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The science and technology magazine created and published by students of Albert Dorman Honors College of New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Technology Observer

Issue 2009-2010 Volume 01

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Observing the Present, With an Eye on the Future.

Observing the Prese

Observing the Present, With an Eye on the Future.

Observing the Prese


Technology Observer Editor-in-Chief Fatima Elgammal, ‘10 Managing Editor Matthew P. Deek, ‘11 Design Managers Fatima Elgammal, ‘10

:: Staff ::

Horane O. Henry, ‘10 Photo Editor Andrew “Twig” Harrison, ‘12 Copy Editor Andrew J. Helbers, ‘12 Writers Wasseem Abugosh, ‘10 Peter Besada, ‘12 Matthew P. Deek, ‘11 Fatima Elgammal, ‘10 Bishoy R. Hanna, ‘12 Bushra Hossain, ‘11 Sheba S. Khan, ‘10 Mohammad Nawaz, ‘11 David M. Thompson, ‘12 Layout Staff Hussam S. Eltoukhy, ‘11 Muhammad Hoque, ‘10 Ashley M. Martins, ‘13 Mohammad Nawaz, ‘11 Shadia Saleh, ‘12 Photo Editing Basim S. El-Toukhy, ‘12 Christopher Fowler, ‘13 Adam Gomori, ‘13 Nathan J. Harmes, ‘12 Advisor Dr. Paul J. Dine Assistant Dean of Student Programs Albert Dorman Honors College

Contact Us Technology Observer Albert Dorman Honors College New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights Newark, NJ 07102 The Technology Observer is a publication of Albert Dorman Honors College at NJIT, New Jersey’s Science & Technology University. Visit Us at honors.njit.edu/news/technologyobserver


Message from the Editor

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About NJIT and Albert Dorman Honors College

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Message from the Dean

:: Contents ::

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Climbing to the Stars Written by :: Mohammad Nawaz Exploration of space has continued to be a lucrative trove of knowledge and, in the near future, we will not need rockets to get to space Nanotechnology in Medicine: The Next Big Thing is Small Written by :: Matthew P. Deek How medicine is using nanoscale tools to improve surgical procedures and drug delivery, and the ethical implications of these emerging technologies Improving the Next Generation of Soldiers Written by :: Wasseem Abugosh With advances in nanotechnology, today’s soldiers are better equipped to face enemy bullets, chemical and biologial warfare, and survive severe combat conditions The Edge in Sports Gear Written by :: David M. Thompson How innovative nanoscale technologies have allowed researchers to improve durability, efficiency, and safety of athletic equipment Across Time: How Yesterday’s Science Influenced Today’s Technology

Technology Observer 10th Anniversary Special Feature

Designed by :: Mohammad Nawaz and Fatima Elgammal Introduced by :: Matthew P. Deek and Mohammad Nawaz Researched by :: Peter Besada, Matthew P. Deek, Andrew J. Helbers, Ashley M. Martins, Mohammad Nawaz, and Shadia Saleh Nano-foods: Giving Each of Us the Golden Ticket Written by :: Bushra Hossain Nanotechnology enters nutraceuticals, agriculture, and microscopic encapsulation to improve the flavor, nutrition, and health of the population In Vivo Disease Diagnosis by Nanorobots Written by :: Fatima Elgammal How nanorobots can detect, diagnose and treat diseases in vivo New Jersey Institute of Technology in Action Written by :: Peter Besada, Matthew P. Deek, Bishoy R. Hanna, and Sheba S. Khan Introduced by :: Matthew P. Deek Studying the Principles of Marketing on a Global Scale Dr. Rajiv Mehta, School of Management Applying Mathematics to the Study of Life Dr. Horacio Rotstein, Department of Mathematical Sciences Looking Towards the Sun to Study Our Earth Dr. Haimin Wang, Space Weather Research Laboratory Modeling the Movement of Animals at the Speed of Life Dr. Gareth Russell, Federated Department of Biological Sciences Engineering a Way to Walk Again Dr. Mesut Sahin, Department of Biomedical Engineering

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Reference Documentation


expertise nanotechnology

edge

progress

application

drive innovation, creativity, “Without change there is no

new questions,

new angle, -Albert Einstein, Physicist

discovery

judgment

“The great thing in the world is not so much where we stand, as in what

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of the 21st century will not occur because of technology but because of an expanding concept of

what it means to be .”

-John Naisbitt, Author

wisdom

creativity

direction we are moving.”

-Oliver Wendell Holmes, Physician and Poet

drive

deftness

breakthroughs

vision

space ex

curiosity

“The most exciting

motivation quest

exploration

human

rese

to regard old problems from a

requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science.”

military

-William Pollard, Physicist and Priest

new possibilities,

observation

medicine

incentive for improvement.”

“To raise

agriculture

insight

skill

foresight

capacity

imagination

advancement

reason

“When eating a fruit, think of the person who planted the tree.“ -Vietnamese Proverb

Dr. Janet Bodner from Humanities, for helping the students bring out the best in their writing; Dr. Rajiv Mehta from the School of Management, Dr. Mesut Sahin from Biomedical Engineering, Dr. Horacio Rotstein from Mathematical Sciences, Dr. Gareth Russell from Biological Sciences, and Dr. Haimin Wang from Physics for their time and insight into their illustrious work. Extended thanks to Dr. Paul Dine, for his guidance on this project; Dr. Joel Bloom and the administrators and staff of the Honors College for their support; Romer Jed Medina for lending his time and photographing skills; Babette Hoyle, Jean Llewellyn, Johanna Moroch, and Carol Pilla from University Communications, for ensuring that we best represent the school; and Dr. Fadi P. Deek and Sylvana Brito-Rodriguez from the College of Science and Liberal Arts for their valued input and suggestions.

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Of course, the greatest thanks are for the students who worked long hours and with much effort, without whom this magazine would not exist.

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M e ssa g e fr om the Editor “We are building the bridge to the future while standing on it.” - U.S. Army Colonel from Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

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he mission of the Technology Observer has been to report on current developments in science and technology as students see it; students, whose curious minds are fertile for planting questions. Nourished by the motivation to learn, they search for the most relevant and inspiring projects to report on. This tenth-year anniversary issue is no exception.

The articles of this volume all deal with a specific aspect of nanotechnology’s expanding sphere of application. Innovations in areas such as drug delivery, disease control, and food nourishment have guided nanotechnology into sustaining and even augmenting our health. At the same time, nanotechnology has enhanced the sophistication of the military’s tools and defense. With so much to offer, it is no wonder that this time may be the Age of Nanotechnology, as termed by Michael Laine, co-founder and President of LiftPort Group, the company responsible for envisioning and engineering an elevator to space.

ace exploration

To appreciate how far technology has trekked, we thought it appropriate to take a step back and observe how far along we have come: to, somehow, recognize the scientists who had the courage to ask “why” and “what if,” the explorers who braved uncharted territory, and the inventors who strove to engineer methods and contraptions to enhance the quality of life. Hence, our tenth year anniversary special feature is a timeline delineating major milestones, inventions, or discoveries that have influenced each of the following four areas: agriculture, astronomy, medicine, and military.

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There was no lack of devoted students on this issue, and those who endured the strenuous and demanding hours deserve the utmost commendation. The magazine was forged in 1999 by the dedication of self-driven students, and it thrives in their persistence to share what they learn in their experience of working on the magazine.

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Jeff Admon, the first editor-in-chief of the Technology Observer, and one of its main proponents, ended the first editor’s message stating, “We aspire to be the best, most innovative magazine in our field – and with time and assistance of our fellow students we will surely grow and improve to make this a reality.” We aim to one day attain that aspiration as we continue to observe the present, with an eye on the future.

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Fatima Elgammal Editor-in-Chief Technology Observer 03


About New Jersey Institute of Technology THE EDGE IN KNOWLEDGE

About Albert Dorman Honors College Engaging the Future

New Jersey Institute of Technology is a public research university enrolling more than 8,800 bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral students in 120 degree programs through its six colleges: Newark College of Engineering, the College of Architecture and Design, the College of Science and Liberal Arts, School of Management, the College of Computing Sciences, and Albert Dorman Honors College. A top-tier research university, NJIT houses laboratories in 48 key areas and 20 state-of-the-art multidisciplinary centers. Research initiatives include manufacturing, microelectronics, multimedia, mathematical sciences, transportation, computer science, solar astrophysics, environmental engineering and science, and architecture and building science.

The vision of Albert Dorman Honors College is the engagement of the brightest students with the best faculty, original research, and practice-oriented projects. The context of this engagement is inquiry-based learning, a computer-intense campus, an urban setting, diverse population, global relationships, and an environment that is erudite and transformational. Albert Dorman Honors College currently enrolls over 680 students, with average SAT scores above 1300. Students are enrolled in honors courses, participate in leadership colloquia, partake in professional projects, and conduct research with faculty at various NJIT research centers. These scholars work closely with national and international businesses and industries, and participate locally in community activities. They are leaders on the NJIT campus, and future leaders in the science, engineering, mathematics, and technology professions. For more information :: honors.njit.edu

Photographer: Babajide Akeredolu

Kupfrian, Faculty Memorial and Tiernan Halls at New Jersey Institute of Technology


M e ssa g e fr om the Dea n

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his year we are celebrating the 10th anniversary of Technology Observer and the 15th anniversary of Albert Dorman Honors College, two significant milestones on the behalf of gifted students, some of whom you will meet within the pages of the issue. These are milestones for our university as it consistently attracts these students, and for the faculty who engage them in the classroom and in their research. These are milestones for our state, national and global communities, the ultimate beneficiaries of the science and technology being researched and presented in this edition. The presentation of this edition has been adroitly led by our editor-in-chief, Fatima Elgammal. Fatima is currently completing her dual baccalaureate degrees in mathematical sciences and biology.

Photographer: Babajide Akeredolu

Fatima and her colleagues chose to focus on technology “at the edge,” nanotechnology. They share with us fascinating concepts and developments of this nascent science and its technological applications that are becoming life changing. Matthew Deek discusses medical applications of carbon nanotubes that can deliver nanoparticle drugs to specific cells in the human body. Wasseem Abugosh explores the application of carbon nanotubes in improving the ability of the infantry soldier to survive in combat. Bushra Hossain researched “nano-foods” that could help solve the world’s shortage of food and water. Fatima Elgammal presents to us “nanorobots” designed to prevent the worldwide spread of diseases. David Thompson observes the athletic and recreational use of the technology that will result in greater competitiveness and change the future of sports. Mohammad Nawaz fascinates us with a “space elevator” using a tether of nanotubes to “reach outer space.” Donald Sebastian, senior vice president for research and development, an early advocate for NJIT’s involvement in the science of nanotechnology, comments that Technology Observer writers have done a wonderful job of capturing the different dimensions of this field of study that will ultimately bridge the classical scientific disciplines. “We are fortunate to have such students enriching the university’s scientific community. Imagine the possibilities now that we can not only see individual atoms but actively invent new molecular structures without the constraint of natural process. That is the dream of nanotechnology. The dream is rapidly becoming the reality of nanotechnology, and many faculty members are engaged in pioneering research that will make practical use of the scientific discovery now emerging,” he said. Our student writers build upon the “New Jersey Institute of Technology in Action” feature, which originated in the 2008-2009 issue of the Technology Observer. This section briefly introduces us to the broad array of research being conducted by some of the faculty at NJIT ranging from studying the transferability of marketing channel management practices across international markets, the oscillations in the brain at the cellular, molecular, and network level, to the application of The FLAMES device that is implanted into the spinal cord to help those unable to walk to do so again. As we celebrate this double anniversary, it is my pleasure to acknowledge those who had the vision to establish an Honors College at NJIT: President Emeritus Saul K. Fenster, Board of Trustees Chairman (1988-2000), Victor A. Pelson ‘59, and the college’s namesake, Albert Dorman ‘45. Thank you.

Joel Bloom, EdD Dean of Albert Dorman Honors College Vice President of Academic and Student Services Technology Observer 05


Climbing to the Stars

Rendition of liftport as imagined by Michael Laine, founder and president of LiftPort Group

Exploration of space has continued to be a lucrative trove of knowledge and in the near future, we will not need rockets to get to space :: By Mohammad Nawaz ::

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s the barrier between reality and science fiction becomes increasingly blurred, technologies that were once thought to be figments of imagination are now making their way into reality. The space elevator is one of the prime examples of this. The space elevator is a transportation vehicle similar to any other elevator that will form a bridge between Earth and a point in space. The concept of a space elevator was first conceived of by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a Russian rocket scientist, who was inspired by the construction of the Eiffel Tower in 1895. Later, it was Arthur C. Clarke, a science-fiction writer, who introduced this idea to a broader audience in his 1978 book, The Fountains of Paradise. Clarke argues for the feasibility of building such a device throughout his book by suggesting that “if the laws of celestial mechanics make it possible for an object to stay fixed in the sky, might it not be possible to lower a cable down to the surface – and so to establish an elevator system linking Earth to space?” [1]. This link between Earth and space is being vigorously investigated by Michael Laine, founder and president of LiftPort Group, a research and development company that is working on the mechanics of the space elevator. Laine brings more than fifteen years of business management and development experience for the technology, financial services, and military markets. Prior to LiftPort, Laine was co-founder and president of HighLift Systems, a Seattle-based company that received funds from NASA’s Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) to research building an elevator to space. The group’s goal is to create the first working space elevator near the year 2030. From the plans that have been developed thus far, the space elevator will be composed of a track from Earth to space that will allow climbers to run on it, similar to a train on a railroad track. The track will be held in place by an anchor on Earth and a

counterweight in geosynchronous orbit in space. An object that is in geosynchronous orbit with Earth is an object that stays in one place in the sky, relative to the Earth. The space elevator setup can be made analogous to a person spinning himself while holding a string attached to a ball. As the person spins, because of centripetal force acting on the ball, the string becomes taut and rigid. The spinning person is analogous to the rotating Earth, and his hand clutching the thread is comparable to the anchor, or liftport. The string is akin to the track that will be used by the climbers, and lastly, the ball at the end represents the counterweight spinning in geosynchronous orbit about the person. The liftport, as conceived by LiftPort Group, will be located on the Pacific Ocean near the equator. The exact area was chosen for its lack of use as a path for airlines as well as its calm waters and weather. The liftport station will serve as the anchor that will connect the Earth to the counterweight and will be the location from where the elevator ascends and descends. The counterweight will be composed of satellites and construction bots after serving their purpose of building the elevator. This is what will keep the tether taut. There will be a variety of different climbers that will be used for transport on this system. Each will be built for a specific purpose, such as transporting cargo, people, or even inspecting the track upon which the other climbers will depend. The climber will receive its power from a laser beamed from the liftport to panels on the climber that will convert laser light into mechanical energy. The most challenging part in developing the space elevator is creating a 60,000-mile long tether that is both durable and flexible. Carbon Nanotubes and the Tether Besides being one of the foundations of life and its great versatility, carbon is known for forming one of the hardest natural materials on earth: diamond. Not only that, but one of the most potentially versatile materials can also be made with carbon. It could possibly replace steel as the most common building material once a process for synthesizing it has become more refined. These materials, called carbon Carbon nanotubes have [a] nanotubes (CNT), have many density that is three to six attractive properties such as a times less than steel. density that is three to six times less than steel, and are perhaps the only materials that will be employed by LiftPort Group to create the tether of the space elevator-[2]. CNTs are structurally similar to graphite. Each carbon is bonded to three other carbons in one plane, creating a stable sheet of graphite.


Once each sheet of graphite is rolled up to form a seamless cylinder, a carbon nanotube is formed. The nanotubes can be single-walled, meaning there is only one cylinder, or multi-walled in which more than one carbon nanotube exists concentrically within others. The advantage of a multi-walled nanotube is that there is a dramatic increase of strength, similar to intertwining two or more strings together. One of the most attractive properties of a single-walled CNT is its tensile strength. Tensile strength is measured in pascals, the unit of pressure, or force per unit area. The greater the tensile strength, the greater the force needed to break the object. Bone, a common material used many millennia ago, has a tensile strength of about 0.1 gigapascals (1 gigapascal = 1 billion pascals), whereas steel, one of the most common building materials of today, has a tensile strength of 0.4 gigapascals. A single-walled CNT has a tensile strength of 75GPa, and a multi-walled CNT has one of approximately 150GPa – almost double [2]. Another striking property of CNT is its stiffness. The stiffness of an object is its resistance to deformation. Its measure is the modulus of elasticity, which is defined as ratio of stress applied to the strain that results in response, also measured in pascals. This is a measure of how much pressure is required to change the shape of the object. For example, a very light and thin rubber band only requires a little bit of force to be stretched or deformed, whereas a heavy and very thick rubber band requires a greater force in order to be warped. Steel has an elastic modulus of just over 200 GPa, whereas those of single and double CNTs both are over 1,000 GPa [2]. This means that CNTs can withstand at least five times more pressure than steel before they bend. “We only need [the tether] to be 30 times stronger than steel for this system to work,” says Laine, and a multi-walled CNT is well beyond that. One obstacle that remains is synthesizing CNTs that are 60,000 miles long. The longest ones that have been synthesized are only a few centimeters long, and to achieve the required length for the project to be successful needs much effort in research ahead [3]. Space elevator and advantages Laine gives a very rough estimate that building the space elevator will cost around $14 billion. Even though a space shuttle is a lot less expensive – the Space Shuttle Endeavour cost about $1.7 billion – the cost of operation for a space elevator is cheaper. According to NASA, it costs $450 million to launch a space shuttle The space elevator can expand the into space; however, exploration of space tremendously. Laine estimates the Transporting cargo and people up cost to be closer to into space without the use of rockets $1 billion [4, 5]. As of decreases the risks of space travel. yet, an estimate for the cost of operation of the space elevator doesn’t exist. Nevertheless, Laine claims that the cost will be significantly less than launching a space shuttle. In addition to being a cheaper way to launch projects, the space elevator will allow more frequent visits to space. “A space shuttle that on its best configuration in its best year had only seven trips with 60 tons of cargo. That’s the most optimistic system NASA has been able to develop. [With the space elevator,] we’re looking at 50 trips per year, at 100 tons [of cargo] per trip,” approximates Laine. This will be a significant improvement from approximately 420 tons for a NASA space shuttle to approximately 5,000 tons for the space elevator. The space elevator can expand the exploration of space tremendously. Transporting cargo and people up into space without the use of rockets decreases the risks of space travel. Furthermore, space exploration vehicles can be elevated and lowered into and out of space without having the need to spend extra resources on fuel for launching

A climber elevating itself on the carbon nanotube chain

or requiring the vehicles to carry energy for landing. Conclusion The space elevator will allow for many changes in our world. Other than for science and research, there have been many proposed imaginative uses for space elevator, ranging from space tourism, hotels, and restaurants in space, to the production of certain products in space. The forefront to what will allow the space elevator to exist is how far nanotechnology and the knowledge of carbon nanotubes come. “Civilizations rose and fell because of material science,” comments Laine, “As a race, we’ve gone from just bones to the Copper Age, to the Bronze Age, and then to the Iron Age. Soon, we will be entering the Carbon Nanotube Age.” “Change the world, or go home,” is the motto of the company LiftPort Group, and it seems like the space elevator will not accomplish anything less than changing everything. Mohammad Nawaz is a third year undergraduate student studying biology at NJIT.

Technology Observer 07


Current surgical tools are too large to be capable of the precision needed for modern surgical practices

Nanotechnology in Medicine: The Next Big Thing is Small How medicine is using nanoscale tools to improve surgical procedures and drug delivery, and the ethical implications of these emerging technologies :: By Matthew P. Deek ::


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rying to predict the future is like playing a game that progress toward the applications of molecular assembly has become we may win or lose. This is so because we tend to base evident in many domains. However, the most promising forecast of our forecasts on past experiences or other probable Engines of Creation is that nanotechnology will allow for significant scenarios, which may be completely irrelevant. With improvements for human life far beyond its span, “not only to heal technology, however, visualizing the future, given the ourselves, but to heal Earth of the wounds we have inflicted” [3]. This developments of the past and present is predictable. It is known and was a very bold prediction, but perhaps there is already a glimpse of even expected, for example, that computers will be smaller, faster, and what it might actually take to realize this vision of Drexler. more efficient. In medicine, what was impossible then has become a Nanotools for Minimally-Invasive Surgery reality now, from Much progress has been made in terms of understanding the suppressing cancer In medicine, what was impossible human body, its various organs and their functions. However, when to supplanting then has become a reality now, from it comes to medical surgery, it appears that there remains a mismatch damaged organs. suppressing cancer to supplanting between the task and the tool. “Disease and ill health are caused largely Similarly, materials damaged organs. by damage at the molecular and cellular level. Today’s surgical tools are are becoming lighter, stronger, and more sophisticated, whether it is bigger and huge and imprecise in comparison” [10]. In addition, depending on lighter aircraft, paper that is stronger than iron, or clothes that do not the type of procedure, degree of invasiveness, and the instrumentation stain. Indeed, in 1971, computer science researcher and inventor Alan required, the repetitive insertion, maneuvering and removal of these C. Kay expressively suggested in a business meeting: “The best way to tools during surgery could pose risks to the involved body system predict the future is to invent it. This is the century in which you can and tissues. Thus, smaller, multi-purpose tools can result in safer be proactive about the future; you don’t have to be reactive. The whole and less invasive surgeries through the use of small incisions, which idea of having scientists and technology is that those things you can reduce trauma to the body and shorten recovery time. For example, envision and describe can actually be built” [7]. It takes a very long time, integrated nanoscale machines, or nanorobots, controlled by surgeons a decade or more, and high resource investments, to translate the results and pre-programmed to carry out specific tasks, could be used to perform surgery deep inside the human of laboratory research into products and services for everyday life. Nevertheless, Much progress has been made in terms body through the vascular system or in one can easily trace back great human of understanding the human body... conjunction with a catheter through the accomplishments to their earlier points However, when it comes to medical cavities of the body [2]. The use of robotic in time of vision. surgery, it appears that there remains a instruments in surgery, along with imagemismatch between the task and the tool. guidance systems and biosensors, allows for better navigation during procedures Nanotechnology in Medicine and results in greater precision. Building on the advances of the last few decades in physics, microelectronics and communications technologies, scientists are now working at nanoscale, or at the levels Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery Recent advances in medicinal chemistry have led to the development of atoms and molecules, using new techniques and tools to create sophisticated products and technologies that will have significant impact of drugs that are effective in curing many diseases. However, scientists on every aspect of our lives, with promising, upbeat consequences for continue to be challenged to produce new generations of viable drugs our health. K. Eric Drexler first introduced the term “nanotechnology” that are more effective or can cure ailments that, up until now, are still in the Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, in 1986. unresponsive to existing drugs. Another challenge is dealing with side He envisioned the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules effects resulting from the use of some of these drugs, which sometimes as the basis for building systems from the bottom up, atom by atom, can be serious. The severity of side effects depends on the illness, the and declared “our ability to arrange atoms lies at the foundation of type of prescribed drug, the dose, and overall medical profile of the technology” [3]. Drexler’s work was inspired by physicist Richard P. individual receiving the treatment. For example, anticancer drugs are designed to Feynman who gave a speech at a meeting in 1959 of the American attack tumor cells Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology. Feynman told the audience: “What I want to talk about is the problem of ...[S]cientists have developed tools, like growing in the body, manipulating and controlling things on a small scale,” and he told the carbon nanotubes, that bring needed patient’s within gathered scientists that he was confident it must be possible to build medical therapies to the cellular level by often organs. machines smaller than the head of a pin which should be able to store utilizing nanoparticles that selectively vital massive amounts of information [5]. Professor Feynman went on deliver drugs to specific cells in the While some side effects are minor to win the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 for his fundamental work human body. with short-term in quantum electrodynamics and its consequences for elementary consequences, particles. others can have Drexler’s 1992 follow-up book, Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing and Computation, discussed the issues prolonged effects and become life-threatening. In order to deal with around the development of nanoscale machinery and proposed the this significant medical problem, scientists have developed tools, like building of atomically precise products under digital control [4]. His carbon nanotubes, that bring needed medical therapies to the cellular work, in essence, defined the field of molecular nanotechnology and level by utilizing nanoparticles that selectively deliver drugs to specific demonstrated the feasibility of scaling down concepts of macroscopic cells in the human body[12]. Carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1991 by Sumio Iijima, are long, systems to the level of molecules. In the two decades since Drexler first offered his imaginative and carefully laid out roadmap for a new science, Technology Observer 09


thin cylinders of carbon, unique for their size, shape, and remarkable physical properties [6]. Such use of nanoparticles for targeted drugdelivery has resulted in distinct improvements compared to traditional methods [9]. One reason for this is that the use of fine particles, which have more surface area per unit mass, will improve drug solubility and dissolution rate [11]. The effective carrying and dispensing of drugs deep into the body requires the development of a means, in this case a carbon nanotube, which is The effective carrying capable of encapsulating the drug and dispensing of drugs molecule and, once it reaches a deep into the body targeted tissue or cell, releasing it requires the development without causing toxicity to other of a means, in this case a healthy organs. In addition to carbon nanotube, which is drugs, carbon nanotubes have capable of encapsulating the ability to carry a variety of the drug molecule and, molecules including proteins, once it reaches a targeted antibodies, and enzymes. The tissue or cell, releasing it physicochemical features of without causing toxicity carbon nanotubes, including their to other healthy organs. ultra lightweight composition, superior properties in electric current carrying capacity, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability explains their popularity as potential systems of drug carrying and dispensing.

Advancements in nanotechnology will allow drug delivery to specific cells, avoiding unwanted side effects to other vital organs 10 Technology Observer

Ethical Issues for the Use of Nanotechnology in Medicine There is a wide belief, and indeed evidence, that nanotechnology promises many potentially positive developments for the future, especially in medicine and health. Understanding the toxicity of nanomedicines is an important factor in ensuring its promise for viable and effective therapies [8]. The question is how to accelerate the benefits of nanotechnology while diminishing its risks [1]. The medical profession has long been subject to its own code of ethics developed primarily for the benefit of the patient, but also of society, other health professionals, and itself. Until recently, such concerns rested principally with the physicians, presumably because the subject was considered to be complex and mainly of a scientific nature pertaining only to the domain experts. This has evolved over the last few decades as advances in medicine, such as the application of nanotechnology, engendered uncharacteristic attention to medical ethics on the part of society in general and ardent interest on the part of philosophers, theologians, Understanding the toxicity of and lawyers specifically. nanomedicines is an important Changes ensued in how factor in ensuring its promise hospitals approach issues for viable and effective of life and death as evident therapies. The question is in the presence of powerful how to accelerate the benefits ethics boards and in the of nanotechnology while incorporation of ethics as a diminishing its risks. subject of study into medical education. Bioethics, emerging as a result of these transformations, is viewed as an extension of medical ethics that concerns questions of basic human values [13]. Bioethics encompasses medicine, life sciences, technology, policy, philosophy, and religion. Clearly, bioethics is applicable to nanomedicine where scientific developments must progress in parallel with the careful consideration of ethical, legal and social implications. Current issues involving ethical consideration in the use of nanomedicine include regulating its use in therapeutic means versus life enhancements, assessing its known risks compared to desired benefits, ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of patient information, and weighing the environmental risks of nanowaste disposal.

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Nanotech coating could lead to better brain implants to treat diseases

Conclusion will be in healthcare, and in nanotechnology applications to medicine Across the ages, the requisite ingredients to create the systems specifically, with innovations that will improve the welfare of many of value that have advanced our people and will enhance their quality society on all fronts have always been If the first decade of the 21st century is going to of life dramatically. At the same time, thoughts, creativity, tools, and raw be an indication of such focused advancements, and as with all new technologies, materials. This has been true in the there are concerns regarding the tools it is likely that progress will be in health care... stone tool, agricultural, industrial, and products of nanotechnology and with innovations that will improve the welfare and information societies. Presently, of many people and will enhance their quality of their impact on the environment and, nanotechnology is a type of this human ironically, on public health. To realize life dramatically. inventiveness that is emerging out of the full benefits of nanotechnology research and development efforts. Historically, and over the long run, and minimize its drawbacks, these concerns require considerations societal progress appears to have occurred uniformly in all areas that in parallel to the development and deployment of new technological matter to humanity. In reality, advances have tended to occur more in a inventions. focused fashion like industrialization in the 19th century or automation in the 20th century. If the first decade of the 21st century is going to be an indication of such focused advancements, it is likely that progress Matthew P. Deek is a second year undergraduate student studying biology at NJIT. Technology Observer 11


The safety of soldiers on the battlefield will be increased through technological advances in nanotechnology

Improving the Next Generation of Soldiers

With advances in nanotechnology, today’s soldiers are better equipped to face enemy bullets, chemical and biologial warfare, and sustain severe combat conditions

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:: By Wasseem Abugosh ::

he growth of modern-day technology coupled with high demands for advances in battlefield equipment often accelerates the development of more efficient combat gear. On the battlefield, a typical soldier has much to worry about: bullets firing, detonation of nearby explosives, and the hazards of chemical and biological weaponry, just to name a few. In addition, a typical infantry soldier has to carry gear, which could weigh up to 150 pounds [1]. Fortunately, nanotechnology has given glad tidings of a

day when the average infantry soldier can survive any type of chemical or biological pestilence. An array of bullets being shot at the chest of a soldier, for example, may no longer be considered a definite kill; the shards of shrapnel that have landed will merely be wiped off without inflicting any pain. Today’s soldiers are equipped with Nanotechnology has given glad bullet-proof battle suits tidings of a day when the average that are strong enough infantry soldier can survive any to repel bullets and type of chemical or biological knives. Researchers like pestilence. associate professor of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering at Florida State University, Okenwa Okoli, are always looking to improve the material of military apparel, to make uniform stronger and lighter. Okoli is working with carbon nanotubes to accomplish this mission. Smaller than human hair, carbon nanotubes are the strongest material known. They are delivered by buckminsterfullerene, a 60-carbon molecule formed by a network of carbon bonds. The structure looks like a spherical cage and is comparable in strength and stability to diamonds [3]. Okoli is working with the United States Air Force to perfect this composite material for parajumpers. Okoli explains that “the weight of the current body armor


from a simple titanium dioxide molecule that can deactivate nerve gas to a complex dendrimer which can consume mustard gas [1]. Also, the coating within the polymer is waterproof, so the soldier is protected from biological threats Nano-machines would act like E. coli. Hammond is as artificial muscles...[and] also experimenting with are designed to emulate the genetically engineered function and mechanics of a viruses that can be placed mammalian muscle. on the top of each layer. If any harmful bacteria are placed on this material, the virus would take the initiative by infecting it leading ultimately to the bacteria’s death [1]. The large amount of equipment carried by a typical infantry soldier can have a detrimental effect on his or her mobility. Researchers at the ISN are working on a nano-machine that could be constructed within the confines of an already prepared battle suit. These nanomachines would act as artificial muscles. They are designed to emulate the function and mechanics of a mammalian muscle. Ian Hunter, a researcher at the ISN, identified a few characteristics of flesh and blood muscles that the artificial muscle must have in order for it to be Atomic force microscope image of carbon nanotubes on a successful. First, it must have the ability to contract which is simple nuclear track filter membrane for Hunter’s nano-machines. Human muscles produce 7310 pounds per square foot of pressure, a mark that Hunter’s nano-machines can match. In addition, the nano-machine must be able to produce large forces while retaining its lightness. While the goal is 500 watts per system they have… smacks them on the back… and the momentum of kilogram, Hunter’s nano-machines have reached only 50 watts per jumping from such a great height and the weight of the plates will throw kilogram. Hunter states, “Our efficiency is somewhat less, but we’re them off target” [2]. Thus, a thinner and lighter protective material slowly bringing it up” [1]. Another characteristic is that it must have the ability to expand with force. The artificial muscle, as opposed to would be vital for such situations. the natural one, is able to accomplish that ApNano, an Israeli company, is feat. With this added strength, weapons working on a nano-based lubricant. Paula Hammond, an associate professor at could be mounted directly to the uniform Results from recent studies on this the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies system, making the soldier a weapons advanced lubricant in body armor have at MIT, is working on materials that can platform. These nano-machines would add been impressive. The material withstood detect and degrade such threats. She has 25-35% more power to each of the major the shock pressures generated by the created a multilayer polymer containing lifting muscles which lead to an overall impacts of up to 250 tons per square reactive agents. Each layer has alternating 300% greater load-carrying capability [1]. centimeter from bullets traveling positive and negative charges so that each This would create a distinct edge over the 1.5 kilometers per second. A similar polymer layer binds to the one above it to opposing soldiers on the battlefield. study done by Professor J.M. Martin form a nano-thin polymer chain. It is no secret that armies are always from Ecole Central de Lyon in France looking for an advantage over their enemies showed that under isostatic pressure, the material withstood 350 tons per square centimeter [2]. The carbon on the battlefield. The development development nanotubes from these experiments carry inorganic compounds such of nanotechnology has opened a new The as titanium disulfide or tungsten disulfide. The network of covalently window for improvement to ease the of nanotechnology opened a bonded carbon atoms encompassing these inorganic compounds make suffering and reduce the number of has an extraordinarily strong shock absorbing material known as fullerene. casualties of those on the frontline. If new window for to This fullerene material is five times stronger than steel and twice as strong the progression of battlefield technology improvement as any of today’s protective armor material such as boron carbide or continues to accelerate, the infantry ease suffering and silicon carbide. Inorganic fullerenes are cheaper, easier to manufacture, soldier will be more protected and better reduce the number casualties of equipped for combat than before. A of and safer to use compared to organic fullerenes [2]. Advances in nanotechnology for the military are not confined only soldier will have a less load carry, thus those on the front to bulletproof protective armor, especially with the growing threat of increasing his or her chances of escape line. chemical and biological warfare. Paula Hammond, an associate professor from danger and, ultimately, survival at the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN) at Massachusetts on the battlefield. It is evident that nanotechnology will strengthen Institute of Technology, is working on materials that can detect and tomorrow’s soldiers as they fight to protect our freedom. degrade such threats. She has created a multilayer polymer containing reactive agents. Each layer has alternating positive and negative charges so that each polymer layer binds to the one above it to form a nano-thin polymer chain. The reactive agents within the polymer will neutralize Wasseem Abugosh is a senior undergraduate student studying chemical the chemical threat once it penetrates the polymer. These agents range engineering at NJIT. Technology Observer 13


The natural path a golf ball takes after being struck by a golf club could be altered by modifications at the nanoscale

The Edge in Sports Gear How innovative nanoscale technologies have allowed researchers to improve durability, efficiency and safety of athletic equipment :: By David M. Thompson ::

W

hat is it that an athlete fears most in a competition? Well, it is probably no longer just those athletes who consistently cheat and seem somehow to get away with it. Surely one of their main concerns nowadays is that their competitors are using better equipment. This is more frequently something an athlete has to worry about now because

of the increasing role that nanotechnology is playing in sports so that previously unattainable targets suddenly seem within reach. With the continually developing reality of technological advances like carbon nanotubes, compressible materials, fullerenes, and With...carbon nanotubes, polymers, it comes as no great compressible materials, fullerenes, and polymers, it surprise that athletes today are comes as no great surprise very concerned about being that athletes today are outmatched by the astonishing very concerned about capabilities of nanotechnology being outmatched by the in sports. If you have ever ridden a astonishing capabilites of bicycle uphill, you know what nanotechnology in sports. an effort it takes to reach the top. It is no secret that the ease of riding a bicycle is inversely proportional to its weight. In competitive environments, cyclists need not only the lightest, but also the toughest and most resilient bike. That is why Zyvex Corporation, one of the first nanotechnology-based companies, has introduced carbon nanotube technology in the manufacture of its bicycles.Carbon nanotubes are long strings of carbon chains connected

Preceeding page of center spread


DO NOT PLACE ANY OBJECTS ON THIS PAGE -

New Jersey Institute of Technology

Albert Dorm an Honors College Technology Observer

1999- 2009

Sp ec i a l Feature

For the past ten years, the Technology Observer has worked to

esearch

keep up with the advancements in technology, while forecasting

vision

what might be expected in the near future. With the celebration of its tenth anniversary, however, the magazine has decided to instead take a look back at the developments that have shaped

invention

our civilization. direction

e exploration

This timeline condenses eons of technological advancements

into a four-page spread, a quite daunting task indeed. Thus, each

technology

advancement

one of the over 130 milestones outlined on these pages has been

thoroughly debated and seen to fit specific criteria that warrants its placement on the timeline. Each milestone also fits into at least one of four categories—agriculture, medicine, space exploration, or military—based on their impact on various scientific fields.

knowledge to the scientific We intend this timeline to serve as a guide

discoveries of the past and of the foundation for innovations of science the future.

scovery

creativity

quest

innovation

New Jersey Institute of Technology - Albert Dorm an Honors College

together at the molecular level and offer a high durability per mass with other nanoscale molecules. After discussing numerous applications ratio. Zyvex points out that carbon nanotubes “have reported tensile of C60, chemists recap, “C60 is a kind of ideal nanoscale building block strengths twenty times that of…steel with one sixth the weight [3]. that can be picked up and manipulated with nanotechnological tubes. Carbon nanotubes continue to gain popularity in industry because Its curved, hollow structure has made us familiar with another view of of the growing simplicity with which they can carbon materials” [1]. The fact that be chemically manipulated. Clearly, a bicyclist The fact that fullerenes are hollow...and fullerenes are hollow (implying a riding a lighter and more durable nanotube- that chemists can effectively manipulate lower density) and that chemists infused bicycle stands a better chance of them with nanotubes is of particular can effectively manipulate them interest to athletics researchers. taking the lead in a competitive race. with nanotubes is of particular Fortunately, carbon nanotube integration interest to athletics researchers into products is more than just a dream, as some companies even and will probably lead to significant fullerene related discoveries and possess computer imaging technology that allows them to simulate implementations in the future. how nanotubes will behave in a given environment [2]. The ability At the same time, researchers at Case Western Reserve University to visualize what occurs at the molecular level is a great tool for in Cleveland have developed polymers that could potentially open a predicting reactivity. As a result, a number of companies have begun previously inconceivable market. These scientists have been researching developing carbon nanotube technologies for implementation not the color change of polymers in the visual spectrum. Polymers are any long, only in bicycles, but in other fields as well. typically carbon-based chains composed of repeating chemical patterns For example, there are companies working on ways to help with unique ends. Some special polymers have been found to change golfers utilize nanotechnology to gain a competitive edge. Recently, color when subject to temperature variations or with the application a new nanotechnologically inspired golf ball known as the Wilson of excessive stress. “When the molecules are together, everything looks Staff 50 hit the market. normal. When the molecules are damaged or spread Florida Golf Central apart, that’s when [the material] changes color” [4]. The If the correct polymers could be Magazine advertises, question posed was, how can this peculiar feature be manufactured at low cost and added to “The new 50 is the first converted into something useful? products already on the market, we could ball to incorporate the Fortunately, the potential applications of this feature see...improved bungee cords, rock-climbing latest advancements appear to be endless. If the correct polymers could be equipment, and fishing paraphernalia. in nanotechnology, manufactured at low cost and added to products already resulting in a core that on the market, we could see tamper-proof medicinal is 22% softer” [6]. This core minimizes electrostatic repulsions to packaging, spoil-proof food packaging, as well as improved bungee allow greater compressibility. The benefit for golfers is that a more cords, rock climbing equipment, and fishing paraphernalia. Stress compressible core responds more sensitively to a golfer’s clubs. Much induced because of a tiny puncture hole made by a drug tampering like the greater safety of a soft-compression core baseball, a more needle would be clearly visible to the naked eye due to a change in color. compressible golf ball core also provides safety benefits as well. Similarly, changes in temperature of spoiled packaged meat that render Another nanotechnology company, NanoDynamics, markets it unfit for consumption could cause a perceptible color change in the a golf ball that boasts greater accuracy. The ball possesses an packaging. Sky divers could check to ensure their bungee cords are still innovative hollow steel core capable of distributing the golf ball’s strong enough to function properly. Rock climbers could stay safe and weight more evenly and placing the ball’s center of mass nearer to the check to ensure that their equipment is not excessively worn. Fishermen actual center of the golf ball. According to CBS’s CNET Networks, could quickly and easily learn whether or not their fishing line needs to this unique core “allows the ball to correct its flight slightly so that it be replaced to avoid a snapped line and the escape of a “trophy fish.” goes where the golfer intended it, rather than to the side” [5]. The best part about this technology is that it would take only seconds to The aerial shifting of a golf ball’s path is known as a golfer’s decide whether to use or to discard a given product! Skeptics must come natural draw or natural fade and plays a major role in where the to terms with the fact that this quixotic sounding innovation may soon golf ball lands, especially in the presence of become a reality on the shelves of their natural forces, such as wind. These external local stores, provided that companies can forces can give even professional golfers trouble, Perhaps the day is not far off develop the means of producing these for instance, when judging whether a shot will when the technologies we now polymers less expensively. successfully sail past a tree or mistakenly strike it. consider luxuries will instead be In conclusion, technical advances However, if golfers were able to consistently drive considered necessities by future in carbon nanotubes, compressible the golf ball straight, they would have a very good athletes and sports enthusiasts. materials, fullerenes, and polymers idea of whether a shot would clear an obstacle or already provide seemingly endless not. Clearly, golf balls that fly straight offer a big advantage over opportunities for growth in the athletics and sports sector. Perhaps regular golf balls. Once the manufacturing costs drop low enough, the day is not far off when technologies we now consider luxuries there is a good chance that this new golf ball will catch on and enjoy will instead be considered necessities by future athletes and sports widespread use. enthusiasts. In the coming years, it is very likely that more widespread Another avenue for nanotechnological improvements lies implementation of these and other nanotechnologies will also occur in the field of fullerenes, discovered in 1985 and only researched in other fields as manufacturing costs drop and high prices subside. significantly over the past ten years. Fullerenes are large, soccer ball Certainly, the future of such nanotechnological applications looks very shaped conglomerates generally made purely of carbon. Fullerenes bright indeed. such as buckminsterfullerene, C60, have begun to attract attention David M. Thompson is a second year undergraduate student studying chemical because of their unique, though not yet fully predictable, interactions engineering at NJIT. Technology Observer 15

wisdom

curiosity nanotechnology

edge

“To raise

agriculture

application

drive innovation, creativity, resea “Without change there is no

intuition

new possibilities,

new angle, motivation

vision space expl

requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science.”

-Albert Einstein, Physicist

judgment

quest

creativity

“The most exciting

breakthroughs of the 21st century will not occur because of technology but because of an expanding concept of

human

.”

-John Naisbitt, Author

direction

we are moving.”

expertise

foresight

-Oliver Wendell Holmes, Physician and Poet

skill

drive

reason

“The further backward you look, the further

forward

you can see.”

agriculture

-Sir Winston Churchill, Biritish Prime Minister

capacity

imagination

advancement

nanotec

“The great thing in the world is not so much where we stand, as in what

deftness

military

:: By Bushra Hossain ::

-William Pollard, Physicist and Priest

to regard old problems from a

exploration

Nanotechnology enters nutraceuticals, agriculture, and microscopic encapsulation to improve the flavor and nutritional value of food and the health of the population

medicine

incentive for improvement.”

new questions,

observation

Nano-foods: Giving Each of Us The Golden Ticket

insight

progress

insight

knowledge

N e w J e rse y I n s t i t u t e of Te c hnolo g y - A l be rt D or m a n Honors Col l e g e

disc


Precision Agriculture (2000s CE) Precision agriculture is a system of agriculture that relies on Geographical Information System (GIS), which tells farmers conditions of soil, moisture, and status of the crops amongst other things. Using this information with Global Positioning technology, which has precision of less than a meter, farmers can drive their tractors over the field, while an onboard computer regulates the fertilizers or pesticides in specific areas based on the information collected.

2000 CE

Vertical Farming (2000s CE) In order to increase food production for the future increase in population, this system of farming vertically is being researched. Farms will be more like buildings in which produce is grown on each floor. Roundup Ready Crops (1996 CE) Monsanto, an agricultural company based in St. Louis, MO, develops a strain of soybeans resistant to a broad spectrum herbicide, allowing one to use the herbicide freely around the crops.

“Terminator” Genes Patented (1998 CE) A genetic system is created to render sterile the seed of a predetermined generation of plants. This can be used to prevent the spread of genetically-modified gene sequences to other crops, as well as prevent attempts to develop new strains.

1990 CE Genetically-Modified Food (1990 CE) The modification of livestock as well as plants was introduced to enhance nutritional value and longer shelf lives to food. Plant Cell Genetically Modified (1982 CE) The scientists at the agricultural company Monsanto successfully genetically modify an individual plant cell. Haber Process Demonstrated (1909 CE) The Haber Process is used to fix atmospheric nitrogen, a requisite element for plant growth and development, into compounds used to create artificial fertilizers, allowing the synthesis of nitrogen fertilizers. Mendel Publishes Paper on Heredity (1866 CE) Greger Mendel observes from pea plants that the properties of the offspring plants are related to those of the parents by a specific set of rules. This lays the basis for genetics and later work in plant hybridization. 1900 CE Fertilizer (1840 CE) Although this was studied before, Justus von Liebig arguably started the fertilizer industry with his discovery of the importance of nitrogen in plant growth. 1800 CE Steel Plow (1837 CE) Invented by John Deere, the steel plough was ideal for tilling the tough soil of midwestern America. 1500 CE Columbian Exchange (1492 CE) The Columbian Exchange resulted in a diverse and drastic exchange of animals and plants between the Old World and the New World, a consequence of Christopher Columbus’s voyage. Some of these exchanges include chicken and cucumbers to the New World and turkey and corn to the Old World. Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada (1200 CE) (Book of Confidence Concerning Simple Drugs) Written by Ibn al-Baitar, an Arab scientist, botanist, and physician, Kitab al-Jami is considered to be one of the most important works in plants, herbs, food, and drugs. It was a compilation of 260 previous works and remained an authority in this area for some time. Windmill (644 CE) Windmills were invented to generate power for use in areas without running water. 0 CE Multi-tube Seed Drill (100 BCE) Invented by the Chinese, the drill was an animal-drawn device with tubes assembled to look like a flat comb, and was used to plant seeds in rows. This increased efficiency of farmers and made row cultivating easier. 1000 BCE 2000 BCE

Pesticides (2500 BCE) Some of the earliest use of pesticides was by the Sumerians who used a solution of sulfur.

3000 BCE

6000 BCE

Silent Spring (1962 CE) Written by Rachel Carson, Silent Spring arguably started the modern environmental awareness initiative. This book was the impetus behind banning pesticides, such as DDT, which were more harmful than beneficial. DDT was linked to killing animals, causing cancer in humans, and building up in animal fat deposits, which could be consumed by other organisms DDT as Pesticide (1940 CE) Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is patented in Switzerland as an insecticide. This is one of the most famous synthetic pesticides. Though quite effective, it has been banned in many countries due to health concerns.

Pasteurization (1871 CE) Invented by Louis Pasteur, pasteurization heat-treated certain food products, such as milk, in order to increase their shelf lives. Greenhouse (1619 CE) Although controlled weather for growing seasonal plants throughout the whole year was around since the Roman Empire, the first recorded use of a greenhouse was during this year in Heidelberg, Germany, built by Salomon de Caus, who became famous as a hydraulic engineer. Documented Use of Spinning Wheel (1350 CE) The first documented use of the spinning wheel, which was used to spin thread from fibers, was in this year. Suction Pipe (1206 CE) Created by Al-Jazari, the suction pipe system uses pistons powered by animals or a water wheel to create suction and allow water to be raised from a source.

1000 CE

Crop Rotation System (1000 CE) The system of modern-day crop rotation was developed in the Arab empire in which different plants were grown in different times of the year in order to preserve soil nutrients through the years. A variant of this system was popularized in Europe by the British agriculturist Charles Townshend. Iron Plows (500 BCE) Invented by the Chinese, the iron plough allowed farmers to till the earth and bring up nutrients from deep soil.

Row Cultivating (500 BCE) Row cultivating was a method of planting seeds in rows, rather than randomly tossing them in the field, and was first adopted by the Chinese. This method improved efficiency while harvesting, and increased the growth of healthier plants.

Aqueduct (691 BCE) Although mainly associated to the Romans, the first aqueduct, which formed a bridge-like structure between a water source and a city, was built by the Assyrians to bring fresh water to their city of Nineveh. Use of Reservoirs (3000 BCE) The Indus Valley Civilization employs reservoirs to hold water during dry periods, and later integrates canals into their irrigation.

Field Systems (5500 BCE) The field systems was first implemented in Céide Fields of Ireland, a plot of land organized into smaller plots using rocks or dirt to make boundaries. Areas would be designated to grow certain crops or be assigned to people for ownership. 5000 BCE

First Biopharming Trial (1991 CE) Biopharming uses plants or animals to produce drugs.

Plows (3000 BCE) Ploughs were invented to till the earth in order to bring nutrient-rich soil from the bottom to the surface. The Egyptians made considerable improvements to the plough’s design by having animals pull it. 4000 BCE

Integration of Canals (5000 BCE) Archeologists point out that the first use of canals was in Peru, where the canals brought water to plantations. Irrigation (6000 BCE) Archeological evidence suggests that Irrigation was developed in arid regions, such as Egypt, where rainfall was insufficient to grow crops, such as barley, found there.

2010 CE

Nanosensors (2008-2010 CE) Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created nanoscale sensors smaller than the cell. These nanosensers may be embedded within the cells, identifying toxins and detecting molecules that bind to DNA. In 2010, researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology demonstrated the use of nanogenerators to make these nanosensors self-powered.

Allergy Nanomedicine (2007 CE) Using buckminsterfullerene, or “buckyballs,” the 60-carbon molecule can treat allergies by reducing the allergic response in human cells. Buckyball-exposed cells release significantly less histamine than unexposed cells.

Human Genome Project (2003 CE) Beginning in 1990, the international project to sequence map the entire human genome took 13 years to complete. It has provided the complete genetic blueprint of the human being. Understanding the human genome proves integral to nanomedicine.

Neuro-knitting (2006 CE) The study of neuro-knitting involved MIT and the University of Hong Kong. Peptide monofiber scaffolding create environment for axon growth. Neuro-knitting repairs damaged brain region and may restore function. Vision has even returned in some trials. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1971-1980 BCE) The invention of the MRI is comprised of two steps. In 1971, Raymond Damadian, an America practitioner, reported differences in tissue proton relaxation among normal tissues and between normal and cancer tissues. From 1972 to 1980, imaging methods were developed by Damadian, American chemist Paul Lauterbur, British physician Peter Mansfield, and Swiss physical chemist Richard Ernst. In 1980, Richard Ernst developed the MRI we know today by combining spin-warp with phase-encoding.

2000 CE

Liposomes (1961 CE) Hematologist Alec Bangham discovered liposomes when he added negative stain to dry phospholipids. Liposomes are used as vectors of drug delivery. Liposome research and application paved the way for nanobiotechnology. Pacemaker (1958 CE) American inventor Wilson Greatbatch had been attempting to create an oscillator to record heart sounds when he installed the wrong resistor into the unit. The device emitted a steady electrical pulse, which he realized mimicked the heart. This accidental discovery would become the foundation of creating the first implantable pacemaker.

Open Heart Surgery Using Heart-Lung Machine (1953 CE) The first open heart surgery using a heart-lung machine was carried by American surgeon John H. Gibbon, Jr.

Stereotaxy (1908 CE) Stereotaxy is used in neurosurgery and by rendering 3-dimensioanl images, allows procedures to be minimally invasive, by locating small targets in body. Antiseptic Methods (1867 CE) Joseph Lister recognized that infections were caused not by oxidation but by microbes in the air. Originally, Lister used Carbolic Acid to keep patients’ wounds free of microbes. Stethoscope (1818 CE) The original stethoscope, invented by French physician René Laennec, paralleled the design of the ear trumpet - a hearing aid.

1800 CE

Discovery of Bacteria (1683 CE) Owing to the invention of the microscope, this was the first time unicellular organisms were seen up close.

Kahun Papyrus (1880 BCE) The world’s oldest medical document in existence today, this Egyptian papyrus focused on gynecological diseases and describes diagnosis and treatments for each.

2000 BCE

Blood Transfusion Pump (1818 CE) Transfusions had been attempted since the late 1400s. However, they had not largely successful until English obstetrician James Blundell studied them. Vaccination (1796 CE) Edward Jenner discovers that immunity from smallpox can be obtained when one is exposed to cowpox pus. This would lay the basis of vaccination: immunity by being exposed to attenuated forms of similar strains.

1500 CE

1000 CE

Canon of Medicine (1010 CE) Perhaps the single most famous book in medical literature, Canon of Medicine was written by Ibn Sina, compiling everything about medicine that was known at the time. The book was used for centuries afterwards. Hospitals (230 BCE) Under the rule of King Ashoka, India created hospitals, which were funded by the royal treasury, to take care of the sick.

1900 CE

Germ Theory of Disease (1880 CE) French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur and German physician Robert Koch worked independently to determine that disease are cause by microscopic organisms, which changed medicine for the years to come in making asepsis and sterilization one of the top priorities of physicians. Anesthetics (1842 CE) American surgeon Crawford L. Long has been credited as the first to use diethyl ether as an anesthetic.

Study of Cellular Respiration (1783 CE) Antoine Lavoisier discovers cellular respiration is a combustion reaction with organisms consuming oxygen and producing carbon dioxide.

Bandages to Heal Wounds (1536 CE) Ambroise Pare uses turpentine and egg yolk on a bandage to heal a wound rather than cauterizing with oil.

Penicillin (1928 CE) Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovered that the rare strain Penicillium notatum was capable of killing a wide range of harmful bacteria, and would serve as the basis for the penicillin antibiotic.

Intravenous Injection of Antibiotics (1656 CE) Christopher Wren injects dogs with antibiotics intravenously, which allowed it to circulate the blood stream. Insight Into Circulatory System (1242 CE) Ibn al-Nafis corrects previous thought and proposes new facts regarding how the blood circulates through the heart and lungs, many of which are correct. William Harvey, an English physician, describes in detail the circulatory system, its function, and path of blood flow in 1628. Surgical Instruments (1000 CE) Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, known as the father of modern surgery, created surgical instruments such as the surgical needle, forceps, scalpels, spoons, curettes, and retractors.

0 CE

1000 BCE

Quantification of Drug Strength (800-873 CE) A complex system was developed by the polymath Al Kindi to assess the strength of a drug to determine dosage amounts. Surgical Methods (129-199 CE) Galen develops knowledge of human anatomy by studying animals (Rome prohibited human dissection) and writes hundreds of treatises. His work influenced medicine for more than a millenium and other exemplary figures of medicine, such as Ibn Sina. Anatomical Studies (290 BCE) Herophilus, an Alexandrian physician, performed public dissections on cadavers on whom he studied the brain, eye, liver, and various glands.

Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1600 BCE) One of the oldest known medical papyri, Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is a part of a larger volume of text that dealt with trauma surgery. It contains a list of 48 cases with examinations and interventions for each. Some methods described are still in use today, such as the immobilization of the head and neck in order to prevent further damage.

First Private Human Space Flight (2004 CE) SpaceShipOne, under the command of pilot Mike Melville, became the first non-government funded craft to reach beyond Earth’s atmosphere, and Melville was the first civilian to go where many astronauts had been before. The spacecraft was sponsored solely by Paul G. Allen.

2010 CE

Opportunity Looks for Water on Mars (2004 CE) Following its sister rover, Spirit, to Mars, Opportunity lands on the surface of the Red Planet to look for signs of water. First Space Tourist (2001 CE) At age 60, Dennis Tito, a former NASA employee, became the first paying passenger to go to outer space, spending an eight-day holiday on the International Space Station. International Space Station Work Begins (1998 CE) The International Space Station began assembly at low Earth orbit mainly by the United States and Russia. Early research was focused on long-term life and material sciences investigations in the weightless environment.

Chandra X-ray Observatory (1999 CE) NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission from very hot regions of the Universe such as exploded stars, clusters of galaxies, and matter around black holes. Hubble Space Telescope Deployed by SS Discovery (1990 CE) The Hubble Space Telescope is placed into orbit about 600km (370 miles) above Earth. It received images of greater brightness, clarity, and detail than groundbased telescopes with comparable optics. Untethered Space Walk (1984 CE) Bruce McCandless and Robert Stewart made the first untethered space walk. The two astronauts used nitrogenpropelled manned maneuvering units to move in the vacuum of space.

2000 CE

1990 CE

Mir Station (1986 CE) Mir, meaning “peace”, is the third generation of space stations developed by the Soviet Union. It hosted more than 100 people from 12 countries.

1980 CE

Viking 2 Discovers Frost on Mars (1976 CE) The objective of Viking 2 was to land on Mars and take high resolution photos of the planet to find indicators of life.

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1975 CE) The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint space mission between the United States and Soviet Union. Mariner 9 (1971 CE) Mariner 9 was the first satellite object to orbit another planet, Mars, and took pictures for future studies. Salyut 1, First Space Station and Occupation (1971 CE) Salyut 1 mission was to design and test the first space station. Apollo 11 (1969 CE) Apollo 11 carried the first humans to walk on the moon, among them Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin. Zond 5 (1968 CE) Zond 5 took pictures of Earth from distances ranging from 1,950km to 90,000km. Venera 4 (1967 CE) Venera 4 was launched towards Venus and collected data on the planet’s atmosphere. Mariner 4 Captures Images of Mars (1965 CE) Mariner 4 was the first space craft to successfully fly by Mars. It took the first set of close-up pictures of the Red Planet.

1970 CE

Skylab (1973 CE) Skylab was America’s first space station. NASA hoped to prove that humans could live in space for extended periods of time. Luna 17 (1970 CE) Luna 17 was able to retrieve 500 soil samples of the Moon. Luna 16 (1970 CE) Luna 16 was the first Soviet aircraft to return to Earth. Luna 9 (1966 CE) Luna 9 was the first aircraft to make a soft landing, which proved the Moon could support aircrafts. Luna 3 (1959 CE) Luna 3 took the first images of the far side of the Moon, revealing a mountainous terrain. Luna 2 (1959 CE) Luna 2 released sodium gas to study the behavior of gas in space and confirmed the Moon had no magnetic fields.

1960 CE

Luna 1 (1959 CE) Luna 1, a Soviet vessel, was the first space craft to reach the Moon. Explorer 1 (1958 CE) Explorer 1 was the United States’s first successful space craft launch. The mission studied cosmic rays and micrometeorites. Sputnik 2 (1957 CE) Sputnik 2 is one of the most important satellite launches that paved the way for man to enter space. The satellite was launched by the U.S.S.R. shortly after Sputnik 1, and included a K-9 passenger, a Laika. This was the first launch of an organism into space and proved to scientists that organisms can withstand launch to space as well as space itself under proper conditions.

First Space Walk (1965 CE) Ed White made the first space walk by leaving the space craft for 23 minutes.

1950 CE 1940 CE 1930 CE

1900 CE 1600 CE

1200 CE 1400 CE

Copernicus’ Heliocentric Model (1543 CE) Copernicus published his work with his theory of a heliocentric model in which planets, including Earth, revolve around the Sun. Ulugh Beg’s Observatory (1420 CE) One of the largest observatories of its kind, the observatory was run by some of the best mathematicians and scientists of the time. Landmark calculations and discoveries, such as the length of the solar year, which was only 62 seconds off from the current estimate, were made here. Book of Fixed Stars (950 CE) Written by Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi, Fixed Stars makes the first account of the Magellenaic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy. Circumference of Earth (240 BCE) Eratosthenes is the first to measure the 100 BCE circumference of earth accurately. Many historians disagree on what the exact degree of error was, but there is mostly a consensus between 1-16%. 300 BCE

0

1000 CE 800 CE

600 CE

Kevlar Developed (1965 CE) Kevlar, a synthetic material developed by DuPont to replace steel in racing tires, is later used in bullet-proof armor. Jet Engine (1930 CE) Patented by British air commodore Frank Whittle, this type of engine ushered in the area of near and faster-than-sound travel. In 1939, the German aircraft Heinkel HE-178 was the first to be powered by this engine. Unmanned Air Vehicle (1930s CE) Evolved from cruise missiles, the first radio-controlled pilotless air vehicle came about around this time. Although they were used as practice targets for training pilots at first, they have now gained prominence in the military in surveillance, reconnaissance, and offensive strategies.

Goddard’s Rocket Patents (1914 CE) Physicist Robert H. Goddard received a patent for rockets using liquid fuel and rockets using solid fuel. This was the first application of rockets to space travel. Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity (1905 CE) A hallmark theory by Albert Einstein, this theory states that time and space are not absolute; gravity can affect periods of time and areas of space. This idea led to many new concepts and theories in physics, such as the Big Bang Theory and the existence of black holes—bodies in space so dense that light cannot escape their gravity.

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion (1618 CE) Johannes Kepler introduces all his laws of planetary motion by this time, which describe the relationship between the planets, the Sun, and their orbit. Telescope Use Begins (1609 CE) Invented by Hans Lipphershey, the telescope was first used for astronomical purposes by Galileo Galilei. While using it, Galileo discovered that there are more stars than visible with the naked eye, the moons of Jupiter, as well as a more detailed structure of the Moon’s surface.

1900 CE

Heavier than Air Flight (1903 CE) The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, make a successful test-run of their airplane with a human on board.

Supernova (185 CE) Chinese astronomers were the first to observe and record supernovas. Designated SN 185, records indicate that this star-like spot in the night-sky stayed visible for about eight months.

Star Map (129 BCE) Although many existed before this time, Hipparchus’ star map documented 850 of the brightest stars with unprecedented accuracy. After making comparisons to his predecessors’ star maps, he concluded that stars move a certain number of degrees over time.

English Longbow (1200 CE) Able to produce 900 Newtons of force, and sharp enough to pierce armor, the English longbow is believed to have been responsible for significant military advantage in the Hundred Years War.

1400 CE

1000 CE

800 CE Siege Weapons (350 CE) Although some simple siege weapons, such as battering rams, existed 600 CE before this time, the Greeks invented more advanced machinery such as projectile-firing catapults and ballistas that relied on gravity to reach their target. 200 CE 0 Man-Carrying Horse (900 BCE) Since early domesticated horses were small in stature, they were unfit for carrying man, and thus were only used to pull chariots. Art from 12th century BCE Syria depicts horses bred large enough to carry man, but it was the Assyrians who showed a prominent use of cavalry.

1300 CE

1200 CE

1100 CE

2010 CE

DARPA Grand Challenge (2005 CE) Stanford University’s unmanned Volkswagen Touareg “Stanley” crosses the Mojave Desert without a driver or 2005 CE human remote control. Lasers Used for Defense (2000 CE) The Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL), a joint project of the United States and Israel, successfully destroys an 2000 CE armed Katyusha rocket-launcher. This laser defense project was terminated due to its prohibitive costs. World Wide Web Proposal (1990 CE) Though precendented by other networks, the modern internet derives from the Proposal for a Hypertext Project. Spy Satellite (1959 CE) Telescopes in satellites aimed at the Earth allow for spying and gaining intelligence of enemy operations. Nuclear-Powered Carriers (1958 CE) Aircraft carriers existed well before World War II. However, the United States was the first to create a nuclear-powered mobile airbase, the USS Enterprise. USS Nautilus (1954 CE) The USS Nautilus was the first nuclear submarine and demonstrated that it did not need to resurface for up to four months. Ironclad Ships (1859 CE) First invented by the French, these ships had an iron armor, making them invulnerable to canon fire and rendering wooden ships to become obsolete.

1500 CE

Military Submarine (1775 CE) The first submarine ever used in combat was created by the American inventor David Bushnell. This hand-powered submarine was used to plant explosives in harbored ships.

Modern Parachute (1800 CE) The modern parachute is developed over this century. With it came the creation of new military tactics that include facilitation of equipment delivery and personnel dispatch to inaccessible areas.

First Metal Cannon (1326 CE) The French pot-de-fer was used in several battles of the Hundred Years War. In 1453, Constantinople, imperial capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily-walled cities, fell to the Turks who were wielding cannons.

Trebuchet Using Counterweights (1097 CE) The trebuchet is a catapult-like siege weapon that utilized counterweight to sling projectiles across vast distances. The counterweight trebuchet would remain prominent for centuries, even after gunpowder artillery develops. Gunpowder (800 CE) Developed in China, gunpowder is a chemical explosive that would be used pervasively for centuries to come.

400 CE

Chain Mail (400 BCE) Possibly invented by the Celts, rings made out of iron were woven into protective fabric. This kind of armor was extensively used during the Hellenistic times.

Sun Tzu’s Art of War (500 BCE) One of the most popular books on military strategy, Art of War suggested the importance of understanding tactical position and adjusting quickly to changing battle conditions. Trireme (800 BCE) Believed to have been invented by the Corinthians of Ancient Greece, the Trireme war galley was an indication of the importance of navies. 1000 BCE

Iron Smelting (1200 BCE) With the discovery of iron-smelting techniques, iron replaced bronze as the dominant choice of building material. This led to the rise of more durable weapons and armor.

Sword (1200 BCE) The discovery of iron forging made way for the creation of the long-bladed sword. Bronze could only be used to make short-bladed daggers. Improved Chariot (1600 BCE) The chariot was reintroduced by Iranian tribes as a lighter and more agile two-wheeled vehicle drawn by horses, instead of oxen.

2000 BCE Chariot (2500 BCE) First used by the Sumerians, the chariot is a fourwheeled vehicle that employs oxen or donkeys to perform hit-and-run tactics. It lacked a pivoting axle, which made turning difficult.

Encryption (1900 BCE) The use of hieroglyphics as encryption came about in Egypt. However, Greeks and Romans also used their own forms of encryption in order to safely discuss military strategies. 3000 BCE

200 BCE Heliocentric Earth (280 BCE) Aristarchus of Samos was one of the first to propose the idea of the Earth orbiting the Sun.

1800 CE 1700 CE

Radio (1901 CE) Gugliemo Marconi claims a successful transatlantic radio transmission, another integral advance in communications.

400 CE

200 CE

1950 CE

Radar (1930 CE) First researched as a “death ray” to destroy enemy aircraft, British scientists found radars were viable systems to detect threats early.

1910 CE

Confirmation of Other Galaxies (1923 CE) Confirming Immanual Kant’s “Island Universe Theory”, Edwin Hubble made the discovery that the Milky Way Galaxy is only one of millions of galaxies in the universe. By measuring distances between the galaxies, Hubble also proposed that the universe is expanding.

Philosophae Naturalis Principia (1687 CE) Isaac Newton concluded that planets were held in their rotation by a force, known as gravity, and wrote the laws of motion.

First Man in Space (1961 CE) Yuri Gagarin, a Russian, was the first man to orbit the earth.

1920 CE

Sputnik 1 (1957 CE) A soviet satellite that marked the beginning of the “space race,” Sputnik 1 was deployed into space with the objective of testing satellites’ orbit around Earth.

Man on the Moon Challenge (1961 CE) Before a joint session of Congress, U.S. President John F. Kennedy challenged the American nation to have a man land on the Moon in 10 years time.

Packbots First Used in Combat (2002 CE) The remote-controlled Packbot, created by iRobot, was first used in combat in Afghanistan, and an explosive ordinance disposal version was made for Iraq later. Its first operational debut, however, was during the recovery efforts of the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center attacks. Prototype Stealth Aircraft Flown (1981 CE) The United States tests an early version of the F-117A, commonly called the Night Hawk, which was made with the goal of being invisible to ground radars.

Writing (3500 BCE) In Mesopotamia, Cuneiform writing develops. This improves communication, a fundamental to a successful army.

Planked-hull Ship (3000 BCE) Evidence suggest ships in Egypt were made with planked shell-like hulls, although waterborne vessels likely existed far earlier. Bronze (3500 BCE) First developed by Sumerians by smelting tin and copper, bronze dramatically increased the rigidity of weapons and gave its users an advantage with its durability. 4000 BCE


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anotechnology is beginning to appear in one of the most essential, yet enjoyable aspects of human life, food. When applied to food, this microscale application allows for the specialization of particles and making nutritional content very precise. It also allows for the enhancement of taste of ordinary ingredients, When applied to food, without additional content. [nanotechnology] allows for This application lends the specialization of particles itself to a brand new and making nutritional field of food engineering. content very precise. Nanotechnology is already present in many of the foods we sample. For example, canola oil has been modified to reduce cholesterol levels through a technology called nanosized self-assembled structural liquids [3]. The idea is to maximize functionality of oil while minimizing the concentration of fatty acids; there is a reduced health risk without extra consumer effort. Packaging of foods has also been affected by this latest trend, with the use of nanolayers [10]. The layers act as protective barriers for products, preventing the diffusion of gases and moisture across these simulated membranes. Nanotechnology can address problems such as food inequality, nutritional deficiency, spoilage and packaging. It can also enhance flavors and make for a better, healthier population. With nanotechnology research blooming, there emerge more and more methods of using it in order to augment food. Due to the novice nature of this new technology, its use within the world of food has been minimal up until now. The advantage of microscale material is that it allows for highly accurate results. It becomes possible to allocate specific materials into specific locations, as with nutraceutical delivery. Nutraceutical delivery is concerned with the delivery of foods to have more efficient effects on the human body. Nanotechnology can slow the genetic modification of the common bases of cells and manipulate their differentiation. Lipids, organic water-insoluble compounds present in most foods, can be rendered into hydrophilic molecules, which normally distance themselves from lipids; that is, it can allow for hydrophobic molecules to be water-soluble. Recent nanotech innovation even allows for the stabilization of light and oxygen sensitive beta-carotenes before its addition to foods for coloring. These beta-carotenes can be reformulated to be lipid soluble with the addition of a nano-structured lipid layer which allows the new product to be dispersed in beverages [5]. This could potentially allow for the nanoparticles of functional components to be dispersed well enough for maximum bioavailabilty. The small nature of nanotechnology allows scientists to have a better understanding of how certain molecules are structured and how they interact. This knowledge allows scientists to manipulate existing materials and apply these results into healthier, more nutritious food. The possible benefits of this groundbreaking field are unprecedented, to say the least. The technology seems to be at the frontier in revolutionizing the world of food, and taking it to [Nanotechnology] allows a level that is seemingly science scientists to have a fiction. Nanotechnology can better understanding of potentially lower input costs and how certain molecules increase productivity. Companies are structured and globally are starting to accept the nature of their this new innovation and reap the interaction. This...allows benefits. The most technologically scientists to manipulate advanced countries are working existing materials and on improving the taste and the apply these results nutritional value of foods while into healthier, more others are using nanotechnology

nutritious food.

With the world population growing and moving into areas that were once thought to be uninhabitable, water purification is a must, and nanotechnology can provide a solution

in agricultural food production. Improving inventory storage helps ensure that enough food can be produced for an entire population. One must also look at the indirect effects of nanotechnology such as improving water resources and allowing for easier purification and desalination [9]. Clean, drinkable water is essential for harvesting, and also for human sustenance. The absence of clean water is a problem that plagues many developing countries and underserved populations today. With the aid of this technology, clean-water deficiency can be a problem of the past. Technology Observer 23


Direct injection of vitamins and nutrients could increase health benefits without changing taste 24 Technology Observer

A recent trend is nutritious packaged foods. Nanotechnology can enhance this and create even better, healthier products. Nanocapsules are an important feature making its way into the Nanocapsules...can be injected essential food industry. Sometimes with...antioxidants, and minerals, referred to as minute vitamins micelles, these capsules can antimicrobial compounds and be injected with substances many more compounds which such as antioxidants, would allow for the direct essential vitamins and consumption of these beneficial minerals, antimicrobial parts. compounds and many more compounds which would allow for the direct consumption of these beneficial parts [2]. Once again, lipids have played an important factor in nutritional nanotechnology. Liposomal nanocapsules are the main components that have been used in the food industry. They have been capable of delivering food flavors and nutrients to foods that may have originally lacked high nutrition and flavor value. More recently, these capsules have been found to be adept at injecting important food antimicrobials. This would significantly reduce spoilage and keep foods expected to decay fresh. These capsules can also protect against pathogenic, or disease-causing, microorganisms [13]. Agricultural advancement does not limit itself to simply production but it is beginning to be used within the breeding of plants. DNAinformed breeding of plants uses nanotechnology to omit unwanted characteristics of plants and mass-produce positive, desired traits. While it is true that this application is still in its infancy, it is expected to be a colossal breakthrough for fresh produce. It can create barriers for harmful substances and provide pathways for better nutrients and can even act as a simple indicator, signaling in different colors when pathogens or dangerous microbes are detected [11]. Following the pattern of metal detection, where semiconductors and magnets are used to detect inorganic matter, nanotechnology uses nanocrystals, microscopic particles which can detect biological matter on a microscopic level. This detection can be achieved with the use of “quantum dots�, a three-dimensional grouping of atoms which contain discrete electronic energy levels. What makes these dots even more distinctive is that they are typically the size of a protein, which has led scientists to realize that they could be injected into cells. Quantum dots also have the ability to tune broad wavelength, and their photochemical stability makes them quite useful in biological labeling [1] . Globally, this technology has sparked interests in scientific, economic, and even national defense arenas. The United States government has begun developing nanotechnology as a possible means of chemically recognizing potential threats to the food supply with nanorobots, also called nanobots. Dutch scientists are working on methods where these nanobots can sense when food is about to spoil, which consequently releases preservatives to extend the shelf life. There are also technologies being developed which involve maintenance of food containers. There are nanocomposites Dutch scientists are working on which are molecular methods where...nanobots can sense barriers that can when food is about to spoil, which trap the oxygen consequently releases preservative within water bottles to extend the shelft life. to ensure that the consumer receives the maximum oxygen, increasing efficiency. Worldwide interest in this technology has increased nine-fold between 1997 and 2005 as observed by the increased investments in the business. It has reached beyond just scientific innovation and has entered into the category of commercial


business. It is expected that by 2015, there will be over $1 billion of nanotechnology incorporated into products [8]. This specific technology is currently valued at about $410 million and is expected to grow to over $5 billion by 2012 [4]. Scientific discovery is on the verge of creating products that can be comparable to those of Willy Wonka, Roald Dahl’s fictional entrepreneur in Charlie and the Chocolate Liposomal Factory, who had the nanocapsules can carry antimicrobial ability to make gum taste agents to protect like a three-course meal. against food spoilage Although many of these and keep food fresh applications are still in their nascent stages, there is little doubt that technological momentum will play its role in advancing these processes to the point where it is feasible for everyone. Perhaps the greatest obstacle lies in the funding for the research of these innovations; the methods of production themselves are not always expensive and in some cases are less expensive than the currently used process. There are criticisms of this new technology, as with any technology, that these new methods of food production may interfere with what the human body is accustomed to through evolution. Though there is insufficient scientific data to support the claim, that humans should not injest these compounds, there are genuine concerns. There are worries that while nano-functional foods may address one nutritional deficiency, they could omit another. There are also worries of the effects of nano-packaging of foods on the overall health of the population, but as with all new developments, research is proactively conducted [7]. Scientists aim to better human lives with these technologies, to make them more accessible and more feasible to the public. Nanotechnology promises a revolution in the food world because it would allow for the management of the desired and the omission of the unwanted and deadly. Nanotechnology in food involves aims to make human life healthier in a much easier fashion. It could potentially eliminate all toxins and render foods free of pathogens and work towards a healthier society. It has been accepted and welcomed not only by the food Nanotechnology promises a industry but also by revolution in the food world the public. Social trust because it would allow for the by the public has been management of the desired and granted and has in fact the omission of the unwanted been an influential factor and deadly. in the development of this Willy Wonka technology [12]. These technologies are being put into place in hopes of creating a healthier, more flavorful future, a future where a small meal can have the filling and palatable effect of a three-course dinner.

Bushra Hossain is a third year undergraduate student studying biomedical engineering at NJIT.

Technology Observer 25


In Vivo Disease Diagnosis by Nanorobots How nanorobots can detect, diagnose and treat diseases in vivo :: By Fatima Elgammal ::

W

hat do you get when you merge the diagnostic prowess of Gregory House, M.D. with the technological adeptness of Optimus Prime into a device that can be smaller than the width of a single strand of hair? The answer: medical nanorobots [3]. Nanotechnology made its medical debut through drug-delivery and minimally invasive surgery within the last decade. However, there is a new motivation to utilize this nascent biomedical application: reducing the spread of infectious diseases to prevent the onset of an epidemic. When research into minimizing the spread of infectious diseases expanded into the ecological and evolutionary disciplines, the need to record time series of data continuously has become imperative [7, 13]. Nanorobots provide a much-needed feature of disease control: to record relevant data, such as antibodies that are present during an immune response, in real-time. The Role of Nanorobotics in Nanobiotechnology Nanorobots were first described in K. Eric Drexler’s 1987 Engines of Creation: The Coming Era for Nanotechnology. Just as cells contain their own tools and machinery to function and repair cellular damage, Drexler predicted that an artificial system can be programmed to carry out similar basic tasks. Such a system will need the ability to access cells, recognize molecules by specialized sensors, disassemble damaged molecules, rebuild molecules found in the cell, and reassemble every system in the cell [6]. While this may be a tall order for a dwarf-sized device, achieving this goal is closer than it seems. As nanoengineering fine-tunes the instruments wielded by the professional, tasks can be adjusted to more precise levels. Robots can be programmed to carry out routine tasks. Couple this capability with the miniaturization of sensors and generators, and nanobots

By recording data in real-time, nanobots can be used to control diseases from spreading

can be introduced into the body to perform procedures accurate to the molecular level [10]. The NanoRobotics Laboratory at CarnegieMellon University in Pittsburgh, PA is developing microcapsules that can be ingested and positioned in the small intestine to provide clinicians with a way to diagnose endoscopic diseases without patient sedation. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, movement of microcapsules is controlled by the clinician to propel them to the desired site, where they can anchor to the lining and release drugs or chemicals for treatment [11]. A Nanobot in the Making Volatile microenvironments of biological systems demand that nanobots be sensitive to fluctuating chemical concentrations and mechanics of cellular function while maintaining the integrity of surrounding elements and not triggering the immune response against the nanobot. Adriano Cavalcanti of the Center for Automation in Nanobiotech (CAN) in Melbourne, Australia has been studying the requisite architecture and hardware to enable such a device for biohazard defense. Cavalcanti’s “medical nanobots” employ actuators, or mechanical devices that operate a mechanism, that are supplied with electrostatic, electromagnetic, or electrothermal inputs [12]. In addition, scientists at CAN have implemented software, the Nanorobot Control Design (NCD), to simulate the chemotactical response by the nanorobot using real clinical data. These devices are fitted with sensors to monitor chemical parameters and relay signals through a radio frequency identification device located on the same nanobot [3]. Recent developments have made side-stepping the issue of power supply less obtrusive. Zhong Lin Wang, a Regents professor at Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Materials Science and Engineering, along with his research team, demonstrated a self-powered nanogenerator that draws its power from mechanical energy. The nanogenerator consists of wires made of zinc oxide and can produce up to 1.2 volts. Any strain on the wires can produce


electrical charges, and the current generated from the flow of electrical charges can power the devices. The nanogenerators can measure ultraviolet light as well as the pH of the environment since both factors produce a change in voltage amplitude that the nanosensor can detect [15]. Combining the ability to self-power these small devices can allow nanorobots to work sustainably and independently without requiring an external energy source. The Case for a New Public Health Defender In 1948, the World Health Organization began a program to centrally profile influenza viruses as a stride towards containing infectious diseases. While there has been much progress in creating vaccines and establishing immunization regimes, not enough has been done to proactively address population-wide outbreaks. To effectively control emerging public health crises like epidemics, health metrics need to include advanced real time data. Nanorobots equipped with biosensors can be modified to detect concentrations of molecules that are secreted by cells when they are invaded by pathogens. The nanorobot can then transmit data of its location and biochemical parameters to an external central database system via RFID [3]. Since the overexpression of certain molecules is signature to a local response, infected individuals can be treated before they display symptoms. In some cases, symptoms are manipulations created by pathogens in order for them to be transmitted to the next host [7]. By cutting short the onset of symptomatic reactions, disease-causing organisms are at a disadvantage for replicating and passing on to more individuals. Public Perception Even with the formal retraction of the 1998 paper published by the medical journal Lancet that linked vaccinations to increased risk of autism developing in children, there is a significant portion of the general public who remain skeptical about using vaccines or antibiotics to treat illnesses [4]. The advent of nanorobots in detecting

and treating disease allow patients with the ability to control their own health become more informed [2]. Nanotechnology allows for health maintenance, observation, and, most importantly, early disease detection. Nevertheless, the idea of hosting small devices inside the body is disconcerting to many because the field is new and problems of such sophisticated machines are unforeseen. These concerns on the social and ethical issues of nanotechnology, and more, were expressed in a 2005 report issued by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit in New Zealand. The report detailed the thoughts of focus groups, which admitted the cost-effectiveness of self-diagnoses by nanorobots, but communicated distress that such devices can be harmful or, conversely, augment human abilities [5]. All in all, the discussion of biological pairing of nanorobots is a discourse that will influence their development. Conclusion Using nanorobots for in vivo disease detection adds magnitudes of efficiency in health monitoring. Current trends in nanobiotechnology enable nanobots to self-generate power, sense fluctuations in chemical concentrations, and even dispense drugs for treatment, at least in theory. Their implementation can increase the reaction time for public health strategies and target areas for treatment and containment. However, medical nanorobots must trounce the technological and social barriers in order to attain their potential as a biohazard defense technology, and a lead innovation for a healthier tomorrow.

Fatima Elgammal is a senior undergraduate student studying applied math and biology at NJIT.

Technology Observer 27


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In Action

Photographer: Babajide Akeredolu

JIT lives up to its designation as New Jersey’s Science and Technology University in the classroom as well as the laboratory. Cutting-edge projects are carried out by NJIT faculty with both passion and dedication. The competitive funding obtained in support of these initiatives is at its highest level ever. In fact, total research expenditures for this fiscal year are expected to top $100 million. The success in the laboratory is translated to the classroom by the faculty to the students in real time, benefiting the entire learning community on campus. NJIT, reports The Princeton Review, “stands today as one of the nation’s most prominent research schools, specializing in nanotechnology, solar physics, and polymer science...and retains its reputation as New Jersey’s top choice for the hard sciences.” NJIT has seen the benefits of its commitment to establishing successful departments in the fields of engineering, management, biological sciences, and mathematics. The fruits of this labor can be seen in the faculty mentioned here.

Studying the Principles of Marketing on a Global Scale :: By Bishoy R. Hanna :: Rajiv Mehta Associate Professor of Marketing School of Management

if the standardization of international marketing channel management strategies and practices is feasible, or do differences in culture make it contingent for firms to adapt channel management strategies. “ Dr. Mehta has not only been able to conduct research in MCM, n periods of economic hardship, such as the one we but also Selling & Sales Management (SSM) and Strategic Alliances in are experiencing today, research in management and marketing sales should be stressed, but few scholars have International Distribution Channels (SAIDC). Using the experience pursued such research. One Drexel graduate and current that he gained from working at Usha Martin Industries, Ltd., Dr. New Jersey Institute of Technology professor, Dr. Rajiv Mehta is now attempting to address varying SSM issues such as how to Mehta, is conducting research in both these fields. Through the use better select, train, and increase performance of sales managers. With the partial help of funding obtained of NJIT’s Van Houten Library along with various survey companies, Dr. [Mehta] is using [SAIDC data] to from a Small Business Innovation Mehta is leading his colleagues in determine if factors such as trust, Research (SBIR) grant, Dr. Mehta has conducting current and detailed relationship closeness, relationship been successful at gathering data from research in the fields of Marketing commitment, learning orientation, and the U.S., Finland, Poland and China that he is using for his research on the Channel Management (MCM), Selling strategic integration— all central facets topic of SAIDC. He is using this data and Sales Management (SSM), and Strategic Alliances in International of successful alliances— are statistically to determine if factors such as trust, significant predictors of cooperation. relationship closeness, relationship Distribution Channels (SAIDC). commitment, learning orientation, With regards to MCM, Dr. Mehta and strategic integration—all central has applied the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership, and the Expectancy Theory of Motivation to channel facets of successful alliances—are statistically significant predictors of member (also known as wholesalers, or distributors) behavior. cooperation. In addition, he hopes to investigate if the extent to which In doing so, he has concluded that participative, supportive, and distribution channel partners cooperate and coalesce leads to the directive leadership styles heightens cooperation, attenuates conflict desirable outcomes of relationship satisfaction, alliance longevity and, among channel participants, as well as encourages channel partners in turn, a high level of firm performance. to exert higher levels of motivation. To apply his ideas on a grander scale, like international markets, Dr. Mehta is looking at whether the Dr. Mehta has been the recipient of the Master Teacher Award and the Henry J. transferability of marketing channel management practices across Leir for Best Working Paper Award. He instructs graduate and undergraduate courses international markets is possible. “More specifically, I have investigated in marketing at NJIT’s School of Management. 28 Technology Observer

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Applying Mathematics to the Study of Life :: By Sheba S. Khan::

Horacio Rotstein Assistant Professor Department of Mathematical Sciences

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r. Horacio Rotstein has mastered many sciences, two of which include biology and math. Dr. Rotstein studies oscillations in the brain at the cellular, molecular, and network level. Particularly, he focuses on the dynamics of the brain, how learning occurs, and how memories are stored and retrieved using rhythmic oscillations. These rhythms are found in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (EC). Frequency bands of the brain’s rhythmic oscillations are recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG). These rhythms have been found to be connected to many different cognitive and behavioral tasks, including memory, learning, and spatial navigation. Dr. Rotstein uses the reduction of dimensions technique to produce nonlinear, multi-scale biological models that describe the oscillatory patterns found in the brain. Test animals are induced to have an epileptic attack, and the bioelectrical response produced is compared to the model using various wave analysis methods. In epileptic patients, the cells become hyperexcited just as the person goes into shock. Dr. Rotstein studies why this occurs, and what sort of oscillatory patterns epileptic attacks disrupt. In the models, there is no difference between, or damage, to the individual cells. Though the cells found in this region have the potential to be hyper-excited, conditions are adjusted such that they do not. This rules

out a problem at the sub-cellular level; the problem, then, takes place at the level of interactions between cells or between networks of cells. With the use of biophysical, biological and mathematical modeling, the impact of these rhythms is studied at the sub-cellular, cellular, and network levels, and it is here that the impacts of Dr. Rotstein’s research becomes readily apparent. By understanding and correctly representing the normal behavior of cells as well as their excited behavior with mathematical models, Dr. Rotstein is able to extract what the variation is at the different previously named levels. By understanding how a healthy brain generates rhythms, the brains that do not function properly can be studied, and ultimately assessed for treatment. At the cellular level, Dr. Rotstein focuses on the stellate cells (SC), a type of neuron, which exhibits mixed-mode oscillations that produce interspersed spikes. The corresponding model of this phenomenon uses the minimum frequency of the SC, which mimics the mixedmode oscillatory patterns. By studying the underlying structure of this model, as well as others like it, the patterns at the subcellular, cellular, and network levels allow for the determination of how SCs process and integrate information. Understanding the natural mixed-mode oscillatory patterns enables researchers to forecast the way the brain can generate other patterns and rhythms. Dr. Rotstein’s research of these behaviors can be extended to human navigation issues, as well as the role these waves play on epileptic patients. Dr. Horacio Rotstein is an assistant professor at NJIT’s Department of Mathematical Sciences and researcher at Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

Looking Towards the Sun to Study Our Earth :: By Peter Besada::

Haiming Wang Distinguished Professor, Department of Physics called the Support Vector Machine Classifier (SVM) differentiates the Director, Space Weather Research Lab limb objects. Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research Dr. Wang’s algorithm also has many applications outside of solar

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he influence of the sun on the earth environmental conditions is known as space weather, and it is also the subject of Dr. Haimin Wang’s research at the Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research at NJIT. Space weather is more sophisticated than normal atmospheric weather because it affects the magnetic fields around the earth, composition of the atmosphere, communications, safety of astronauts, power grids, and even oil pipes. Thus, the need to understand and predict solar activity is important to our society. By measuring the magnetic field of the sun and its orientation, the topology of the Sun’s surface can be better understood, allowing for the prediction of solar eruptions. By working alongside the members of NJIT’s Department of Computer Science, Dr. Wang and his colleagues developed an algorithm that can detect and classify solar activities such as flares and solar prominences efficiently and automatically. This algorithm works in three stages. In the first stage, images of the surface of the Sun are taken at one minute intervals. Each frame is processed individually and the limb or disk object in each frame forms a vector. In the second stage, the vectors from each frame are piled up in time sequence to form a time map. In the final step, properties of each object, such as brightness, velocity, width, and height are all measured. A machine

physics. He is writing a proposal in conjunction with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey to adopt his algorithm to detect and predict aneurysms, which can cause blood vessels to burst. Numerous experiments show that the algorithm works successfully with the exception of only a few insignificant eruptions being misclassified. Despite the near precision of the algorithm, Dr. Wang continues to work closely with Department of Computer Science to constantly improve the software. In addition to his world-class research, Dr. Wang also takes time to mentor students. At the moment, he has four PhD students working with him as well as several undergraduate students. Due to the large amount of data being collected, more people are needed to analyze the data. By digitizing data collected from 1967-1995, approximately 15 million frames, a more complete set of data is acquired, thus having a greater probability of fitting a more precise algorithm and enhancing the predictions of future solar eruptions. Dr. Wang’s research has already had a profound impact on his field and more is undoubtedly to be expected to come in the following years. Dr. Haimin Wang is the 2009 recipient of the NJIT Excellence in Research Award. For more information on Dr. Wang’s space weather research, or to observe solar prominences in real-time, visit http://swrl.njit.edu

Technology Observer 29


Modeling the Movement of Animals at the Speed of Life :: By Matthew P. Deek:: Gareth Russell Assistant Professor Federated Department of Biological Sciences

A

quick investigation of the academic programs at NJIT shows emphasis in the physical sciences, engineering, and architecture. Ecology might not be a subject that first comes to mind, but Dr. Gareth Russell of NJIT and Rutgers’s Federated Department of Biological Sciences is thriving in the field. An assistant professor trained in zoology, Dr. Russell employs mathematical ecology in much of his research. One project Dr. Russell is working on is to analyze how organisms move around the landscape in their habitat. Current math models make the simple assumption that movement of animals is random or that there are patches of landscape that organisms either completely avoid or are always drawn to. However, for many organisms like elephants, which have decisionmaking abilities, this is not true. Currently, many elephants are fenced into areas much too small for their growing numbers. These elephants need more space to live so Dr. Russell creates mathematical models in order to predict which areas in the surroundings would be most beneficial. Data collected from the elephant’s movement within their current habitat is used to forecast where an elephant might choose to live based on location of resources, the Current math models make surrounding environment, the simple assumption that and contact with humans. the movement of animals is Another current project random...However, for many involves an underwater organisms, like elephants, camera to count and identify which have decision-making species of coral reef fish. abilities, this is not true. With the help of Dr. Joseph Wilder from the Center for Advanced Information Processing (CAIP) of Rutgers University-New Brunswick, Dr. Russell has been able to write a computer program that can identify different species of fish from the simultaneous input of two cameras. The camera is presently being tested at the New York Aquarium in Coney Island to work out the kinks. This method of automated data collection allows for rapid detection of changes in species dynamics, which can serve as an early warning system for threats against the coral reef population. The plan is that this summer the camera will be installed on a coral reef off the coast of Belize. Data collected will give valuable information about the population sizes and dynamics for many species of fish.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

For more information on Dr. Gareth Russell’s research, visit http://web.njit. edu/~russell.

(e)

30 Technology Observer

Photos of (a) Foureye Butterflyfish, (b) Blue Chromis, (c) Chalk Bass, (d) Banded Butterflyfish, and (e) Queen Angelfish, taken at the New York Aquarium. An underwater camera is being tested to identify and keep count of species of fish.


Engineering a Way to Walk Again :: By Bishoy R. Hanna::

(a)

Anode

Photodiodes

Cathode

(b)

(c)

FLAMES

(d)

F

Mesut Sahin Assistant Professor Department of Biomedical Engineering

or the past eight years of his academic career, Dr. Mesut Sahin has been researching Floating Light Activated Micro-Electrical Stimulators (FLAMES), a potential treatment for those with varying degrees of paralysis. This project has not only required a great deal of time for Dr. Sahin, an assistant professor of Biomedical Engineering at NJIT, but has also drawn long and extensive hours of work from Dr. Selim Unlu, professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Boston University (BU), and undergraduate and graduate student collaborators from both universities. Dr. Sahin and all those who work in his lab are currently studying various aspects of this project, which include computer modeling, microfabrication, and the devices in a chronic rat model, while Dr. Unlu’s group has primarily focused on fabrication of the devices. All this work has been funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Neural Prosthesis Program. What has managed to encourage the NIH to support this project is its originality. While previous attempts to activate neurons in the spinal cord included a direct line of contact from an external device to the spinal cord, the FLAMES project is the first to attempt to remotely activate the neuron. Essentially, FLAMES is a small device that is remotely controlled by an external unit via a near-infrared laser. The FLAMES device is implanted into the spinal cord, and is then allowed to float in the tissue with no wires attached. Possible outcomes of allowing the device to float and not placing it in a stable position have yet to be studied by Dr. Sahin. However, he intends to carry out various experiments in a rat model to fully understand what the outcomes may be. Once this device is Some parameters of the device completed and made are known, such as the upper available in the clinics, limit of light power that can be people who may have used to activate the device before been told that they “will tissue heating effect becomes never be able to walk a problem. Once this device is again” can potentially completed and made available in use their legs again. the clinics, people who may have been told that “they will never be able to walk again” can potentially use their legs again. The patient would send the command to the external unit to activate the laser, the laser would excite the FLAMES device, which would in turn stimulate the neuron via an electrical current. Although FLAMES is still being tested in animals, Dr. Sahin hopes that one day in the near future humans will be able to enjoy the benefits of his work. More information of Dr. Mesut Sahin’s FLAMES research can be found in the 2009 Conference Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

(a)-(c) FLAMES device, designed and fabricated in collaboration with Dr. Selim Unlu’s lab at BU’s Photonics Center (d) Region of spinal cord where FLAMES would be inserted

Technology Observer 31


:: references ::

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10.

11.

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x 18

Image of Surgery What I think about it. <http://whatithinkaboutit.files.wordpress. com/2009/04/first_surgery_1.jpg?w=300&h=200> -----------------------------------------x 19 Space Exploration 1. Heliocentric Earth (280 BCE). “Heliocentric system.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. 2. Circumference (240 BCE). Hultsch, F. Griechische und Römische Metrologie, Berlin, 1882 3. Star Map (129 BCE). Leverington, David. Babylon to Voyager and beyond a History of Planetary Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Print. 4. Supernova (185 CE). Zhao, Fu-Yuan, R. G. Strom, and Shi-Yang Jiang. “The Guest Star of AD185 must have been a Supernova.” Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics 6.5 (2006): 635-41. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://iopscience.iop.org/1009-9271/6/5/17/ pdf/1009-9271_6_5_17.pdf>. 5. Book of Fixed Stars (950 CE). Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi, 964. Book of Fixed Stars. Isfahan, Persia. 6. Ulugh Beg’s Observatory (1420 CE) Muslim Observatories, Salah Zaimeche, 2002. 7. Copernicus’ Heliocentric Model (1543 CE) Edward Rosen, Copernicus and the Scientific Revolution (Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1984). 8. Telescope Use Begins (1609 CE) “Galileo.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. 9. Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion (1618 CE) “Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. Philosophae Naturalis Principia (1687 CE). Newton, Isaac, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”), London, 1687; Cambridge, 1713; London, 1726. Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity (1905 CE). Lightman, Alan. “Realitivity and the Cosmos.” Einstein’s Big Idea. NOVA: Science Programming on Air and Online, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http:// www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/einstein/relativity/>. Goddard’s Rocket Patents (1914 CE). “Robert H. Goddard: American Rocket Pioneer.” NASA Facts. NASA, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/service/gallery/fact_sheets/general/ goddard/goddard.htm>. Confirmation of Other Galaxies (1923 CE). “ Sandage, Allan (1989), “Edwin Hubble 1889-1953”, The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 83, No.6. Retrieved 2010-03-26. Sputnik 1 (1957 CE). Jorden, William J (5 October 1957). “Soviet Fires Earth Satellite Into Space”. The New York Times. http://www. nytimes.com/partners/aol/special/sputnik/sput-01.html. Retrieved 2007-01-20. Sputnik 2 (1957 CE). Wilford, John N. “With Fear and Wonder in Its Wake, Sputnik Lifted Us Into the Future.” NY Times 25 Sept. 2007. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?r es=9405E5D9133FF936A1575AC0A9619C8B63&sec=&spon=&pag ewanted=1>. Explorer 1 (1958 CE). “Explorer 1 History.” NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA, n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.jpl.nasa. gov/explorer/history/>. Luna 1 (1959 CE). “Luna 1” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Luna 2 (1959 CE). “Luna 2” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Luna 3 (1959 CE). “Luna 3” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. First Man in Space (1961 CE). “Yuri Gagarin: First Man in Space.” NASA. Web. 2010. Man on the Moon Challenge (1961 CE). Stenger, Richard. “Man on the Moon: Kennedy Speech Ignited the Dream.” CNN. 25 May 2001. Web. 2010. First Space Walk (1965 CE). “The First U.S. Spacewalk - Gemini 4.” NASA. 30 Dec. 2004. Web. 2010. Mariner 4 Captures Images of Mars (1965 CE). “Mariner 4.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Luna 9 (1966 CE). “Luna 9.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Venera 4 (1967 CE). “Venera 4.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Zond 5 (1967 CE). “Zond 5.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Apollo 11 (1969 CE). “Apollo 11 Command and Service Module (CSM).” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Luna 16 (1970 CE). “Luna 16.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Luna 17 (1970 CE). “Luna 17/Lunokhod 1.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Salyut 1, First Space Station and Occupation (1971 CE). “Salyut 1.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Mariner 9 (1971 CE). “Mariner 9.” National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Web. 2010. Skylab (1973 CE). “Skylab.” NASA. Web. 2010. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1975 CE). Garber, Steve. “Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.” NASA History Division. NASA. Web. 2010. Viking 2 Discovers Frost on Mars (1976 CE). “Viking Mission to Mars.” NASA. 18 Dec. 2006. Web. 2010. Untethered Space Walk (1984 CE). “First Untethered Spacewalk.” NASA. 27 Feb. 2009. Web. 2010. Mir Station (1986 CE). “Mir.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. Hubble Space Telescope Deployed by SS Discovery (1990 CE). “Hubble Space Telescope (HST) .” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.


38. International Space Station Work Begins (1998 CE). “International Space Station (ISS).” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Student and Home Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. 39. Chandra X-ray Observatory (1999 CE). “About Chandra (CXC).” Chandra X-ray Observatory. <http://chandra.harvard.edu/about/>. 40. First Space Tourist (2001 CE) “2001: First space tourist blasts off.” BBC. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/28/ newsid_2501000/2501015.stm>. 41. Opportunity Looks for Water on Mars (2004 CE). “2004: NASA rover looks for water on Mars.” BBC. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/ hi/dates/stories/january/25/newsid_4606000/4606576.stm>. 42. First Private Human Space Flight (2004 CE). “SpaceShipOne Makes History: First Private Manned Mission to Space.” Scaled Composites. x 19 Image of the STS-116 Discovery NASA. <http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/165304main_ image_feature_719_ys_full.jpg > -----------------------------------------x 20 Military 1. Writing (3500 BCE). “Ancient Mesopotamia: The Invention of Writing.” The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago: Teacher Resource Center. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. <http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ MUS/ED/TRC/MESO/writing.html>. 2. Bronze (3500 BCE). All About Gemstones, 2009. <http://www. allaboutgemstones.com/metal_jewelry_bronze.html>. 3. Planked-hull Ship (3000 BCE). Ward, Cheryl. “World’s Oldest Planked Boats.” Archaeology Magazine. Archaeological Institute of America, May & June 2001. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. <http://www.archaeology. org/0105/abstracts/abydos3.html>. 4. Chariots (2500 BCE). “Military Technology.”Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/382397/military-technology/57589/The-chariot>. 5. Encryption (1900 BCE). Damico, Tony M. “A Brief History of Cryptography.” Student Pulse Academic Journal, 10 Nov. 2009. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. <http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/41/abrief-history-of-cryptography>. 6. Improved Chariot (1600 BCE). “Military Technology.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/382397/military-technology/57589/The-chariot>. 7. Long-bladed sword (1200 BC). “Military Technology.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/382397/military-technology>. 8. Iron Smelting (1200 BCE). Waldbaum, Jane. C. “From Bronze to Iron. Vol. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology”: LIV. Paul Astroms Forlag, Goteburg, 1978. 9. Man-Carrying Horse (900 BCE). Sidnell, P. Warhorse: Cavalry in Ancient Warfare. New York: Hambledon Continuum, 2006. Print 10. Trireme (800 BCE). Absolute Astronomy. <http://www. absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Trireme>. 11. Sun Tzu’s Art of War (500 BCE). “The Art of War.” Chinese Text Project. <http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/text.pl?node=20908&if=en>. 12. Chain Mail (400 BCE). Rusu, M., “Das Keltische Fürstengrab von Ciumeşti in Rumänien”: Germania 50, 1969. 13. Siege Weapons (350 CE). “Siege Tower.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/543215/siege-tower> 14. Gunpowder (800 CE). Kelly, Jack Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World: Perseus Books Group 2005. 15. Trebuchet Using Counterweights (1097 CE). Chevedden, P. The Invention of the Counterweight Trebuchet: A Study in Cultural Diffusion. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 2000. Print 16. English Longbow (1200 CE). Robert E. Kaiser, “The Medieval English Longbow”, Journal of the Society of Archer-Antiquaries, 1980. 17. First Metal Cannon (1326 CE). Carman, Y. A History of Firearms: From Earliest Times to 1914. New York: Dover Publications, 2004. Print 18. Military Submarine (1775 CE). “David Bushnell (1740-1826): The submarine”. Lemelson-MIT Program. <http://web.mit.edu/invent/ iow/bushnelld.html>. 19. Modern Parachute (1800 CE). White Jr., Lynn “The Invention of the Parachute.” Technology and Culture, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Jul., 1968), pp. 462-467 The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the Society

for the History of Technology 20. Ironclad Ships (1859). ECONOMIC Expert. <http://www. economicexpert.com/a/Ironclad:warship.htm>. 21. Radio (1901). Belrose, John S. “Fessenden and Marconi: Their Differing Technologies and Transatlantic Experiments During the First Decade of This Century.” Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Canada. 5 Sept. 1995. Web. 29 Jan. 2009. <http:// www.ieee.ca/millennium/radio/radio_differences.html>. 22. Heavier than air flight (1903). Harbidge, Jane. “BBC News | Great Balloon Challenge | Flying through the Ages.” BBC NEWS | News Front Page. 19 Mar. 1999. Web. 17 July 2009. <http:// news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/11/98/great_balloon_ challenge/299568.stm>. 23. Radar (1930 CE). Alexander, Charles, 2010. <http://www. doramusic.com/Radar.htm>. 24. Unmanned Air Vehicle (1930s). “Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.” <http:// www.vectorsite.net/twuav.html> 25. Jet Engine (1930).”Jet Engine.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Student and Home ed. 2009. Print. 26. USS Nautilus (Nuclear Submarine) (1954 CE). 27. Nuclear Powered Carriers (1958 AD). U.S. Navy. <http://www. enterprise.navy.mil/>. 28. Spy Satellite (1959 CE). “Corona Program.” NASA - JPL Solar System Simulator. 1999. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. <http://samadhi.jpl.nasa.gov/ msl/Programs/corona.html>. 29. Kevlar (1965 CE). DuPont, 2010. Web. <http://www2.dupont.com/ Kevlar/en_US/index.html>. 30. Prototype Stealth Aircraft Flown (1981 CE). Kiger, P. The F-117A - A Secret History. 2010. Web <http://military.discovery.com/ convergence/stealth/article/article.html>. 31. World Wide Web (1990). Berners-Lee, T. Proposal for a Hypertext Project. 1990. Web <http://www.w3.org/Proposal.html>. 32. Laser Used for Defense (2000 CE). Broad, W. US and Israel Shelved Laser as a Defense. New York Times, 2006. Web <http://www. nytimes.com/2006/07/30/world/middleeast/30laser.html?_r=1>. 33. Packbots First Used in Combat (2002 CE). Singer, P.W. Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century. New York: Penguin, 2009. Print. 34. DARPA Grand Challenge (2005 CE). Russel, S. DARPA Grand Challenge Winner: Stanley the Robot. Popular Mechanics, 2005. Web <http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/ robots/2169012>. x 20

Image of a soldier Cool HD Wall Papers. <http://www.coolhdwallpapers.com/ download/soldier-1024x768.jpg > ------------------------------------------


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