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From the Sargeant Memorial Collection Inside the Pretlow Anchor Branch Library — Vignettes about Norfolk and Virginia’s History and Genealogy

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Norfolk Public Library

Early Residents

Norfolk and the surrounding region had been the site of human habitation for thousands of years before the arrival of English settlers in the early 1600s. The Chesopeian, or Chesapeake Indians, lived in and around Norfolk prior to 1607. They were part of the Eastern Algonquian Indians cultural group. Their society, religious beliefs, and culture would have been similar to the other tribes that were included in the Powhatan Chiefdom, as well as tribes in Delaware and New England up the Atlantic Seaboard. They were hunter-gatherers and corn farmers, also consuming the local shellfish and fish since they lived along the water. They likely spoke a dialect similar to the other tribes within the Powhatan Chiefdom. As for the history of the By Wm. Troy Valos Chesopeian tribe, very little material exists aside from some English references made during the settling of Roanoke Island in the 1580s and of Jamestown in 1607. The earliest mention is during October-November, 1585, when a group of Roanoke Island colonists traveled north to the Chesapeake Bay region to meet with local tribes and to seek food sources. The English stopped at Skicoak, the Chesopeian capital, on their trip to the Chesapeake Bay. William Strachey reported that the Chesopeians had three villages: Skicoak, Apasus, and Chesepiooc. Over the years, archaeologists have found evidence of the Chesopeians having lived in the Great Neck/Lynnhaven Bay area of present-day Virginia Beach. Skicoak is believed to have been located in Norfolk, probably where the Eastern and Southern branches of the Elizabeth River meet. Its exact location, however, may never be known. The Chesopeian tribe was more aligned with the Nansemonds and the Eastern North Carolina tribes, including those around Roanoke Island. They resisted Chief Powhatan’s efforts to be included in his growing chiefdom. A prophecy by Powhatan’s priests would seal their fate. Chief Powhatan (Wahunsenacawh) was told of a prophecy that a powerful group was rising in the East to take over his chiefdom. This was either before or Circa 1723 version of Theodorus de Bry’s during the April, 1607 English arrival. He ordered the Chesopeian tribe destroyed, drawing of local Virginia Indians .........................> C o n t i n u e d O n P ag e 3 around a campfire.

of Norfolk:

Chesopeian Indians

Lott Carey Class Photo

“King of Jazz” at Wells Theater

Unbuilt Norfolk

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the Sargeant Memorial Collection?

Contributors: Robert B. Hitchings William B. Inge Wm. Troy Valos

Mary Denson Pretlow, Head Librarian of the Norfolk Public Library, established the Sargeant Memorial Collection (SMC) in 1927 with only a small assortment of books and historical papers collected by William Henry Sargeant. Sargeant was the first Librarian to be hired by the City of Norfolk in 1897, and he felt very strongly that Norfolk needed a history room devoted to local history and people. The current non-circulating collection contains a variety of books and periodicals about Norfolk and Virginia, as well as Norfolk maps, photographs, high school yearbooks, and city directories for the Hampton Roads region. Nearly 200 years of Norfolk newspapers on microfilm are available. SMC’s genealogy collection encompasses Virginia, North Carolina, Maryland, and other nearby states and includes books, microfilm, and CDs to assist in family research. Today, the Sargeant Memorial Collection offers, without doubt, one of Virginia’s finest The Sargeant Memorial Collection temporarily located local history and genealogy collections. in the Mary D. Pretlow Anchor Branch Library.

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Copy Editor: Susan Mercer

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Graphic Design: Bart Morris

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Printing: Jones Printing Service

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Subscription rate: Free

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Sargeant’s Chronicles is published quarterly by the Sargeant Memorial Collection, Norfolk Public Library

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Purpose: ∂ To promote the collection of the Sargeant Memorial Collection and Norfolk Public Library.

Websites for information from local history and genealogy organizations:

∂ To educate readers about the rich history of Norfolk and Virginia based on research and materials within the Sargeant Memorial Collection.

Norfolk County Historical Society infopeake.org/nchs.asp African American Historical Society of Portsmouth blackhistoryportsmouth.org

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∂ To educate readers about

current research, resources, and trends within genealogy and other historical research fields.

Princess Anne County & Virginia Beach Historical Society virginiabeachhistory.org

Norfolk Historical Society norfolkhistorical.org

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Virginia Beach Genealogical Society vbgsva.org

Recent Acquisitions:

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Please contact us at the Sargeant Memorial Collection about availability of back issues, gift subscriptions, subscriptions, and change of address. Sargeant Memorial Collection Pretlow Anchor Branch Library 111 W. Ocean View Avenue Norfolk, VA 23503 (757) 664 -7485

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Perry Bussard of Norfolk, VA – Books.

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Ruby Burley of Norfolk, VA – Pictures, Ships and Ocean View picture. n

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n Bill Inge of Norfolk, VA – Photographs of 1931 downtown waterfront fire, photographs of storm scenes from 1933 and 1936, and four Peninsula telephone directories from 1942-1948.

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Joan Kanter of Norfolk, VA – Five books.

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Jack Mace of Norfolk, VA – Newspaper articles and books.

ISSN: 1937-4925

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© 2013 Norfolk Public Library. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited except for limited personal research or educational purposes.

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n Jenny Willcox of Chicago, IL – Willcox, Tunstall, Martin, Tilley family papers, scrapbooks, and photographs.

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Campbell, R. Thomas. Academy on the James: The Confederate Naval School, (1998). n

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n Jones, Nancy Bondurant, Linwood H. Rose, and Ronald E. Carrier. Rooted on Blue Stone Hill: A History of James Madison University, (2004).

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n Nutt, Joe. Historic Houses of Augusta County, Virginia: Pen & Ink Drawings of Fifty-Two Homes with Historical Narratives, (2007).

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n Nutt, Joe. Historic Houses of Staunton, Virginia: Pen & Ink Drawings of Fifty Homes, (2008).

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Ramsey, Janet R. Contraband Slaves: Richmond Daily Dispatch 1860-1865, (2013). n

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Lott Carey School class photograph from March, 1921. n

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Genealogy Apps for Apple iPads and iPhones

Te c h Corner

The proliferation of tablets and smartphones has changed the way genealogists can do family history research. Instead of keeping cumbersome binders, you can now have most of your research on your mobile device. Below is information about some apps you can use on Apple iOS-powered tablets and smartphones. You can find these apps at the iTunes store, but be mindful that some may have additional requirements or costs associated with them. It is best to download the iTunes software to your computer to help purchase and manage your apps. iTunes can be downloaded to a Windows computer, however, you need an Apple product (iPad or iPhone) to use these apps. This is only a selection; you should browse and search the iTunes store for others that are available.

Ancestry

Saving Memories Forever 1.0

(Publisher: Ancestry.com) - Free

This app is free, but a monthly fee for additional features is charged.

Reunion for iPad Version 2.01 - Price $14.99

New Acquisition: 1921 Lott Carey School’s Miss Indiana S. Williamson Class Picture located on the corner of E. Princess Anne Road and Smith Street in Huntersville. Your monetary donations allow us to purchase rare materials like this to add to our collection, and we greatly appreciate it! For more information on how to make a monetary donation to the Sargeant Memorial Collection, please see the bottom of Page 7 of this issue.

We wish to thank our donors for their monetary donations to the Sargeant Memorial Collection. Recently, we were able to purchase this wonderful 1921 image of Miss Indiana S. Williamson’s sixth grade class at Lott Carey School from an online vendor with SMC donated funds. Lott Carey, one of Norfolk’s early AfricanAmerican grade schools, was

Chesopeian

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believing them to be the group foretold in the prophecy. His decision was not a difficult one, as the Chesopeians were his enemies. From the scant evidence that is available, it appears that the tribe was effectively wiped out. Their former villages were then repopulated with members from Powhatan’s tribes or from other nearby groups. If there were any Chesopeian survivors, they were captured and integrated into other Powhatan tribes. The time frame of their elimination is questionable, but it appears they had disappeared by the time Captain John Smith explored the Elizabeth River in 1608. Today, the only remnants of the tribe can be found in subdivision and street names, along with the occasional discovery of buried stone points (arrowheads) and tools.

Enlarged area of “The carte of all the coast of Virginia” by Theodorus de Bry, 1590. Courtesy of North Carolina Collection, UNC at Chapel Hill Library.

Sources: Haile, Edward Wright. Jamestown Narratives: Eyewitness Accounts of the Virginia Colony, the First Decade, 1607-1617. Champlain, VA: RoundHouse, 1998. Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas Powhatan Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005. S a r g e a n t ’ s

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When T h e

“King of

” Jazz

Performed at t h e W e l l s T h e at e r

' by William B. Inge " On the night of October 8, 1928, an audience estimated at over a thousand packed the Wells Theater to hear Paul Whiteman and his thirty piece orchestra. The Whiteman band, which had arrived the night before from New York City, was staying at the Monticello Hotel. The Norfolk concert was their first stop on a long tour that took the band through the South and Midwest, and concluded in Chicago. The two hour program at the Wells included jazz and novelty numbers, interspersed with classical and semi-classical works. Among the latter were George Gershwin’s {1898Photograph of Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra from the late 1920’s, from the collection of 1937} “Concerto in F” for solo piano Duncan Schiedt. Whiteman is standing in the center, with Roy Bargy and Lennie Hayton seated and orchestra {1925}, with Roy Bargy at the piano. C-Melody saxophonist Frankie Trumbauer is standing behind the tuba and famed as soloist, and a new composition, coronettist Bix Beiderbecke is third from the right on the back row. “Metropolis: a Fantasy in Blue” by Ferde Grofe {1892-1972}. Grofe, who was best has achieved and achieves every time he plays given this work its world premiere in 1924, known for his “Grand Canyon Suite” {1931}, in public.” Joseph Leslie, writing for the with Gershwin as the soloist. Incidentally, was at that time Whiteman’s orchestrator and Virginian-Pilot, commented that the “Norfolk all three of the above mentioned works were arranger. For an encore, the band performed concert was a decidedly pleasing affair, not given their first commercial recordings by the Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue,” again with only to the ear, but to several of the other Whiteman orchestra. Bargy as the soloist. The Whiteman band had Paul Whiteman {1890-1967} formed his senses–an interesting affair, as well.” first group in California in 1918 and arrived in New York City two years later. His tag line, “There are bands and bands and the “King of Jazz,” was a misnomer. While orchestras and orchestras and then the Whiteman band did play a fair amount there is –Paul Whiteman. And he of jazz, it also performed {and recorded} a played here last night –thanks be!” number of compositions that were in a more Douglas Gordon. The Norfolk Ledgerserious vein. But, there can be no doubt Dispatch. October 9, 1928. that Whiteman hired many of the finest jazz musicians of that era, including the Sources: legendary coronettist Leon “Bix” Beiderbecke, “Famous Whiteman Orchestra To Play At trumpeter Bunny Berigan and trombonist Wells Tonight.” Virginian-Pilot And The Jack Teagarden. Among the vocalists who Norfolk Landmark. October 8, 1928. sang with Whiteman were Bing Crosby, Mildred Bailey, and Johnny Mercer. The “Whiteman Concert Thrills Hundreds At reviews in both the Virginian-Pilot and in Wells Theater.” Virginian-Pilot And The Ledger-Dispatch were highly favorable. Douglas Norfolk Landmark. October 9, 1928. Gordon, reviewer for the Ledger-Dispatch, noted that “not even Stokowski nor any of the “Only One Whiteman And Only One Whiteman Band.” Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch. others can make a band, an orchestra, play Advertisement: Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch. October 9, 1928. with such amazing unity as Paul Whiteman October 4, 1928. 4

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Unbuilt Norfolk:

The High-Rise Hotel That Never Was ' by William B. Inge " with the history of Hampton Roads.” Title to the property would be held by the Admiral Hotel Corporation. Hugh Dickson of Atlanta, Georgia, president of the corporation, remarked that the War Production Board had “long realized the acute need for another hotel in Norfolk, and considered it essential in the war effort in order to provide accommodations for those called to Norfolk in connection with the war effort.” Hotel management would be under the Architectural rendering of the prospective hotel. From the front direction of Affiliated page of the Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch, October 14, 1944. National Hotels, out of Galveston, Texas. found in the older Monticello, Southland and David H. Goodman, of the Goodman-Segar Thomas Nelson hotels, the new hotel was Corporation, Realtors, would handle the almost completely devoid of architectural assemblage and purchase of the real estate. The new hotel was designed by Angelo embellishments to the Robert Clas {1887-1970}, a Washington, point of severity. D.C. architect, with Alfred M. Lublin According to an article in the Virginian- {1906-1960} of Norfolk as associate architect. Lublin was quoted in the Virginian-Pilot Pilot the following as saying the hotel “will represent the last day, the hotel “will be word in modern construction with nothing named in honor of left out to make it the country’s most up to some distinguished date.” Clas was formerly associated with the figure in naval history, great Chicago architectural firm of Holabird probably a flag officer & Root. Together, they collaborated on the of the United States Detail of the first floor plan, showing the York and Boush Street or Confederate Navies entrances. Note the Princess Anne Hotel name in the lower right hand .............> Continued On Page 6 peculiarly identified corner. From the Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch, October 14, 1944. What would have been Norfolk’s tallest building and its first major downtown hotel since the Jamestown Exposition, never got any further than the design and planning stage. News of the $2.2 million, 364 room hotel was announced in the October 14, 1944 edition of the Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch. The unnamed hotel would be 16 stories in height, including two penthouse floors to house the air conditioning and elevator equipment. It would be Norfolk’s tallest building; surpassing both the 13 story National Bank of Commerce and the 12 story Royster Building. The new hotel would be located at the northwest corner of Boush and West York streets, with entrances from both streets, while the lobby faced York Street. Each of its 364 rooms, furnished in the “latest style,” would have a private bath and circulating ice water. A ballroom, capable of seating 500 persons, a 250 seat main dining room, several smaller dining rooms, and space for three shops would also be included. The hotel would be of fireproof construction, with a granite, limestone and brick exterior. Designed in the International Style, it would have been quite modern, albeit very plain, in appearance. Unlike the heavy classical detailing

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High Rise

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“War-congested Norfolk urgently needs this new hotel facility. Post-war Norfolk will need it too, for nothing is more certain than that the city will emerge from the war period permanently enlarged, with commercial, maritime, air transport and tourist demands for hotel accommodations that will be beyond the ability of our present hotel resources to satisfy.”

design of the 12 story Lafayette Building in Washington {1940}, which today is on the National Register of Historic Places. Lublin, one of the region’s most accomplished architects, was born and educated in Germany. He came to Norfolk in 1938 to set up his own architectural practice. In 1945, Lublin, along with John B. McGaughy, a Norfolk civil engineer, organized the firm of Lublin, McGaughy & Associates. Among the many notable works by this firm include the former Kirn Memorial Library and Leigh Memorial Hospital’s Smith-Rogers Memorial Hall. This firm is still in business today as the MMM Design Group. Construction of the new hostelry was to start in December, 1944, with Muhleman & Kayhoe of Richmond and Washington as contractors. However, it was not to be. For reasons unknown, the hotel was never built, despite the apparent dire need for a new, modern hotel. Downtown Norfolk would have to wait until June, 1961 when the Golden Triangle Motor Hotel opened for business. As for the Boush and York Street site, fulfillment of a hotel at this location arrived 65 years later in 2009 with the opening of the Residence Inn by Marriott.

– Norfolk Virginian-Pilot. October 15, 1944. Sources: “364-Room Hotel to Be Built Here; Cost $2,200,000.” Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch. October 14, 1944. “16-Story Hotel, 364 Rooms, Costing $2,200,000, to Be Built In Uptown Norfolk.” Norfolk Virginian-Pilot. October 15, 1944. “The Mid-Town Hotel Project.” Norfolk Virginian-Pilot. October 15, 1944.

SMC’s African American Genealogy Class Saturday, February 1, 2014 @ 2 - 4 PM Pretlow Anchor Branch Library 1st Floor Meeting Room

This class is for genealogists researching African American families

from Norfolk and other places in the United States. The class is divided into two sections: the

first part of the session discusses print resources with suggestions on how to conduct research, and the second part highlights resources found online. Space is limited to 20 people per class. Please register in advance at (757) 664-7485. Cost: Free.

Norfolk Historical Society’s 2013 Second Wednesday Series Dec. 11 • 7 pm Battle of Big Bethel: Crucial Clash in Early Civil War Virginia

New book by Michael Cobb (Curator of the Hampton History Museum), Edward Hicks and Wythe Holt. Book signing follows.

All presentations are held in the Theater, MacArthur Memorial Museum, at 198 Bank Street in Norfolk, Virginia. The presentations start at 7 PM with light refreshments following and are free to public. Parking is available in the south garage of MacArthur Center Mall ($2 after 6 PM). For more information, please contact Peggy Haile McPhillips, (757) 664-7328 ext 377.

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On-going SMC Genealogy Workshops SMC staff offers the following workshops, free to the public, at Pretlow Anchor Branch Library. For more information or to register for a class, please call (757) 664-7485 or email: localhistory@norfolk.gov

Beginning Genealogy – Search wills, deeds, marriage and other court records. Space is limited to 12 people per class. Register in advance at (757) 664-7485.

How to Use On-line Genealogy Databases – Learn how to

use Ancestry.com genealogy database and other online genealogical resources. Space is limited to 15 people per class. Please register in advance at (757) 664-7485. Pretlow Anchor Branch Library – 1st Floor Meeting Room Saturday, January 18th @ 2 – 4 PM Saturday, April 12th @ 2 – 4 PM

Pretlow Anchor Branch Library – 1st Floor Meeting Room

Digital Genealogist – A nuts and bolts class on how to be a digital genealogist. Learn the basics of scanning family papers, photographs, and other items. Also learn how to safeguard your family’s digital heritage and how to organize your family’s digital files. Space is limited to 15 people per class. Please register in advance at (757) 664-7485. Pretlow Anchor Branch Library – 1st Floor Meeting Room Saturday, March 15th @ 2 – 4 PM

Saturday, December 7th @ 2 – 4 PM Saturday, January 4th @ 2 – 4 PM Saturday, March 1st @ 2 – 4 PM Saturday, April 5th @ 2 – 4 PM

Our Gratitude to...

...the following people for their generosity in donating to the Sargeant Memorial Collection, and/or the Norfolk Public Library Foundation. Dr. Daniel R. Alonso of Norfolk, VA Lesa D. Archie-Barnes of Norfolk, VA Louise Boykin of Suffolk, VA Ruby Burley of Norfolk, VA Perry Bussard of Norfolk, VA Blanche C. Chappell of Norfolk, VA Gale C. Garner of Norfolk, VA Claudia Z. Graham of Norfolk, VA Robert R. Hull of Norfolk, VA Bill Inge of Norfolk, VA

Robert C. Siik of Norfolk, VA Mark H. Tabakin of Virginia Beach, VA Blane Walker of New York, NY James M. Weckerly of Norfolk, VA Dr. G. William Whitehurst of Norfolk, VA Jenny Willcox of Chicago, IL Dr. Robert Wojtowicz of Norfolk, VA

Joan Kanter of Norfolk, VA Gregory Y. Kim of Norfolk, VA Robert M. Latimer of Norfolk, VA Harvey L. Lindsay, Jr. of Norfolk, VA Jack Mace of Norfolk, VA Susan E. Meier of Norfolk, VA Merrie J. Milner of Norfolk, VA Dr. Edward C. Oldfield III of Norfolk, VA William T. Prince of Norfolk, VA Shirley N. Sellers of Norfolk, VA

And everyone who has purchased our 2014 Norfolk Historical Calendar! Thank you!!

If you have questions, please contact Sonal Rastogi at (757) 664-7328 or go to www.npl.lib.va.us

About the Sargeant Memorial Collection Endowment The Norfolk Public Library Foundation has set up seven different endowments to enhance and improve the collections, technology, programming and buildings of the Norfolk Public Library system. In particular, the Sargeant Memorial Collection (SMC) Endowment was established to preserve and protect fragile and often one-of-a-kind items in the library’s local history collection. In conjunction with the 80th birthday of the SMC, the NPL Foundation announced in 2007 its campaign to raise over $1.5 million dollars for the SMC Endowment. A donation or inclusion in your estate planning will be greatly appreciated. If you have questions, please contact Sonal Rastogi at (757) 664-7328 or go to www.npl.lib.va.us then click on “Support NPL.” S a r g e a n t ’ s

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Please Consider a Gift or Donation to the Sargeant Memorial Collection Name: Address: City:

State:

Home Phone:

Work Phone:

Zip:

Email: Please mail back to: How would you like to help? Sargeant Memorial Volunteer Collection Donate Materials Pretlow Anchor Branch Sponsor a Book, Map or Microfilm Monetary Donation for Immediate Use* 111 W. Ocean View Ave. Donate to SMC’s Endowment Fund** Norfolk, VA 23503 * Please make checks to: Norfolk Public Library ** Please make checks to: Norfolk Public Library Foundation 1

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Sargeant Memorial Collection

Mary D. Pretlow Anchor Branch Library

Norfolk’s Local History & Genealogy Collection

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111 W. Ocean View Avenue Norfolk, VA 23503 (757) 664-7485 Fax: (757) 441-1748 www.npl.lib.va.us Email: localhistory@norfolk.gov

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111 W. Ocean View Avenue Norfolk, VA 23503

NON-PROFIT ORG. U.S. POSTAGE

Hours of Operation: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday & Thursday: 10:00am – 9:00pm

PAID NORFOLK, VA PERMIT NO. 2112 ...................

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Friday & Saturday: 10:00am – 5:00pm

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Sunday: 1:00pm – 5:00pm

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Staff: Robert B. Hitchings, Head of Sargeant Memorial Collection robert.hitchings@norfolk.gov ..................................

Address Service Requested

Wm. Troy Valos troy.valos@norfolk.gov

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William B. Inge william.inge@norfolk.gov

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Eddie Woodward Digital Projects Coordinator eddie.woodward@norfolk.gov ..................................

Published in part by the generosity of the Friends of the Norfolk Public Library.

www.npl.lib.va.us

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In Remembrance: Norfolk’s World War I Veterans

On this Veteran’s Day, we remember all our Norfolk residents who fought to defend this country in conflicts around the world. The following images are of some of Norfolk’s World War I veterans: (left to right) Arthur Little, Richard Baker Taylor, Willie Fulford, and Demetrios Galanides.


Sargeant's Chronicles of Norfolk