirmed that no one else in the University has done before, yet I watch other staff doing same old same old get for VC's awards; and one of them is the staff member that commented to me that I'm not black enough and was shocked that someone of "indigenous decent can actually work well". Told by a colleague that as a light-skinned Aboriginal person that I have no culture. My professional skills and qualifications are often dismissed as I am employed in an 'Identified' position. Being told you are ' not like' those other Aboriginals by colleagues; and of course the usual, "you can't be Aboriginal, you're so white..." Told to teach in an area that I have no experience in teaching. Treated as a 'token' with regard to assessing research for organisation. Too many to recount. Questioned about identity. White people who know a little think they know more and talk as if they are experts. Students questioning qualifications Students using white people against me because white people have more authority. Colleagues picking my brain and then using it for their work. This is a major one. White colleagues playing people off against each other. Unconscious bias, inappropriate language, lack of cultural awareness, lack of self-awareness, lack of knowledge of history, refusal to promote/progress. Was told that I and my role were not necessary. You see it all the time, where Indigenous issues are always left to last and added on as an afterthought. It's not very encouraging as an Aboriginal staff member

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Individual comments to question 4.3 If you have encountered lateral violence in the workplace please detail your experience/s: A senior manager in charge of me made terrible comments about one of my team members who is and whose mum is . Her views meant she had issues with him being & she wanted to have an Elder write this a letter to verify who is was because didn't like how was acting. He had asked for for a project because wasn't able to get something externally printed without them. They had an argument over the issue which was to be fair outside control. After that she started on . Local Elders said that they knew him and the family and said that the matter was closed but kept asking even though job wasn't identified, was and there'd been no problem until the argument. ended up sick so I went to the manager and said feeling sick and I think there is another way we can solve this. said felt disrespected and I tried to mediate the situation. then said I was disrespecting which wasn’t my intention. Then I started getting every decision questioned and also left out of senior team meetings or they were held when they knew I couldn't come. I also had other team members telling me I should have sided with manager. It became nasty and stressful. Appeals to higher management were useless Almost always around identity threat. An Aboriginal person was appointed as a senior manager. When we tried to challenge what he was saying we were told we were practising lateral violence. Yet a program that had been run specifically for Aboriginal people - for 30 years - was closed. This program trained educational leaders for our communities. This is a prime example of lateral violence as our communities no longer have these leaders coming back to them; and this University doesn't have a program to specifically training Aboriginal educators. Backstabbing and undermining, spreading malicious gossip. Being a member 'off country.' Being told by my own mob that 'I don't look it' and that I must be a white fella cashing exploiting the indigenous employment schemes offered by previous employers. Bullied and mobbed. Bullying by senior management which impacted my success in promotions. bullying, eye rolling, not telling me stuff I need to know - increasing my workload and then saying I knew about it, putting my name down to do things without asking me, so I look silly...and I witness it, so I feel it when it happens to others too Colleagues who participate/direct lateral violence usually have many issues/troubles themselves so I do my best not to engage. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

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Constantly being asked to do acknowledgement to countries. Having my content for unit structure reviewed multiple times as opposed to once by reviewer. My views are recognised as indigenous but not an Indigenous RN or Lecturer. Students are not used being taught by Indigenous people on Indigenous health, they will go to my colleges before me as they feel I may get too emotional. currently under investigation Directly from an Aboriginal senior member of staff via bullying, harassment. Doubts over authenticity of my Aboriginality. Dumbed down my job, claim I don’t know how to do my job, not qualified etc. Isolation and awful treatment by Manager. Had my Aboriginality questioned XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX i don't get information; they say things behind my back; they set me up to fall (e.g., put me down to do a welcome, when i don't do welcomes here) I have had my identity questioned in subtle and covert ways. I have also been excluded from work activities and decision making because a colleague has taken on/been given the role of spokesperson. It seems to me that my colleague preferred to be the only Aboriginal person in the department and got a lot of power from that. I didn't tell my supervisor because I didn’t know if I would be supported and I didn't want to be perceived as the problem. I was labelled in front of a large meeting as having too much "White privilege" to be able to make decisions as an Aboriginal teacher or even teach Aboriginal culture. My colleagues have consistently ignored me, fail to communicate with me when they are required to, fail to include me in events and even just coffee because I "don't fit" in with the "dark" Aboriginal people. I was told one time by someone I work with that wearing a particular shirt (with aboriginal art on it) makes me look blacker. Individuals talking about me in a negative way to others Information being withheld, decisions made without being informed or participating, laughing about family history, hardness in communications, aggressive questioning, poor planning of tasks, a sense of being set up to fail, expected rather than negotiated use of resources It was more so my sexuality

published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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It’s too much to go into detail but a Aboriginal colleague bullied and harassed me for 18months before anything was done about it, despite things being put into writing regarding the bad behaviour Late identifiers not have the trust or support of the community being miserable. Manager promotes negative stereotyping about Aboriginal students based on myths about Aboriginal people being lazy/unintelligent. Member carrying stories to other members to undermine relationships. Middle management and cohorts white anting. My boss doesn't speak to me, only to ask a question. I don't receive a hello or goodbye or get asked about anything that I have been working on. It has gotten to a point where I refuse to have 1 to 1 meetings with as has made me very upset and almost sick during the meetings. Since has started all 3 meetings have resulted in me ending the meeting in tears and I feel like I am suffering from anxiety as a result. I refuse to go on stress leave or to put in a bullying and harassment claim as I have seen my fellow Indigenous colleague go through one with with no outcome and I have seen the toil that it has taken on emotional wellbeing. I watch my go through the same crap as I do every day and he hasn't achieved anything. I am trying to stay strong for and for other members of our team who are now suffering similar treatment. It's soul destroying Not in my current workplace but in previous workplaces. Undermining of projects, undermining of what I have been trying to do etc. Not replying to emails about cultural leave obligations and being told that cultural leave/compassionate leave should only be according to the EA Not towards me but have witnessed other Aboriginal staff members be victims to lateral violence. One work place I was abused as our organisation got the money. The other was deliberate failure to follow up on racist abuse by non-Indigenous middle manager and mediator’s recommendation. . Co-workers also spread rumours to get me sacked and another person not hired so their family member could get job. At current University other staff have excluded me from processes stating I am not a real Aboriginal as I am white. Other staff 'gaslight' you to undermine your position, for instance I have a colleague who for the past 6 years has complained about paperwork for RHD students approximately every 3 months. Specifically that I have not processed it. Each time I have to troll through my emails, find the documents and the paper trail and send it through to prove it has been completed - each and every time it wastes my time and yet the assumption that I do not complete my work is maintained even though I repeatedly prove I have completed the work Professional jealousy, tall poppy syndrome Receiving threatening emails from the person. Threatening her impact on other projects I was involved in with her Reduced to an honorary appointment so I could ensure the progress of a newly awarded ARC grant, I am shut out of developmental opportunities as an academic, I do not have any opportunity to apply for internal research funds 54

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referring to other Aboriginal staff as not 'real' Aborigines etc. Small subtle, being ignored. Strong dialogue used to demean me and others. subtle lateral violence is in the workplace this can be as results of people who hold positions higher and use it either consciously in the work place Systemic and unsupportive workplace environment for Aboriginal Academics and professional staff. Tall poppies / power corrupts all those things contribute to lateral violence The environment in an Aboriginal unit can be quite toxic at times, and people turn on each other when they feel you are perceived to get special treatment, or if you don't "fit in" with the dominant group. I have had my identity questioned. I have been told I "don't belong". The worst LV I ever experience was as a student from fellow students. I attended a Conference paid for by the University. Long story short is that two of the other students who I was sharing accommodation with basically didn't go too much of the conference and had a holiday. I think that they thought I was going to 'dob them in'. I had no interest at all in whether they went or not because it was none of my business. However, they spread lots of rumours about my not being Aboriginal at all and twisted comments and conversations. I then had to spend a few hours next to them on a plane listening to their ranting. It was awful and I was devastated that people might believe them. What I didn't realise at the time was that they were so fragile in their own cultural journey that they felt they had to attack me. They said that they were going to write to the university and tell them that I was an imposter etc. I actually wrote to the Head of School to refute all of that and I never heard a thing back. It was an incredibly demoralizing time and almost caused me to drop out of my studies. Because I was a largely External student I continued but made sure I didn't go in to any other classes. Even now later it still affects me at times. There are so few 'identified' jobs that competition is strong. This increases resentment between applicants (and final successful one). XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX There is a staff member at that I have had a history of bullying with at another institution when we were both students. She has been hired and I am now unable to socialise with my Indigenous colleagues as she is often hanging around and I feel unsafe. Too many. Workloads over the top, not recognising strengths of individuals and giving people jobs they should not be doing, setting them up for failure, and often it is the LGBT group who are targeted followed by the non-indigenous group, unless they are friends or family of the manager and even then they are not safe from bullying and nasty behaviour from the manager. Untrue gossip, innuendo, snide remarks about work performance and being excluded from events. When commencing my employment I was subject to name calling such as 'flash black' & 'coconut'. This was often done to undermine my professionalism & opportunity to do my job well when working with other Aboriginal staff and students. published by nTEU aboriginal & torres strait islander unit

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When students are under stress they often last out, then our non-Aboriginal colleagues chose not to support us and breathe life into these idiots and make our lives hell. White anting Work place practises and attitudes being driven from a white Eurocentric viewpoint and showing a complete lack of cultural know and experience. Yes. Always.

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I’m STILL not a racist, but...

I'm Still Not A Racist, But...  

Second Report on Cultural Respect, Racial Discrimination, Lateral Violence & related Policy at Australia’s Universities. Published by the Na...

I'm Still Not A Racist, But...  

Second Report on Cultural Respect, Racial Discrimination, Lateral Violence & related Policy at Australia’s Universities. Published by the Na...

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