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Short course in Aviation A Meteorology By Dr. Naser Sarhan

Introduction: Meteorological information and providing the necessary weather reports for the protection of aviation fields is one of the greatest responsibilities of specialists who work in the meteorological field.

Weather hazards represent one of the most challenging issues that aircrew may face. High winds, precipitation, turbulence, and thunderstorms are a definite threat to the safety of all resources on the air base or in the field. This includes equipment and personnel. This course will ll introduce you to the subject and help you understand nderstand the physical changes which occur in the atmosphere (dangerous dangerous weather phenomena and hazards hazards) and specifically for pilots and aircrew emphasize how to fly safely. This course builds on the basic information in general and aviation Meteorology Meteorology. The course is divided into chapters and has many workshops with exercises and homework which will contribute towards the assessment of a trainees' performance. Trainees will be asked to complete the relevant work both in class and as self study.

Performance objectives: The following are the objectives of teaching this course: 1. Using Meteorological

rules, techniques and knowledge to


Meteorological information satisfactorily to the trainees. 2. To provide trainees with a comprehensive and detailed view of the factors relevant to atmospheric changes and what causes atmospheric changes changes. 3. To gain a better understanding of Aviation A Meteorology and in--flight hazards. 4. To develop trainees skills on how to predict expected atmospheric changes from a given set of conditions. 5. To develop the trainee skills of sending, receiving and interpreting Meteorological information including the analysis analysi of present and future atmospheric conditions. 6. To train trainees to take appropriate precautionary decisions necessary for safe flying operations.

CONTENTS: 1. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Introduction in weather meteorology and the atmosphere. Meteorological elements. The Atmosphere. The International Civil Aviation Organization standard atmosphere. Types of weather. Classification of weather types and precipitation according to their intensity. Weather conditions. Weather abbreviations.

2. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Air temperature and Air humidity Temperature and humidity measurements at the surface and upper air. Ways of transferring heat in the atmosphere. Temperature variation with height, latitude, time and cloud cover. Humidity Terms. Humidity variation with height, latitude, time and cloud cover. The diurnal variation of air temperature and humidity. The Temperature inversion.

3. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m)

Clouds and Fog Saturation, Relative Humidity and Dew Point. Cloud Composition. Cloud Observations. Cloud Types. Cloud Abbreviations, Forms and Dangers. Reporting and decoding the amount and height of clouds. Adiabatic Processes and Adiabatic Temperature Changes. Adiabatic Lapse Rates. Stability of the Air. Effects of Stability and Instability. Types of vertical Motion. Fog Formation. Types of Fog.

4. a) b) c) d) e)

Meteorological Visibility Definition, Units and Measurements. Causes of Poor Visibility. Visibility Terms. Effects of Convection. Effect of the Wind.

5. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Air pressure and Altimetry Definition, Units and Measurements. Variation of air pressure. Diurnal and Seasonal variation in air pressure. Altitude, Height, Elevation and Pressure Altitude. QNH, QFE and QNE. Altimeter Pressure settings and readings. True altitude and Indicated altitude.

h) Altimeter errors. i) Flight Level. j) Transition Altitude and Transition level. 6. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Wind (speed and direction) Definition, Units and Measurements. The Cause of Wind. Measurement of upper winds. Variations in the Wind. Wind Terms. Vertical variations in the wind. Brief discussion on general circulation.

7. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Air masses and Fronts Features of a Weather Map. Weather and Flying Conditions. BUYS BALLOT'S LAW. Air Masses Affecting the Saudi Arabian weather. Fronts (development and types). Fronts on the weather map. Fronts and Weather. Flying through fronts.

8. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Thunderstorms and local wind Formation of Thunderstorms. Thunderstorm types. Development of thunderstorms. Thunderstorm Structure. Hazards of thunderstorm. The Sea Breeze (formation and effects). The Land Breeze. Katabatic and Anabatic Winds. Local Saudi Arabian wind systems. Valley Winds and Funneling.

9. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Atmospheric Turbulence Types of Turbulence. Intensity of Turbulence. Factors Affecting Turbulence. Rotors and Lee Waves. Frictional Turbulence. Thermal Turbulence. Clear Air Turbulence.

10. Icing a) Engine icing. b) Airframe icing. c) Icing terms. d) Occurrence of icing. e) Icing avoidance.

Who may attend? Pilots and aircrew, commercial and military dispatchers, supervisors, training personnel of airlines, air charter, freight and cargo services, Air Force orce and marine meteorologists,, corporate, government flight operations, Meteorological Observers and Forecasters.

Course duration: This course lasts for 120 periods within 8 weeks.

Course rse requirements: Good level in English (reading/writing). (reading/writing)

Instructors: Dr. Naser Sarhan

Short course in aviation Meteorology