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German University in Cairo | Architecture and Urban Design Program Building Technology and Design

Author | Nouran Zakaria Bachelor Thesis Elephantine Island, Aswan Elephantine Archeological CenterI


German University in Cairo | Architecture and Urban Design Program Building Technology and Design

Bachelor Thesis Elephantine Archeological Center

Author:

Nouran Zakaria

Supervisor

Assoc. Prof. Thomas Loeffler

Examination Committee:

Dipl.-Ing. Mandana Alimardani University of Stuttgart Prof. Dr. Tamer El Khorazaty German University in Cairo Assoc. Prof. Thomas Loeffler, German University in Cairo M.A. MSc. Martin Saehlhof German University in Cairo

Examination Date

13.06.2015

Submission Date:

30.06.2015

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Declaration

This is to certify that:

(i) the thesis comprises only my original work towards the Bachelor Degree

(ii) due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other material used

Nouran Zakaria 30.06.2015

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Table of Contents

Declaration Table of contents Abstract List of Figures Introduction Design References Climatic Analysis Urban Analysis Project Design Problem Definition Spatial Typology Study Concept Finding Space Program Concept Development Technical Focus Conclusion References Bibliography List of figures Appendix: Project presentation Model photos

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49 51 53 63

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Abstract

The aim of this project was to introduce a new typology with an essential function to Elephantine Island and to Aswan in general. This new typology is an archeological center. Aswan lacked such important center that studies the heritage and the historical surroundings with a progressed technological equipment and a place that is near such important discoveries. A place that also preserves the findings and the historical elements excavated on site and found in Aswan. The project also serves different kind of people arriving to Aswan and to the island in general as it serves the workers and researchers in providing an equipped complex with a comfortable environment to help result in a better productive work. Designing such complex had its challenges starting with the social and historical aspects to the geographical aspects with the plot of the building and its different topography levels and the Nile on the east side. An urban analysis was made on a large scale area of Elephantine island and Aswan. And then a dense study on a smaller scale in Elephantine island was made to provide a building that fits within its context, blend with the surrounding and takes into consideration the inside or the building as well as its outside. A study of spatial typology was also made to facilitate a dynamic guided space inside the building as well as outside. The project then develops in reaction to the site and its surrounding. Three main masses were the

main element when designing the form which was dependant on the functions and how it is situated on the site. The report then shows the development of the concept and the form of the designed building and how the issues and challenges were solved and dealt with. Finally it shows how the building serves different target audiences and how it acts as a gate to the different spaces on the island.

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List of Figures

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. Figure 27. Figure 28. Figure 29. Figure 30. Figure 31. Figure 32. Figure 33. Figure 34. Figure 35. Figure 36.

Promenade of Aswan from Movenpick Hotel Collage promenade showing the archeological center within the surrounding Ariel view of Elephantine Island. The daily average low (blue) and high (orange) temperature with percentile bands (inner band from 25th to 75th percentile, outer band from 10th to 90th percentile). Bioclimatic chart indicating comfort zones according to Aswan’s temperature. Daily hours of daylight and twighlight Wind speed in Aswan Chart indicating wind direction annually Down stream old Aswan Dam rating curve Nile river with the 3 reaches Solid and Void plan Urban form plan Green plan Street Pattern plan Section lines on arial site plan. East west terrain section North South terrain section Urban analysis of Cultural and monumental buildings on Elephantine island Boutanical Island Nilometer Agha Khan Mausoleum Fatmid Cemetry Aswan Museum Historical Roman Stairs Sample of the buildings in the Nubian Village Sharia as-Souq Unfinished Obelisk Nubian Museum Aswan High Dam Philae Temple Urban analysis of historical building on Elephantine island Path to the site from the Nile Entrance to the Altes museum (Villa) and the Ticket office Fairy connection directly to the site Rocks on the site Retained walls between the Villa and the site

01 03 05 07 07 07 08 08 08 08 09 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 20

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Figure 37. Figure 38. Figure 39. Figure 40. Figure 41. Figure 42. Figure 43. Figure 44. Figure 45. Figure 46. Figure 47. Figure 48. Figure 49. Figure 50. Figure 51. Figure 52. Figure 53. Figure 54. Figure 55. Figure 56. Figure 57. Figure 58. Figure 59. Figure 60. Figure 61. Figure 62. Figure 63. Figure 64. Figure 65. Figure 66. Figure 67. Figure 68. Figure 69. Figure 70. Figure 71.

Steps leading to the site and the Villa Historical plan for a residential area. Historical plan for Khnum Temple. Historical plan for Satet Temple. Satet temple of the early Dynastic period. Front 3d photo of the entrance to the archeological center. Model of the building plot with the surrounding Model of spatial typology studies Group figure of models studying the spatial typology between masses. (Floating space) Group figure of models studying the spatial typology between masses. (The Connector) Site plan with the perimeter of the plot to use for the design Conceptual sketch Nubian village Form 1 Form 2 Form 3 Form 4 Final form from the entrance at the roman stairs Conceptual sketch showing zoning of masses Conceptual sketch showing the relation between the building and the surrounding Ground floor plan Second floor plan Collage of the roof terrace East side Elevation Nubian Museum Limestone material Mud bricks Shading diagram Conceptual diagram of shading element and sun ray path through louvres 3d shot of the entrance 3d shot of the cafeteria and the building fro the south Group figures of elements of the building for U-value calculations Facade section with partial Elevation Fixed window and ventilation window Stacked mud brick system

20 21 21 22 22 23 25 27 29 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46

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Fig 1 Promenade from Movenpick hotel

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Introduction

The project is located on Elephantine island in Aswan. The island is located at the northern end at the fist cataract in the river Nile. It is considered one of the biggest islands of the cataract as it stretches two kilometers opposite the Aswan corniche from north to south. The island hosts Nubian villages in its center and the northern part. It also consists of farm lands. It has the Movenpick hotel which was called Oberoi before. A museum is located on the island which was a Villa for the engineer who was administrating the first high dam to be built in Aswan. The island is considered an archeological site as it hosts many ancient temples and archeological areas and an ancient settlement that dates back to 3300 BCE. These settlements and archeological areas are being excavated by the German archeological institute and the Swiss institute of Architectural studies since the 1960th. Thus there is two excavation houses for these archeologists and researchers who come in the winter season, due to climate condition, to excavate and work. Despite the richness of the site with Nubian culture, archeological sites and even other aspects such as the fact that the ground under the sand there is made of granite; it lacks the necessary guidance and technology that is needed to excavate and preserve such excavation and historical monuments from the site. It also lacks the simple necessary services and buildings such as cafeterias, shaded areas and rest rooms The project doesn’t only serve the researchers but it also serves the tourists and visitors. The island could only be accessed by private boats or public ferries. After taking the ferry or a boat to island, you are basically on your own. There is no guide to where you should go and the archeological site is not respected.

The project’s goal is to provide all the mentioned facilities and services; make it easy and simple for the visitors from the moment they land on the island to the moment they leave. An archeological building that not only serves as a complex for researchers and archeologists to proceed with their work on the island with the suitable work environment and technology, but also for visitors to have a welcoming guided entrance to the site and the island as well thus giving the island its importance. The project or the new complex should act as a gate to the site, the archeological area and the Nubian villages. It will act as a museum as well explaining the history of the island and the villages. Displaying the excavated elements from the site in such museum. The given area for the site is also a great space that could serve the project variously due to several aspects such as it being located on the Nile and the great variation in the topography of the land as the project perimeter spans from the banks of the Nile to the Museum Villa and the Nubian village acts as a boundary for the site from the north while the excavation site acts as a boundary from the south. One of the goals the project is set to achieve is to blend with its surroundings, not just material and exterior wise but also cultural wise so to act as a part from its whole. It aims to provide the experience and explain the architecture’s relationship to the topography and maintain a dynamic spaces inside and outside the complex.

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Fig 2

Collage showing the building within the context

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The report will discuss the concept of the archeological center followed by the design development stages and then the technical focuses achieved in the design. The report will consist mainly of three sections. Explaining the design strategy, the concept behind the building. It will also show the different stages of form and conceptual studies to achieve a final form that fits the surrounding and serves the design purpose, will be in the first phase. The second phase will show how the concept was developed and reflected on the form and how the main components are realized. Then in the third phase a focus on the technical aspects realized in the building will be shown and explained. 4


Fig 3 Elephantine Island

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Design References

Design references will include basically what supported the project and was a base to the composition of the form and the archeological center. The location of the building and what surrounds it and how important each surrounding element from the topography to the building are. a. Climatic analysis b. Urban analysis

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Climatic Analysis Temprature

Fig 4 The daily average low (blue) and high (orange) temperature with percentile bands (inner band from 25th to 75th percentile, outer band from 10th to 90th percentile)

Sun

Fig 5 Bioclimatic chart indicating comfort zones according to Aswan’s temperature

The warm season lasts from May 11 to October 5 with an average daily high temperature above 38°C. The hottest day of the year is July 29, with an average high of 42°C and low of 29°C. The cold season lasts from December 3 to February 19 with an average daily high temperature below 26°C. The coldest day of the year is January 18, with an average low of 10°C and high of 23°C. The average fraction of time spent in various temperature bands: frigid (below -9°C), freezing (-9°C to 0°C), cold (0°C to 10°C), cool (10°C to 18°C), comfortable (18°C to 24°C), warm (24°C to 29°C), hot (29°C to 38°C) and sweltering (above 38°C).[1] The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line), with various degrees of daylight, twilight, and night, indicated by the color bands. From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray): full daylight, solar twilight (Sun is visible but less than 6° from the horizon), civil twilight (Sun is not visible but is less than 6° below the horizon), nautical twilight (Sun is between 6° and 12° below the horizon), astronomical twilight (Sun is between 12° and 18° below the horizon), and full night. The earliest sunrise is at 5:00am on June 9 and the latest sunset is at 6:41pm on July 2. The latest sunrise is at 6:34am on January 14 and the earliest sunset is at 5:00pm on November 28.[1] Daylight savings time (DST) is not observed in 2012. The solar day over the course of the year 2012. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (solar, civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray[11].

Fig 6 Daily Hours of Daylight and Twilight

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Wind

Fig 7 Wind Speed

Fig 8 Wind Direction annually

Water levels of the Nile

Fig 9 Down stream Old Aswan Dam rating curve

Over the course of the year typical wind speeds vary from 1 m/s to 7 m/s (light air to moderate breeze), rarely exceeding 10 m/s (fresh breeze). The highest average wind speed of 4 m/s (gentle breeze) occurs around June 19, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 7 m/s (moderate breeze). The lowest average wind speed of 3 m/s (light breeze) occurs around January 20, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 6 m/s (moderate breeze). The wind is most often out of the north (61% of the time) and north west (15% of the time). The wind is least often out of the south west (1% of the time), east (1% of the time), south east (1% of the time), south (2% of the time), and west (3% of the time). The graph indicates the fraction of time spent with the wind blowing from the various directions over the entire year. Values do not sum to 100% because the wind direction is undefined when the wind speed is zero.[2] The river nile has an estimated length of over 6800km and is fed by two main rivers, the White Nile and the Blue Nile. It goes from Aswan to the Delta and is divided into four major reaches. The first reach is located between old Aswan dam and Esna barrage with a length of 166km. The figures show the rise in water levels of about 3 to 12cm from the year 2005 to 2009 in comparison to the year 1995-1998. Such phenomenon could be attributed to morphological changes and man made activities.

Fig 10 The river Nile

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Urban Analysis Solid and Void plan

Figure 11

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Urban Form

Figure 12

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Green plan

Farm lands Public gardens Grass

Fig 13

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Street Pattern

Direct Fairy connections Fig 14

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Terrain Sections Scale 1:1000

Two longitudinal sections were taken in the island topography and buildings to help study and understand the levels of the topography and the different heights of the surrounding context from the Nubian village buildings to the Villa and the Nile. Such study is essential when designing the archeological center so that the building would not impose on the surrounding or act like an unintentional boundary of wall that hides a certain structure on the island and thus disturbs the existing society and urban life. Studying how the Nubian village was built and the voids between the building masses were also important to consider with the archeological center design so that it adapts with such distribution and positioning on the island.

Fig 15 Section lines on site plan

Fig 16 East West Section

Fig 17 North South Section

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Cultural and Monumental Building Analysis

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Nubian Village Public Gardens Hotels and resorts

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Fig 18 Urban analysis of Elephantine island

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1. ELEPHANTINE ISLAND 2. BOUTANICAL GARDEN 3. DORET EL NILE GARDEN 4. FERIAL GARDEN 5. MOVENPICK HOTEL 6. PYRAMISA ISIS CORNICHE HOTEL 7. PYRAMISA ISIS ISLAND HOTEL 8. OLD CATARACT HOTEL 9. HATHOR HOTEL 10. PHILAE HOTEL 11. NUBIAN VILLAGE 12. MICHEAL CATHEDRAL 13. EL TOLBA MOSQUE 14. ASWAN ELEMENTARY COURT 15. FAMILY COURT 16. ASWAN MUSEUM 17. GERMAN ARCHEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 18. HISTORICAL ROMAN STAIRS 19. ASWAN METRO STATION 20. AGHA KHAN MAUSOLEUM 21. ASWAN POST OFFICE 22. NILOMETER 23. SHOPS AND RESTAURANTS 24. HANDCRAFT SHOP

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Religous buildings Museums and monuments Other cultural buildings 14


1. Boutanical Island (Kitchener`s island) It is located in an ancient red granite quarry. It is a 42-meter-long and four-meter-wide chunk of stone. Its estimated that if completed the obelisk would have weighed nearly 1168 tons. AN attempt by its creators to carve it out of its bedrock failed because cracks appeared in the granite and the project was abandoned (fig 19).[3]

22. Nilometer It is located to the west of Elephantine Island. It is still referred to by its old name, Kitchener island. It was given to lord Horatio Kitchener in the 1980s who turned the island to a botanical garden reflecting his passion for palms and plants. Plants there are imported from the far east, India and parts of Africa. It covers 6.8 hectares (fig 20).[4]

Fig 19

Fig 20

20. Agha Khan mausoleum It was built to hold the tomb of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah (18771957), leader of the Shi’a Islam Nizari Islamic sect. He was remembered by his charitable work, setting up educational and medical institutions throughout Africa and Asia. He was Also know for his influential role in the discussions about the partition of India(fig 21). [9]

Fatmid Cemetry

It is located over a small hill. Some of the tombs go back to the 9th century, even before the Fatmid period. It contains modern graves and few old mud-brick domed tombs. Around 50 out of 80 tombs have been lost due to the urban expansion and the fragile materials used in constructing the tombs, such as mud-brick (fig 22).

Fig 21

Fig 22

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16. Aswan museum (Villa) The Villa was erected in 1902 and served as a residence and office for the engineer in charge of the administration of Aswan Dam (fig 23).

18. Historical Roman Stairs The stairs is located beside the harbour. It has more than seventy steps. It was used to provide access from the harbour to the temple area (fig 24).

Fig 23

Fig 24

11. Nubian Villages Nubian villages are located on Elephantine island and also in Gharb Soheil Nubian village. Its a simple town with Nubian culture (fig 25).

Sharia as-Souq Souq Aswan is basically many colorful bazaars that offers Egyptian an African goods. It consists of many alleys and is considered the cheapest place to buy goods in Aswan yet it is a high tourist attraction area (fig 26).

Fig 25

Fig 26

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Unfinished Obelisk It is located on the Elephantine island, on the eastern embankment near the ruins and down a flight of steps. It functions as a measuring device for the Niles rise and fall with these stone-hewn wells allowing them to estimate the height of the annual flood thus predict the success of their harvest (fig 27). [10]

Fig 27

Nubian Museum It was established in 1997 in cooperation with UNESCO. It covers an area of 50,000 square meter, 7000 are devoted to the building while the rest are gardens and public spaces. The museum shows the history, culture and civilization of ancient and modern Nubia (fig 28).

Fig 28

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Aswan High Dam The Aswan high dam is an embankment dam across the river Nile that was constructed between the years 1960 and 1970. Its goals was to control fluids, provide water irrigation, and generate hydro electricity (fig 29).

Fig 29

Philae Temple The temple was originally located near the first cataract. This temple was dedicated to the Goddess Isis by the Egyptians. Due to the flood the complex have been moved to Agiika island as part of the UNESCO Nubia Campaign Project to protect it (fig 30).

Fig 30

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Historical Building Spatial Analysis

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1. RESIDENTIAL AREA 2. RESIDENTIAL AREA 3. KHNUM TEMPLE 4. SATET TEMPLE OF DYNASTY VI 5. SATET TEMPLE OF SESOSTRIS I 6. RETAINING WALL 7. NILOMETER 8. ALTES MUSEUM (VILLA) 9. GERMAN ARCHEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 10. DISTRIBUTION CENTER OF LATE DYNAST Y XII 11. SHOPS AND RESTAURANTS 12. CROCODILE HOUSE 13. HISTORICAL ROMAN STAIRS 14. PATH FROM HARBOUR TO THE TEMPLES 15. RUINED PYRAMID 16. BASILICA 17. TEMPLE OF KALABSHA 18. HANDCRAFT SHOP 19. SANCTUARY OF THE DEIFIED HEQA-IB 20. TICKET OFFICE 21. ROCKS

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Residential areas Temples Others Basilica

Fig 31

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14. Path to the site from the Nile

Fig 32

20. Entrance to the Altes museum and the ticket office

Fig 33

20. Fairy connection directly to the site

Fig 34

21. Existing rocks on the site

Fig 35

6. Retained walls between the Villa and the site

Fig 36

Steps leading to the site and the Villa

Fig 37

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Historical Plans for Urban Life Figure 38 shows a sector of the town at the time of the late middle kingdom. It shows a partial area of the residential urban spaces that used to exist and how the circulation between the different function from the residential houses to the temples were distributed.[8] Residential Area A. Sanctuary of Heqa-ib B. Main street C. Temple of Sobekemsaf D. House 70 E. House 69 F. Distribution center

Figure 39 shows Khnum temple with courtyard to be the first space after accessing the main entrance. The courtyard contained tree pits and had positions of sphinxes, statues and obelisks as well as a podium for the God’s barque. Passing the large Ptolemaic courtyards you are guided to the staircase that provides access to the portico of the temple. A portico is a structure consisting of a roof supported by columns at regular intervals typically attached as a porch to a building.[8] Khnum Temple A. Temple B. Portico C. Courtyard

Fig 38 Residential Area

Fig 39 Khnum Temple

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Another floor plan that shows a different urban distribution of the historical area on the island including the Satet temple and a priest’s house with the main street. These spaces were built with walls of bricks and the temple was built using limestone (fig 40).[8] Satet Temple A. SatetTemple B. Cult room C. Festival courtyard D. Main street E. Priest`s house F. Sanctuary of Heqa-ib Fig 40 Satet Temple

Fig 41 Satet Temple

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Fig 42 Front 3d photo of the entrance to the archeological center

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Project Design

In this phase, a discussion and a representation of the foundations of the form, concept implementations, design phases and the technicalities approached in the design will be discussed.

a. Concept Finding b. Developed Concept c. Technical Focus 24


Fig 43 Model of the building plot with the surrounding

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Problem Definition

The project is situated in an area with existing boundaries and in a place with climatic condition challenges. Many aspects needs to be considered and solved. The topography in the site is a main element considered when designing the building yet it is a main challenge to be taken into consideration. The site lacks a strong guided connection between the different places on the island. From the fairy entrance to the Nubian village, the villa, the historical site, the archeological center and the garden. The new archeological center will be the perfect connector between these places so that it would act as the gate and the guidance to the different places with its different functionality on the site. The archeological center will fill the gap of the absence of a typology that helps the development and preserves the discoveries of the island. It would be a place that serves the researchers and workers as well as the visitors and tourists. As it will provide a communal area, resting area and cafeteria for visitors and workers. A gate to the important areas on the island. Another problem was trying to fit a building that would become the center of attention and a focal point on the island between different existing boundary lines such as the land, the river, the historical site, the Nubian village and the project itself being a modern building in a historical area. The surroundings; from the ancient monumental stairs to the garden and the villa are neglected and not used properly so the project aims to make the island as one entity meanwhile preserving the integrity of the historical and important elements and buildings on the site. Due to the climatic conditions of Aswan and the hot weather it is hard to see a dynamistic open space and it is always in a closed envelope yet I

intend to solve this problem by providing a space that is dynamic from the inside and the outside to create a lively and dynamic environment around the building and on the site. Basic consideration included the orientation of the building and how it reacts in its chosen position with the surrounding environment.

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Fig 44 Model of spatial typology studies

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Spatial Typology Study

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the masses by exploring the idea of solid and void in architecture and to develop a simple spatial idea. The lowest layer acts as a base and as a connector of the upper masses while all three layers have a spatial connection with each other. Taking into consideration the space between the different parts. 28


Floating Space The idea was to design the solids without neglecting the voids, yet giving a huge importance to the voids so when you look at the sculpture it doesn’t look dense. Giving importance to the space. That was achieved by playing with the proportions of some elements. These thin elements acts as the main support and connection for other masses. These thin elements acts unintentionally as a guide through the space.

Group Fig 45 Group figure of models studying the spatial typology between masses. (Floating space)

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The Connector The idea was to create space with taking into consideration the spatial connection between masses. Using voids at first as connectors to the solids ending up with a united complex. Then one vertical connector was added to be significantly visible and unique in the complex and it connects all the masses together.

Group Fig 46 Group figure of models studying the spatial typology between masses. (The Connector)

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Concept Finding Being located on an island south of Egypt and in an area full of historical significance, a contextual approach was very important when designing the building. The project naturally falls along existing boundary lines: between land and river, and between historical areas, Nubian village and the modernuse project site. This burdens the project with the load, as well as opens the opportunity, of becoming a focal point that creates an interface between the above factors, and thus blurring the boundary lines. The five main surrounding site parameters being land, water, historical area, Nubian village and the archeological center itself categorized as a modern building, it creates a constant dialogue with each of these by adopting different faces from each viewpoint.

Fig 47 Site plan with the perimeter of the plot to use for the design

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The building mainly faces the Nile and opens up to the nature that demands to be looked at. This follows a building tradition observed by the Nubians, and that is to build on the Eastern side in honor of representations of life (fig 49).

Fig 48 Conceptual Sketch

Fig 49 Nubian Village

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The shaping of the masses started by trying to fit the program contextually and formally in the site and blend it with the village typology and forms. That lead to three separate masses, different in proportions, positioned so that each mass connect to a different area on the site related to its function. The typology of such masses were driven mainly from resembling the typology of the Nubian village masses to blend the building with the surrounding so that the flow of the void space in between the buildings of the Nubian village is continued and directed to the site and the plot occupied by the archeological center.

Fig 50 Form 1

Fig 51 Form 2

But then there was the need to connect the three masses to each other to become a whole and to create a better spatial quality inside the building yet taking into consideration connecting these masses to the site and the surrounding.

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Since the topography of the site is composed of foundations of temples built on older temples and so on[8]; it is basically layers of eras overlaid above each other so each topographical relationship in turn expresses a different meaning, and when stacked together they represent a transition between different eras or time frames, beginning with the oldest on the ground level and becoming newer towards the top. In resemblance to that I decided that the organization of the masses should be in respect to that order so that the exhibition which is a manifestation of history and thus is closer to the ground. The research center, however, is the modern-use function of the building and is therefore elevated above ground. It represents the future discoveries and hopes, and overlooks the site and the village. Fig 52 Form 3

Fig 53 Form 4

Thus the site topography had a major role to play. It was important that the building is merged with the land in a way that allows the user to experience the island’s topography. After making the building one entity, it was important that it reacts with the surroundings with its different aspects. A play of interior and exterior spaces create a dynamic exterior form which seems to emerge from the terrain of the island with its different layers. The terrain is manipulated as a single surface that folds to create a new layer of interior space.

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Fig 54 Final form from the entrance at the roman stairs

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Concept Finding

The main entrance to the site remains from the monumental roman stairs to preserve its integrity and integrate it with the site. Once you arrive at the monumental stairs, there is a direct access from the North side to the lecture hall and the classrooms yet the main access is on the east faรงade. Upon entering you are directed to either take the stairs that leads you to the exhibition or continue to the outdoor stairs that leads you to the outdoor terrace and the site. You are then directed to the garden and the Villa and from there you could continue your journey by going to the historical area and then back to the site overlooking the Nile and the outdoor terrace with its exhibits. 36


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Space Program

P u b l i c A r e a 338 m2 security (counter to pass at entrance) 12 m2 reception desk/ ticket counter 15-20 m2 back office (close to reception) 25 m2 lobby / hall 60 m2 restrooms+wardrobe/lockers 24 m2 +12 m2 (entrance level or basement) storage+cleaning 10 m2 + 5 m2 (entrance level or basement) bookshop / giftshop

60 m2

cafeteria / CafĂŠ 65 m2 tea kitchen 30 m2 storage (kitchen level) 20 m2 terrace depending on concept E x h i b i t i o n A r e a 270 m exhibition space 200 m2 temporary exhibition space 50 m2 restrooms 20 m2 CafĂŠ

Education / Research lecture hall / conference hall (with possibility of division into 2 small

2

730 m2 160 m2

halls, close to public area) AV room (attached to conference hall) 12 m2 class rooms (3 x 35 sqm) 105 m2 open space offices researchers 60 m2 cell offices researchers 3 x 12 sqm 36 m2 meeting room small 20 m2 meeting room big 45 m2 library 60 m2 photo lab 20 m2 restauration lab / workshop 80 m2 tea kitchen 12 m2 restrooms 20 m2 archive (ground floor / basement) 100 m2

A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 145 m2 offices administration 80 m2 2 2 (2 x 12 m cells + open space office ca. 60 m ) meeting room small 20 m2 meeting room big 45 m2 M a i n t e n a n c e / F a c i l i t i e s 120 m2 storage 40 m2 technical rooms 40 m2 prayer room 40 m2

TOTAL

1 603 m2

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Concept Development The form mainly consists of three parts: exhibition, research center, and cafeteria. While all are connected to each other, each part maintains a unique relationship to the site and the surrounding depending on its use. In figure 58, mass 1 is the cafeteria with a one storey height,mass 2 is the entrance and the exhibition with two storey height and mass 3 is the offices with the classrooms and lecture hall and its a four storey high mass.

2

3 1 Fig 55 Conceptual sketch showing zoning of masses

The research center is strategically placed near the archeological center path. The exhibition and the outdoor terrace connect the building to the villa with the other exhibits collected from the site. The cafeteria is connected to the garden from the site, and its unique proportion and direction provide a new type of experience with the surroundings, one that is contradicting to the experience throughout the rest of the building through its verticality and being focused on the outside rather than the inside.

Fig 56 Conceptual sketch showing the relation between the building and the surrounding

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Not only the building is blended with its surrounding, but also another element in the building was integrated in the topography so that it would feel like it’s one entity and not an alien that doesn’t fit in the surrounding context. Upon entering the building, one uses a staircase that seems to be part of the site topography. This staircase leads you to the exhibition. The exhibition begins inside the building, and progressively leads you to the outside terrace and then to the garden. As the garden is also used to exhibit statues, and therefore serve as an extension to the exhibition that has a more direct dialogue with the site. For the visitors going directly to the site without entering the exhibition, they could take the staircase upon entering as shown in figure 60 and then continue to the outdoor staircase that leads to the outdoor terrace and then to the garden and the Villa. From the lobby you also have another path to the left where you enter the huge longitudinal cafeteria suspended over the Nile with the three views overlooking the Nile and the surrounding. For the researchers and workers there is a direct access so that when entering the lobby they could enter to the right area where the lecture hall is situated on the ground and first floor with the classrooms on the first floor, while the offices is on the 2nd floor and the Administration is on the third floor. The offices are overlooking the Nile and the Nubian village. There is another access for the workers and the visitors seeking the lecture hall and the classrooms; from the north façade of the building where you enter directly to the lecture hall and the classrooms. This access is also a shortcut for the workers to the path that leads directly to the archeological center. Fig 57 Ground floor plan

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The roof of the building was used to match the topography level so that it serves the conceptual approach of blending with the surrounding and making the building a part that is from a whole which is the site so that the roof that acts as an outdoor terrace is integrated with the garden with its exhibits and the villa with what it contains from the collections that is gathered from the historical site. So the whole area becomes a dynamic space occupied with different kinds of exhibits in different environments from a terrace to a garden to an enclosed envelope.

Fig 58 Second floor plan

Fig 59 Collage of the roof terrace

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The façade was designed so that the different function of the masses are shown. The offices had the louvres covering the façade. The exhibition area which is the middle part was totally closed. The cafeteria is opened from the three sides and the windows have the same dimensions with an equivalent proportion to that of the limestone tiles used on the façade. The stacking of the facade stones were changed in each horizontal raw so that it goes with a system of xyxy, as displayed in figure 63, to match that of the Nubian museum and to give an essence to the façade.

Fig 60 East side Elevation

Fig 62 Limestone material

Fig 61 Nubian Museum

Fig 63 Mud bricks

In order to help blend the building with its surroundings and following the vernacular architectural traditions of Aswan, limestone is used as a main building material. Limestone is also the local material that is found all over Egypt and the material of the great pyramids in Cairo and the Nubian museum in Aswan. Limestone has a thermal conductivity of 2.3W/mk.[13] The result is a building that is less imposing on its surroundings, as well as increased interior thermal comfort in a region that is hot all year round. I used mud bricks as louvres for the office part of the building in the east and north side because mud bricks has the advantage of being fabricated on site. They also are good with Aswan’s weather from their thermal properties and U-value. Nubian villages in Aswan where actually build from mud bricks and it was also used to build walls within the temples. 42


Fig 64 Shading diagram

Fig 65 Conceptual diagram of shading element and sun ray path through louvres

The location of the building is in a city that is situated near the subtropical desert scrub biome and has a hot climate during most of the year with a temperature reaching above 40 degrees Celsius. A conclusion was made after the urban study that the east and west facades of the building will have the sun rays path in a low angle so the sun and the light will be high on those sides. The South facade will have almost al the sun rays inside also with a low angle and almost all day long inside the facade. While the North side will not have a direct sunlight yet it will have more than 60% of the wind coming from that side. Thus, a careful consideration was made when designing the openings on the facades of the building, the heights of the openings and providing shading elements when needed. The diagram in figure 68 shows the opening in the east side for the entrance while the west side has openings that has indirect path of sunlight coming in to increase the thermal comfort inside. The shading strategy used for the mass of the offices was different than the entire building. Since the facade that needed shading was on the east side, vertical louvres were more convenient and appropriate than horizontal ones [11]. So they were fixed on the extended slab of the building leaving a convenient gap between the main facade with the windows and the louvres itself. The diagram in figure 72 explains how the shading system works as the green rays are the sun rays blocked by the light from entering the building directly. While the red ones are the sun rays that were allowed to enter the building. Taking into consideration that this diagram only shows the path of the sun rays inside the building in a certain yet most critical time of the day and thus it changes during the day cycle. The shading system continued on the north side. 43


According to the position of the building situated on the island, the main facade being on the east side had minimal opening in places that needed such windows. The exhibition area on the first floor had no openings yet the entrance hall on the ground floor had wide openings. That was as a result of the cantilevered part of the exhibition that is of five meter long making no direct sunlight inside the entrance hall as shown in figure 69. So the cantilevering system as a shading strategy was used several times in the building as it was also used for the classrooms area on the first floor were it was shaded with a cantilever of seven meter long of the slab of the offices in the second floor. Another cantilever used was as shown in figure 70 to shade the outdoor terrace of the cafeteria.

Fig 66 3d shot of the entrance

Fig 67 3d shot of the cafeteria and the building fro the south

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Technical Focus

Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Thermal insulation 5 cm Water Proofing 2 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Thermal insulation 5 cm Water Proofing 2 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

Figure 68 Group figures of elements of the building for U-value calculations +15.70

+15.70

+15.00

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Gypsum Board Tiles

Gypsum Board Tiles

Steel Hanger Anchored to Corrigated Sheet

Steel Hanger Anchored to Corrigated Sheet

Top Hung Steel Window Night Ventilation

Granite Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

Top Hung Steel Window Night Ventilation

Granite Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

Fixed Window Double Glazed

Fixed Window Double Glazed

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Gypsum Board Tiles Steel Hanger Anchored to Corrigated Sheet

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Plastered break louvers

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Plastered break louvers

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Granite Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Thermal insulation 4cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

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Granite Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Thermal insulation 4cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

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ated Sheet

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Granite Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

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Fixed Window Double Glazed

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ated Sheet

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Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 25 cm

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Tiles 2 cm Mortar 2 cm Sand 4 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 10 cm Thermal insulation 5 cm Water Proofing 2 cm Ordinary Concrete Slab 15 cm Compact Soil

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1.90

The U-value is a measure of the heat transmission and how effective a building part is as an insulator in a building part such as a wall or a floor. The lower the U-value the better the material is as a heat insulator. While the higher the U-value the worse the thermal performance of the building envelope. Its use is to predict the behavior of the entire building element as a whole rather than rely on the properties of individual materials. [5]A calculation of the U-value for the building envelope was done for the elements shown in figure 71; the exterior wall, the floor and the roof. The result of the calculations was that the external wall had a total U-value of 0.18W/m2k. U-value of the floor is 1.32W/m2k and the roof is 0.49W/m2k. The system I used was cladding so the structure was a concrete interior wall from the inside and limestone cladding from the outside so that I could provide the strength and durability of the concrete for the building inside yet design a façade that would blend and have the same tone of its surroundings. Thermal bridges, U-values and G-values had to be considered to avoid unnecessary thermal discomfort inside the building. Thermal bridge is a certain area in a building’s envelope were the heat flow in such area is increased in comparison to adjacent areas resulting in an overall reduction in thermal insulation of the building.[6] So thermal insulations were added on the building envelope to reduce as much as possible such heat transfer to affect the temperature inside the building. G-value is the coefficient that is used to measure the solar energy transmittance of glass and in the case of Aswan’s hot climate; the lower the g-value the better the indoor temperature.[7]

Fig 69 Facade section with partial Elevation FACADE SECTION 1:50 FACADE SECTION 1:50

45


The structure used for the mass of the cafeteria was concrete panels of one meter depth with beams and columns as a support structure system. The pillars are of dimensions 60 centimeters by 60 centimeters each ten meter long. These pillars goes to a depth of ten meters deep into the Nile until it reaches the soil underneath. The window system used was fixed double glazed windows with a small window on top that could be opened for ventilation. The fixed windows were of height 1.8 meters while the small windows were 0.4 meter high as in figure 73. The system of stacking was a crossing of the bricks as figure 74 shows thus overlaying the bricks above each other in an order of one brick then 2 half bricks and so on to increase the louvres’ stability when stacked above each other vertically. Each brick was then attached with the other by using mortar and these bricks were plastered.

Fig 70 Fixed window and ventilation window

Fig 71 Stacked mud brick system

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47


Conclusion

In conclusion, the archeological center had to go through different designing phase to produce a satisfying center that pleases the future occupants and the visitors. It also had to give a huge consideration to the surroundings from the locals and the Nubian village to the researchers in the archeological center and the excavators in the historical sites. That was done by the different design phases that the project gone had gone through. As the concept finding was an important phase to investigate the different forms and arrangements of masses and its relationship with its surroundings and also the connections formed and required from the building that should act as the guided gat to the Elephantine island. Then a final form has been chosen and developed in a second phase so that the building would provide a satisfying environment and shape in respect to the analysis done on the site.

Interacting with the surrounding by having the building not only focus on the inside; the topography and the land, but also the outside which is the river Nile. Having the building designed as one mass yet considering the positioning of each function in relation to the surrounding and the context. Considering the people entering the building from the visitors to the researchers and workers and making an easy and guided access for both. The choice of the material of the façade helped in blending the building with its surroundings and not give the feeling that it’s an irregular mass in such a historical and important site.

In the last phase a technical focus was done to improve the building technicalities and its envelope as it is situated in a city that has a hot dry climate almost all year long. By trying to implement all the previous aspects, the project succeeded in becoming a part from a whole and in blending with the surrounding. Providing a dynamic space inside and outside the building by introducing an interesting function on the roof of the building yet providing shade for such roof and integrating it with the exhibits of the garden so they become connected one way or another.

48


References

[1] Aswan yearly weather summary. Temperature analysis. (2015). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http:// www.worldweatheronline.com/Aswan-weather-averages/Aswan/EG.aspx

[2]Wind and weather statistics Aswan airport. Wind analysis. (2015). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/aswan_airport

[3]Aswan boutanical gardens. Kitchener island. (2015). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.lonelyplanet.com/egypt/nile-valley/aswan/sights/nature-wildlife/aswan-botanical-gardens

[4]David Zetland, The Nilometer. (2015). Retrieved June 23, 2015, from http://www.aguanomics. com/2012/01/nilometer.html

[5] John Brennan, U-values definition and calculations. (2015). Retrieved June 23, 2015, from http://www.architecture.com/RIBA/Aboutus/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Earth/1-1-1-10Uvalues(INCOMPLETE).aspx

[6] [Kaufmann 2002] The Passive House – Energy-efficient Construction, Timber Construction Handbook Series 1: Design and Construction Section 3: Residential and administrative buildings Part 10: Passive House – Energy-efficient Construction, DGfH Innovation and Service GmbH, 2002 Retreived June 23, 2015, from http://passipedia.passiv.de/ppediaen/basics/building_physics_-_basics/heat_ transfer/thermal_bridges 49

49


[7]G-values in buildings. Definition of G-values. Last updated 05 June 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/G-value_in_buildings. Last accessed 23/06/2015

[8]German Institude of Archeology. (1998). Elephantine: The ancient book. Egypt: Max group

[9]The Agha Khan award for architecture. Nubian museum. (2001). Retrieved June 23, 2015, from http://www.akdn.org/architecture/project.asp?id=1447

[10]Monolithic Madness. The unfinished Obelisk in Aswan. (2015). Retrieved June 23, 2015, from https://ashtronort.wordpress.com/monolithic-madness-the-unfinished-obelisk-aswan-egypt/

[11]Average weather for Aswan, Egypt. Annual sun and wind analysis. (2015). Retrieved June 23, 2015. from https://weatherspark.com/averages/29254/Aswan-Egypt

[12]Shady Attia. Bioclimatic design and thermal comfort in Aswan. Last updated (April 16, 2006). Retrieved June 15, 2015, from http://www.sbd.ulg.ac.be/academic/BioclimaticDesign/Lecture%2006. html

[13]Hegger M., Auch-Schwelk V., Fuchs M., & Rosenkranz T. (July 21, 2006) Construction material manual. Munich first edition. Berlin: Birkhauser Architecture

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List of Figures

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Promenade of Aswan from Movenpick Hotel. Source: from http://lifewithtravel.com/?s=aswan Collage promenade showing the archeological center within the surrounding. Captured by author Ariel view of Elephantine Island. Source: google maps The daily average low (blue) and high (orange) temperature with percentile bands (inner band from 25th to 75th percentile, outer band from 10th to 90th percentile) Source: https://weatherspark.com/aver-

01 03 05

ages/29254/Aswan-Egypt

07

spark.com/averages/29254/Aswan-Egypt

07 07 08 08 08 08 09 10 11 12 13 13 13 14

botanical-gardens

15 15

memorials-tombs/aga-khan-mausoleum

15 15 16 16 16

aswan?p=poster el souq

16

lisk-aswan-egypt/

17 17 18 18 19 20 20

Figure 5. Bioclimatic chart indicating comfort zones according to Aswan’s temperature Source: https://weatherFigure 6. Daily hours of daylight and twighlight Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/29254/Aswan-Egypt Figure 7. Wind speed in Aswan Source: http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/aswan_airport Figure 8. Chart indicating wind direction annually Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/29254/Aswan-Egypt Figure 9. Down stream old Aswan Dam rating curve Source: https://weatherspark.com/averages/29254/Aswan-Egypt Figure 10. Nile river with the 3 reaches Figure 11. Solid and Void plan. Done by author Figure 12. Urban form plan. Done by author Figure 13. Green plan. Done by author Figure 14. Street Pattern plan. Done by author Figure 15. Section lines on arial site plan. Source: google maps Figure 16. East west terrain section. Done by author Figure 17. North South terrain section. Done by author Figure 18. Urban analysis of Cultural and monumental buildings on Elephantine island. Source: google maps Figure 19. Boutanical Island Source: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/egypt/nile-valley/aswan/sights/nature-wildlife/aswanFigure 20. Nilometer Source: http://www.aguanomics.com/2012/01/nilometer.html Figure 21. Agha Khan Mausoleum Source: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/egypt/nile-valley/aswan/sights/cemeteriesFigure 22. Fatmid Cemetry. Captured by author Figure 23. Aswan Museum. Captured by author Figure 24. Historical Roman Stairs. Captured by author Figure 25. Sample of the buildings in the Nubian Village. Captured by author Figure 26. Sharia as-Souq. Source: http://www.redbubble.com/people/bulljup/works/10055175-sharia-as-souqFigure 27. Unfinished Obelisk Source: https://ashtronort.wordpress.com/monolithic-madness-the-unfinished-obeFigure 28. Nubian Museum. Captured by author Figure 29. Aswan High Dam. Captured by author Figure 30. Philae Temple. Captured by author Figure 31. Urban analysis of historical building on Elephantine island. Source: google maps Figure 32. Path to the site from the Nile. Captured by author Figure 33. Entrance to the Altes museum (Villa) and the Ticket office. Captured by author

51


Figure 34. Figure 35. Figure 36. Figure 37. Figure 38. Figure 39. Figure 40. Figure 41. Figure 42. Figure 43. Figure 44. Figure 45.

Fairy connection directly to the site. Captured by author Rocks on the site. Captured by author Retained walls between the Villa and the site. Captured by author Steps leading to the site and the Villa. Captured by author Historical plan for a residential area. Source: Elephantine book Historical plan for Khnum Temple. Source: Elephantine book Historical plan for Satet Temple. Source: Elephantine book Satet temple of the early Dynastic period. Source: Elephantine book Front 3d photo of the entrance to the archeological center. Done by author Model of the building plot with the surrounding. Captured by author Model of spatial typology studies. Captured by author Group figure of models studying the spatial typology between masses. (Floating space). Captured

Figure 46.

Group figure of models studying the spatial typology between masses. (The Connector). Captured

Figure 47. Figure 48. Figure 49. Figure 50. Figure 51. Figure 52. Figure 53. Figure 54. Figure 55. Figure 56. Figure 57. Figure 58. Figure 59. Figure 60. Figure 61. Figure 62. Figure 63. Figure 64. Figure 65. Figure 66. Figure 67. Figure 68. Figure 69. Figure 70. Figure 71.

20 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 25 27

by author

29

by author

30 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46

Site plan with the perimeter of the plot to use for the design. Source: google maps Conceptual sketch. Done by author Nubian village. source: http://www.mondointasca.org/2007/08/30/nubia-laltra-meta-del-sudan/ Form 1. Done by author Form 2. Done by author Form 3. Done by author Form 4. Done by author Final form from the entrance at the roman stairs. Done by author Conceptual sketch showing zoning of masses. Done by author Conceptual sketch showing the relation between the building and the surrounding. Done by author Ground floor plan. Done by author Second floor plan. Done by author Collage of the roof terrace. Done by author East side Elevation. Done by author Nubian Museum. Captured by author Limestone material. Source: http://www.firedearth.com/tiles/range/ Mud bricks. Captured by author Shading diagram. Done by author Conceptual diagram of shading element and sun ray path through louvres. Done by author 3d shot of the entrance. Done by author 3d shot of the cafeteria and the building fro the south. Done by author Group figures of elements of the building for U-value calculations. Done by author Facade section with partial Elevation. Done by author Fixed window and ventilation window. Done by author Stacked mud brick system. Done by author

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Appendix

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Model Photos

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