THE BLANKETED CITY NICOLO’ BERTINO AUTOMATIC CITY MSC2 STUDIO THE WHY FACTORY FALL 2009
RESEARCH PROPOSAL “There’s only an age in the history of the world, when every single individual and every single thing being connected, and we are living in that exact moment.” Kevin Kelly from his Out of Control
INTRODUCTION We live in a world in too many cases SUPERDENSE of information we don’t need. Contemporary cities have great lack of flexibility in terms of architectural program. We don’t need any more this sort of distinction. We are almost 7 billion people. This exciting number of people moving freely in the constructed world leads to an entirely new landscape. How to make this human metropolis to interact with building space?
Times Square, NY- comparison. on the left, T.S. in the ‘20s,, on the right contemporary T.S.
Within fifty years the world population has doubled and more than half of them now live in cities.
We are almost 7 billion people. How to make this human metropolis to interact with building space? 3
non-flexi our cities 4
3.3 billion people live in urban areas.
ibility of s 5
This huge number of people, beyond social, political and economical questions, has formed a kind of active filter, a curtain made up of dynamic bodies of hundreds of thousands of people who make a real mobile landscape consists of expressive presence that invade every place and replace the traditional architectural landscape . Andrea Branzi with his Archizoom design team in â€™68 proposed a scheme for a homogeneous habitat condition, named No-Stop City. On this theoretical scheme he represent in an ironic way the basic condition required for a city to exist: the minimum infrastructure for living, according to which the city reproduces itself. The basic grid is composed by columns occurring every 50 meters, a wall occurs every 10 meters, a bed every 20 meters, an elevator every 25 meters,etc.
â€˜No Stop Cityâ€™ Archizoom, 1970 Taking the same logic, the contemporary city can be defined now as a screen- wall every 10 meters, a cctv every 50, a laptop every 20 and sensor every 10, a software every 5 square meters. How can we implement these digital systems and making them connected to the populations of cities? Can we define a suitable structure that goes to this age of changes?
Taking Archizoomâ€™s logic we can say that contemporary city can be defined as
a screen wall every 10 meters, a cctv every 50, a laptop every 20, a sensor every 10, a software every 5 and a mobile phone every square metre.
Imagine to see a message posted by a friend projected in a certain place of a city, or cross indications for our city-excursion, or a building in ruin with the digital shape of it in other agesâ€Ś The implications for architectural aesthetics are also interesting: for several years now architecture has attempted to mimic in formal terms the rapid flow of digital information (think about fluid buildings). Antoine Picon, professor of history of architecture at Harvard has predicted that with the city incorporating digital technology into its very body, architecture itself will conversely become more restrained. We do not need buildings that represent and imitate our fast-way of living.
How could the city react to the “Anyplace, Aniwhere, Anytime” reality?
The assignment has to include this steps: -study the problem of the lack of clear information around cities -research all genre of information we need in cities -imagine a series of projects that can be helpful to resolve this problems -design a system that automatically gives us only the information we need.
For the proposal, I would like to use - sharing files surfaces for example coffee table computer by Microsoft - augmented reality to mix digital and real world - wireless charging like Powermat, to recharge all your digital devices - flexible display to combine displays to your clothes, for example - sensors for whether, noise, pollution, traffic to help city users - software - avatars 10
Charlie Chaplin, Modern Times, 1936
Contrary to the Industrial revolution, characterized by a strong and objectual modernity, the Network revolution has weak and non-figurative boundaries. 11
3 main reasons of the in
2. Time FAST MEANS OF TRANSPORT = GETTING MORE INFORMATION
HUGE STOR = COLLECTIO INFORM
ncreasing of information:
DATA RAGE = ONG MORE MATION
3. Place NET REVOLUTION = DEALING WITH MORE INFORMATION
new technolog created a perva network that c whole globe
Chat messa 14
gies have asive sensing covers the
reaches 1 billion ages sent per day Facebook counter, August 2009 15
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Geneve, 2009
more than 4 billion mobile-phones were in use worldwide by early 2009.
There is more hybridization between devices now.
Phones now are used as GPs, video screens, cameras, internet, mp3 players...and ...for calling. 17
Timeline of significant devices
actions: interacting data
wi-fi gps audio recorder
playing video camera gaming calling video recorder
listen music collect data attitudes: portable screen personal
betamovie cd player
cellphone Ninte NES
remote controllers devices
1903, first robot con tromagnetic waves
1898 first radio-controlle
1868 first keyboard 1888 radio invention
1870 first sold typewriter
1895 G. Marcon wireless telegra
1871 A. Meucci invents
1821 C. Wheatstone the telephone developed 1st microphone 1865 pneumatic post
1981 The first marketed integrated mouse 1980 Steve Wozniak started CL 9.The aim was to create a remote control which could operate multiple devices 2009 MIT Sixth Sence 1971 the first "touch sensor"
1970 first 'teletext' 1967 video game joysticks
ntrolled by elec-
1973 mobile phone 2008 first e-book 1971 e-mail system 1978 Walkman
1952 first trackball
2000 first researches on gestures interfaces Gesture recognition (HMI)
1950 first remote controller
1965 first laptop
1962 first LED 1997 wireless 1960 GPS 1991 first browser WWW 2005Nintendo Wii 1955 Optic fibers 1948 BITS 1958 CHIPs 1993 first SMS
1925 first TV segnal
ni invents the aph
2004 digg 2006 Twitter 1980' first internet chatrooms
2005 you tube
1985 THE WELL 1999 NAPSTER 2001 Wikipedia 2003 MySpace, Facebook, Second Life
mental communication 1981 The first marketed gesture-based integrated mouse computing Steve Wozniak started CL e aim was to create a remote 3d telerol which could operate iple devices conferences 2009 MIT Sixth Sence wireless re-charge t "touch
We are of techo
2000 first holographic storage researches on gestures interfaces, Microsoft Gesture recognition (HMI) Natal
ile phone 2010 system 2008 first e-book 8 Walkman
2007 iPhone 1997 wireless
2013wireless Playstation4 re-charge
1991 first browser WWW 2005Nintendo Wii
1993 first SMS 2004 digg 2006 Twitter ernet chatrooms
2005 you tube
E WELL 1999 NAPSTER 2001 Wikipedia 2003 MySpace, Facebook, Second Life
We are going towards a combination between technology and biology
Devices will be integrated in ourselves.
Kurzveilâ€™s Six Epochs The Six Epochs of Evolution Evolution works through indirection: it creates a capability and then uses that capability to evolve the next stage.
Epoch 6 The Universe wakes up patterns of matter and energy in the universe become saturated with intelligent processes and knowledge
vasted expaned human intelligence
Epoch 5 Merger of technology and human intelligence
technology masters biology
we are appoximately here
Epoch 4 Technology technology evolves
information in harware and software design
Epoch 3 Brains information in neutral patterns
Epoch 2 Biology information in DNA
Epoch 1 Physics and Chemistry information in atomic structures
...as argued by Ray Kurzweil, we will master the method of biology (including human intelligence). It will be integrated on human technology based.
LECTURE Report on Arie Graaflaand’s lecture ‘Artificialtity and Virtuality’ Short description of the lecture, main topic discussed and references The lecture started with the idea that we have to deal ( as humans and better as architects) with all the new inventions in the field of technology. The latest developments in digital techniques have provoked a shift in our urban thinking, from Benjamin’s embodied thoughts to a disembodied language, in which ‘aesthetics effect’ is not important anymore as it was for the philosophers of the Frankfurt School. There are few organizations in the world that can look as far in the future as Defence Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) in the U.S. In Pentagon DARPA’s organization the researchers started to develop in the sixties, for example, a program called Arpanet, a global network forefather of internet. Today most of all their resources goes in projects in which the goal is to create better humans, leading to the hope to increment the power of the soldiers in battle. A new exiting experiment has been done there by a team of researchers leaded by a zoologist, Alan Rudolph. They are working in the way to increase interconnections between living systems and non-living world. Going deeper, they’ve implanted an electrode in a monkey that stimulates more interconnections to the outside world. The researchers can control and send inputs to the brain’s monkey by a computer linked to the sensor, so finally they got brilliant results: Alan and his team can get an action from the animal just from a remote control. They can control its mind by thought. All of these researches as Arie Graafland showed us are really far ahead from architecture, that don’t play any role in these information technology, and seems to be low-tech compared with DARPA. Finally we get some new devices and we have to deal with them as architects, too. For example, PC provide us to design new forms, infinite shapes obtained by powerful softwares. The crucial point is that pc is not only a tool, as Graafland said; it’s not a neutral tool but it opens us an enormous world for design. If in the past ages, for example, architect’s aim was to design an object, their final result was to project it. Now we cannot say any more that a certain project, a certain shape is the ultimate one. 25
Using 3D modeling softwares we don’t know where we can stop in the digital design, because we can create infinite different forms that deal with the same concept. This way of thinking has an important predecessor: Buckminster Fuller. He was the only architect of his age that didn’t stuck himself in the problems of the object, of the finished work. He had a different perspective in architecture that had to deal more with the society, the nature, the environment. Speaking about our ages, we can say that architecture don’t need shape anymore. We are in a world of disembodied data, in which the specificity of the site is now an indifferent theme. We don’t have to follow the rule “form deals with function” anymore, we have only to think about how to make new interactions between buildings and people. How is the lecture related to our ‘automatic city’? Based on the lecture, what is artificiality and virtuality in ‘automatic city’? An important point of the lecture was the fact that the arise of the virtual technology have given us some important directions about our meaning of architecture and the way to judge it. We have to face up to the fact that the limits between living world and non-living systems are becoming weak while we cannot define a finite shape for our buildings. As Arie Graafland showed the D- Tower by NOX as an example, we can understand from this building/statue that virtuality can give the shape to something, but it has no shape itself. We don’t know really what it is, and which program does it contain, but we can understand how it react to us. It is a creation that change it’s colour after receiving information about citizens’ humor. Automatic City has to react itself to humans’ behaviors, it needs to be adaptive in real-time in its physical aspect. Another topic of the discussion, related to the “digitalization” of our world is that ‘the virtual’, is an instable system. Computer screens, for example are in continuous changing, so their architectonical products cannot be fixed in certain shapes, we have just to adapt them to the new possibilities the new softwares create. Architecture is in a constant flow, and it’s undetermined in its final form. How is the lecture related to your project proposal The most interesting theme for my project from the lecture is how to establish new forms of communication between users and the city. Information deal with all the different aspects of a community, and have to face the problem of an open-source system, to create a democratic usage of this tool. How can we facing up the virtual world to the real world? How spaces and objects can have the ability to gather information on user activities and anticipate what users might do in the future? These are the goals I would like to achieve with my project proposal. 26
INTERVIEW Daan Roosegaarde Daan Roosegaarde is an artist working in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts AKI in Enschede and received a Master at the Berlage Institute, a Postgraduate Laboratory of Architecture in Rotterdam. Currently Daan is the Creative Director of Studio Roosegaarde, an artistic laboratory for interactive projects which won the Dutch Design Award 2009. Roosegaarde’s work explores the dynamic relation between architecture, people and e-culture. In this interaction his sculptures create a situation of ‘tactile high-tech’ where visitor and (public) space become one. Roosegaarde’s interactive projects are internationally exhibited at V2_, Netherlands Media Art Institute Montevideo, Tate Modern London, YCAM Japan, National Art Center Tokyo, Venice Biennale 2009 and Victoria & Albert Museum London. taken from http://www.studioroosegaarde.net/ I’ve choosen to interview an artist for my design project because I thought could be interesting to see another approach in using technologies. There is not just one scientific approach to them, it’s more interesting to explore different ways to feel and apply new inventions.
D.R.: We are interested in how this ‘brave new world’ is coming toward us, and I think that it’s crucial that not only Samsung, Philips and Apple are thinking about it…Isn’t it strange that the 85 % of the world population think that Internet Explorer it’s the only browser in the world? We missed a sort of variety of what technology can bring us, and also the good things, the poetry is also very ‘gadget-oriented’, there’s a lot of sentiment. But again, there’s perfectly fine, the escalator too, was for the first time shown as a ‘gadget’ in an exposition in Coney Island in New York in 27
1892 , and only some years later, a businessman started to think it as a good element to speed up the movement of people through public building floors. This invention, seen as a funny gadget firstly, became very relevant for economy and it dramatically change the way we experience space, and that’s why Rem Koolhaas put its image in a front page of his Harvard Shopping Guide. What’s your work about? What’s the research goes inside your installations? There’s a relation between the way people are, their behaviors, the way they behave in space, public and private space and how media or technology linking them up, adding or infiltrating into that. So there’s a dynamic relation between people, space and technology and how does this dialogue influences the way these elements evolve. So, when I look at architecture I ask myself how can we move away from this ‘solid grid’ of walls, doors and windows but makes something more , like an extension of social skin, more a part we are, instead of a symbol, or an icon, a bottom – up system. For example, why do I have to walk in Times Square looking at a gigantic Sony billboard screen telling me what I should buy, and why can’t we decide it together? What’s the meaning technology has in your work? Is it a tool or a goal for you? It’s a tool. We spent as much time on technology as on new materials. I try to figure out what’s the meaning of them. And I really believe that the relation between nature and technology it’s very interesting, that’s why I like to see it more as an organism than an Iphone, for example. A lot of projects of interactive architecture artist are based on ‘hyper’, on the novelty of technologies, and maybe that’s why they are not so interesting. I mean, you can see better technological implementation if you go to a Samsung or a Philips expo: they can do far better things, in this sense. So it’s more how do you apply technology, it’s a tool, it depends on what you would like to communicate with it. We are trying to develop a new grammar. I like to explore the interaction between nature and technology. Interactive Architecture 10 years to now will be completely ‘banal’ … so I am much more interested in this new nature, in this ‘supernatural’ experience. What’s your interests, what’s your references that helps you at work, now? We do a lot of interactive projects, in which you have to create emotion in people, but now we have more architectural commissions, in which the interaction is very specific. For example we just got a commission to make a permanent artwork for an artistic center in the Netherlands, where the architecture is the most generic you can imagine (it might be an insurance company). So how can we make an installation in there? I like the moment when these kind of technologic installations come into specific places. If we put Dune in this artistic center they would go crazy, 28
because they need something a more calm and structured work… So the evolution of the art we do is becoming more and more specific , which I like a lot… that’s fascinates me. I like this struggle with these people..that’s really architectural, I’m aware of that. I think most of my work could be seen as a sort of architectural experiment… Maybe in the next 10 years we will work more for architectural facades… I’m interested in your work because I think that it’s important to try to give new means to the new technologies. I mean, a lot of technologies are ‘already there’, but sometimes there are used only for particular thing. They could go so far beyond reality. Technologies give a new layer to reality, they started to infiltrate analogic world and give different meanings to it, in a way we can say that they make analogic world ‘alive’. What happens if all these new tools we have (like facebook, twitter) start to move away from pc screens and connecting the reality? And I think that’s the way we are going now. But so, how will it influence the way we look at architecture, now? That’s the question I asked myself when I start a new work. And somehow we’re not asking this question well enough…I missed that … I’m interested in giving ‘physical form’ to digital information. Does technologies themselves has an aesthetic? I’m working for my design studio on a system that can show digital information into physical spaces. A lot of technologies are already there, so my question, as an architect, is -How can info performs in a city level for their aesthetic point of view? It’s a good question,that’s true, we need to move away either from have a sentiment towards it and from ‘gadgetize’ it and really try to see the opportunities of it, to discover its qualities in terms of mediator, in terms of socialize, how can it connect people, and how can it become a part of ourselves. So, from your point of view, are you trying to use technology as a tool to help us to communicate? Ok, I mean, for sure we don’t need technology just for that , hopefully we do ourselves, but , yes, I’m trying to do it, at this moment. For example, just the status of facebook gives me a ‘soft presence’ of all my friends, I’m not talking to them directly, but they’re ‘there’, so technology is always giving subconscious feeling of their presence. It’s strange, I’ve never had this feeling before, so ‘they are there but not there’, it’s a ‘soft presence’, it doesn’t require any activity for me, that’s interesting… What I always fascinating by was how to drag it out the pc screen and how to make it as physical an public as possible, to move away from media art galleries sociologists. I think it’s something that is needed to be applied to a wider group of people. 29
What I’ve understood from your work is that you think to the user as a device, isn’t it? Yes, your body is the interface, your body is always an extension of what you are, like the smell, the touch or the hear. What technology does is to extend that, for example my voice is extended via e-mail or via mobile phone and the way we interpreted, the way we developed that it’s a cultural thing. The strange part is what happens if after wile these devices become so extended that the extended thing of ourselves become entities by themselves, so they start to live their own life. Sometimes their goes beyond the media, beyond what we’ve initiated… There’s kind of magic in there, absolutely, which I really appreciated. That’s why I’ve said that from this point it’s starts to get the supernatural. There’s a promise there, there’s a provocation, and we evenly began to think about the possibilities of that. Have you just start to explore this ‘new world’, as you told before? Yes, we just started to explore these fields, and in a way our work it’s very banal. I still feel like a man in a cave making a drawing…It’s pretty nice but I wish I have a 3d printer… For a point of view this book you have shown me (Interactive Architecture by Fox and Lynn)are first steps in that, but very brave steps in that, and it’s crucial that have been made. I also think that there is this ethic role for art and architecture to do this kind of research there, because it’s not been done by commercial companies. What do you think are the limits of these new technologies? Well, the limitations are in our imagination, I mean, if I can think on something I can also do it. It’s just a question if I’m allowed myself to do it, or not. Finally, what’s your dream about your future scenario, your future city? I would like to live in a situation in which somehow it will aware of me, I don’t know how to describe that, but that’s somehow I entered in a completely new environment and at the same time of course it doesn’t know me but in somehow I can feel to be a part of it and get embedded into it. If I’ll going to the cinema it’s an interesting combination of experiences, because I feel like watching my film alone but at the same time in a wide group, so it influenced the way you experience the movie, as well. I would like to be in a world like that, but more than that. So it should be aware of me and at the same time it should try to connect me, in a social way, trying to create new relations. Showing me who I am in different contexts, that’s why I like travelling so much, because, when I’m in Tokyo I’m different than when I’m in the Netherlands. I think, I’ll see technologies not so much in terms of inventions, but it’s more about what cultural aspects does them generate. For example, when we showed Dune in 30
Slovenia people were a bit intimidate by it, because they had like a gene they were spies, so they didn’t like this idea that there’s something was following them somehow or like something were aware of them. But on the other hand, when we showed Dune in Los Angeles, it was like an extension of who they are, a sort of ego-mania... So this is a key question, how can we use technology as part of public space in architecture to link people and to mediate, but also to make people aware of their relation between their body and the surrounding space. In this sense, I’ve read one of yours interview, in which you explained that a old woman standing in front of your 4d pixel installation started to bark in order –she says- to understand a future reaction of her dog. Yes, finally, I think that the best answer is that technology will help us to personalize space, and in a way architects have always been programming the space in maps, but the map is becoming ‘fluid’, that’s a software. So it becoming more flexible, and it dramatically will change the way we can personalize space, and this is very interesting. How far can we push it, and moving beyond changing stuff. I think that the best project I’ve seen so far actually gives me this new type of experience, on one hand it’s seems to me very alien but on the other there’s this new sense of familiarity. The escalator is a good example here in the metro in Rotterdam. It’s something made without my knowing but I can still relate to it and be a part of it. I’ve seen all these new technologies with whom I can isolate form the whole world, but it’s seems to me that you are exploring the opposite direction of it, the interaction that could be made between people and objects. With Facebook for example, I can stand in my room alone communicating with my friends… Yes, for my point of view it would be nice to explore how Facebook could be seen in a public space. Well, how does a Facebook square looks like? We should need to think about… That’s the question is crunching my brain during my travels… For my design studio, in The Why Factory I’m thinking about a sort of system with whom I can see my customized information added on people and buildings, in the real world, and I would like to explore, from an aesthetic point of view what’s can be the result of a city like that, with this sort of new layer of information added on. Yes, I think it’s a good question to think about. A key question related to this one is which are the key steps we need to take now to get there and who will be in control somehow? Is it like a company like Apple which invent a sort of device we have to receive waiting in line out of a store distribution, or it’s something we can build up together as a society, in which e and determine the rules and the game together. I think that’s a more important question that how it’s going to looks like. The most important question is really who controls it, who can communicate with who and how can I really decide what I would like to see… In a way can be very egoistic like deleting someone from your Facebook list, that’s a sort of 31
murder… It can be a sort of though like that, or maybe a more general one, like, what if I can communicate with a building, do I want that, and firstly, what we will talking about? It’s partly freaky artistic research which raises this question, I agree, but at the same time it’s also very contemporary, because you see, it’s happening all around of you, and people asking themselves this question, it’s in the air… And also like long time ago your identity was based on which side of the Berlin wall do you lived, and identities were made on borders, distances but now we live in the World Wide Web, were everything it’s connected, it’s much more about how fast is your modem, it’s about relations. So this is interesting also for an artist or an architect, how can we make with architecture more relations, then how we made it by solid brick icon, which are really bottom-up stuff… It’s something that will be shared, there will be dictators in the shared society, of course, but I can exit that, or I can be a part of that, if I want to, and I think that so I will be able to specialize more,we can learn more from that. There’s some kind of naïf idealism in that, but in the end if we don’t do that, who will, but if we put it into practice it really change the way people experience things.
DUNE With its upgraded embedded technologies, this enlarged interactive artwork reacts to the sounds and motions of the people daily passing by.
Sustainable Dance Floor is an interactive floor which generates electricity through the movements of the dancing people.
Flow 5.0 is an interactive landscape made out of hundreds of ventilators which reacts on your sound and motion. By walking and interacting the visitor creates an illusive landscape of transparencies and artificial wind.
DESIGN STUDIO Rules of Configuration Sectors
In Automatic City, the VIRTUAL reality of information is be
CITY AUTOMATION NEEDS TO BE KNO
ecoming more a tangible experience in the REAL world.
OWN by the people who have to use it.
Automation in information means the possibility to visualize them only when itâ€™s required to.
Priority is linked to the activity you are involved with.
real-time changing visual pollution
Ephemeralization 1 information fluidity
“barrier free” society
references Ephemeralization: It’s a term coined by B. Fuller describing the ability to continuously do MORE WITH LESS in terms of technological advancement. Fluidity: Look to Zygmund Bauman 37
AIMS OF THE PROJECT 1st
d th eve at lo ex p a te n nd im s o me ur rs pe ive rc sy ep st tio n o
to demonstrate a new collaborative and immersive environment that: - made automation possible through information
research user-centric solutions
-create your own “image” of the city -more collaboration trhrough customizable information
Goal to demonstrate a new collaborative and immersive environment that: - made automation possible through information -create your own “image” of the city
of d le n i p k nt peo re
-more collaboration trhrough customizable information
devel syste exten of rea
em o f mo re de ali l ty
2nd Goal to demonstrate a new collaborative and immersive environment that: - made automation possible through information -create your own â€œimageâ€? of the city
identify benefits to different kind of people
-more collaboration trhrough customizable information
lop an immersive em model that nds our perception ality
.direction of streets and places
.localization of your friends .smarter living .virtual shopping place .office
display pollut cetration
energy usage transparency in production
communicate virtually with your teacher
automatic check up
od r e r p ca stry r rgy ng i t l s e a u t e u He Ind Wa En Ho 40
.customized advertisement .street gaming .timetable reminder of events .city landscape .smarter tourism .memory of places
.automatic irrigation .automatic growth
set of information needed
eat/drink shop leisure be creative
industry get fit agriculture energy prod.
information required intelligent cooking units
user toddler (0-4 years)
customizing facade reminder food you have virtual shopping place
kid (4-12 years)
virtual communication virtual office/meeting customized advertisement street virtual gaming
teenage (13-19 years)
reminder“virtual agenda” customized tourism ‘memory of place’ commuicate with teacher
communicate with schoolmates automatic medical check up suggestions about your health info about nearest bin
suggestion about lifecycle objects transparency in production info about production
brain sensors the electrodes sense neural impulses and executed them to the lens
Automatic City embedded device device structure
touch sensors directly linked to the enbedded interface
camera projector hardware compass gps
Gesture interface The hands directly play with bits.
In the Automatic City we donâ€™t need any device to get and interact to our information; our simple gestures are enough. 47
selecting and downloading information from objects, people, buildings in the city.
sharing information from objects, people, buildings in the city.
customizing your own information
taking Maya’s interface as an example, i’ve figured out as every object, building, person can show its proper “cloud of information”.
new wi-fi routers have a range-power of approximately 50 meters
the Blanketed layer 51
work in progress
first proposal of the Blanketed City
explanation of the system at a city scale
Creation of a blanket in which citizens can process urban information captured in real time and make it publicly accessible.
System conﬁguration “shopper visulaization”
Sectors required 010110 010110
010110 010110 010110
Leisure 010110 010110
connections 010110 010110
010110 010110 010110
101 01 010110
010110 010110 010110 010110
01 010 01 10 10 10110 0 01 0 10110 1 1 010 01 10 10 0110 01 011 110 11 1 0
010 0101 010 10 0110 0 01 1011 0110 01 1
0101 01 101 10 1 0 011 01 110 10 10
010110 010110 010110
010110 010110 010110
010110 010110 010110
010110 010110 010110
System conﬁguration #2
Sectors required 010110 010110 010110 010110 010110 01 0 1 0 010110 010110
Housing Leisure Healthcare
010 01 010 01 0110 10
010 011 01 0 110 11 10 0
0101 011 10 0 010110 01 0 10110 10 1011 0
010110 0 010 10 0110 10 0
navigator 0101 01 010110 10 01 0 0101 010110 0 10110 0110 11 110 1 10 10 01 010110 10110 1011 0110 110 11 10
010 0101 01 110 1 01 10110 1011 101 01 110 10
01 0 1 101 10 01 0110 0 11 1 110 1 10 0 01 0 010 0101 101 0 1 10 0 01011 0101 1 1 110 0 0101 101 110 1 10
010 01 11 110 10 01 0 0101 010 101 0110 01 10 0101 101 1011 01 11 110 10 0
01011 010 0 1011 10 101 011 0 10 1 0 010 0101 010110 0 0110 0 110 10 0
010 01 0 1 10 011 0 110 11 10 1 0
010110 010 01 1 10 1011 0110 01 10 010 01 0 10 01 1 110 11 10 0 01011 0 0101 010110 10110 10110 0 01011 0 1011 10110 1011 10 0
0101 010 0101 10 011 01 10 0
01 010 101 01 110 10 10
01 0 1 101 10110 01 0 10 10
010 0 01 101 10 0110 10
01 010 10 1 0 01 1 11 10 1 0 01 0 1 101 0110 10 010 010110 0 01 10110 10110 0 0101 10 01 0 0110 110 110 010110 01 0110 01
01 0 1 10 0
01 010 0 10 10
010110 0101 01 010 0 101 1 110 10110 110 0 0101 01011 0 1 1 101 110 11 10
010110 010110 010110
010110 0 010110 10 0
10 0 010110 010110
010110 0 0101 0
010110 010110 110 0 010110 0
010110 110 010110 01 1
010110 0 10 10 010110 01 10 01 1 010110 010110
010110 10 010110 10 010110 0 010110 01 110 010110 010110 010110
0101 10110 0110 110 01 0 1 110 10 0 010110 0 0101 01 110
01 11 1 1 10 0
01 0 10 0110 10 010110 01 10110 01 011 01 11 10 0