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From the Writer:

When i mention to people, that i’’m from NIFT there first question is did i always want to be a Fashion student. My answer to them is no, i didn’teven know that this industry exsited before class 12th, i was the Science- Engineering types, never really bothered to learn anything else. So when i came to NIFT it was really tough to understand that Fashion itselfhas so many things to learn, it is not just about wearing good clothes. This book is an attempt to help first year students to understand the basics and neccesties of Fashion.It helps you in understanding what fashion consits or what are the various things you need to knoe to be a Fashion student. I would like to thank my teacher Mrs. Nitika Rana who taught me everything that i needed to write this book. Without her Presentations and lectures this wouldn’t have been possible. NISHITA KARUN FC-3 NIFT MUMBAI

INDEX Glossary Section 1: Basics of Fashion Section 2: Introduction to Fashion Section 3: Fashion and Society Section 4: Elements and principles of Design Section 5: History of Design Section 6: Fashion Capitals and their major designers Section 7: Understanding Aesthetics


How to be industry ready? First things first you need to know is the basic terms that are used in the industry every day. So if someone talks about high fashion in front of you, you’re first thought shouldn’t be tall fashion, you should know the exact definition. Here the basic terms you need to know:

STYLE Style is a characteristic or distinctive artistic expression or presentation. In apparel, style is the characteristic or distinctive appearance of a garment –the combination of features that makes it unique and different from other garments. Style is about developing your own fashion sense, creating something that people want to follow. A style is a style even if it never receives slightest acceptance but it does not become a fashion until gains some popular acceptance. HIGH FASHION: High fashion refers to a new style accepted by a limited number of fashion leaders who want to be the first to adopt changes and innovation in fashion. High fashion styles are generally introduced and sold in small quantities and at relatively high prices. MASS FASHION: In contrast to high fashion, mass fashion or volume fashion consists of styles that are widely accepted. These fashions are usually pro-

duced and sold in large quantities at moderate to low prices and appeal to the greatest majority of fashion –conscious consumers. DESIGN: A Design is a particular or individual interpretation, version or treatment of a style. In the Fashion industries, manufacturers and retailers assign a number to each individual design produced. This is the Style Number. This style number is used for manufacturing, ordering and selling purposes. TASTE: In fashion Taste refers to opinion of what is and what is not attractive for a given occasion. Good taste in fashion therefore means not only means artistically pleasing but also what is appropriate for a specific situation. DETAILS: The individual elements that give a silhouette its form or shape are called details. These include trimmings: skirt and pant length and width, shoulder, waist and sleeve treatment.

CLASSIC: Some styles or designs continue to be considered in good taste over a long period of time. They are exceptions to the usual movement of styles through the fashion life cycles. The Chanel suit is an outstanding example of a classic. FAD: A Fashion that suddenly sweeps into popularity, affecting a limited part of the total population and then quickly disappears is called a FAD.A Fad is generally quickly accepted and then quickly imitated by others. One of the best examples is the Chemise or the Sack Dress. TREND: Trend is a general direction or movement. For example when we read that there is a trend towards long skirt, it means that many designers are working on the designs of the longer skirts, retailers are buying them and fashion conscious people are wearing them. SILHOUTTE: The silhouette of a costume is its overall outline or contour. It is also referred to as “Shape “or “Form”. The definition of a silhouette is the dark shape or outline of something visible against a lighter background. There is usually no details insight the silhouette and it resembles a shadow. It is usually caused during a sunset or at night with slight

lighting. TEXTURE: It is the surface quality of goods, the feel and look of material or fabric. It is applied by use of fibers, yarns and fabric construction. It influences shape and drape of garment and the quality of roughness, smoothness, glossiness or stiffness. Textures can impart Warmth, Quality and Value Texture COLOUR: It is the first thing that catches the eye. It has the power to stimulate and excite people with red, orange and yellow whereas blue, green and violet has a relaxing effect. Also color has the power to change your shape. FASHION LEADERS: The fashion leader are fashion conscious people who transmits a particular look by first adopting it and then communicating it to others. FASHION FOLLOWERS: It includes a large numbers of consumers who accept and wear the merchandise that has been visually communicated to them by Fashion leaders. LAGGARDS: The people who aren’t really interested in Fashion and don’t hold much concern with the lastest trend. These people wear whatever they are comfortable in.

POPULAR CULTURE: Popular culture can be defined loosely as those elements of entertainment that run alongside, within, and often counter to the elite structures of society. A new conception of popular culture was pertinent to the potential of dress as a communicator of social distinction and belonging. This movement preceded and contributed to the consumer and technological revolutions of the eighteenth century. Today popular culture is enhanced by the influence of mass media, and the medium has become the message, in many ways. READY-TO-WEAR Ready-to-wear clothes are a cross between haute couture and mass market. They are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Readyto-wear collections are usually presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a city-wide basis and occurs twice per year. MASS MARKET These days the fashion industry relies more on mass market sales. The mass market caters for a

wide range of customers, producing ready-to-wear clothes in large quantities and standard sizes. Cheap materials, creatively used, produce affordable fashion. Mass market designers generally adapt the trends set by the famous names in fashion. They often wait around a season to make sure a style is going to catch on before producing their own versions of the original look. In order to save money and time, they use cheaper fabrics and simpler production techniques which can easily be done by machine. The end product can therefore be sold much more cheaply. COUTURE: Art of dress making was called – Couture (Koo –tour) Male designer –couturer (Koo –tu –ree –ay) Female designer –couturiere (Koo –tu –ree –air) Fashion Movement Fashion movement the ongoing motion of fashions moving through the fashion cycle. Economic and social factors influence consumer interest in fashion. New fibers and fabrics Advertising techniques can cause consumers to change in fashion

Section:1 Basics Of Fashion

Ever wondered how does a design actually come to a form? Here are the steps that a designer follows in order to create a garment. THE DESIGN Different designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper, others drape fabric on a dress stand. MAKING A CARD PATTERN When the designer is completely satisfied with the fit of the toile (or muslin), they show it to a professional pattern maker who then makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card. The pattern maker’s job is very precise and painstaking. The fit of the finished garment depends on their accuracy. THE FINISHED DRESS Finally, a sample garment is made up in the proper fabric and tested on a fitting model. Fashion Designers are versatile people whose creativity can take them anywhere, but the main areas they work in are: There are three main ways in which designers can work: •Working freelance: Freelance designers’ works for themselves. They sell their work to fashion houses, direct to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyer’s label. •Working In-house: In-house designers are employed full-time by one Fashion Company. Their designs are the property of that company, and cannot be sold to anyone else. •Own Label: Fashion designers often setup their own companies. A lot of designers find this more satisfying than working for someone else, as their designs are sold under their own label. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients.

If you plan to become a designer, a very important part of the job is to under your client and his body. So to understand what design (Shape, Form, Color, etc.) suits your consumer you need to understand various body shapes.

Types of body shapes:

1. Hour glass body type: Bust and hips are well balanced and have a well-defined waist. Lucky! This is the body type most women strive for. Upper body is proportionate in length to legs which are shapely. From top to bottom, this body type denotes harmony and balance. 2. Rectangular type: also called straight or ruler. Hips and bust are balanced and waist is not very defined. Lower legs are shapely and one of their assets. 3. Triangular Type: Also called Pear Shaped, hips are larger than bust and have a nicely defined waist. Have an elegant neck and proportionately slim arms and shoulders. 4. Inverted triangle: Has larger upper body, broad shoulders, and big bust and a wide back. Hips are slim and bottom is flat. Have shapely legs which are best asset. 5. Diamond Type: Opposite of Hour Glass figure. Hips are broader than bust and shoulders and have a full midsection. They have a tendency to gain weight in stomach, back, hips and buttocks 6. Round type: Has a large bust, narrow flat hips, and a full waist. Waist is the widest part of body. Shapely legs are the best asset. Create Curves with Color: A monochromatic look usually works best. Stay away from tight clothing

Another important thing is to understand the relation between body and lines Vertical lines--make the body seem taller Horizontal lines--lead the eye across body, making it seem broader Bulky textures--add apparent size Smooth texture --takes away from apparent size Shiny texture--gives the illusion of increased size Subtle pattern--gives the illusion of a solid color Bold Patterns--draws attention and adds size Round or square shapes--increase size Tubular shape--taller and slimmer

Fashion, the first thing that comes to your mind when you hear this word is models walking on the ramp with that poker face.’ I was also a part of this shallow thinking but after being a part of this industry, after being a part of NIFT I realized that it is way beyond that. Fashion is a very simple word that is derived from a Latin word “Facere” that means “to do”. Fashion serves as both a noun and a verb, so when talked about as an industry it is a noun. So it covers all the different types of fashion, the people who lead and follow fashion etc. When talked about as a verb Fashion is more of practicing your own style and ways that make you comfortable. So if you want to wear a kurta with a skirt in college, nobody can stop you because that is your Fashion. It is also about capturing attention, and making an identity for you. Coco Channel very correctly said:

“Dress shabbily and they remember the dress; dress impeccably and they remember the woman.”

Going by the definition now, “Fashion is a distinctive and often habitual trend in the style in which a person dresses. It is the prevailing styles in behavior and the newest creations of textile designers.” But trends can be defined by anybody who has a fashion sense hence Fashion follows people not vice-versa.

Talking about fashion for people, People always look for the most interesting silhouette or something that’s a little off, but they have to figure it out. They try to make it their own. I think that’s the thrill in fashion. If you look back in history of the women who are most memorable and most stylish; they were never the followers of fashion. They were the ones who were unique in their style, breakers of the rules. They were authentic, genuine, and original. They were not following the trends but making their own. So back to talking about Coco Channel she didn’t follow the era of long gowns and ruffles but revolutionized the industry but creating the simple and stylish Little Black Dress. A woman can wear confidence on her feet with a high

stiletto, or slip into weekend comfort with a soft ballet flat. So be the right kind of shoes or the right kind of outfit everything is related to your Mood. But it is not only for the costumers, fashion is also for the designers. The hardest thing in fashion is not to be known for a logo, but to be known for a silhouette. Fashion is here to help make people look very important. If someone has good taste and has choose what suits them, it’s always sexy, and it’s always with the same result: making women look fantastic. One doesn’t want fashion to look ridiculous, silly, or out of step with the times - but you do want designers that make you think, that make you look at fashion differently. That’s how fashion changes.

Misconceptions of Fashion •The first and most common is that designers and retailers dictate what the fashion will be and then force it upon helpless consumers. In reality, consumers themselves decide what the fashion will be by influencing new designs and by accepting or rejecting the styles that are offered •The second misconception is that fashion acts as an influence on women only. Today men and children are as influenced by and responsive to fashion as women •The third misconception is that fashion is a mysterious and unpredictable force. Actually its direction can be determined and its changes predicted with remarkable accuracy by those who study and understand the fundamentals



How is fashion science, isn’t it all creative and pretty? When you read the tittle of this section this question must have popped in your head, but there are people who have incorporated science in Fashion. Hussein Chalayan is one such person.. His graduate collection in 1993, titled “The Tangent Flows”, contained clothes which he had buried in his back yard and dug up again. An instant sensation, the whole collection was purchased and displayed in luxury designer store Browns in London. A lot of his collections use motors to make his dress movable which surely dazzles the crowd.


ashion is both science and art because it is a combination of innovation and creativity. It’s not a jumbled business of cloth and colors loosely thrown together, rather, a well-organized industry driven by the sciences, from market research to weaving, printing, dyeing, pattern making, branding and labelling; scientific intervention supports artist’s continuum. When the early man started wearing clothes it was not to look beautiful or fashionable, it had a practical purpose that was to protect him from the cold. Even if

you don’t talk about such old times, today also fashion serves a purpose and is always logical. A skirt will not be floor-length if you are a tennis player, it will be short to provide you maximum movement. Possessing a degree in science is not pre requisite to being a good designer, utilizing scientific disciplines is advisable if you want your designs to hit the streets running rather than ending up in good Samaritans charity bins. Science is embedded in each part of Fashion from the designing to the marketing and all the way in between.

Today a lot of designers are also using scientific influence to make their designs more attractive. Has been using the gears and motors to make his dress more movable, some other designers have been using electricity to change the Day-Night look of their dresses. Issey Miyake has used the idea of concentric circles to give volume to his skirts. So yes! Science can be seen almost everywhere in fashion. As an Art fashion is pretty direct, influence of artists on designers has

been seen since a long time. Designers like Elsa shipeerelli were so influenced by artists like Salvador Dali that most of her collection including the most famous skeleton dress, the lobster dress etc., spoke his name instead of hers. Even today a lot of collections are inspired from traditional art forms and also various types of paintings. Traces of Madhubani, Kalamkari, and Kutchi glass work can be seen on many designs on the ramp.

CHANGING FASHION The most important thing that you need to know about fashion is that it always changes. So those extremely long Anarkali suits you saw in your mom’s old trunk is today one of the most followed fashions. But that doesn’t make Fashion unpredictable; fashion follows a very logical course that is called the Fashion Cycle. Fashion Cycle is a period of time or life span during which the fashion exists, moving through the five stages from introduction through obsolescence.

Introduction Stage Designs are first previewed during fashion weeks at the major design centers New styles, colors, or textures are introduced – begin an upward slope Limited number of people accept them Fashion leaders wear the styles Offered at high prices and produced in small quantities. Rise Stage Manufacturers who copy designer clothes will reproduce the styles as apparel that costs less by using less expensive fabrics or minimal detail. In the initial incline, fashions are accepted by more people because they can afford them. Mass Production reduces the price of the fashion, and more sales result. Peak Stage Fashion is at its most popular and accepted stage. Mass production but prices are not necessarily low; prices vary at this stage. It can survive longer if the fashion becomes a classic. Updating or adding new details of design, color, or texture to the look can keep it in the peak stage. Decline Stage Consumer demand is decreasing, going down the slope. Fashion items available have saturated the market. People do not want to pay a high price. Fashion retailers mark down the price of merchandise. Obsolescence Stage The end of the fashion cycle, the bottom of the hill Consumers are no longer interested in the fashion and find new looks. Price of the fashion product may be low at this point, but consumers may not buy the product. Fashion-Cycle Life Span All fashions follow the life-cycle pattern, but it varies with each fashion. Very difficult for fashion marketers to predict the life span the length of time is determined by the consumer’s willingness to accept the fashion. Theories of Fashion Movement The distribution of fashion has been described as a movement, a flow, or trickle from one element of society to another.

Trickle-Down Theory (Traditional adaptation) A hypothesis that states the movement of fashion starts at the top with consumers of higher socioeconomic status and moves down to the general public. To function, this trickle-down movement depends upon a hierarchical society and a striving for upward mobility among the various social strata. In this model, a style is first offered and adopted by people at the top strata of society and gradually becomes accepted by those lower in the strata. This distribution model assumes a social hierarchy in which people seek to identify with the affluent and those at the top seek both distinction and, eventually, distance from those socially below them.

Trickle-Up Theory A hypothesis that states the movement of fashion starts with consumers on lower-income levels ad then moves to consumers with higher incomes. Athletic Apparel Style – during the 1970s and 1980s .The trickle-up or bubble-up pattern is the newest of the fashion movement theories. In this theory the innovation is initiated from the street, so to speak, and adopted from lower income groups. The innovation eventually flows to upper-income groups; thus the movement is from the bottom up. Since 1960s designers and manufactures paid more attention to the customers innovations. They watched people on street to find ideas. The “gypsy� look is a good example of a street look which reached the runway.

Trickle-Across Theory(Mass dissemination) A hypothesis stating that fashion acceptance begins among several socioeconomic classes at the same time, because there are fashion leaders in all groups. Modern communications bring fashion from around the world into our homes instantly. Many separate markets have developed to various age, life style, and tastes. Various designer and manufacturer labels appeal to various market segments at different price points. Mass production means that many different styles can be accepted at the same time.

Section 3: Fashion and Social Ideas But Fashion is not just limited to new things, as changes happen in Fashion a lot of things that existed in the past also come back. Fashion isn’t just limited to dressing up it is also a result of social change. Fashion both reflects and expresses the specific time in history. Social change is defined as a succession of events that replace existing societal patterns with new ones over time. This process is pervasive and can modify roles of men and

women, lifestyles, family structures, and functions. Fashion expresses modernity and symbolizes the spirit of the times.

How Fashion helps in one’s Appearance and identity?

•Clothes are fundamental to the modern consumer’s sense of identity. That criticism of one’s clothing and appearance is taken more personally and intensely than criticism of one’s car or house suggests a high correlation between appearance and personal identity. What you wear becomes a very personal issue, so you don’t like anybody commenting on it. Moreover with time you develop your own individual style which distinguishes you from others. •People may buy a new product to identify with a particular group or to express their own personality. Simmel (1904) explained this dual tendency of conformity and individuality, reasoning that the individual found pleasure in dressing for self-expression, but at the same time gained support from dressing similarly to others. Flügel (1930) interpreted paradox using the idea of superior and inferior, that is, an individual strives to be like others when they seem superior but unlike them when they seem inferior. In this way fashion can provide identity, both as an emblem of hierarchy and equalizer of appearance. We have been seeing it in a lot of movies like Mean girls,etc that girls who stayed together tried to follow a dress code. Many a time just to belong to a clan people try to dress up differently.

•Whether or not fashion and the way products are combined upon the body can be considered as a visual language has been a source of discussion in recent years. Barthes (1983) insists that fashion be perceived as a system, a network of relationships. Davis (1992) concludes that it is better to consider fashion as a code and not as a language, but a code that includes expression of such fundamental aspects of an individual as age, sex, status, occupation, and interest in fashion.

How fashion brought Change? Pursuit of modernity. Fashion is an accessible and flexible means of expressing modernity. The fashionable body has been associated with the city as a locus of social interaction and display In the nineteenth century fashion was identified with a sense of contradiction of old and new. Tensions from a growing commodification of trends emphasized the worldly and metropolitan. . In the twentieth century modernity was identified through various but subtle means, from the way the dress contoured the body, to obvious product branding. As a means of expressing modernity, Western fashions have been adopted by non-Western societies. In some societies where traditional styles of dress were prevalent, the men were quick to adopt Western business suits. Western dress in favor of traditional styles that express historical continuity. Are women excluded from the modern world or are they simply the purveyors of tradition? Like at formal events in India, a woman still wears a Saree but a man always wear a suit not a dhoti-kurta. Realizing the Gender oriented dressing A tension exists when women have been assigned the dual role of being fashionable as well as the subordinate gender .In the last two centuries fashion has been primarily assigned to women, and it follows that fashionable dress and the beautification of the self could be perceived as expressions of subordination. Male dress has been somewhat overlooked. In the nineteenth century described separate spheres of the male and female, with feminine sartorial dress as a symbol of enforced leisure and masculine dress a symbol of power. Display and appearance of the body were considered innately feminine pursuits and thus the model was constructed in which overt interest in clothing appearance implied a tendency toward unmanliness and effeminacy

Section 4: Elements and Principles of Design A garment is defined by its elements, these elements help in shaping the dress and help in making its appearance appealing. They help in forming a relation between the body shape and the overall outlook of the person. Three major elements of design are Line, Shape and Texture. LINE: create a feeling of elegancy, bold Line refers to the edge or the and powerful effects in a garment. outline of a garment and the When more straight lines are used style lines that divide the space in a dress than necessary they can within a garment. give a stiff look. Line leads the eye in the direction the line is going, and divides the Curved lines: area through which it passes, thus These lines can be rounded and providing a breaking point in space. circular termed as full curve or It defines a shape or a silhouette somewhat flattened out called as reand conveys a mood or a characstrained curve. Curved lines are less ter. Line can create visual illusions, conservative, formal and powerful such as height and width and also than straight lines. makes a figure look thinner or Circles and curves make spaces thicker. There are nine characterislook larger than they really are. tics of line –path, thickness, evenThey also increase the size and ness, continuity, and sharpness of shape of the figure. They add interedge, contour of edge, consistency, est and smoothness. They give soft, length and direction. gentle, youthful and flowing feeling. But too many curved lines in a According to the type, lines can be dress at once can create a confusing divided into three types -straight, look. curved, and jagged lines Straight line: All garments have According to the direction, lines some straight lines in them. These may be vertical, horizontal, or lines emphasize body angularity diagonal. and counteract the roundness of Vertical lines communicate a feeling the body. Straight lines are created of loftiness and spirituality. These in dress by seams, darts, hems or lines lead the eye up and down. garment edges, pleats, hems, trims, They give the impression of added braids, tucks, and panels. They height and slimness.

Horizontal suggests a feeling of rest or repose as it is parallel to the earth and is at rest in relation to gravity. Therefore compositions in which horizontal lines dominate tend to be quiet, relaxed and restful in feeling. These lines will direct the viewer across the garment, emphasizing its width at that point.. Horizontal lines are found at waistlines, hemline, wide neckline, sleeves, collars, panels, midriffs and in belts. Diagonal lines are slanted and they suggest a feeling of movement or direction. Diagonal lines in a garment tend to slenderize the whole, more than vertical lines. They are strong and draw attention to the area where they are used. Structural lines: Structural lines are most noticeable if the fabric of the garment is plain. They can be introduced through constructional lines like seams, darts, fitting tucks and shirring. Structural line are also introduced by real or perceived edges of garment parts like outer edge of collars, sleeves, belts, hems, pockets etc. Creases and folds created by pleats, gathers etc also give structural line effect in a garment. Decorative lines: Decorative lines are created by adding details to the

surface of clothing. They are added simply to decorate the garment and make it more interesting. They add style and personality. They can be formed by adding rows of buttons, topstitching, braids, piping, bias binding lace edging, faggoting, ruffles, fringe etc. Fabric pattern lines such as stripes, plaids, herringbones, checks etc also add lines decoratively SHAPE: Form or silhouette of a garment. Shape or outline seen from a distance. Can reveal or hide a natural body contour. Try to flatter good features and hide less attractive features. Full, wide shapes make you look bigger. Trim, compact silhouettes make you look smaller. Straight, tubular shapes make you look taller. Form fitting clothes reveal any unattractive contours, should only been worn by figures that are near-perfect. TEXTURE: Texture is the element of design that describes surface appearance and feel. It also means the appearance of the fabric. Texture is a sensory feeling understood by sight as well as by touch. It is quality of roughness or smoothness, dullness or glossiness, stiffness or softness.

Determinants of texture. a. Fibers: Fibers are hairline strands that are made into yarns. Fibers of wool produce soft textures while that of linen produce a crisp textures. The short fuzzy fibers of cotton will produce a dull appearance due the fuzz. The smooth and long filaments like silk fibers and synthetic fibers make fabrics that are shiny, smooth and cool touch fabrics. b. Yarn: Yarns are made from fibers when they are twisted together. A yarn which has a low twist will produce a shiny texture because the natural gloss of fiber is not lost in the twist, where as a highly twisted yarn on the other hand will give a rough texture since the fiber gloss gets lost in the twist. Fabric: Fabric is constructed either by weaving, knitting, felting, bonding, crocheting or braiding techniques. Often this construction of the fabric determines the texture. A satin weave of loosely twisted yarns produces shinny textures whereas knits absorb light and are dull textured. c. Finish: Some finishes like sizing gives stiffness, moireing adds shine and watermark design to the fabric, cal-

endaring gives shine to the fabric, singeing makes the surface smooth and napping makes the fabric fuzzy. .

Effect of texture on color:

Colors generally seem lighter on a shiny surface than a dull one. Colors from “textured� and wrinkled fabrics seem darker because of more shadows and colors on fuzzy surfaces mix with fiber highlights and shadows, dulling them slightly. Colors on firm, smooth surfaces seem flat.

Effect of texture on physical proportion:

Textures have the physical properties of weight size, bulk, shape light absorption and reflection. Texture can produce illusions that change apparent body size. Textures can make one look heavier or thinner. Smooth, flat textures make people look smaller. Rough textures tend to subdue the colors of fabrics. Sheer fabrics also tend to do the same as the skin of the wearer is seen through them. Principles of design are the background support for any garment; they help in creating an aura and environment for a garment.

BALANCE: It implies pose, equilibrium, stability and security. The average human body is visually symmetrical which mean that the body seems to be same on each side of a central line. When important details or decorations are designed for a dress, they should be grouped in such a way that there seems to be equal interest or weight on each side of an imaginary center. When the design elements are in balance, a pleasing harmony is established. There are two types of design balance-the formal balance that is encountered in almost all the garments, which are simple in design, and the other informal balance, which is difficult to achieve, compared to the former balance. The other is the radial balance, which is mostly found in areas of necklines. RHYTHEM: Rhythm is the feeling of organized movement. Rhythm is the pleasing arrangement of the design elements so the eye moves easily over the apparel. Rhythm results from a regular or a gradual change, giving the feeling of continuity throughout the design. Rhythmic effect becomes stronger when a pattern is repeated, but repetition is not very essential always. Rhythm is used most ef-

fectively with line, shape and space and also by changing the hue, value and intensity of colour. Rhythm can be created in a garment with repetition, gradation, transition, opposition or radial arrangement of various parts of design and fabric design. This is achieved in garment construction by the following combination of lines, shapes, colors, and textures. Rhythm is achieved by repetition or regular repeats of motifs of design, shapes, buttons, tucks, pleats, laces, edgings, color, textures, fabric designs etc. This can be done with all parts having the same shaped edges. They might be squared, rounded, or scalloped. Repetition of colors can create good effect, especially if the colors are distributed in an interesting way. Rhythm is also created by progression or by gradation. Colors can go from light to dark or textures from fine to course or vice versa. Shapes may range from small to large, and lines may range from thin to thick. A systematic sequence of gradually increasing or decreasing changes in sizes of motifs buttons, trims, flowers, ruffles, intensity, fabric design also create rhythm. Transition is a fluid rhythm created when a curved line leads the eye over an angle. The curved lines of transition cause the eye to change direction gradually.

EMPHASIS: Emphasis is concentration of interest in one area of a design that acts as the center of attention. This creates more eye arresting area than any other part. It is the center of attention of an outfit. All areas may be interesting, but all areas should not have equal strength of interest. This implies that some areas require subordination in order to emphasize some areas. Without any such center of interest, an outfit looks unplanned and monotonous too. When many focal points are create in a dress a jumbled, confusing design results. So, it is best for instance, to leave the cuffs, hemline and other areas of a dress fairly plain if the neckline is being emphasized. Placement of emphasis should not be placed in any area where the individual wishes to minimize. The face or personality area is more important and should be emphasized most often. This is the part of the person that is most unique and individualistic and so one should make use of this area. Emphasis at this personality area may be achieved by color and texture contrasts, necklines, jewelry, scarves, hats, hairstyles, and makeup. Creating emphasis in garments: Emphasis may be achieved by

grouping rows of stripes, tucks, gathers, ruffles, buttons or trim in one area, or by concentration of jewelry such as rows of beads, chains or pins. Unusual lines and shapes by virtue of their individuality are eye arresting. Unusual shapes of collars, sleeves, pockets, jewelry, outsized buttons, belts and trims can be used to create local interest. HARMONY: Unity is also called harmony in design or in other terms, harmony is pleasing visual unity. It is the relationship among all parts within a whole. This is created when all parts of the design are related, in a regular and orderly manner. When a design has unity, it gives an overall impression that attracts and holds the attention of the observer and gives a feeling of belongingness to the composition. This effect is created when the elements of design are used effectively according to the design principles. Functional aspects of harmony imply that a garment is comfortable, moves easily and breathes with body, performs any specialized duties effectively and fits well. In physical effects of harmony, garment parts are in scale; their combined proportions seem to belong with each other and the figure.

Section 5: History of Design Fashion never really had a definite start, because it is people oriented. Fashion existed even when a little innovation was shown towards looking attractive. On the other hand fashion design is generally considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Charles Worth, born in England came to Paris at the age of 20 in 1846 –client was Empress Eugenie While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 could be considered as fashion design. That time since only the royalty had enough money to hire a designer; they were the only ones who were involved in this game of wearing good clothes. During this time, woman were just like dolls who were used to dress up and show to the world as a symbol of power and beauty, hence a lot of emphasis was put on making them presentable. When Tailors came into place: Initially there were tailors and dresses were custom made for the royalty. Even the names names of dress makers not revealed because it wasn’t thought of as an innovative profession that required innovation. Rose Bertin (Ber tan), the dress maker of Mary Antoinette was the official court minister of fashion. But this trend of custom made clothing was only limited to the rich, the poor people made their own clothes which were inspired from their folk costumes. This divide because of wealth and status was another reason for the French revolution of 1789. Fashion then started spreading with the word of mouth, as it became a prominent talking topic. Then the idea to communicate fashion was extended to Fashion Magazines and Fashion Dolls.

Fashion Magazines In1672, the first fashion magazine began publication in France. It was called Mercure Galant, the magazine began to regularly offer comment on the latest clothing styles and was read throughout Europe. (The term “fashion plate” would later be used to describe someone who was always dressed in style.) By the end of the century, many Parisian printers began selling fashion plates, or engravings of fashionable clothes. The trend has not yet stopped, with fashion magazines, such as Elle and Vogue, selling internationally by the millions in the twenty-first century. “Gallant Mercury “was the prototype of the modern glossy magazine. Soon enough fashion magazines fever spread across Europe, and 16 years later, in 1693, the first specialized magazine for women, “Ladies’ Mercury” appeared in London. Fashion Dolls Fashion dolls dressed in miniature versions of couture gowns were sent from France to other countries Orders were mailed back to France Common people used to try to copy the wealthy fashion. Members of At first, the gowns were illustrated with drawroyalty—kings, queens, ings, but as photography became more sophistiprinces, and princesses— cated in the early twentieth century, the fashion set fashion trends, and press used more and more photographs of new one had to actually see designs. At the same time, fashion and art were noble men or women to merging in the eyes of the artists, who dabbled get an idea of new trends. in many of the arts. These artists not only Some royals sent their painted, but also created textile designs and tailors around the counfashion illustrations.Until the Second World try with life-size dolls War, even mainstream fashion journals like dressed in the latest styles Vogue continued to publish fashion illustration to spread news of fashion by modern artists, encouraging the connections changes. between fashion designers and visual artists

Then came the revolution to the clothing industry: Power Loom Francis Cobot Lowell of Boston developed the power loom in 1814. First factory to have a vertical operation. After the civil wars the American Textile industry began to relocate to the south –the source of cotton. Industries grew in the south due to cheap labor. Growth of middle class. Business suit was developed for businessmen

Sewing Machine French tailor Thimmonier patented wooden chain –stitch sewing machine –1829 .Tailors revolted. Isaac Singer mass produced sewing machine –1859.Levis Strauss –1849 –long wearing pants. He used a tough cotton fabric loomed in Nimes, France called Serge de Nimes –Denims .Use of sewing machines for making uniforms for civil war. Later on standardization of sizes used for everyday men’s wear

Women’s fashion Wardrobe was the only possession for women. Wealthy women –Couture dresses. Common women –three basic garments. Mass production of women clothes was difficult. After sewing machine only hoop skirts and cloaks could be manufactured. After separate blouses and skirts the mass production became easy. Charles Dana Gibson –popular illustrator –new dress –Gibson Girl Retailing Fairs and bazaars .General stores Industrial Revolution –mass production –more products Retail Stores grew Specialty store and department store Traditional handicraft stores –Specialty Stores General Stores –Department Stores Samuel Lord and George Washington Taylor –First Lord and Taylor Store in New York –1826.Customer is always right–principle of American Retailing

Section 6 :Fashion Capitals and their Designers

FRANCE: France was initially the center of Fashion. Dominance of France over international fashion began in the early eighteenth century until industrial Revolution –there were two main classes –wealthy landowners and the poor laborers farmers18thcentury –King Louis XIV’s court members became the trend setters in Fashion and Paris became the fashion capital. Chanel The great couturière Coco Chanel was a major figure in fashion at the time, as much for her magnetic personality as for her chic and progressive designs. Chanel helped popularize the bob hairstyle, the little black dress, and the use of jersey knit for women’s clothing and also elevated the status of both costume jewelry and knitwear. Elsa Schiaparelli Elsa Schiaparelli showed her first collection in 1929 and was immediately hailed by the press as ‘one of the rare innovators’ of the day. Schiaparelli was a close friend of Christian Berard, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dali, who designed embroidery motifs for her and supplied inspiration for models like the desk suit with drawers for pockets, the shoe-shaped hat, and the silk dress painted with flies and the one bearing a picture of a large lobster.

BRITISH: As in France, the majority of British fashion houses are based in the capital, London. British fashion houses are associated with a very traditional, British style: elegant, yet conservative cuts, fine yet not overly extravagant materials and a sort of noble, even ‘imperial’ elegance, such as that of traditional ‘Fifties debutantes’ gowns, compared to the French ‘chic’. The first fashion designer, Charles Worth, was a native of Britain, although he made his name in Paris in the 19th century. British Designers include Vivienne Westwood, Paul Smith, John Galliano, Alexander McQueen, Stella Mc Cartney, Matthew Williamson, and Christopher Kane Alexander McQueen: He is a prominent British designer who is known for his conceptual dressing. His shows exhibited very deep concepts and were almost like his canvas took a 3-D form. McQueen’s early runway collections developed his reputation for controversy and shock tactics with trousers aptly named “bumsters” and a collection titled “Highland Rape”. A lot of his works were reflection of his bad childhood and that’s why it was more towards the tragic scale.

ITALY: Most of the older Italian couturiers are in Rome. However, Milanis the Italian fashion capital, and it is the exhibition venue for their collections. Italian fashion features casual elegance and luxurious fabrics. The first Italian luxury brand was Salvatore Ferragamo (who has exported exquisite hand-made shoes to the U.S. since the 1920s); among the best-known, exclusive fashion names, Gucciis the greatest-selling Italian fashion brand, with worldwide sales of $7.158 billion dollars. Other well-known Italian fashion houses include: Dolce & Gabbana, Emilio Pucci, Versace, and Giorgio Armani and Prada. Armani: Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines. He formed his company, Armani, in 1975, and by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer that Italy has produced, with an annual turnover of $1.6 billion and a personal fortune of $8.5 billion as of 2013. He is credited with pioneering redcarpet fashion.

JAPAN: Most Japanese fashion houses are in Tokyo. The Japanese look is loose and unstructured (often resulting from complicated cutting), colors tend to the somber and subtle, and richly textured fabrics. Famous Japanese designers areYohji Yamamoto, Kenzo, Issey Miyake (masterful drape and cut), and Comme des Garçons’s Rei Kawakubo, who developed a new way of cutting (comparable to Madeleine Vionnet’s innovation in the 1930s).

Miyake Miyake was born in Hiroshima, Japan in 1938. He established the Miyake Design Studio in 1970 and started to show his line at the Paris Collections in 1973. Miyake’s basic tenets for making clothes has always been the idea of creating a garment from ‘one piece of cloth’, and the exploration of the space between the human body and the cloth that covers it. His approach to design has always been to strike a consistent balance between tradition and innovation, handcrafts and new technology.

Understanding Asthetics Aesthetics is the appreciation of beauty. In other words it is also new way of seeing and then perceiving the world. Aesthetic examines what makes something beautiful, sublime, disgusting, funny, silly, entertaining, pretentious, harmonious, boring or tragic. Judgment of aesthetics clearly relies on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. Sensitivity to aesthetic qualities can be well groomed by training the senses & the mind. Aesthetics

qualities can only be appreciated if an individual enjoys the experience of it. Therefore ‘the feel good factor’ becomes extremely important while appreciating the aesthetic qualities. Aesthetic experience is not only about liking or disliking, its about the interaction between the product, consumer and the environment. It is the sensitive selection of formal, expressive or symbolic qualities of product or environment, resulting in satisfaction.

What all comes under the aesthetic environment? Multi-sensory setting that surrounds the body & interacts with the apparel. This is how they interacts: 1. Visual -sight: Colors play a very big role in appealing to the eyes and hence increasing its aesthetic value. 2. Kinesthetic: It is the perception of one’s own body movement. E.g. our senses register sound of music & our body starts reacting to the beat of the music. Apparel also contributes to the kinesthetic experience. E.g. during dance, the floating fabric rein forces the graceful movement of the body. 3. Tactile movement-touch: When it comes to apparel, the focus is the feel or hand of the fabric. For e.g.: lofty & soft character of wool provides warmth. Soft silky nature of silk gives pleasurable experience to the body. 4. Olfactory-smell From brushing our teeth to bathing to getting ready, we tend to use so many products that have got fragrance. Retailers like JCPenny are filling their stores with pleasant, mood evoking odor to stimulate the desirability of product 5. Auditory -sound Sounds filling the environment facilitates aesthetic environment. The effect of music on the apparel product may be found in retail stores, fashion show and TV advertisements 6. Gustatory-taste Taste has little to do with aesthetic appreciation of apparel. But there are other products used on the body that are flavored to add to the appeal

Requirement of Aesthetics in life: Aesthetics in Marketing: Marketing is concerned with the ‘trade dress’ of a branding, its commercial products and its representation or the reputation of the producer. Marketing drives human mind to think in a direction where they would have not previously. Commercial advertisement of a product. Product branding, product dressing and catchy jingles are the ways to appeal the customers. Aesthetics in gastronomy Gastronomy is the study of relationship between culture & food. Although food is the basis & frequently experienced commodity, careful attention to the aesthetic possibilities of food turns eating into gastronomy, careful and a visually appealing arrangement of food inspire our senses of smell & taste leading to aesthetic experience. Food photography, Aroma Ambience. Aesthetics in music Aesthetic elements expressed in music include lyricism, harmony, emotions, volume dynamics, resonance, playfulness, color, depth & mood Music has lyrics as aesthetics harmony in music Volume, playfulness, dynamic resonance emotional expression in music. Aesthetics in performing arts Expression of grace, balance, timing, rhythm, light effect, music, stage set, costumes, drama & sensuality Aesthetics in literature Author uses a variety of techniques to appeal to the aesthetic value of the read like rhythm, illustrations, imagery, suspense, drama, analysisetc.shortstories, novels, nonfictions, fiction, poems appeal to the aesthetic sense of the reader.

Handbook for Fashion-NIFT  
Handbook for Fashion-NIFT