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ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO NIKOLAS WARD

MASTERS IN ARCHITECTURE 2015-17


Academic Portfolio Nikolas Ward Masters in Architecture (MArch) 2015-17 Newcastle University Acknowledgements to collaborators: Matt Ozga-Lawn James Craig Nathaniel Coleman Zeynep Kezer George Patsalides Linked Research Group David Boyd Joseph Dent Ruochen Zhang


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CONTENTS

Critical Introduction Architecture Registration Board

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General Assessment Criteria

Architectural Design, 5th Year - Semester 1 Harnessing the Savage

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October - December 2015

Architectural Design, 5th Year - Semester 2 The Van Nelle Kroon

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January - June 2016

Linked Research Beyond Representation

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February 2016 - January 2017

Tools for Thinking about Architecture Varosha 1974: The Life, Death, and Afterlife

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October - December 2015

Architectural Design, 6th Year - Thesis Houses of Tension

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October 2016 - May 2017

Architecture and Construction Professional Practice Report October 2016 - April 2017

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Architecture which most intrigues me relates to emotions and thoughts which are generated from spaces without being visually expressed - the intangible. The thought of imbuing a building with such a spirit is a concept which I believe is timeless. Regardless of the synonym given to intangibility, when carefully crafting or designing a space, form and function are merely superficial catalysts for deeper ambitions of designers throughout history. The capitalist rat-race we currently find ourselves within, provides a greater incentive for contributing to society in a way which defies the logic of economic efficiency, and instead uses tropes from the past to give value void of monetary currency. Each element of work throughout this portfolio strives to analyse and explore using varying methods to understand and represent this intangibility. Due to my detached nature, one of the greatest struggles I have faced is in identifying a topic in which I have a passion for, which can be used to tackle this issue suitably. When architects create spaces which can be argued as successful, there are identifying factors which culminate in the triumph. This has allowed me to view architects on an individual project basis instead of as a whole career. An example which best illustrates this is Daniel Libeskind’s - Jewish Museum in Berlin. His age and Jewish heritage combined with the programme of a holocaust memorial museum, situated in the heart of the World War II unite to create an outstanding piece of architecture, imbued with the pain of the history it encases.1 The point I aim to highlight however, is that this is the only project of his career thus far, where all of these factors have aligned. Replication of similar forms and functions through more recent proposals have had limited success, therefore it is unacceptable to compress an architect’s entire career. In each of the following projects, I have dealt with certain factors which I deem as important, whilst rigorously exploring

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The Libeskind Building. (2001). Jewish Museum Berlin

- http:// www.jmberlin.de/main/EN/04-About-The-Museum/01Architecture/01-libeskind-Building.php 6

Top to Bottom: Jewish Museum, Berlin. Daniel Libeskind Euromast, Rotterdam. Huig Maaskant Aftermath of 1940 Rotterdam blitz Glashaus Pavilion, 1914. Bruno Taut


CRITICAL INTRODUCTION

unexpected tangents in the hope of finding a method which best expresses the essences which I am most intrigued by. Thematically, another common thread between the projects is the use of existing buildings on the sites and the relation to past conflicts and destruction. In Plan Rotterdam, the cultural value which the Euromast added to Rotterdam was the driving factor in renewing the spectacle created in 1960. Within the Spectres of Utopia and Modernity project, The Van Nelle Factory was used as a vessel to recuperate the highest order of Theosophy. The ghost town of Varosha in Famagusta, Cyprus provided a ‘no-man’s land’ to reactivate, since becoming inaccessible in 1974. Plan Rotterdam - Iterations and Intensities Harnessing the Savage The large scale masterplanning project situated in Rotterdam began with an interrogation of OMA as practice. I narrowed this down to Rem Koolhaas as an individual, and more specifically his early career. Delfshaven was once a thriving and important industrial district in Rotterdam, and the construction of the Euromast, completed in 1960, was the epitome of this. The Euromast was built as a monument and observation post for the Floriade, a decennial exhibition in the Netherlands and was the tallest building in Rotterdam at 101m. In 1968, it lost this title and further regained it in 1970 when the ‘Space Tower’ added 85m.2 This triggered my interest in the concept of a spectacle and the psyche of Rotterdammers. As a group masterplan, the ambition was to create a cultured reality - a laboratory; ‘Rotterdam’s biggest social experiment, a quarantine platform of super diversity, blending differences together to create a more wholesome Rotterdammer, informed by the past, cultivated in the present for the future.’ Drawing from Koolhaas’ Exodus and Generic City projects provided the critical stance necessary in designing a proposition. Koolhaas having been born and raised in Rotterdam post World War II, inadvertently absorbed the pain and destruction faced by Rotterdam as a consequence of the aerial bombardment of 14th May 1940 - wiping out the physical historical heritage of the city centre. There are essences of this pain that are identifiable in his earlier projects, most notably Exodus, ‘Division, isolation, inequality, aggression, destruction, all

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https://euromast.nl/en/

the negative aspects of the Wall, could be the ingredients of a new phenomenon: architectural warfare against undesirable conditions…’3 At a metropolitan scale, Koolhaas’ concepts were of great value, but the intriguing unexpected element which I became most excited by, was the influence traumatic experiences, buried deep in the unconscious, had on an individuals thoughts, actions and responses. Re-materializing Rotterdam - Spectres of Utopia and Modernity - The Van Nelle Kroon After investigating Rotterdam post World War II, I became intrigued to focus on the influences of architectural and theoretical movements as a method of identifying and representing the intangible spirit. The building selected to act as the ghost was the Van Nelle Factory. Built between 1925-30, at the height of modernism, the innovative tobacco, tea and coffee factory was described by Le Corbusier as, “the most beautiful spectacle of the modern age.”4 The aim for the project was to identify the traces of modernity and recuperate the spectres of Utopia. After intense research into the details which made the Factory successful, the catalyst for these features were the clients input into the design of the building. Kees van der Leeuw required the building’s appearance to be a consequence of requirements, the design to meet human needs as much as mechanical demands, and that extra costs for finishing are legitimate even without advancements. The reason for these positive attributes for a workspace known traditionally for constituting poor welfare, was his involvement in the Theosophical society. I hypothesised that he intended, but failed, in representing the three orders of Theosophy within the factory. The project became a serious theoretical exploration into the spiritual side of materiality and architecture; to recuperate the highest order of Theosophy, the immaterial, which can be translated into the intangible spirit. Bruno Taut’s Glashaus pavilion, and Paul Scheerbart’s ‘glasarchitektur’ gave a visual and theoretical logic in identifying and translating the use of glass and colour to achieve a representation of astral light. Whilst I felt that the methodology and theoretical development of the project were highly successful, the cynicism I have towards the ‘cult-like’ nature of Theosophy forces me

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Rem Koolhaas, final project at the Architectural Association, London.

(S.M.L.XL) 4

Le Corbusier, 1932 - https://culturalheritageagency.nl/en/news/van-

nellefabriek-is-unesco-world-heritage-site


to consider other methods in exploring immateriality. Furthermore, the visual representation of the astral light qualities were difficult to illustrate in 2D drawings, there was a sense that a large scale installation would be more appropriate. Linked Research - Beyond Representation The linked research module provided a prime opportunity to develop skills in relation to representing work in a more evocative and successful way. By exhibiting work revolving around STASUS’ previous explorations of human endeavour, and more specifically George Mallory’s expedition to the summit of Everest in 1924, we presented this endeavour as series of physical exhibitions. The application of large scale installations illustrated the complexities apparent in both constructing and viewing such pieces. Robin Evans discusses the importance of translation, and understanding the qualities differing representational methods evoke.5 This combined with Alberto Perez-Gomez’ view on bridging the gap formed an insightful essay exploring the importance of using the human body when physically representing architecture. “Projection evokes temporality and boundaries defining the space between light and darkness, between the beginning and the beyond, it illuminates the space of culture, or our individual and collective existence”6 Tools for Thinking about Architecture Varosha 1974: the Life, the Death, and the Afterlife. The opportunity to explore a topic which I am very passionate about presented itself in this module. Although the previous projects were extremely useful in identifying methods of translation from conception to completion, I had little emotional connection or drive with the topics investigated. Being half Cypriot is a large part of my identity, and having

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Evans, R. (1997). Translations from drawing to building, pp.154

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Perez-Gomez, A. Question of representation: the poetic origin

of architecture. Architectural Research Quarterly 2005, 9(3/4), 8

pp.217-225.

Top to Bottom: Everest Death Zone installation Lebbeus Woods, Pamphlet Architecture 15 Raimund Abraham, [UN]Built


close family connections who have faced the death, destruction and decay of the war in 1974 has definitely shaped my personality. The essay question posed was, ‘Could the abandoned ‘ghost town’ Varosha, be read forensically as a murdered body in a state of decay?’ By attempting to uncover similarities between a ‘no-man’s land’ and a dead body, I found successful links in mapping the stages of human decay to an architecture. Using Eyal Weizman’s concept of forensic architecture 7 and Yael Navaro-Yashin’s experience of the region provided insightful conclusions.8 Whilst I found the topic of choice evocative, there was a lack of complexity in the analysis undertaken. By literally translating the stages of human decomposition disregarded the intangible effects a death would have, the emotional scarring. Architecture and Construction - Professional Practice & Management Report The exploration of regulations and issues regarding a proposal in Varosha gave a solid grounding to an unconventional project. It proved to be very valuable in understanding the complexities of construction in war zones and the issues that would arise when potentially constructing within an unrecognised occupied territory. The Architectural Biography - Houses of Tension With all of the aforementioned topics of enquiry, the thesis project presented itself as the opportunity to amalgamate all of the themes into one comprehensive project; A site and condition of importance, Varosha, Famagusta, An ambition to delve into the intangible hurt caused by the death, destruction and decay of war, The exploration of the psyche of Cypriots through the framing of a primary source, the bicycle journey my uncle George took, aged 14 transcending the borders of a war zone, The representation through an installation to bridge the gap of representational techniques, with the hope of embedding the observer. Provide a potential for a positive solution within a presently unresolved political condition.

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Weizman, E. (2013). http://www.forensic-architecture.org/wp-content/

uploads/2013/03/Weizman_Documenta.pdf 8

Navaro-Yashin, Y. (2012). The Make-Believe Space: Affective Geography

in a Postwar Polity

The architectural biography began with investigating Lebbeus Woods’ War and Architecture Pamphlet.9 His interpretation of war zones often adopted an almost medical metaphor, faceted accretions acting as “scabs” over the “wounds” of a building damaged by war and natural catastrophe. However, the links to the limitations of the Varosha essay drove the research to a more theoretical position in the works of Raimund Abraham. Using the methods developed in the critical reading of Koolhaas and van der Leeuw, Abraham’s childhood proved to be an influential driver in his later works. The quote which informed the rest of the project was, “The only way to achieve an evocative design is the dichotomisation of unconscious and conscious.”10 This would allow a combination of immaterial investigations as well as a relation to the current context. Abraham’s ‘[Un]built’ monograph proved to be the essential precedent for representational and theoretical methods. After rigorously mapping the past conflicts within Famagusta, using methods explored by Abraham, Libeskind, and James Corner,11 this information was inscribed onto the current context with the aim of causing tension. By using George’s bicycle journey as a framing tool, six sites were identified and responded to using the inscribed perspectives as guidelines for disrupting the border condition surround Varosha. The unexpected conclusion of the project is that it has begun to challenge some of the stigmas I have concerning my own personality, thoughts towards architecture, and current societal conditions. As a result, I hope the work I have completed over the past two years should assist in my development as an architect in the future.

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Woods, L. (1996). Pamphlet Architecture 15: War and Architecture

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http://www.acfny.org/the-building/history/raimund-abraham-on-the-acfny/

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Corner, J. (2002). http://www.wohnbau.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/Entwerfen_

WB/2016W_coastal/Literatur/Corner_Agency-of-Mapping.pdf


GA1

With regard to meeting the eleven General Criteria at Parts 1 and 2 to the right, the Part 1 will be awarded to students who have: .1 ability to generate design proposals using understanding of a body of knowledge, some at the current boundaries of professional practice and the academic discipline of architecture; .2 ability to apply a range of communication methods and media to present design proposals clearly and effectively; .3 understanding of the alternative materials, processes and techniques that apply to architectural design and building construction; .4 ability to evaluate evidence, arguments and assumptions in order to make and present sound judgments within a structured discourse relating to architectural culture, theory and design; .5 knowledge of the context of the architect and the construction industry, and the professional qualities needed for decision making in complex and unpredictable circumstances; and .6 ability to identify individual learning needs and understand the personal responsibility required for further professional education.

GA2

GC1

Ability to create architectural designs that satisfy both aesthetic and technical requirements.

GC3 The graduate will have knowledge of: .1 how the theories, practices and technologies of the arts influence architectural design; .2 the creative application of the fine arts and their relevance and impact on architecture; .3 the creative application of such work to studio design projects, in terms of their conceptualisation and representation. GC4

GC1 The graduate will have the ability to: .1 prepare and present building design projects of diverse scale, complexity, and type in a variety of contexts, using a range of media, and in response to a brief; .2 understand the constructional and structural systems, the environmental strategies and the regulatory requirements that apply to the design and construction of a comprehensive design project; .3 develop a conceptual and critical approach to architectural design that integrates and satisfies the aesthetic aspects of a building and the technical requirements of its construction and the needs of the user.

With regard to meeting the eleven General Criteria at Parts 1 and 2 to the right, the Part 2 will be awarded to students who have: .1 ability to generate complex design proposals showing understanding of current architectural issues, originality in the application of subject knowledge and, where appropriate, to test new hypotheses and speculations; .2 ability to evaluate and apply a comprehensive range of visual, oral and written media to test, analyse, critically appraise and explain design proposals; .3 ability to evaluate materials, processes and techniques that apply to complex architectural designs and building construction, and to integrate these into practicable design proposals; .4 critical understanding of how knowledge is advanced through research to produce clear, logically argued and original written work relating to architectural culture, theory and design; .5 understanding of the context of the architect and the construction industry,

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including the architect’s role in the processes of procurement and building production, and under legislation; .6 problem solving skills, professional judgment, and ability to take the initiative and make appropriate decisions in complex and unpredictable circumstances; and .7 ability to identify individual learning needs and understand the personal responsibility required to prepare for qualification as an architect.

GC2

GC4 The graduate will have knowledge of: .1 theories of urban design and the planning of communities; .2 the influence of the design and development of cities, past and present on the contemporary built environment; .3 current planning policy and development control legislation, including social, environmental and economic aspects, and the relevance of these to design development. GC5

Adequate knowledge of the histories and theories of architecture and the related arts, technologies and human sciences.

GC3

Knowledge of the fine arts as an influence on the quality of architectural design.

GC1 - 1.1/1.2/1.3 GC2 - 2.1/2.2/2.3 GC3 - 3.1/3.2/3.3

GC4 - 4.1/4.2/4.3

Understanding of the relationship between people and buildings, and between buildings and their environment, and the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale. GC5 The graduate will have an understanding of:

GC2 The graduate will have knowledge of: .1 the cultural, social and intellectual histories, theories and technologies that influence the design of buildings; .2 the influence of history and theory on the spatial, social, and technological aspects of architecture; .3 the application of appropriate theoretical concepts to studio design projects, demonstrating a reflective and critical approach.

Adequate knowledge of urban design, planning and the skills involved in the planning process.

.1 the needs and aspirations of building users; .2 the impact of buildings on the environment, and the precepts of sustainable design; .3 the way in which buildings fit into their local context. GC6

Understanding of the profession of architecture and the role of the architect in society, in particular in preparing briefs that take account of social factors.

GC5 - 5.1/5.2/5.3 GC6 - 6.1/6.2/6.3 GC7 - 7.1/7.2/7.3


ARCHITECTS REGISTRATION BOARD GENERAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA GC6 The graduate will have an understanding of:

GC9 The graduate will have knowledge of:

.1 the nature of professionalism and the duties and responsibilities of architects to clients, building users, constructors, co-professionals and the wider society; .2 the role of the architect within the design team and construction industry, recognising the importance of current methods and trends in the construction of the built environment; .3 the potential impact of building projects on existing and proposed communities. GC7

.1 principles associated with designing optimum visual, thermal and acoustic environments; .2 systems for environmental comfort realised within relevant precepts of sustainable design; .3 strategies for building services, and ability to integrate these in a design project. GC10

Understanding of the methods of investigation and preparation of the brief for a design project.

GC10 The graduate will have the skills to:

GC7 The graduate will have an understanding of: .1 the need to critically review precedents relevant to the function, organisation and technological strategy of design proposals; .2 the need to appraise and prepare building briefs of diverse scales and types, to define client and user requirements and their appropriateness to site and context; .3 the contributions of architects and coprofessionals to the formulation of the brief, and the methods of investigation used in its preparation. GC8

.1 critically examine the financial factors implied in varying building types, constructional systems, and specification choices, and the impact of these on architectural design; .2 understand the cost control mechanisms which operate during the development of a project; .3 prepare designs that will meet building users’ requirements and comply with UK legislation, appropriate performance standards and health and safety requirements. GC11

Understanding of the structural design, constructional and engineering problems associated with building design. GC8 The graduate will have an understanding of:

Adequate knowledge of physical problems and technologies and the function of buildings so as to provide them with internal conditions of comfort and protection against the climate.

GC8 - 8.1/8.2/8.3 GC9 - 9.1/9.2/9.3

Adequate knowledge of the industries, organisations, regulations and procedures involved in translating design concepts into buildings and integrating plans into overall planning. GC11 The graduate will have knowledge of:

.1 the investigation, critical appraisal and selection of alternative structural, constructional and material systems relevant to architectural design; .2 strategies for building construction, and ability to integrate knowledge of structural principles and construction techniques; .3 the physical properties and characteristics of building materials, components and systems, and the environmental impact of specification choices. GC9

Thee necessary design skills to meet building users’ requirements within the constraints imposed by cost factors and building regulations.

GC10 - 10.1/10.2/10.3

.1 the fundamental legal, professional and statutory responsibilities of the architect, and the organisations, regulations and procedures involved in the negotiation and approval of architectural designs, including land law, development control, building regulations and health and safety legislation; .2 the professional inter-relationships of individuals and organisations involve in procuring and delivering architectural projects, and how these are defined through contractual and organisational structures; .3 the basic management theories and business principles related to running both an architect’s practice and architectural projects, recognising current and emerging trends in the construction industry.

GC11 - 11.1/11.2/11.3


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Harnessing the Savage The studio critically examines the design processes associated with OMA (Office for Metropolitan Architecture, founded by Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis, Madelon Vriesendorp and Zoe Zenghelis in 1975) and MVRDV - half of the group will explore OMA, with the remainder examining MVRDV. As a group of six, the intention was to emulate and embody the techniques and processes of OMA. Through a critical reading of OMA and their associated research, which have gained prominence and influence as an identifiably ‘Dutch’ mode of architectural practice, an understanding of Rotterdam as the site can be generated, allowing a style of design to mimic OMA. We were tasked with creating a masterplan based in southeast Delfshaven - the historic industrial heart of Rotterdam in desperate need for successful gentrification.

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

PLAN ROTTERDAM ITERATIONS AND INTENSITIES - OMA


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

After visiting Rotterdam, and delving into the culture of the Netherlands, we were then able delve into OMA as a practice. Investigating Rem Koolhaas, and his extensive writings, and AMO (the research orientated counterpart) allowed us to provide our own comprehensive proposal. Reading and interpreting Exodus - Rem Koolhaas’ 1972 Architectural Association thesis, as well as ‘The Generic City’ - in S,M,L,XL, provided a strong starting point:

Cultured Reality – the laboratory Rotterdam’s biggest social experiment, a quarantine platform of super diversity, blending differences together to create a more wholesome Rotterdammer, informed by the past, cultivated in the present for the future. The Lab draws the population in through propaganda, enticing anyone fleeing from the reality they’re currently in. Through the platform, our aim is to fill in the cultural voids existing in Rotterdam’s infrastructure. The hypothesis to create a new city in forming the ideal Rotterdammer that critiques the generic city. Like a petri dish, it is a testing ground that allows for a more condensed place for interaction to occur.

as being separate from the existing city. The crux of Exodus was the influence of the Berlin wall therefore providing an exile from the crowded nature of London. However, in Rotterdam the issue was its sparseness and lack of population, thus elements rejected focused around the harsh nature of the wall, instead allowing anyone to enter. In the Generic City, Koolhaas declares that progress, identity, architecture, the city and the street are things of the past: “Relief … it’s over. That is the story of the city. The city is no longer. We can leave the theatre now…”. Density in isolation is ideal, which allows us to zone off six areas within a compacted new platform. The site is located on the periphery of the generic Rotterdam city, which gives a perfect area to reignite the prominence of the once industrial past. The existing is retained with the new city raised up. The historic industrial train-lines will be kept providing an urban plane which accommodates necessary movements. The different zones within the masterplan work harmoniously together to provide a complete and flourishing city: the Sensory Processor, Oasis, Cultural rejuvenation, Harnessing the Savage, Adherence of No Religion, the Apex of Making.

The optimistic approach to Exodus and the Generic City. Elements observed from Exodus include the voluntary nature of the ‘city’, having separate exaggerated idealistic zones in a unified site, as well

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

Being drawn to the Euromast in Rotterdam, provided a perfect platform to design a building through the eyes of Rem Koolhaas which interacts with the once prominent landmark of Rotterdam. Research first began with Rem Koolhaas and the beginning of OMA and was a theme continued throughout the project in both representation and ideology. Harnessing the Savage derives from investigating the office and the importance of work in the Generic City. Once the theory and writings provided a design response, the final stage was to then critique this response to provide a cohesive project drawing together all concepts investigated.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Left: Site location map of Rotterdam Below: Panoramic view taken from the top of the Euromast overlooking Delfshaven

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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The Van Nelle Factory proved to be very influential in the industrial heritage of Rotterdam. The project conducted post ‘Harnessing the Savage’ allowed a more comprehensive investigation of the modernist influences on Rotterdam and the pre-World War II history.

GC2.1/2.2/2.3


HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

1860s_Industrialisation 1872_Holland America Line formed 1904_Schiecentrale built 1931_Van Nelle Factory 1934_Quarantine Beneden Heijplaat 1939_Emigration of Jews to America 1940_14th May – Nazi Bombing 1945_Holland America Line – shipping immigrants to Canada 1946_Plan for reconstruction 1950s_Infrastructure constructed, namely stations 1960_Euromast built 1962_Busiest Port in the world – most tonnage 1965_Population peak – 731,000 1970_Space tower on Euromast – 185m 1970s_Port extended 1972_Rem Koolhaas, Exodus Thesis project – AA 1974_Post-fordism, population decline 1980_Boompjes masterplan 1982_Parc de la Villette 1992_Kunsthal – OMA 1993_C3 Maastowers 1995_S,M,L,XL 1996_Hyperbuilding 1996_Erasmus Bridge 1998_AMO started 2013_De Rotterdam 2015_Timmerhuis 2015_European City of the Year 2015_The Manufactured Reality (The Lab) 20xx_Mass influx of immigrants 2xxx_Port decline 3xxx_Manufactured Reality (The Lab) grows infinitely

Left: Collage of History Below: 1:10000 site plan indicating proposed high-level circulation routes


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Symposium: a room-sized installation that housed the 1:500 masterplan model. The wall plastered with all internal group information, research and work. Shelving was created to display a selection of the hundreds of iterated models produced from blue foam and hot wire cutters. There was a distinct juxtaposition between the crisp white masterplan model with carefully and intricately designed models, and the shelves and wall of unedited design process. At this stage in the project, it provided an excellent way to display all areas of development through role-playing OMA.

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Built in 1960 by Huig Maaskant, the Euromast has been through two stages of development and will develop through two more. The project really explores innovative ways in which a critique on a building can be investigated through theoretical analysis. Euromast was originally designed and built to act as a spectacle. It was the pinnacle of 1960s Rotterdam, new age of transport, aircraft control tower-esque - attraction for all around, to view ‘new’ Rotterdam. The beginnings of reconstruction to become closer to the generic city, the end goal of Rotterdam’s masterplans. At this point I began to realise the 1970s, the space tower was importance of critically interrogating added. Competition element starting the influences which drive the to come to the forefront in Rotterdam Space race, but also Rem’s beginning. project. Rem Koolhaas’ theoretical facade became a figure to derail Looking into the rapidly developing Rotterdam. instead of adhering to. Some of his

intentions in more recent projects left me with a sense of unrest.

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

Top to Bottom: Huig Maaskant - Euromast 1960, Space tower added 1970 - regains status as tallest building in Rotterdam, Rem Koolhaas - Skytower, Critique - Walkway of Champions and Arena added.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

The sky tower is conceptually designed and built with the program defined around the banal nature of office blocks apparent in 1990s society. This is the period within OMA where programming was at the forefront of all designing - Iterations, critiquing, Blue foam modelling. The competition is set on moving up the levels within the building to achieve a higher ‘office level’ completing mundane tasks based on a narrow minded set of rules. Koolhaas has designed the centre parts of each floor to have a sense of a ‘coliseum’ atmosphere, theatre, and entertainment as workers head up the building. The aim that members will eventually reach the highest level and the top position within the sky tower. The service core lift allows the competition floor plates to be removed/replaced/reinserted according to the nature of competition. The service lift has essences of the Euromast in the mechanics of the movable lift plate to illustrate Koolhaas’ subconscious idolisation of Huig Maaskant. Sky tower, the working office. Double skinned façades have a monotonous skyscraper style - Glass and steel. One way mirrors allow the outside world to have an experience of the learning process. 27 layered floors increase in size. Each floor consists of 3 zones - 2 symmetrical areas for opposing competitors and a centralised battle area for banal competitions. The ‘walkway of champions’ allows people to view champions and accolades collected by past victors.. A gladiatorial expression of success.

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

Two large banks of cream-coloured computers separated by fabric board dividers provide the perfect monotonous working environment. Efficiency levels always at a company average. The centralised arena allows for an outlet as well as a motivational tool to move up the ranks; metaphorically and literally. The workers finish the necessary business work as quickly as possible to move onto solitaire, cards, and machinery practice - ready for the next battle.

Skytower - Level 0


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

New modern day arena. Built with the future in mind. Accommodating for many more people in the city, generic stadium in mind with a very obvious replication of the original Euromast form. Higher level of competition focusing on the spectacle of the banal. Tethered down due to physics of structure and the lightweight nature of its construction. Two times the size of the Euromast below to show advancements in technology and how, during construction it will be winched The immaterial up - using the Euromast as a structural atmospheric qualities support.

of a spectacle begin to tackle the underlying drive to represent the intangible.

Rejects the generic city by being a horizontal element, and not post-modern (traditional underlying tones) in design. Bread and circus effect on the new city. Allowing the office block (bread of the city) to have more entertainment within the arena (circus). Built on top of the Koolhaas building, adding density (against generic) but similar to Exodus with the two close towers in the ‘Park of Aggression’. Looking at the nature of aggression which needs to be expelled. The office block competitions will not suffice.

Rem Koolhaas - Exodus (1972)

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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

嘀椀攀眀猀

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Left (top to bottom): View from arena seating American Football tournament, View from walkway of champions, intense chess duel, View within walkway of champions Paintballing day-out Right: 1:500 - Axonometric


HARNESSING THE SAVAGE


Left: View over site Right: 1:5000 - Masterplan Site, composition

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

唀爀戀愀渀

The skytower and arena are a vital component to the new city and Rotterdam. For the skytower to function, workers are provided from the sensory processor, and the University within the apex for making. The spectacle and entertainment of the arena attract all from the new city. Cultural rejuvenation and the Oasis are regions for workers to relax and unwind. The raised trainlines provide a direct link from all central locations. The proposal is a spectacle not only for the masterplan, but also for Rotterdam. The hyper-real nature of the arena draws from Koolhaas’ ‘Coney Island’ from Delirious New York. Normal reality is not enough anymore, the advertised nature of what occurs is within the arena is the largest draw. Thousands flock to experience, the new and upgraded Euromast.

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

The Masterplan aims to be rolled out over Rotterdam to begin with, and then to engulf the world. The densely configured nature of this new proposal could be sensitively replicated on a larger scale using the theory developed throughout the project. The six initial zones all entwine with ease and simplicity to produce a successful new city.

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HARNESSING THE SAVAGE

Right: Final presentation - 1:500 model Below: View over ‘the Laboratory’ Delfshaven


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

The Van Nelle Kroon In this project, the challenge is to capture the ghosts of modernity by investigating whether or not they are indwelling in selected surviving examples of the heroic period of modern architecture from the 1920s and 1930s, and in projects from the apex of its period of greatest orthodoxy during the immediate post-World War II period from 1945-1960. A key question that must be considered during this project is whether or not the assigned study building not only harbour the ghosts of modernity but in particular are also hosts of the spectre of Utopia that has struck fear into the hearts of architects (and others) since at least the 1950s. Tracking the Ghosts of Modernity & the Spectres of Utopia Amongst the most promising ways of tracking the ghosts of modernity and the spectres of Utopia is to make very close readings of the details and material assemblies of relevant works of heroic and modern architecture alike, which students will be required to do during the first part of the project. Ultimately, the aim of this studio is to explore the possibility of resuscitating modernity and Utopia alike. Marco Frascari’s Tell-the-Tale detail sought to explain how detailing is more instrumental than the construction drawings which the term is commonly associated with. This triggered an intense amount of reading to further my theoretical knowledge. Investigating modernism

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and Utopia was crucial in giving a grounding to analyse the buildings given in the brief. A key piece of text which stood out and was constantly referred to was by Jurgen Habermas, ‘Modern and Postmodern Architecture’ (1981): “There is a good deal of truth in this opposition to modernity; it takes up the unsolved problems that modern architecture pushed into the background - that is, the colonisation of the lifeworld through the imperatives of autonomous economic and administrative systems of action. But we can learn something from all the opposition movement only if we keep one thing in mind; At a fortunate moment in modern language, the inherent aesthetic logic of constructivism encountered the use-orientation of a strict functionalism and united spontaneously with it.” This project has become a serious theoretical exploration into the spiritual side of materiality and architecture. Carlo Scarpa, Peter Zumthor and Louis Kahn have provided stepping stones to understand the immaterial qualities of material and space. Their sketches, detail drawings and representation were all influential in the stylings of this project, very different to any previous work. The Van Nelle Factory is an intriguing building to explore and understand the complexities which defined its conception and legacy. By delving into the traces of modernity and spectres of Utopia, allows an interesting interpretation to be investigated.

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

REMATERIALIZING ROTTERDAM SPECTRES OF UTOPIA AND MODERNITY - VAN NELLE FABRIEK


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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The Van Nelle factory in Schiedam, a suburb to the west of Rotterdam, is one of the outstanding industrial buildings of the Nieuwe Bouwen, the Modernist style of the Netherlands. The Van Nelle company originated in 1782 when Johannes and Hendrica van Nelle established a shop in Rotterdam selling coffee, tea and tobacco. By the early 1920s the company had no more space for expansion and its director C H van der Leeuw (18901973) commissioned the architects J A Brinkman (1902-49) and L C van der Vlugt (1894-1936) to design new premises. Van der Leeuw and Brinkman were both adherents of the Theosophical movement. The factory, built between 1925 and 1931 is characterised by its use of concrete mushroom columns and glass curtain walls. It is an 8-storey building, 300m long, with separate sections for the processing of coffee, tea and tobacco. The factory included a canteen, a tea room on the roof, a cinema, a library and

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sporting facilities. At its peak more than 2,000 people were employed in what was regarded as a bright, hygienic place in which to work. The modern aesthetic so successfully created, Le Corbusier even praised it as, “the most beautiful spectacle of the modern age” (1932) with many utopic qualities present. This project seeks to realise the reason why the factory is no longer as successful. Since its demise in the 1990s, the restoration which has been so fondly received by UNESCO (granting it World Heritage status in 2014), has failed in its recuperation, providing a lifeless atmosphere. The 2500 page UNESCO document was instrumental in explaining why the building was given World Heritage status. Although there were hundreds of drawings and surveys carried out justifying the importance of the building, the term ‘spirit’ was raised a handful of times with no explanation - this allowed a more indirect route into the Van Nelle Factory.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

The Van Nelle Factory shows the influence of Russian Constructivism. Mart Stam, who worked during 1926 as employee-designer at the Brinkman & Van der Vlugt office in Rotterdam, came in contact with the Russian Avant-Garde in 1922 in Berlin. Many associations are obvious, El Lissitzky, Wassily Kandinsky, Yakov Chernikov and Piet Mondrian (De Stijl) were producing graphical works very similar to the physical build of the factory. The set of consultants designing the Van Nelle Factory were all focussed on creating an innovative factory. The mushroom column is a prime example of how form follows function within the project. Structural engineer J.G. Wiebenga determined that the form would allow for easy of construction and would allow the concrete floor slabs to be as thin as possible (200mm). However, the client, Kees van der Leeuw set out three main rules in which all design should follow: 1. Appearance must be a consequence of requirements 2. Design as much to human demands as to mechanical 3. Extra costs for finishing are legitimate even without advancements The charisma which van der Leeuw provided to the conception of the Van Nelle factory, seemed unusual for a successful businessmen who, from an initial outlook would only be concerned about monetary gains. This allowed for a route to be investigated further.

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

Opposite (top to bottom): Wassily Kandinsky - Gravitation (1935) El Lissitzky - Proun (1923) Yakov Chernikov - Composition 26 (1929) Gerrit Rietveld - Schroder House Axonometric

Kees van der Leeuw (1890-1973) was very influential on the designing of the Van Nelle Factory, but was also a valued member of society in Rotterdam. 1911_Sent abroad to America for business training, as the wish of his parents. He intensely investigated the daylight factories, Fordism and Taylorism, grasping the concept of functionalism. Although, his true interest was in painting, playing music (especially the organ) and philosophy. 1913_Joined Van Nelle. In 1917 he became a partner and co-given task to

create a new business for the company. For this, he came into contact with Leendert van der Vlugt. 1926_He returned to America, to further his knowledge on factory construction, however this time he focussed more of the social side. Looking at how workers should be treated fairly and women given equal rights in the workplace. 1931_After the completion of the new plant, he decided to take a completely different direction: in 1931 he moved to Vienna to study psychiatry, taught by Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Theosophy is a Unity of Religion, Science, and Philosophy. It can be defined as, ‘to explore human spirituality and the occult and to integrate numerous religions of the world with contemporary science.’ The Theosophical Society was founded in New York City in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky, William Quan Judge, and Henry Steel Olcott. Blavatsky’s magnum opus, The Secret Doctrine, one of the major foundational works of modern Theosophy, was published in 1888. Krishnamurti ran and Van der Leeuw helped the society thrive in the Netherlands, with the Order of the Star in the East. The three characteristics of theosophy are listed below. Divine/Human/Nature Triangle Primacy of the Mythic Access to Supreme Worlds Van der Leeuw was a Theosophist and was heavily involved with the Theosophical society in Amsterdam. He looked to Theosophy to provide the subconscious qualities necessary to reWhilst the intense invent the modern daylight factory.

investigation of theosophy was necessary in this project, it is not a concept which I feel drives me personally. I would like to achieve the same aim as the highest order - astral light, or the intangible spirit, but in a situation where I have a greater passion.

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

J.L.M. Lauweriks and K.P.C. De Bazel: Architecture and Theosophy Lauweriks and de Bazel where theosophist architects in the late 19th and early 20th Century working in the Netherlands. They made great advancements in translating the teachings of Theosophy into architecture, providing some interesting buildings with a strong symbolic nature to further the movement. They created a Theosophical symbol by which designs could be moulded upon, as well as stating three orders which can be abstracted into built form. Above: J.L.M Lauweriks detail (1913) Below: Theosophy symbol material study

First Order - Chaos - The undifferentiated cosmic state of matter from which all forms emerge. Second Order - Fine Matter - The cosmic primeval matter has developed into form: an illusion (sensory deception). Materialised form stimulates the senses but it also veils the insight into the spiritual essences of matter. - Kundalini - Spirit of circulation, when awakened at the base of the spine an ecstatic spiritual realisation is found. Third Order - The Immaterial - Astral Light, in a cosmic sense brings life to matter. The astral light shoots downwards and imbues matter with the spark of life, charges the matter with energy and forces it to develop. - The enlightened state of astral spirit is reached. To recuperate the spectres of utopia and modernity from within the Van Nelle Factory, it is essential to ensure that all three orders of theosophy are fulfilled to the highest degree. In doing so, a utopic building complex can be reinstated as once imagined by Kees van der Leeuw. Each order relates carefully to tell-the-tale details which are necessary to recuperate the spirit of theosophy and in turn, utopia and modernity.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

First Order - Chaos - 100% The Mushroom Column: - Column is on a grid of 5 x 5.7m. - Designed as an amalgamation of innovation and a nucleus for uninhibited modernity, the faรงades were none load bearing and the floor width narrow (19m) allowing for sufficient daylight (American daylight factories) - Mushroom shape for functionality in the production process rather than constructional advantages

Second Order - Fine Matter - 50% Kundalini is very present: - The circulation throughout the Van Nelle is key to efficient production, however the most prevalent area is within the staircases. The double helix staircase was split between men and women. This is highly unusual and relates to the twisting nature of the snake at the base of the spine within Kundalini. Illusion is not present: - Glazed faรงades do not provide any sort of illusion. The expenses were kept down by using a standardised greenhouse glazing panel (1000mm x 500mm) very common in the Netherlands, however this does not provide the sensory deception necessary.

Third Order - The Immaterial - 0% There are no traces of astral spirit within the building. - This order need to be developed entirely.

Left: Ghost Analytique, identifying Theosophy within the Van Nelle Factory


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

1st Order - Chaos Marco Frascari’s Tell-the-Tale detail excellently describes the characteristics of the column in a poetical way. As the first order of theosophy states; ‘the undifferentiated cosmic state of matter from which all forms emerge,’ truly is the concrete mushroom column in the Van Nelle Factory. The strength and flexibility of functionality which it provides allows the floor plates to be used in a variety of ways. “A column is a detail as well as it is a larger whole, and a whole classical round temple is sometimes a detail, when it is a lantern on the top of a dome.” “Details are much more than subordinate elements; they can be regarded as the minimal units of signification in the architectural production of meanings. These units have been singled out in spatial cells or in elements of composition, in modules or in measures, in the alternating of void and solid, or in the relationship between inside and outside.” “The joint, that is, the detail, is the place of the meeting of the mental construing and of the actual construction.”

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Right: Photograph of Mushroom Column


THE VAN NELLE KROON


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

2nd Order - Fine Matter To recuperate the second order of theosophy fully, the sense of illusion needs to be inserted into the buildings. One failing is the repetitive nature of greenhouse glass used in the facade, which was put in place to keep costs down. Therefore, by placing a new layer of irregular coloured (in line with the merging colour palette of the Van Nelle and Theosophy) glass to the facade, the internal and external senses of illusion should increase. Having a new skin of facade allows a new spectrum of coloured light to enter deep into plan. Using the panelled natured Zumthor uses in the Kunsthaus with the pattenated effect of shards of off-cut coloured glass, should provide an essence of illusion both internally and externally.

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THE VAN NELLE KROON


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Above: 1:20 Existing floor detail model Right: Facade model

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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

3rd Order - Astral Spirit What is astral light and how can a building be created to imbue people with astral spirit? Creating the immaterial is a concept which has troubled architects in the past. To recuperate the third order of Theosophy, a deeper theoretical analysis is necessary to provide a response that will not fail, but instead tie the Van Nelle Factory together and become the spectacle of Rotterdam as once intended. By investigating J.L.M. Lauweriks and de Bazel’s buildings, although the three orders of Theosophy were arguably present, there was a lack of ambition or This as a task proved to be literary knowledge to attempt to provide more complex than originally the utopic qualities which the Van Nelle thought. However, during the Factory desires.

Mountains and Megastructures symposium, a talk centred around artificial mountains, Gaudi, and more insightfully, Bruno Taut and the translucent effects of glass.

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

Glass The heavy nature of concrete was a necessity in the first order of theosophy, and looking into the material properties of stone opened up avenues into how astral light could be imbued into the building. Stone released from its weight becomes spiritualised as is apparent in grand Cathedrals. Glass as a material is not transparent, its translucent which allows the reflections to have a large effect on the light passing through. It is in fact a heavy material. Paul Scheerbart (1863 -1915) was a German author of fantastic literature and drawings. He was best known for the book Glasarchitektur (1914) and was associated with expressionist architecture and one of its leading proponents, Bruno Taut. He composed aphoristic poems about glass for the Taut’s Glass Pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition (1914). Scheerbart was convinced that glass, through its contemplative beauty, architecture could create some significant spiritual changes in human beings, and even bring them to a condition of universal brotherhood with each other and their surroundings. Coloured glass was Scheerbart’s rhetorical tool: anyone who was successfully exposed to a harmony of coloured light, could turn into an astral body whose wild desires and emotions would then come under the full control of the mind.

Top to bottom: Stiftskirche, Stuttgart Bruno Taut and Paul Scheerbart (1914) Interior of Glashaus (1914) Glashaus, Cologne Werkbund Exhibition (1914)


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

An experience, a journey, a route to enlightenment “One long staircase wraps around the inside of the cylindrical glass block wall. As you spiral upwards the colour changes from a bottle green to a bright white. Step-afterstep astral light and spirit imbues into your body, the higher you climb, the more apparent it becomes. Once you reach the top, the crisp glass dome provides a brilliance never experienced before. Spend as long as you need before making your way back down through the existing Van Nelle Factory structure. A series of theosophical teaching spaces becoming more private the further down you venture will allow you to explore and understand the experience you have received.�

Left: 1:200 Astral Spirit model


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Top to bottom: Theosophy symbol etched into glass block 1:2 Glass block wall model (concrete/steel/glass) Internal view of glass block staircase Right: Detailed drawings of glass block wall construction - scales 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20

The Glass Block Wall is integral to the project and is the material which visitors have most interaction with. Careful detailing of the staircase and hand rail is essential to give a seamless experience for visitors allowing them to focus on becoming imbued with astral spirit. After investigating perforated glass patents from the 19th Century, a sensible solution has been formed to enable fresh air to cool the visitors ascending the staircase. As with many long winding cathedral staircases, only a small amount of ventilation is necessary to comfort the visitor. In this case a detail has been devised to have a custom designed ventilation block under every step. Angled to ensure no rain enters, it allows air to circulate in and out of the external wall. Being inspired by the radiator in the staircase leading up-to the tea room in the Van Nelle factory gave the origins for the heated handrail. A hot water pipe passes through the entire handrail and heats the visitors as they make their way up. Although the glass wall will provide sufficient daylighting during the day, the staircase has an inset LED strip to produce light when lux levels are low and at night. The light is carefully built into the hand rail detail in-between the two pieces of joining steel. Intense studies were conducted to measure and identify the effect of natural daylight on the glass block model.

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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

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Left: Exploded structural axonometric Right: Construction logic axonometric


THE VAN NELLE KROON

Van Nelle Kroon to be built in modules off-site and assembled in place. Cylindrical glass block wall with steel supports to be constructed first with glass dome to be constructed once cylinder is complete. Using existing mushroom column for support to span between the cylinder wall and centre. Existing Tobacco Factory sliced through vertically. New steel support structure with glazed floor to ceiling windows to re-internalise the building. The separated tea room segment to be fitted with new theosophy teaching rooms and all provisions necessary based on the existing service grid.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Left: Floor Plans, 1:100 Right: Circulation and programmatic isometric

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THE VAN NELLE KROON

Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Louis Kahn (1971) Louis Kahn has a special subconscious relationship with light. The upper floors in the Van Nelle Kroon will have essences of the open and luxurious spaces in the Exeter Library. The larger meeting rooms and auditoriums will be open plan with a strong relationship to the structural mushroom columns gridded along the floor plates. Church, The Hague, Aldo van Eyck (1969) The small spaces created with fantastic natural light lend to the aesthetic created in the lower levels of the Van Nelle Kroon. The private spaces for thought and practice will be naturally darker in shadow compared to the higher floors where astral light is more prevalent.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Stack Ventilation occurs through the double glass skin dome facade. Providing a naturally controlled space. Due to the size, and materials used, it would be inefficient to mechanically control the climate for the entire space. Instead, a fluctuating climate is allowed for with solar gains and controlled natural ventilation providing localised comfort. The existing services within the Van Nelle Factory have recently been renovated so heating, lighting, water, and waste are all readily available. These will be sufficient for the new teaching spaces. A new heating system will be installed on level 8 to provide hot water for the radiator system passing down the new staircase. Inlet water will be pumped up through service risers and once heated pumped up one level before allowing gravity to allow the heated water to flow downwards. Environmentally, these design decisions use the services of the existing, with a sustainable approach to new additions allowing a large size building to be very environmentally friendly.

Right: 1:50 integrated section, with structural and environmental strategies 60

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THE VAN NELLE KROON


LINKED RESEARCH

Beyond Representation EVEREST DEATH ZONE (January 2016 - March 2016) Everest Death Zone is a project published in 2014 in the design research journal P.E.A.R. (Paper for Emerging Architectural Research). The project consists of four drawings and a short text. We are looking to extend the drawing(s) into a physical installation. The installation will likely include performative and atmospheric experimentation and will be installed at the ‘Mountains & Megastructures’ symposium (March 16-17 at APL). Students will work with us on designing, fabricating and installing the project.

environment based around Pichler’s farm in western Austria as a model for exploring both Pichler’s ideas and his interest in the bodily relationship to representation. We will create a mixed or mediated reality that merges architectural representation into real spaces, and vice versa, as an experiment to understand the potential of the technology. NB: this will include a large degree of computer design, and although tutorials and other sessions will be provided for this, The brief for the 3D-modelling literacy is desirable

second half of the year was modified when the ‘Scaling the Heights’ exhibition was revealed. The project became more focussed on the continuity of the ‘Everest Death Zone’ and its representation within a Virtual Reality environment. This would provide a more complete yearlong project in which each stage was informed largely by the previous.

MIXED/MEDIATED REALITIES (March 2016 - January 2017) The larger and less developed project is a study of new virtual reality technologies and their relationship to architectural representation. We are aiming to undertake this study by using Walter Pichler, an Austrian avant garde artist active in the 60s, as a subject for study. Pichler’s incredible and provocative projects such as Portable Living Room and Intensivbox satirise new media obsessions, and seem to pre gure virtual reality headsets such as the Oculus Rift (Facebook), the Hololens (Microsoft) and other emerging virtual and augmented reality experiences. The project aims to generate a virtual

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LINKED RESEARCH STASUS - MOUNTAINS AND MEGASTRUCTURES -SCALING THE HEIGHTS


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Introduction to the Linked Research Report

1. Mallory George Mallory’s endeavour to the summit of Mount Everest was interrogated by STASUS and mapped, creating the drawing ‘Mallory’. The Mountains and Megastructures exhibition in March 2016 was an opportunity to represent the drawing as a physical constructed model. Using a welded steel frame, fabric was sewn and projected onto using a modified version of the Epic of Everest (1924) film. MALLORY

“i’M RATHER inCLinED TO THinK PERSOnALLY THAT MAYBE iT iS QuiTE iMPORTAnT, THE GETTinG DOWn…”

“Our project, ‘Beyond Representation’, has been our attempt to explore the relationship between representation and architectural thinking, and in extension to this, the role representation plays with our understanding of spatial conditions. The following pages are a collection of outputs that were generated during this research and production period. These volumes can be read as an attempt to compress our outputs into a sequence of images and 2. Arsentiev texts that both document and reflect upon the work produced by the group over the course of the last twelve months. As the project, and in turn the book, is comprised of both individual and group work, the book also attempts to curate and organise the outputs within a chronological structure, merging the collaborative and solo work into a fully realised whole. ARSEnTiEV

“i’M An AMERiCAn. i’M An AMERiCAn.”

The collaborative nature of the project demanded close and constant communication between all four group members, a fact evidenced most during times when we were responsible for the of 3. Sharp 4. Schmatz organisation of two separate exhibitions. As a result, the large and often varied tasks are documented within this book in the form of a series of log entries, each We would hope to build on this collaboration and move forward with generating a series of written by the most appropriate group spatial interpretations and events generated through the original four drawings (above) for member. The the form of a log book is further exhibitions in the future. not only our attempt to archive the tasks andCraig responsibilities the project in an Left:architectural Mallory - STASUS Our platform Stasus, founded in 2009 by James (Visiting of Fellow, Newcastle Above: Exhibition leaflet organised manner, it is also works a self enclosed University) and Matt Ozga-Lawn (Lecturer in Architecture, Newcastle University) with Opposite: Everest Death narrative, attempting to represent the modes of architectural representation and its limits. We have included an edited selection of Zone, Constructed model; development of our thinking as a whole. work below. steel, fabric, projections SHARP

“YOuR RESPOnSiBiLiTY iS TO SAVE YOuRSELF – nOT TO TRY TO SAVE AnYBODY ELSE.”

SCHMATZ

“HER BODY WAS FROZEn in A SiTTinG POSiTiOn, LEAninG AGAinST HER PACK WiTH HER EYES OPEn AnD HER HAiR BLOWinG in THE WinD.”


LINKED RESEARCH

Interspersed throughout the log entries are individual essays, one by each group member, that are intended to act as a space in which a particular subject or theme that has arisen within the project can be discussed at greater length. The location of these essays within the book were chosen in reference to the most appropriate junction within the log entry narrative, attempting to create an overarching theoretical backdrop for the images and supporting writing to be interrogated against. Again, the decision to integrate the individual work within the group volume is our attempt to experiment with modes of representation, merging the often separated realms of design practice and theoretical thinking. Throughout this volume, a large variety of images are also included, intended to work in tandem with the text; allowing the reader to visualise and scrutinise the tasks, forms and outputs that are alluded to within the written work. The intention of this is to resist putting emphasis upon the image only, but instead to attempt to form a balanced representation mode which raises the capacity of each mode of representation to be raised by the presence of the other. The book concludes with four personal reflections, each written by a separate group member, that aim to summate their experience within the context of this project.� DB

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Bottom: Virtual Reality Exhibition screen shot Left: Exhibition leaflet Opposite: Everest Death Zone, Constructed model; steel, fabric, projections

The Scaling the Heights exhibition in November 2016, held the Everest Death Zone model in the centre of the Northern tower of the Tyne Bridge. The model formed part of a week long symposium run by the Architecture Research Collaborative with exhibits focussing on artificial mountains and the ascent of tall structures. To conclude the Linked Research, we created a Virtual Reality installation which condensed all of the research and exhibitions into a single moment.


LINKED RESEARCH

Virtual Reality Exhibition

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Conclusion The premise of the Linked Research module allows for a more unique method of research, teaching, and learning. MOL and JC provided a varied brief; beginning with the development of their ‘Mallory’ drawing into a 3D translation, to be displayed in a symposium, Mountains and Megastructures. The second segment focused on the exploration of representation within the medium of Virtual Reality. STASUS’ research is currently focussed on ‘beyond representation,’ and this overarching theme became the crux of this project. Assisting in the curation of a professional symposium was a highly rewarding process, especially when the main exhibit was designed and built by our group. Aside from the egotistical pleasure gained from this, the sheer amount of work necessary to successfully set up and run an event was eye-opening. There is a large time commitment which increases exponentially when the decision is made to create pieces of work which are not 2D printed images. This element is usually forgotten when considering using a more tangible medium of work. The opportunity presented to us in the curation of the Scaling the Heights exhibition was unique and testing. Displaying work in the most iconic landmark of Newcastle allowed for an interaction with the general public which seems to always be the aim in research exhibitions, but rarely achieved. People were genuinely excited to visit the exhibition and were pleasantly surprised with the display of work inside the tower. I gained great reward from this, and learning the untold history of the Tyne Bridge from locals was memorable.

Having the chance to delve into the technological side of virtual reality was initially daunting, and to be brutally honest, still is. When first placing the HTC Vive headset on, I was extremely surprised by how excellent the experience was. Presently, we are caught in the maelstrom of technological advancement, which doesn’t seem to be slowing, causing me to become more cautious when integrating elements into my own representation. VR being a key aim in the project allowed us to really toy and experiment with this unknown. Working in a group of four provided an interesting dynamic, which was on the whole successful… something which I have never experienced in the past. I am proud of the work produced and the method in which we collaborated. The range of knowledge and skills owned, complimented one another well, but the unexpected component which I found highly motivating was the relationship between student and tutor - This became more of a researching collaborative. This is a scenario which I feel is vital to experience as a Masters student for preparation post-University. Building models and working with my hands at large scales has been integral in past work, but understanding reasons why this The discoveries generated by style of representation is necessary gives greater depth. this Linked Research module

have been far reaching and nicely tie into my thesis, allowing an exploration of unorthodox representation.


TOOLS FOR THINKING

Varosha 1974: the Life, the Death, and the Afterlife. Could the abandoned ‘ghost town’ Varosha, be read forensically as a murdered body in a state of decay? Varosha (Turkish), Varosi or Ammochostos (translated from Greek as ‘hidden under sand’) The aim of this essay is to use forensic methodology to analyse the decay of Varosha (ghost town of Famagusta), located to the East of the UN buffer zone in the Northern occupied area of Cyprus. Forensics Forensics is a useful technique as it provides a scientific approach to analysis, providing unique and decisive evidence. Eyal Weizman, Israeli intellectual and Architect states, ‘Derived from the Latin forensis, the word “forensics” refers at root to “forum.” Forensics is thus the art of the forum—the practice and skill of presenting an argument before a professional, political, or legal gathering.’ (Weizman, 2012, 9) Forensics is therefore a rhetoric; with an unconventional twist which not only includes speech, but objects too. For objects, and more specifically for the purpose of this paper, the built environment, there is a need for an interpreter to act as a mediator between the forum and the object. For the ancient Greeks and Romans, this role fell under the title ‘rhetorician,’ whereas now in the case of the built environment, a forensic architect. The application of forensics in Varosha By presenting the ‘ghost town’ (Varosha), coined by Jan-Olof Bengtsson in 1977, as a murder victim, the process of human

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decomposition will be transferred to the built environment. In a murder investigation, the forensic pathologist is able to ascertain the cause of death by examining a corpse and piecing together evidence, ultimately serving as an expert witness in a court of law. ‘Forensic Architecture is the archaeology of the very recent past, but it must also be a form of assembling for the future.’ (Weizman, 2012, 10) The analysis of Varosha, must therefore be situated from the date of death to provide the necessary chronological positioning for forensic architectural analysis to have a chance of success. By taking the date of death as 20th July 1974 (the date of the invasion), the immediate past will initially be analysed to argue its presence as an idyllic, thriving and healthy tourist town. Applying the process of human decomposition to map Varosha, will determine to what extent the ‘ghost town’ can be humanised, thus being labeled a murder victim. Could forensics be used to successfully analyse a built environment? The current tense political stalemate makes the future of Varosha unpredictable, thus providing an interesting architectural site for potential redevelopment to occur. However, can forensic architecture provide sufficient information as to why a renaissance has not occurred thus far? Straying away from the complex political, social, geographic and economical nature of this area, this essay will examine if there is a deeper reason why redevelopment has not occurred due to the humanisation of the Varosha. Is Varosha a ‘body,’ a murdered ‘body?’


TOOLS FOR THINKING ABOUT ARCHITECTURE HISTORY, THEORY & WRITING


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This project focusses on the relationship between biography and space and how specific subjects may be used as a means of communicating social, cultural, spatial and psychic relationships. Biographical research methods (such as re-enactment) have the potential to reveal the authentic voice of subjects, declaring personal meanings and strategies in space, as well as providing a means to analyse relations between the personal and the social. It is the intention of this project to adopt such a biographical method, as a way of notionally ‘stepping into’ the mind-set of an architect as a means to examine the internal and external conditions of their lived experience. As part of this, you will be asked to create an architectural biography as a fully immersive environment, inspired by an interpretive analysis of the space between the architect and their architecture. In the design of your architectural biography, you will be encouraged to take reference from areas of theory including psychoanalysis, re-enactment, biographical performance and architectural representation. It may be that your study focusses on a re-interpretation of an architect’s archive, or that it imagines the impact of an architect’s unbuilt project in the present day, it could be that your focus is on a key moment in an architect’s childhood that led to their development as a designer. These are only a few examples

of potential research strands, and you are fully encouraged to find any aspect of an architect’s life that inspires you, so much so that you may wish to make an (auto) biographical link to your architect of study, and in effect, make this association part of your thesis.

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THESIS THE ARCHITECTURAL BIOGRAPHY


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Robert Storr’s, comment on Rachel Whiteread’s Austrian Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial - ‘Rather than a tomb or a cenotaph’ Whiteread’s work is the solid shape of an intangible absence - of a gap in a nation’s identity, and a hollow at a city’s heart. Using an aesthetic language that speaks simultaneously to tradition and to the future, Whiteread in this way respectfully symbolises a world whole irrevocable disappearance can never be wholly grasped by those who did not experience it, but whose lasting monuments are the books written by Austrian Jews before, during and in the aftermath of the catastrophe brought down on them.’

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George Patsalides caught on camera in 1974 documentary taken in Varosha

The project consists of a series of ‘houses’ that reactivate the war torn and decaying region of Varosha, Famagusta, Cyprus - by using the unconscious psyche of my uncle George. Intensely mapping past conflicts, myths and memories creates a palimpsest of context to be inscribed onto the current landscape condition. This constructed landscape has been framed and sites identified by using George’s bicycle journey through Famagusta during the invasion in 1974, who became a refugee, aged 14. The series of interventions aim to bring about a meaningful solution to the areas of land destroyed by the conflict, transcending the borders and bringing the rich cultural heritage of Cypriots to the fore.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Raimund Abraham - 1933 - 2010 Raimund Johann Abraham was born in 1933, in the town of Lienz, Tyrol in Austria, and he died on March 4, 2010, in a collision with a bus, in Los Angeles, California. Throughout a 40-year career, Abraham created visionary projects and built works of architecture, in Europe and the US. He taught in many Architecture Schools around the world, and was based at the Coopers Union in New York for over 30 years.

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Raimund Abraham was used as a tool to advise and theoretically ground the ambitions of carving and architecturally responding to the ‘no-mans’ land of Varosha. His monograph, [UN]Built was compiled after his death and provided essays both written by him and others, as well as a range of unbuilt and built project proposals. Representationally, he was useful in A link to themes investigated meticulously hand-drawing the majority in the Spectres of Utopia of his pieces and evoking a sensuality and inner tension - each drawing is highly project is that he constantly personal, and at the same time very rejected the modernist axiom, that architecture needed to geometrical.

be physically erected to exist,

He was not influenced by others, but defending its expression instead immersed in his own thoughts of and polemical value when site, landscape and how people or objects communicated through other inhabit spaces.

media.

The quote that is the key driver for the investigations in Varosha is “The only way to achieve an evocative design is the dichotomisation of unconscious and conscious.” ‘Houses of Tension’ derives from the definition that houses are deemed to be constructions of habitation. Abraham states that, ‘habitation is a ritual that is thousands, maybe millions of years old, and we simply have to reinterpret it.’

Above: In the dreamlike 9 Houses Triptych (1975) mysterious tectonic shapes both float and appear to grow out of an uncanny, siteless landscape.


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Left: Negation and Reconciliation (1982) - Raimund Abraham Right: Austrian Cultural Forum (2002), New York


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Dream Moving on a lift up to the top of the wind beaten central tower. Marbles drop down the facade, rolling down the concrete, the sound of grating is deafening. They puncture the ground, cracked and faded tarmac consuming the spheres. Down and down through the network of subways to a small room. 3m by 3. Floor of hard smooth cold concrete. Fighting against the earth. The corner of the room has an unfinished chair, propped up against an opening to allow for escape. A staircase gives the option for up or down - this spine-like path of steps joining countless houses one top of another. A skyscraper below ground. Each unique, each with a perfect view, the barren landscape allowing the eye to wander to the horizon uninterrupted. Stepping through the threshold a beam of light catches the eye. 1 cigar of paces to its tangent, stopping dead at the ground. The staggered light By re-enacting the methodology sheets diagonally cut the sky.

Abraham conducted in his dream project, this proved useful in understanding the concept behind the drawings created. His use of poetics evoked a sense of drama and ambiguity which was equally present in the drawings. This was replicated in the presentation of the final drawings, having the poem read as the drawing was observed.

Opposite: Fragments of components from the ‘dream’ Right: Series of image from the ‘dream’ model


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Selected timeline of Cypriot history

1974

The country divided in two, Turkish Cypriots to the North and Greek Cypriots to the south, separated by the UN enforced Green Line.

1960

The British, Greek and Turkish governments signed a Treaty of Guarantee to provide for an independent Cypriot state within the Commonwealth of Nations and allow for the retention of two Sovereign Base Areas at Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Cyprus became independent of foreign rule.

1878

British occupation began. The British took over the administration of the island, by mutual agreement, in order to protect their sea route to India via the Suez Canal. In exchange, Britain agreed to help Turkey against future Russian attacks.

1571

Cyprus ended its time as a Venetian colony. Having been put under siege the previous year, Famagusta was captured and Cyprus was subjected to Ottoman rule. The first Ottoman settlers arrived.

1489

Cyprus became an overseas colony of the Venetian Republic after having been purchased from the last member of the Lusignan dynasty.

56BC

1400BC

Cyprus became a Roman province.

Hellenization of Cyprus after the colonization of Mycenaeans


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Top to bottom: UN Buffer zone - Nicosia, 1960s violence by Greek Nationalists, Bomb explosions and craters, 20/07/1974, Opposite: Turkish invasion island plan

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Due to Cyprus’ rich resources and strategic location in the Mediterranean, this lucrative island proved to be a worthy addition to any major power. Throughout the centuries it was ruled by Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Romans, Lusignan, Venetians, Ottomans and British. It became the independent Republic of Cyprus in 1960. Soon after in 1963, tensions rose between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, coming to a head in 1974 Greek Nationalists staged a coup d’état to unify Cyprus with Greece. This in turn triggered the Turkish military to invade with the pretense of saving the Turkish Cypriots from further violence, ending with an occupation of 36% of the northern part of the Island. The invasion of Cyprus in 1974 caused destruction, death, and trauma still visible in the present day. The thriving tourist resort of Varosha, Famagusta was fenced off as a bargaining chip, whilst negotiations to resolve the conflict ensued. 43 years later, the border line has not moved, and the country is still divided

in two. Both Turkish and Greek Cypriots live in discourse, without peace. Varosha remains an inaccessible decaying ghost town. Many current proposals or projects investigating Cyprus relate to a mapping and interaction with the green line and border condition. I believe that these are responsive instead of preventative and that there is a need to delve into the unseen/intangible and unconscious to create a richer scheme, and a longer lasting positive impact. ‘δεν ξεχνω,’ translates as ‘I do not forget,’ and is used to illustrate the need to remember the atrocities of war and unresolved conflict. A superficial solution is no longer an acceptable option for this region - the trauma runs deep into the psyche of Cypriots.


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Above: International fault lines Left: 1:50000 maps of Famagusta highlighting contour lines, road networks with Varosha shaded.

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Varosha (Greek: Βαρώσια [locally [vaˈɾoʃa]]; Turkish: Maraş or Kapalı Maraş) is an abandoned southern quarter of the Cypriot city of Famagusta. The name Varosha has its roots in the Turkish word varoş, meaning “suburb”. The area first became populated during the Ottoman rule after 1571 where all Christian inhabitants within the Venetian fort walls were exiled. Varosha became more lucrative than the decaying fort town in the 1970s where it was the modern tourist area of the city. Its inhabitants fled during the invasion, when it came under Turkish control, and it has remained abandoned and under the occupation of the Turkish Armed Forces ever since. As of 2017, the quarter continues to be uninhabited and is described as a ghost town. Entry is forbidden to the public. The value for reconstructing the region is €100bn. Once again, the region is segregated, much like its original conception 450 years ago - an island within an island.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

By mapping the past conflicts in famagusta, a rich tapestry of the intangible spatial Ottoman siege on Famagusta 1571 traces of war culminate to On 15 September 1570 the Turkish materialise the trauma.

cavalry appeared before the last Venetian stronghold in Cyprus, Famagusta. The Venetian defenders of Famagusta numbered about 8,500 men with 90 artillery pieces and were commanded by Marc Antonio Bragadin. They would hold out for 11 months against a force that would come to number more than 200,000 men, with 145 guns. The Ottoman forces kept pressure on for 11 months, while their artillery relentlessly pounded the city’s bulwarks. According to Venetian chroniclers, about 6,000 garrison troops stood against some 250,000 Turks with 1,500 cannons, backed by about 150 ships enforcing a naval blockade to stave off any reinforcements. The besieged garrison of Famagusta put up a heroic struggle lasting well beyond the most optimistic assumptions, against far superior enemy numbers and without any hope of help from the motherland. Furthermore the Ottomans were employing new tactics. The entire belt of walls surrounding the town and the exterior plain was filled with earth up to the top of the fortifications. In the meantime a number of tunnels were dug out towards and under the city walls to undermine and breach them. In July, 1571 the Ottoman invaders eventually breached the fortifications and their forces broke into the citadel. With provisions and ammunition running out, and no sign of relief from Venice, on August 1, Bragadin asked for terms of surrender.

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The Ottoman invaders lost some 52,000 men in five major assaults, including the first son of the Commander, Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha. The Venetian garrison lost nearly 8,000 soldiers and was reduced to just nine hundred soldiers, many of them wounded and starving. The mapping of these events was conducted through rigorous research of military reports and illustrations. The intention to create an accurate layer of this point in history.

Opposite: 1:20000 map of trenches, cannon positions, fortifications and city layout. Right: Trajectory of cannonball, Below: German 15th Century cannon trajectory calculations

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Right: Flaying of Marsyas, Titian (1576). Bragadin's flaying provided the inspiration for this painting. Opposite: Flaying of Marc Antonio Bragadin

Marc Antonio Bragadin The funeral took twenty-five years, The death took two weeks. Near enough a years worth of fight, odds never in favour. The walls stood strong, never faltering Human fuel ended the fray White flags waved, mercy to be given. Rage intoxicating Exposing human flesh to horrific violence. Inhumane and vicious, a theatre. The parade continues, the show for all to see. Home is eventually found, resting for eternity.

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Marc Antonio Bragadin, Venetian Commander in the defence of Famagusta, surrendered to the Ottomans and was given very special treatment - it began with the slicing off of his nose and ears. He was whipped daily, given hard and humiliating labour, forced to kiss the earth under the Turkish general’s (Lala Mustapha Pasha) feet. His teeth were broken and then in Famagusta's central square - flayed alive. His voice, reciting the misere mei Deus, gradually weakened. He was dead by the time his executioners knives reached his groin. His skin was stuffed with straw, hung from the mast of Mustapha’s flagship and passed in triumph along the Cypriot coast.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari Make a map not a tracing The map does not reproduce an unconscious closed in upon itself; it constructs the unconscious. It fosters connections between fields, the removal of blockages on bodies without organs, the maximum opening of bodies without organs onto a plane of consistency‌

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Bottom: View from bomb dropped from F-4 fighter jet on the hotel Right: Grainy photograph of the aftermath Opposite (top): Aerial view of fighter jets onto the beach front. Opposite (bottom): 1:5000 map of defence positions and flight paths.

Salaminia Tower Hotel On the 22nd July 1974 at 0600, as tourist waited outside for the transfer to the airport, two F-4 fighter jets flew over the beach front dropping 500lb bombs. The first hit the sand and left a 30ft crater, no one was harmed. The second hit the target, an observation point with small arms fire at the top the hotel, there were deaths. A third of the 100 room hotel collapsed injuring more, leaving a man caught between two floor plates - dead. Reports suggest that there was a 20/25 minute turnaround between attacks, as the jets returned to Turkey to resupply with ammunition.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

To create tension the stories were layered together onto the current site condition, driving these memories and myths to the fore, and conscious. This palimpsest will erupt to the surface at unexpected times. These misfits, will be uncomfortable, and will articulate spatial differences - tracing it. This will allow an understanding about the area through interventions, which trigger conscious thoughts instead of the uncompromising monotony of destruction and current borders, the present world has come to expect.Â

Above (top): 1:10000 model showing layered historical stories Above: Oblique 16th Century plan of the siege of Famagusta Opposite : Oblique view of palimpsest Below: View of unseen histories

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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

The unseen layered construction was subsequently inscribed on the landscape. The line of contact with the ground plane refers to the flaying of Marc Antonio Bragadin and the dead person in the hotel.

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Above: Series of views following inscription trajectory Left (top): Titian’s, Flaying of the Marsyas (1576) Left (middle): Still of dead person in the Salaminia Tower Hotel (1974) Left (bottom): Aerial View of inscribed landscape Opposite: Model of inscribed landscape


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Left: Scenes from the documentary, filmed 1974 Above: Key of main buildings as a siting tool Opposite: George’s bicycle journey mapped

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My Uncle, George Patsalides grew up in Famagusta, and became a refugee aged 14. In late July 1974, he took his bicycle and transcended to border region to explore the war zone. This young and innocent psyche is a juxtaposition to the violent destruction engulfing the world, a culmination of centuries of war and destruction in the area. A documentary of the invasion captured George in film on this bicycle journey. His journey began by collecting his bicycle from his home and venturing past subconsciously important buildings in the city, ending with the hotel where he had heard rumours of a bomb being dropped on the beach front. What he found was a harrowing view of a man

crushed by the floor plates of the hotel, ready to be cut down with a chainsaw - an unforgettable experience 43 years later, George relived this journey by taking me to key accessible areas and pointing through a rusted chain link fence at the places he has not set foot on since that day. By using this journey, I intended to use George’s unconscious psyche as a method for framing the inscribed landscape and thus compressing the hurt and pain felt by all Cypriots in this one bicycle journey. Rudolph Schwarz (1897-1961) A video displaying scenes from - The individual is born in the the documentary and George’s narration, was useful in expressing the power of thisvillage which existed before him. But slowly this village experience.

becomes his homeland, a place lived in and full of memories. Paths and places became memories, time and space became the history of his life.


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Left: Bicycle journey layered onto inscribed landscape Above: View of unseen hotel destruction from the bicycle


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George’s House

Elementary School

Checkpoint

This is the exact intangible information I believe is crucial to providing a solution with more power to generate reactivation in the ‘noThe six main areas George man’s’ land of Varosha. highlighted on his journey related to subconscious experiences he had with the region as a child and provided a set of perspectival viewpoints from the bicycle’s view. They had no affiliation with the position of the border line highlighting the superficiality of a chain link fence to the cultural importance and history of the area.

Temple Island, Mike Webb


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Famagusta Nautical Club

Nea Salamina Football Stadium

Salaminia Tower Hotel

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House - 1:50 House - 1:50

School - 1:500 School - 1:500

House - 1:50

Using the perspectives from the bicycle at each point along the route, the perspective was laid onto the site according to the scale of viewpoint George experience. This gave a series of six transects of varying scales, with the inscribed landscape acting as guidelines

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School - 1:500

Checkpoint - 1:250

Checkpoint - 1:250

to inform an interaction to the existing programme. The scale of The transects were informed the drawings allows the architectural by analysing James Corner’s declaration of the project to be understood a variety of scales, with ‘Agency of Mapping’ and the early work of Daniel the resolution being appropriate for Libeskind, most notably the the scale of drawing.

Chamberworks series, which carry an inherent tension. GC7.1/7.3


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Nautical Club - 1:250

Nautical Club - 1:250

Series from Daniel Libeskind, Chamberworks

Stadium - 1:200 Stadium - 1:200

Stadium - 1:200

Hotel - 1:100 Hotel - 1:100

Hotel - 1:100


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1:10000 Site Plan: Hatched area indicating the Famagusta within the Venetian Fort walls, and cross hatched area indicating the Varosha inaccessible ‘no-man’s’ land


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1. House 2. School 3. Checkpoint 4. Nautical Club 5. Stadium 6. Hotel

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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

The purpose of creating an installation, allows the observer to become embedded into the project with the hope of recognising the importance of George’s bicycle journey as a framing tool. A 1:20 bicycle model is used as the viewpoint with 1:20 fragmented models arranged around a plan of the bicycle route. The console is raised to 1.4m (the eye-level of George aged 14), and can orientate like a compass to any of the six sites. Each viewpoint has the bicycle in the foreground, 1:20 fragment in the middle-ground, and drawing hung in the background. The installation allows viewers to interrogate objects from differing angles and positions, with poems attached to the steel rods holding acting as plinths, with the intricate 3D printed models opposite the hung drawing. Overall, the aim is to have an immersive experience, with George’s narrative being played through the speaker situated under the

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console. The base of the plinths are laser etched 1:750 plans of each of the six sites, with the bicycle route joining each site together via a steel band. A further band is hung at 2m to provide a cage-like discomfort, with the materiality drawing links to the inscribed carving of the landscape proposed in the drawings.

Above (left): View from console onto school model and drawing Above: Console detail Opposite: General arrangement of installation components


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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Above: Panoramic of final presentation installation Below: 1:100 Crit 2 plan Opposite: 1:10 installation plan

STASUS - “...it is still rare to find architectural processes that take account of observation and embed the observer – as designer or otherwise – within this field, this third space, this surface of affect. Unless more architects learn to do so, we believe, our discipline is missing an opportunity to reflect our position in relation to representation, critically, politically – and, pertinently for any architectural consideration – spatially.” (Looking; Looking Back, 2015) .

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Drawing

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Installation

1. House 2. School 3. Checkpoint 4. Nautical Club 5. Stadium 6. Hotel

1a. House 2a. School 3a. Checkpoint 4a. Nautical Club 5a. Stadium 6a. Hotel

1b. House 2b. School 3b. Checkpoint 4b. Nautical Club 5b. Stadium 6b. Hotel

V. Viewfinder console L. Lighting B. Bicycle route


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House

“…so I took my bicycle without informing any relative of mine.”

Once safe, secure, owned. No longer the case, the faces seem different. The sturdy shell remains, providing a barrier to the looming growth. Bunkered in. Vague memories past, the uncanny present, the fractured future visible.


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The house aims to act as a bunker to the physically offensive surroundings. Internally, the function of the rooms remains as they were in 1974. The interventions are very subtle and small shifts in the orientations of floorboards create an uncanny sense. There would be a feeling of discomfort within a seemingly ‘normal’ house. The juxtaposition between the internal angst and violent exterior causes tension, to only be fully experienced when residing in the bedrooms. Views from windows are jarred by shards of concrete, blocking views and restricting sunlight. As a built form, the fabric of the house shows slight decay, however, the dust filled spaces, lack of electricity and clean water produce As a series, the drawings an experience void of enjoyment and represent the existential pleasure.

logic of Raimund Abraham. By merging reality with a dream, the traces become apparent within the current context.

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Above: Wooden flooring orientation based on external concrete shards Left: Photographs of the house Opposite: 1:20 fragment model, George’s bed

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Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) - Dwelling is the basic principle of existence. The house, therefore, remains the central place of human existence, the place where the child learns to understand his being in the world, and the place from which man departs and to which he returns.


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School “…just opposite my house, but my secondary school was miles away” A gateway, the source of change. Horizon breached, sky taken by networks of overground tunnels. Decay halted, never reversed. Lifelines provided, spreading, sparking heritage.


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The elementary school is currently used by local children and funded by the government. However, the borderline separates the neighbouring catchment area to the East, limiting effectiveness of the surrounding area. The intervention aims to re-activate decaying buildings within the ‘no-man’s’ land. Such buildings will form useful and varied educational facilities. The access point pierces the border via overhead walkways puncturing 15m high gateways. The secondary aim of the walkways is to provide services to the decaying area. Each building’s decay will be frozen in time where the new structure meets the existing, monumentalising it. The large 15m concrete gateways act as a physical beacon for visitors to realise the access point, however only the children attending the school will be able to utilise the new spaces within the ‘no-man’s’ land. Onlookers gaze longingly through The concept of working the chain-link fence as before.

with a school brings notions of pain to the fore. Existing decaying buildings in the ‘no-man’s’ land visualise the extent a war can have on a population. Empty classrooms trigger a voyeurism for visitors which relates to their subconscious childhood.

School - 1:500


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Above: Photograph of the elementary school taken from the edge of its perimeter Opposite: 1:20 fragment model visualising the connections to the ‘no-man’s’ land, but with no accessible entry point Left: Decaying library


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Checkpoint

“…you are in a buffer zone, it is dangerous! You have to go home. Okay I told them, but my thirst for… adventure… I continued”

The Venetian giant brought back into view. Eyes no longer have an opposite pair. Echoes of cannon fire ring silently, noise and speed halted. Accept history, or reverse and detour

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The checkpoint was the only part of the journey which was a temporary space. Two sets of opposing guards lay transfixed on each other, both hoping the other would not act. Greek guards by the roadside, Turkish guards covered by the Venetian fort walls. George cycled through, before being stopped by Greek Cypriot guards; ignoring their orders, he continued towards the beach front. Vehicles presently use the roadway in large volumes, it being the main artery between the port and central roundabout. The retaining walls between the dry moat and roadway block the view of the fort walls for all passing by. The proposal is to extend the moat, transecting the roadway and carving through the retaining landscape. To pass over the cavern, a harsh metal-grated bridge is constructed, pierced by concrete shards extruded from the ground. These shards puncture the seemingly fragile grating causing bottle-necks and sections to negotiate. As a result, road users will attempt to find detours through lesser travelled areas, stumbling upon the borderline, causing further disruption to journeys. The alternative, to accept the wait and observe the giant 450 year old walls, impenetrable Less focus is on the for all who tried over the centuries.

monetary gains of the tourist trade, although this is likely to be a biproduct of intervening with the ‘no-man’s’ land, but primarily with the psyche of Cypriots

Checkpoint - 1:250


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Opposite: Photograph of Venetian Fort walls Below: Photograph of ‘stop’ ignored for 43 years Below: View of checkpoint shards from the highway

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Nautical Club

“…the club for the high class, the Turkish commander lives in it now”

Segregated, but not as intended. Colonial souls crash against the rocks, a thin beam of light, walking on water. An island upon an island, walk freely and see.

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Nautical Club - 1:250

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The Nautical Club was built in the early 20th Century by the British during their occupation from 1878 - 1960 (1878 to 1912 as a British protectorate, a unilaterally annexed military occupation from 1914 to 1922 and from 1922 to 1960 as a Crown colony). The club was attended by the high class in the Famagusta area, and the place to be for the wealthy. George knew of it as the place where only the rich people went and never ventured onto the separate island it inhabits. Immediately after the invasion in 1974, the commander of the Turkish Army was rumoured to have taken residence in the club and barricaded off the only pedestrian and vehicle access point. This in effect made it as inaccessible as the no-man’s land, and due to this, the response on the site is to construct a new pedestrian bridge connecting the sea-front road to the island. The Nautical Club does not escape the trauma as it is sliced in two along the diagonal, revealing the plush interior for all to observe. A series of staggered watch towers act as a light house, except the views are all orientated onto the enclosed Gordon Matta-Clark - “You area, with any sea view used as the cut a hole in the building concrete structural walls.

and people can look inside and see the way other people really lived...it's making space without building it.”

Nautical Club - 1:250


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

136

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GC2.2/2.3

GC4.2

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HOUSES OF TENSION

Above: Overhead drone footage of the Nautical Club island (2016) Below: View from mainland along the connecting pedestrian bridge Opposite: 1:20 fragment model indicating voyeuristic moments presented on the bridge


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

138


HOUSES OF TENSION

Stadium

“…the official stadium for the town, 5,000 people it held.”

Red is the colour, striped for victory. The circus ceases to attract - Nea Salamina. View never towards the coastline, or is this where the true vision should lie? The trench completes the task, hope crawls to the future.


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

140


HOUSES OF TENSION

The location of the stadium is right at the heart of Varosha. The ‘no-man’s’ land neatly circumnavigates the boundary, causing two sides of the pitch to overlook the borderline. Nea Salamina moved to the south of the island along with the supporters, however the love of football remains. The intervention on the site initially responds to a lack of seating in that area of the stadium. A steel frame structure provides sporadic intervaled seating with irregular steps. The opposite side of the stand is far more comfortable and gives a suitable recreation area for views over decaying hotel façades towards the sea. However, the outer edge of the track has been carved down by 4m to create a trench. A meshed walkway passes over the trench creating a cacophony below during matches. The trench moves through the site ramping upwards as it passes underneath the border position. By crawling, visitors have an opportunity to see inside the ‘noman’s’ land as long as they steer clear of the rusted fence edge.

Stadium - 1:200


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Left: View from inside the trench Below: Photograph Opposite (top): Photograph of Stadium (1971) Opposite (bottom): Aerial view of access point via trenches into the ‘no-man’s’ land

142

GC1.1/1.3

GC2.2/2.3

GC4.2

GC5.1/5.2/5.3

GC6.3


HOUSES OF TENSION


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Hotel

“…I saw half of a hotel… fallen

down, and at one balcony there was a dead body hanging” Carved by metal. The metaphor runs deep, trauma of death forever. A new shard, a triggered memory, the past latches onto life, desperate to thrive once more. An amalgamation ensues.

144


HOUSES OF TENSION


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

146


HOUSES OF TENSION

The collapsed segment of the Salaminia Tower Hotel is arguably the most synonymous physical presence of the invasion. The majority of the hotel can be viewed and photographed (illegally) from the accessible beach front. The chainlink fence skirts the ground floor, woven with mesh to deter wandering eyes. The proposal seeks to intervene with the existing hotel using several interlinking concepts. The sharp apex facing the sea not only acts as an unobstructed viewpoint over the beach front (the hotels along the beach front were built with a large flaw, with their orientation causing shading over a large proportion of the beach after midday), but as the access point and reception. Guests are then able to meander through the hotel, but can only exit via the same entrance. The slice that cuts through the heart of the existing, acts as a visual reminder and replacement for the body which was lost and killed. A shadowed void is left to commemorate the memories of the past. Programmatically, the existing hotel rooms are left in the looted and aesthetic state 43 years of decay provides. Cleanliness is of least importance. However, the new shard provides a lifeline for the hotel, by acting as a stable structural support for the unsafe masonry walls to tie onto, the new concrete sheers through the old, like the bomb that struck it. Theoretically the hotel would be open for business, although the experience is Forensic architecture likely to cause an unpleasant sense of Eyal Wiesman unease amongst guests.

Unlock a memory of the space through a model. Help deal with trauma in the area; the hotel and body, the body becomes exposed in the building. Hotel - 1:100


ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Above: Axonometric of pipe and duct work Opposite (top): 1:20 fragment model indicating the logic internal room layouts Opposite (right): Photograph of corridor within the hotel Opposite (bottom): 1:50 Section indicating relationship between new and existing

148

GC1.1/1.3

GC2.2/2.3

GC4.2

GC5.1/5.2/5.3

GC6.3

GC9.2/9.3


HOUSES OF TENSION

All existing pipework whilst present, is redundant and dilapidated. The ductwork and pipe channels are used to reappropriate hot and cold water, drainage pipes, soil vent pipes and air conditioning ductwork. The initial logic visually seems as though the existing is being tapped into by the new, however quite the opposite occurs in reality.

Hotel - Section 1:50


Famagusta Old Town (Within Venetian Fort Walls)

Varosha no-mans land (inaccessible)

Site Proposal Location Boundaries

Checkpoint Nautical Club

Hotel

Stadium

School

House

N

010

150

50

100

Famagusta Site Location Plan 1:10000

200m

GC4.1/4.2/4.3

GC10.1/10.2/10.3

GC11.1/11.2/11.3


ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AND MANAGEMENT

The professional practice report allowed for the thesis project to be grounded by investigating the issues which would arise if the project became a realistic proposal. Clearly identifying the context, client, project brief, appointment, procurement and illustrating tasks within a Gantt Chart situated the project realistically. By analysing the responsibilities under your client appointment, the client priorities and constraints, the site constraints, statutory approvals and other legal hurdles, and the inputs from other professional disciplines, a comprehensive report outlined specifics for these titles. Two issues were then explored in greater depth to identify the risks and value the project would provide. The laws and regulations related to construction in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, highlighted the issues of poor building regulations when proposing development in the occupied area, and thus

APPENDIX 1 - Gantt Chart

Key Tasks Milestones

Primer Exhibition Pecha Kucha 1 Viability Review Technical Specialism Mid-Term Cross Check Meeting Technical Consultations Cross Studio Review Pecha Kucha 2

Stage 0 - Strategic Definition Review feedback from previous projects Identify client's business case Development of initial strategic brief Review of potential design process Review of potential sites Establish Project Programme Stage 1 - Preparation and Brief Develop Project Objectives Investigate project budget Confirm site - Cyprus Site visit Undertake feasibility studies Roles of consultants confirmed - Cyprus Initial Project Brief Pre-Application - Cypriot Consultant Public consultation - Cypriot Parties Stage 2 - Concept Design Concept designing Research and sketching Third party design review Model making (Physical and Virtual) Review of design with technical consultant Project execution plan Initial Construction strategy Initial Health and Safety Strategy Cost information Final project brief - signed off Outline Planning Application Submitted

!16

Right: Gantt Chart Opposite: 1:10000 Site location plan

Stage 3 - Developed Design Developed design Sustainability consultations - Climate work Finish research and development Cost information updated Planning conditions submitted Construction Strategy updated Health and Safety Strategy updated Stage 4 - Technical Design Technical Design Structural and M&E Engineer packages Tender package preparation Building Regulations Submission

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the intention would be to incorporate the planning and building regulations structure utilised in the UK. This led to an identification of a suitable client in the UN, and the process of securing funds and cost management for the proposals. The second issue related to the risks Varosha as an inaccessible war-zone area would cause to the success of the project, and potential routes in providing a positive outcome in this regard.

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Nikolas Ward - Architecture Portfolio - Masters in Architecture - Part II - Newcastle University  

- Harnessing the Savage (OMA) - Rotterdam - The Van Nelle Kroon (Spectres of Utopia) - Rotterdam - Houses of Tension (Thesis) - Varosha, F...

Nikolas Ward - Architecture Portfolio - Masters in Architecture - Part II - Newcastle University  

- Harnessing the Savage (OMA) - Rotterdam - The Van Nelle Kroon (Spectres of Utopia) - Rotterdam - Houses of Tension (Thesis) - Varosha, F...

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