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Charles Correa Born in Hyderabad, India on September 1, 1930, Charles Correa is an Architect, Planner, Activist and Theoretician. He has been awarded the highest honours of the Architecture profession, including the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, the Praemium Imperiale of Japan, and the Gold Medals of the International Union of Architects (UIA) and the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).

Leela Beach Resort Thiruvananthapurm (1969-1974)

He studied architecture at the University of Michigan and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after which he established a private practice in Bombay in 1958, after a stint with B.V. Doshi at Ahmedabad. His early works attempt to explore a local vernacular within a modern environment. His land-use planning and community projects continually try to go beyond typical solutions to third world problems.

Kanchanjunga Apartments Mumbai (1970-1983)

Bharat Bhavan Bhopal (1975-1981)

Selected Works

Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalay Ahmedabad (1958-1963)

Jeevan Bharati New Delhi (2075-2086)

British Council New Delhi (1987-1992)

Handloom Pavillion, New Delhi (1958) Hindustan Lever Pavillion, New Delhi (1961) Kasturba Gandhi Samadhi, Poona (1962-1965) India Pavillion, Osaka, Japan (1969) National Crafts Museum, New Delhi (1975-1990) Jawahar Kala Kendra, Jaipur (1986-1992) Museum of Islamic Arts, Doha, Qatar (1997) Memorial Gates, London, UK (1999) Gandhi Darshan, Rajghat, New Delhi (1968-1969) Salvacao Church, Bombay (1974-1977/1983-1985) Surya Kund, Delhi (1986) JNIDB, Hyderabad (1986-1991) IUCAA, Pune (1988-1992) JN Centre, Bangalore (1990-1994) JNC at IISc, Bangalore (1990-1994) Church at Parumala, Kerala (1989-2000) MIT Neuscience Centre, Boston, USA (2000-2005) Champalimaud Centre, Lisbon, Spain (2007-to date) Gun House, Ahmedabad (1960-1962) ECIL Office complex, Hyderabad (1965-1968) Permanent Mission of India to the UN, New York, USA (1985-1992) MRF Headquarters, Madras (1987-1992) LIC Centre, Maurutius (1988-1992) Almeda Park Project, Mexico City, Mexico (1994-to date) TVS Finance, Madras (1995-2001) MPSC Offices, Bhopal (1980-1992) Tata Technologies, Pune (2000-to date) NOIDA Autority Building, NOIDA (2006-to date)

Local Design Key to Correa’s design approach is his understanding of the unique cultural requirements and needs of his native country. He recognizes that living in an Asian city requires much more than the use of a small room. In a 1987 book focused on his work, Correa said, “Such a cell is only one element in a whole system of spaces people need in order to live.” He identifies this hierarchical system as consisting of four major elements: space needed by the family for private use, areas of intimate contact, neighbourhood spaces, like a water tap, and urban area open space used by the whole city. Correa stresses the importance of having open-to-sky spaces where families can entertain, cook, relax or sleep. In hot, humid places like Mumbai, these functions can be performed in a private open courtyard or terrace for 70% of the year. A balance must be struck between rooms and open spaces that will give the optimum housing pattern. “To identify the spatial hierarchy (which varies with the cultural/climatic context) and understand the nature of these tradeoffs is the first step towards providing economical housing.

This is why many attempts at low-cost housing perceive it only as a simplistic question of trying to pile up as many dwelling units as possible on a given site, without any concern for the other spaces involved in the system.” This philosophy is reflected in the incremental housing developed in Belapur, Navi Mumbai, completed in 1986. The project demonstrates how high density housing (500 people per hectare) can be achieved in a low-rise typology, while including open spaces and services, like schools, that the community requires. The overriding principle for this development was to give each unit its own site to allow for expansion. Consequently, families do not share walls with their neighbours, allowing each to expand his own house. The houses are constructed simply and can be built by traditional masons and craftsmen, generating employment for local workers. What is more, several plans exist that cover the gamut of social spectrum, from squatters to upper income families. Yet, the footprint of each plan varies little in size (from 45 m2 to 70 m2), maintaining equity in the community.

On Him “Correa fills the role of architect as a collaborator with the people. His designs give the local craftsmen a chance to do their best work.” - Brian Carter, professor of architecture and chair of College of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Michigan

“Among the present cry and clamour for a "universalization" of our thoughts and actions that is seen as a necessary function of the 'advancement of mankind', emerges the architecture of Charles Correa” - Ajanta Sen Poovaiah

By Him " at the deepstructure level, climate conditions culture and its expressions, its Charles Correa's poetry in concrete 3 rites and ritual. In itself, climate is the source of myth: thus the metaphysical quantities attributed to open-to-sky space in the cultures of India and Mexico are concomitants of the warm climate in which they exist; just as the films of Bergman would be inconceivable without the dark brooding Swedish winters". "there is something about looking up and seeing light - I think the tilt of your head awakens some primordial instinct. Perhaps it was the fear of Jove hurling down thunderballs"

Correa’s penchant for sectional displacement, is at its most elaborate in the 28-story, Kanchanjunga apartments completed in Mumbai. Cellular planning is evident from the interlock of the one and a half story, split-level, 3 and 4 bedroom units with the two and half story 5 and 6 bedroom units. Smaller displacements of level were critical in this work in that they differentiated between the external earth filled terraces and the internal elevated living volumes. Subtle shifts enabled Correa to effectively shield these high rise units from the effect of the both the sun and monsoon rains. This was largely achieved by providing the tower with relatively deep, garden verandahs, suspended in the air. The building is a 32-storeyed reinforced concrete structure with 6.3m cantilevered open terraces. The central core houses lifts and other services also provides the main structural element for resisting lateral loads. The central core was constructed ahead of the main structure by slip method of construction. This technique was used for the first time in India for a multi-storeyed building. With its concrete construction and large areas of white panels, bears a strong resemblance to modern apartment buildings in the West. However, the garden terraces of Kanchanjunga Apartments are actually a modern interpretation of the verandah.

Kanchanjunga Apartments

Kanchanjunga Apartments

Richard Rogers Baron Rogers of Riverside CH Kt FRIBA FCSD

Rogers was born in Florence in 1933 and attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, before graduating with a master's degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962. While studying at Yale, Rogers met fellow student Norman Foster. On returning to England he and Foster set up architectural practice as Team 4 with their respective wives, Su Brumwell and Wendy Cheeseman. By 1967 the Foster/Rogers partnership had split up, but Rogers continued to collaborate with Su Rogers, along with John Young and Laurie Abbott. Currently he runs a partnership with Graham Stirk and Ivan Harbour.

The Leadenhall Building London (completion expected 2012-2014)

Lloyd’s Building London (1978-1984)

Millenium Dome London (1996-1999)

Selected Works

Pompidou Centre Paris (1971-1977)

300 New Jersey Ave. Washington D.C. (2004-2009)

Las Arenas Barcelona (completion expected 2012)

Fleetguard Manufacturing Plant, Quimper, France (1979–1981) Inmos microprocessor factory, Newport, Wales (1980–1982) PA Technology Centre, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (1982–1985) Old Billingsgate Market, London, UK (1985–1988) Centre Commercial St. Herbain, Nantes, France (1986–1987) The Deckhouse, Thames Reach, London, UK (1986–1989) Paternoster Square, London, UK (1987) 45 Royal Avenue, London, UK (1987) Reuters Data Centre, London, UK (1987–1992) Marseille Provence Airport, Marignane, France (1989–1992) Heathrow air traffic control tower, London, UK (1989–2007) Channel 4 headquarters, London, UK (1990–1994) European Court of Human Rights building, Strasbourg, France, 1995 88 Wood Street, London, UK (1990–1999) Tower Bridge House, London, UK (1990–2005) Daimler complex, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin (1993–1999) Palais de Justice de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France (1993–1999) Montevetro, London, UK (1994–2000) Minami-Yamashiro Primary School, near Kyoto, Japan (1995– 2003) Broadwick House, London, UK (1996–2000) Designer retail outlet centre, Ashford, Kent, UK (1996–2000) Madrid-Barajas Airport terminal 4, Madrid, Spain (1997–2006) Chiswick Business Park, London, UK (1998-) Senedd (National Assembly for Wales), Cardiff, Wales (1999– 2005) East River Waterfront, New York, USA (2004–2006)

Public Space According to Rogers, public space between buildings influences both the built form and the civic quality of the city, be they streets, squares or parks. A balance between the public and private domain is central to the practice's design approach. Buildings and their surrounding spaces should interrelate and define one another, with external spaces functioning as rooms without roofs. It is the celebration of public space, and the encouragement of public activities that drives the form of the practice's buildings. It is the building's scale and relationship with the street or square that helps to encourage public activity and create a people-friendly environment. For example, the steps that lead to the Channel 4 Headquarters, the narrow passage that runs around the Lloyd's of London building, the small churchyard in front of Lloyd's Register, the close around the National Assembly for Wales or the square in front of the Bordeaux Law Courts are all examples where the relationship between buildings and public spaces demonstrate how the architect's responsibility can successfully extend beyond the brief to include the public domain.

Flexibility of Buildings By separating the mechanical services, lifts, electrics, fluids and airconditioning from the rest of the building, inevitable technical developments can be incorporated where they are most needed to extend the life of usable core space. The articulation of the services and core building creates a clear three-dimensional language, a dialogue between served and servant spaces and a means of creating flexible floor space. Standardised large floor-plates with services placed on the perimeter have been successful in commercial buildings and allow for flexible tenancies that respond to the changing demands of the office market. Open ended, adaptable frameworks with large, well-serviced and well-lit floors offer the possibility for a long life span for the building and a variety of possible uses. For example, Mossbourne Community Academy and Minami School will be able to adapt over time to progressive approaches to education. This concept was developed in earlier buildings such as Lloyd's of London and the Pompidou Centre, solutions that include spaces that can be used for multiple activities in the short term, as well as having many alternative long term uses depending on future requirements.

On Him "His works reject the classical past, while enthusiastically embracing a technological future with its accompanying aesthetic. Although he places emphasis on technology, he believes that it cannot be an end in itself, but must attempt to solve existing social and ecological problems." – Dennis Sharp, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture "unique interpretation of the Modern Movement's fascination with the building as machine, an interest in architectural clarity and transparency, the integration of public and private spaces, and a commitment to flexible floor plans that respond to the everchanging demands of users.“ – Pritker Prize Jury

By Him “Ideology cannot be divided from architecture. Change will clearly come from radical changes in social and political structures. In the face of such immediate crises as starvation, rising population, homelessness, pollution, misuse of non-renewable resources and industrial and agricultural production, we simply anesthetize our consciences. With problems so numerous and so profound, with no control except by starvation, disease, and war, we respond with detachment. Today, at best, we can hope to diminish the coming catastrophe by the recognition of the existing human conditions and by rational research and practice.” “You are leading a team. I've never really understood how architects can think of themselves as an individual.” “A new distribution of ends and means is needed, not based purely on a limited financial evolution of human needs. In this context, it is as difficult to create a truly socially oriented brief as it is to adapt and translate it by the use of the correct technological means.”

The first Lloyd's building was built on this site in 1928. In 1958, due to expansion, a new building was constructed across the road at 51 Lime Street. In 1978, again due to the prospect of overcrowding, Lloyd's commissioned Richard Rogers to redevelop the site and the original 1928 building was demolished to make way for the present one 1986. However, its entrance at 12 Leadenhall Street was preserved, and forms a rather incongruous attachment to the 1986 structure. The Lloyd's building is 88 metres to the roof, with 14 floors. Above it stand the construction cranes that have been kept in place as decoration pushing the height to 95.10 metres. Modular in plan, each floor can be altered with the addition or removal of partitions and walls. Like the Pompidou Centre (designed by Renzo Piano and Rogers), the building has its services on the outside, leaving an uncluttered space inside. The building consists of three main towers and three service towers around a central, rectangular space. Its focal point is the large Underwriting Room on the ground floor. The Underwriting Room is overlooked by galleries, forming a 60 metres high atrium lit naturally through a huge barrelvaulted glass roof. The first four galleries open onto the atrium space, and are connected by escalators through the middle of the structure. The higher floors are glassed-in, and can only be reached via the outside lifts. The 11th floor houses the Committee Room, an 18th century dining-room designed for the 2nd Earl of Shelburne by Robert Adam in 1763; it was transferred piece-by-piece from the previous (1958) Lloyd's building across the road.

Lloyd’s Buiilding

Lloyd’s Buiilding

An Architect  

A Study of two architects, an Indian and an International.

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