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COMPREHENSIVE STUDIO

82

ARCH_609

MUSEUM OF PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTS


WILLIAM EGGLESTON

MOPA

              MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE

ARCH_609 SPRING 2013 Instructor: Denton Nichols

NICOLE MATER


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The work that follows was developed over a sixteen week period, following a brief period of time developing basic program information in a proceeding course, ARCH_658. During this time, the studio created and evolved individual projects, beginning with initial program design and culminating with construction document development and graphic presentation design. The book has been outlined to follow this path of progress, pausing at each project review to explain subsequent design decisions resulting from advice received from the jurors. This publication consists of the complete assemblage of drawings and models leading up to the culminating design of this Comprehensive Studio project. This document is not intended as a portfolio, which would inherently narrow the scope of the work in favor of a more streamlined end product. Rather, I have chosen to illuminate the entirety of the design process, in the hope that I might convey each of the individual decisions that led to my final design. I believe that the explanation of this process is valuable, as it will enable myself and others to see more clearly how I work.

-NICOLE MATER

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page numbers:

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STUDIO MISSION

EGGLESTON

45% SD

90% DD

PHOTOGRAPHY

90% SD

SYSTEMS

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY INITIAL REACTION

MEMPHIS DESIGN INTENT PROGRAM ANALYSIS

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PRESENTATION

DETAILING

GRAPHIC PRESENTATION

JURORS’ COMMENTS

ENVELOPE

1/16” = 1’ MODEL

PRESENTATION SUMMARY

45% CD

1/4” = 1’ SECTION MODEL

90% CD

JUROR’S COMMENTS

REFLECTION REFLECTION ARCH_609 SUMMARY 15


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A culmination of all previous design study with emphasis given to the individual student's demonstration of synthesis of all previously learned design skills. These include program analysis, site design, structure, formal composition, materials and methods of construction, technical development of building fabric, environmental systems, code and zoning compliance, and principles of sustainability. Students should also demonstrate an appropriate awareness of history, theory, and culture. The level of project development should be demonstrated by technically precise drawings and will research written documentation in addition to other means of representation.

 

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University of Kansas School of Architecture, Design and Planning

'$# !"#&#$%  %$ It is through multiple, simultaneous activities that project ideas will be initiated and sustained. The depth of your work will be determined by the intensity of your investment. We will challenge preconceptions and distant notions by immersion into real places here in Lawrence as well as through precedent study across the nation and world at large. It is through the integrated act of making, assembling and editing information that the basis for projects will become evident. It’s essential that these exercises are not rushed but that they allow for useful discussion and that many ideas and formal responses are expressed. The more invested from the start, the better off as you develop the building design. The basis of the project will be born out of the work upfront so that by the time you are developing schematic design solutions, the project will have a variety of considerations to form the building. Ultimately, the last half of the semester will be dedicated to building envelope and detail development. COMPREHENSIVE STUDIO GOALS $SFBUJOHCVJMEJOHEFTJHOTXJUIXFMMJOUFHSBUFETZTUFNTt $PNQSFIFOEJOHDPOTUSVDUBCJMJUZt *ODPSQPSBUJOHMJGFTBGFUZTZTUFNTt *OUFHSBUJOHBDDFTTJCJMJUZt "QQMZJOHQSJODJQMFTPGTVTUBJOBCMFEFTJHOt

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!" $" The purpose of this particular project is to take a measured look at the art of photography and its rightful place in the world of ‘high art’. We will embark upon a journey in to the life of William Eggleston, his work and its impact on not only the art world but society as a whole. We will also be investigating the inner-workings of a very mysterious and enigmatic place called ‘Memphis’. The journey hopes to reveal all potential layers of information that either supports or rejects one’s common held beliefs about the Museum and its place within our society; we will come to understand what it is to present an idea to that of a larger audience. The museum is a 30,000 square foot structure that will present the ideas of Photographic Art and William Eggleston’s ‘Democratic Forest’ collection in a manner that is befitting of the quality of both topics. We will also look beyond these two items and think deeply about how one stores this precious material (Archives), how a group mages this work (Offices) and how one promotes said material (community spaces, galleries and Eggleston Trust (Offices) in a manner that is cohesive and allows a sense of permanence to this collection and process. The site is within the South Main Arts District which is a diverse cultural hub for the city. There is a plethora of similar organizations in the area to draw inspiration from as well as to connect with and to align energies. The two sites locations are mere feet apart but offer totally different realities and immediate contextual opportunities; thus giving one ample (and limitless) opportunity to express their desired purpose for the story of this museum. The intent of this project is for the student to be able to clearly represent the purpose of why we are proposing to build this structure as opposed to simply showing me how to build it. It is not enough that one simply learns how to construct a building and never promote the purpose of taking on such a monumental task, one must begin to understand the role of an Architect in society and what all we have to offer through our discipline. My desired end goal of this studio is that you begin to imagine your place within the world of Architectural Practice and that you begin your careers now instead of waiting for them to happen. One must begin to understand what is a great privilege and honor it is to be called an Architect, while also understanding its tremendous responsibilities.

-DENTON NICHOLS Instructor

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This project focuses on the creation of a 30,000 square foot museum that is framed with and supported by the context of the city of Memphis, Tennessee. It will feature permanent collections by local photographer William Eggelston, in particular, the works of The Democratic Forest. This collection currently does not have a permanent home, and these famed works of art that inspired a generation of photographers deserves to be presented in an honorable way. The environment must reflect the ideals of his work in order for them to display with ultimate potency.

 

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The project desires to break out of the traditional response of the prototypical museum, branching out into the realms of community center and learning environment. The spaces will be used to stitch together a community that has become physically segregated and will become a catalyst for change within the city of Memphis. The museum must not only address the issues of the immediate context, but become a magnet to patrons on a national and international scale. Eggelston’s work is more revered in Europe than in the United States, and the museum must invite them into the experience of the artist’s home town. In this way, it is especially important for the museum to represent a refined version of the architectural regionalism of Memphis.

#! # !) Architectural design cannot be based simply upon an artist’s aesthetic vision. It must be a synthesis of contextual information and a solution to a problem. Buildings are meant to be used, and while beauty is worth striving for, the building needs to operate functionally as well as socially. Architects have the ability to inspire real change within a community. A design that meets the needs of the people using it may become a catalyst for improvements on a larger scale. Small, critical changes can heal the system as a whole. Communities can be improved in a multivariate of categories by these interjections of creative, problem-solving design.

$"$  After learning the prompt, I became intrigued by the possibility of designing a building which embodies the mechanics of photography. I also began to question the effectiveness of an archetypal museum within the context of Memphis. I wondered if there existed the possibility to expand the program of the museum to accomodate more regular usage of the facility for a social cause.

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 #$"%$$!" $ $)!%#% By initializing the opportunity to challenge the program of the prototypical museum, I could begin to redefine the purpose of a museum. This new type of building could function in many ways, not only as a presentation peice for a significant collection of works, but also act as a meaningful addition to the culture of Memphis. During preliminary research, it became apparent that the art of film photography is a dwindling one. In fact, the dye transfer process that Eggleston utilized to produce his intensely colored images, is no longer available. The chemicals used in the process are no longer manufactured. It is possible that in the coming generations, the materials used to produce film photography may dissapear altogether. In an age where it is possible to take high definition photographs with omnipresent pocket-sized devices, why should anyone bother with a cumbersome, outdated technology? Could the mission of this museum be to retain the spirit of film photography as an art, while embracing the potential of the new digital era? In researching the city of Memphis, and by its infamy, I realized that the introduction of a museum of this type would have great cultural significance. There are few places in Memphis dedicated to high art, let alone the longevity of any specific artistic tecnique. The fact that Eggleston is from this area, and that his art radiates charectaristics of the Mid-South region, only adds to the importance of its introduction to the city. Therefore, I determined that a building that simply functioned as a museum was not sufficient for the people of Memphis. The building should allow for many more uses by the local community. Maintaining an educational spirit, this building will become a home for community use, while ultimately, beautifully showcasing photographic art.

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To develop a meaningful program, contextually appropriate for the city of Memphis To create a building that is formally interesting, yet refined and beautiful. The form should be responsive to both the program and the local context

 

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To fully understand the structural system of the building To integrate LEED strategies, as well as other sustainable strategies to create a building that is environmentally responsible To understand the integration of building systems To develop detailed construction documents and to understand their meaning To create my best academic work yet

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'#$  BIOGRAPHY FROM “WILLIAM EGGLESTON TALKS...� In the spring of 1994 William Eggleston visited Los Angeles to shoot a portfolio of Hollywood. Journalist Kristine McKenna escorted him around town, and they had several in-depth conversations, some in his room at the Chateau Marmont. These are excerpts from those tape-machine recordings, which are compiled in the new book William Eggleston For Now.

“When I was 15 I was sent to a private school that I hated, then I tried a few other schools before ending up at the University of Mississippi in Oxford. I was there for five years studying painting, and the painter I liked the most during that period was Franz Kline. I also liked De Kooning and Pollock. Abstract expressionism was the dominant thing when I was coming of age as an artist, and I went to New York and looked at a lot of that stuff. I was painting abstractions myself at the time, and although most people don’t know this, I’ve never stopped painting. I never got a degree because I couldn’t see any sense in taking tests. I didn’t mind going to classes, but taking a test? For whom? And what would I do with a damn degree anyway? Because I refused to take tests I had to talk the dean into letting me back into school every year, and that was hard because they didn’t think I was particularly talented. At the time I was doing the groundwork for photography, and photography was barely even taught then, much less considered an art form.�

 

“I guess you could say my childhood was idyllic. My parents had a great respect for art, and two of the first things given to me as a child by my mother were books on Rouault and De Chirico. My parents always encouraged my interest in art, even though they thought a career as an artist was crazy. When I was growing up it was thought I’d be a concert pianist because I could play anything by ear, but a musician has to give his entire life to his work, and I have enough on my hands trying to get people to understand my photographs.�

“When I was ten years old I was given a Brownie camera and I took some pictures of my dog, but they weren’t very good. That left me completely disenchanted with the idea of taking pictures, and I continued to hate it until the late 50s, when a friend in boarding school made me buy a camera. I began to get it. Then I saw a copy of Cartier-Bresson’s book The Decisive Moment, and I really got excited about taking pictures.� “I don’t see many movies, but there were a few films where the color was used brilliantly, and they made a big impression on me—Alfred Hitchcock’s North By Northwest and [Arthur Penn’s] Bonnie and Clyde are the two I’m thinking of in particular. Something clicked in me when I saw those films—maybe it was just one minute out of the whole movie. During the same period that I was thinking about those films, I had a friend who had a job working nights at a photography lab where they processed snapshots, and I’d go visit him because we were both night owls. I started looking at these pictures coming out—they’d come out in a long ribbon—and although most of them were accidents, some were absolutely beautiful, so I started spending all night looking at these ribbons of pictures. I was particularly struck by a picture of a guy who worked for a grocery store, pushing a shopping cart out in the late-afternoon sun. I figured if amateurs working with cheap cameras could do this, I could use good cameras and really come up with something. I had a natural talent for organizing colors—not putting all the reds in one corner, for instance. Essentially what I was doing was applying intelligent painting theory to color photography.� “People just hit the roof when my pictures where shown at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1976. That surprised me, too, because the work was in such a hallowed institution. Everybody screamed, “This isn’t art! Why is this in a museum?� I’d intentionally constructed the pictures to make them look like ordinary snapshots anyone could’ve taken, and a lot of that had to do with the subject matter—a shopping center parking lot, for instance. Because the pictures looked so simple a lot of people didn’t notice that the color and form were worked out, that the content came and went where it ought to—that they were more than casual pictures. People say I “shoot from the hip,� but that’s not really how I work. When I look at something it registers on my mind so clearly that I can be loose when I shoot the picture. I always take just one picture of something, and I’ve never staged a photograph in my life, and never needed to because there are pictures everywhere. If I’m ever in a place I think is impossible to photograph, I remember something Garry Winogrand told me. He said, ‘Bill, you can take a good picture of anything,’ and that’s always stuck with me.� “My work has been described as documenting a vanishing South, but that was never something I was conscious of. When I was taking the pictures those critics are probably referring to, as far as I knew those things were there for good. I didn’t know that five years later this incredible Coke sign would be replaced by a 7-Eleven. That possibility never dawned on me, because up until the 60s the South looked pretty much as it had during the Depression. But from the 60s on it became a different ball game, and it’s unrecognizable today from what it was. Have you been to the South lately? It’s not ‘interesting’ bad like LA—it just looks like a bunch of idiots put the place together.� “I’ve never understood why people describe my work as romantic, because I don’t romanticize the world. If you could turn back time and look at a place as it was when I photographed it, I think the picture and the place would look pretty much the same. I’ve never felt the need to enhance the world in my pictures, because the world is spectacular enough as it is.�

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TIME LINE: HIGHLIGHTS

1959 Sees Henri-Cartier Bresson’s “The Decisive Moment” and Walker Evan’s “American Photographs”

1954 July 27

1939

Sent to boarding school at the age of 15

Born in Memphis, TN Primarily raised by his grandfather in Sumner, MS as he was the first boy born into the family, though his parents were alive and well

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1958

Acquires first Leica camera while attending Vanderbilt University

1965 Begins to experiment with color transparency film, inspired by the work of William Christenberry


 

1974 First portfolio of dye transfer prints, called “14 Pictures” created

1973 Teaches at Harvard University

1976

1989

“14 Pictures” exhibited at the MoMA, Eggleston’s first show. Befriends Andy Warhol and participates in the pop-art party scene

“The Democratic Forest” is released

1984 Photographs Elvis’s home, Graceland

2008 Film “Stranded in Canton” released

1992 Travels the world taking photographs

2005 Returns to the States

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!" ## ONE SHOT “I always take just one picture of something, and I’ve never staged a photograph in my life, and never needed to because there are pictures everywhere.” Eggleston is able to simply capture moments, without being overly concerned with the why behind it. He takes one photograph and moves on. If he doesn’t get it the first time, he doesn’t go back to try to recapture it. The moment is over and he has moved on. His subjects are things most of us would consider to be boring, but he takes the everyday, often mundane objects in our lives and makes them beautiful. He turns them into works of art. If you look at each of his images and take the subjects themselves out and just see the color, shapes, and lines; seeing how it all fits together. That is art. From “Perfectly Banal: William Eggleston”

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DYE TRANSFER

 

Dye transfer is very different from other modern color print processes. No other process gives you so many ways to control the look of the final print. That is what makes dye transfer so hard, and it is also what makes dye transfer print so magnificent. Dye transfer provides the photographic artist with the tools to express extraordinary subtleties and nuances. Color prints can be fine-tuned to convey exactly what the artist intended. In dye transfer printing, rarely is the printer limited by the process; dye transfer allows so much control that it is impossible to completely master all its possibilities. Dye transfer dyes are much closer to ‘ideal’ than other photographic dyes. The colors are purer. For example, the yellow dye in a dye transfer print is very clean, while ordinary color prints have an orangish yellow which muddies greens and masks subtle variations in reds and oranges. A dye transfer print has better and more accurate color than any other color print. A dye print can have a brightness range of 500:1 or more; no other print, black-and-white or color, matches that. The dyes in a dye transfer print are very stable. Some conventional color prints now have a light stability better than dye transfer, but they also deteriorate in the dark. Unless you keep the majority of your work on lighted display at all times, dark fading or staining will prove more damaging than light fading. A dye transfer print has a dark-life expectancy, at room temperature and humidity, of over 300 years-- much better than even Ilfochrome. Dye transfers are printed on a double-weight fibre-base paper stock which is known to be stable and archival. Dye transfer printing resembles the mechanical printing process that magazines use to make color pictures. A color printing press uses four separate printing plates, one each for the three primaries (magenta, yellow, cyan) and one for black. Each plate is engraved with a halftone image for one of the colors, which is coated with a thin layer of oil-based ink. The four plates then transfer their ink to the surface of a sheet of blank white paper to make the color pictures. The final picture is not ‘created’ chemically in the paper; it is assembled on its surface from four separate screened color images. Dye transfer uses three continuous-tone sheet film plates called matrices. The matrices are soaked in water-based cyan, magenta and yellow dyes. The matrices are rinsed clean of excess dye and squeegeed against a sheet of gelatin-coated paper, much like regular photographic paper but without the silver compounds. The gelatin absorbs the dye from the matrix. The result is a continuous-tone dye image on paper.

From “Dye Transfer: The Ultimate Color Print”

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Written by Eudora Welty, annotated by Nicole Mater

The Democratic Forest, a most remarkable and beautiful book, is what is even rarer, and original one. Consisting entirely of the eloquent photographs of the American photographer William Eggleston, it begins as an autobiography might, with a setting for a life. The opening photograph shows us a quiet and cared-for breadth of meadow, field and pastureland, set back at an easeful distance from its road, led to through a line of wide-spaced trees in the leafing spring of the year, protected on the upper side by an arm of the old forest. A sentinel shade tree stands beside the open-doored barn. The caption reads: 'Early spring at Mayfair, my family plantation in Sunflower County.' The place has been photographed in its tender rural colours. No one is in view.

 

THE DEMOCRATIC FOREST

I think with this we have received the first signal that this book of photographs--he has made it wholly his own--is a result of personal choosing, that it will proceed to form itself, as it opens out, into a personal whole. We won't expect the photographs to be fitted into the kind of sequence that would confine such a freedom; the order is, to my mind, the much more significant one of cohesion, of affinity with human values. The body of photographs before us might, with cause, be seen as the culmination of Mr. Eggleston's long and distinguished career. All the photographs have place as their subject. From Mayfair on, places appear to have loomed large for William Eggleston. Now a resident of Memphis, he has been spending his life making exemplary photographs of the world around him and thereby recording its ways. These photographs that begin with his home place, which is in Mississippi, radiate widely over the United States, touch on Europe, go as far as the Berlin Wall. He has called his book The Democratic Forest, a title to embrace all he shows us. The photographs range widely, they are highly differing, richly varying. In landscapes, cityscapes, street scenes, roadside scenes, at every sort of public converging-point, in dreaming long view and arresting close-up, through hours of dark and light, he sets forth what makes up our ordinary world. What is there, however strange, can be accepted without question; familiarity will be what overwhelms us. The extraordinary thing is that in all these photographs, wonderfully inclusive and purposefully chose as they are, you will look in vain for the presence of a human being. This isn't to say that the photographs deny man's existence. That is exactly what they don't do. Everywhere you find the vividness of his presence: Here's a close-up of an outdoor cooker and a bloody hatchet laid down up it, called 'Near the River.' Here's the already stripped and de-wheeled front end of a red sports car, at rest under a tree by the Interstate; its radiator grille bites the dust. It seems a personal artifact, like an upper plate of a set of false teeth that's been lost on someone's way between one place and the next. On a temporary hoarding at a construction site in Memphis, some hand wielding a stick dipped in soft tar has left a drawing of a big bridge spread like the wings of a bird over the chopping waves, and has tried to spell 'Memphis' and succeeded, to the last touch of turning the 'S' into a dollar sign. Here is a just-vacated counter in a fast-foods road stop. It is stacked with uncleared plastic plates, all dripping red, like a police scene-of-the-crime photo complete with its message to you ('Catch me before I kill again') written in tomato ketchup. But the camera tells us nobody is there. The indelible exception is the young child photographed standing alone on a desolate street corner in some city: he stares back at the camera with the gravity of the homeless. He, too, is tenaciously present in other scenes while remaining invisible.

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Time in The Democratic Forest is the galvanic present, but as we were earlier made aware, the past, in its flickerings and shadowings, is also integral to the book. (I take it as the viewer’s standing privilege of turning back to the book’s beginning if the need is felt to re-visit it for freshly discovered reasons.) In the home place--any home place in the world--the long view is the one like memory’s view: it shows us everything at once. Turning again through the photographs of Mayfair, exterior and interior, we may apprehend and respond to the essential matters of human presence and human absence. Here is the Eggleston photograph of the family portraits set out on a library table top--a solid row of ancestors that’s as calming as an unrocked boat. And, in the attic now, his camera lifts close-up to the roof-beam, into which the hand that hewed it also carved--the camera lets us read them-the initials attesting to that mysterious thing, original ownership. But this book’s our portrait. We must see that. We should be prepared to see the portrait as a candid one, taken in a flash of inspired insight, at the psychological moment. It is a forthright and brave book; it is made with the bravery required of an artist. The autobiographical work, like much else that is autobiographical, can be taken as well for a set of visions. If only in this respect, the autobiographical approach to The Democratic Forest has engaged us all in its implication. Our own way of seeing may have recently been in trouble. These days, not only the world that we look out upon but the human eye itself seems at times occluded, as if a cataract had thickened over it from within. We have become used to what we live with, caloused (perhaps in self-protection) to what's happened to the world outside our door, and we now accept its worsening. But the Eggleston vision of his world is clear, and clarifying to our own. In his own country, we have always valued William Eggleston's work for its clarity, veracity, strength of intention. Perhaps we couldn't have known until we’d met it in this book, seen it at work, the strength of imagination that conceived it, shaped it, and consistently informed it all. Actually, what we have here is a set of visions. Like a magician, William Eggleston has raised them out of light colour, smoke and an absence of people. Visions or not, he remains a photographer who never trifles with actuality: he works with actuality, and within it--the self-evident and persisting world confronted by us all. The human being, unseen, remains the reason these photographs of place carry such power to move and disturb us-and, by the end, somewhat hearten us. A clear spring rises somewhere on the home place, for the human strain begins there for Mr. Eggleston, and we see it in what follows: it turns into a river that runs through, or underneath, every place succeeding it. Whatever is done to block it or stop its flow, it surfaces again. Pure human nature provides itself in likely or unlikely places. - Eudora Welty, From the Introduction to The Democratic Forest

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THE DEMOCRATIC FOREST IN EGGELSTON’S WORDS

Annotated by Nicole Mater

 

I was in Oxford, Mississippi for a few days and I was driving out to Holly Springs on a back road, stopping here and there. It was the time of year when the landscape wasn’t yet green. I left the car and walked into the dead leaves off the road. It was one of those occasions when there was no picture there. It seemed like nothing, but of course there was something for someone out there. I started forcing myself to take pictures of the earth, where it had been eroded thirty or forty feet from the road. There were a few weeds. I began to realize that soon I was taking some pretty good pictures, so I went further into the woods and up a little hill, and got well into an entire roll of film. Later, when I was having dinner with some friends, writers from around Oxford, or maybe at the bar of the Holiday Inn, someone said, ‘What have you been photographing here today, Eggleston?’ ‘Well, I’ve been photographing democratically,’ I replied. ‘But what have you been taking pictures of?’ ‘I’ve been outdoors, nowhere, in nothing.’ ‘What do you mean?’ ‘Well, just woods and dirt, a little asphalt here and there.’ I was treating things democratically, which of course didn’t mean a thing to the people I was talking to. I already had different, massive series. I had been to Berlin and to Pittsburgh and completed huge bodies of work. From that moment everything from the boxes of thousands of prints made cohesive sense for the first time. All the work from this period from 1983 to 1986 was unified by the democracy. Friends would ask what I was doing and I would tell them that I was working on a project with several thousand prints. They would laugh but I would be dead serious. At least I had found a friend in that title, The Democratic Forest, that would look over me. It was not much different from Cartier-Bresson bringing the whole world from America to China to The Decisive Moment. I had picked up The Decisive Moment years ago when I was already making prints, so the first thing I noticed was the tonal quality of the black and white. There were no shadow areas that were totally black, where you couldn’t make out what was in them, and there were no totally white areas. It was only later that I was struck by the wonderful, correct, composition and framing. This was apparent through the tones of the printed book. I later found some actual prints of the same pictures in New York. They were nothing - just ordinary looking photographs, but they were the same pictures I had worshipped and idolized, yet I wouldn’t have given ten cents for them. I still go back to the book every couple of years and I know it is the tones that make the composition come across. I am afraid that there are more people than I can imagine who can go no further than appreciating a picture that is a rectangle with an object in the middle of it, which they can identify. They don’t care what is around the object as long as nothing interferes with the object itself, right in the centre. Even after the lessons of Winogrand and Friedlander, they don’t get it. They respect their work because they are told by respectable institutions that they are important artists, but what they really want to see is a picture with a figure or an object in the middle of it. They want something obvious. The blindness is apparent when someone lets slip the word ‘snapshot’. Ignorance can always be covered by ‘snapshot’. The word has never had any meaning. I am at war with the obvious. -- William Eggelston in conversation with Mark Holborn, Greenwood, Mississippi, February 1988 From the Afterword to The Democratic Forest

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Eggleston is credited with ushering in the era of color photography. His color-saturated images of daily life in the American South have had a profound influence on the world of art and documentary photography, and the Whitney Museum of American Art is showcasing his work in “William Eggleston: Democratic Camera, Photographs and Video, 1961-2008.�

 

Composition and color. Composition and color: the mantra of many photographers. This may be due in no small part to William Eggleston.

The scenes are familiar, almost homey, and the color is mesmerizing. It is easy to stare at picture of a green tub and tiled shower for 15 minutes. Somehow, Eggleston knew that there was something arresting in this most mundane of places. Like most art photographers, he is trying to find a certain moment, the moment that not only expresses what is heart-wrenchingly unique about the scene, but how it also manages to relate to us all. Eggleston manages to find the scenes and the moments that make you linger: the instant caught in a diner where we see the back of an older woman’s elaborate up-do, her hand seeming to grow from her neck as she holds her cigarette across her body. And while there may not be much intellectual contemplation involved, the art of his photos is that they create a stillness that allows us to see how beautiful these simple scenes can be. Whether it’s a photo of an oven, a bathtub, underneath a bed, inside a freezer, a dog drinking from a muddy puddle or a classic portrait of a woman sitting on the street, there is a serenity, as if the world had literally stopped. Eggleston has a rare ability to create a space and his photos are a bubble of perfection where the subject exists in a space that seems built just for it. From dusty Walker Evans inspired black and whites in the early 1960s to glossy city scenes in 2001, Eggleston accepts a subject as it is, photographing because of what he sees, not because of what he wants to create. He has said that in his photos “every detail is important,� so he’s giving it to us as it is; the image just might not be as perfect without all the minor details. In these moments, everything is perfect. The sunlight shimmers on the car’s hood just so and there is not a hair out of place. In this extreme clarity, we notice everything and everything feels right: Eggleston’s gift is in finding the small oddity and making it seem so incredibly normal, as if it couldn’t possibly be any other way. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Eggleston’s geography broadened to include Kyoto, Japan, and Berlin, and the large photos are stunning in their perfection. A face on a TV screen reflected in a window looking out over nighttime Kyoto conveys a familiar sense of isolation and loneliness and is as visually skillful as ever, but, something is missing without the nostalgia of the 1960s and 1970s. The new works are sleek images suited for the pages of a magazine and lack the scope and heart of his earlier works. Though this small criticism is of little impact on the overall body of work. Through snapshot moments, Eggleston has captured and continues to capture a time and a place so concretely and with such a depth of clarity and visual skill that few can argue with his place among the greats of photography.

From “William Eggleston’s Influence� by Sarah Rose 37


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A photograph is life distilled and preserved for eternity. An expressive face, a fleeting moment in nature, an abstract shape- these are the fundamentals of photography. A photograph conveys, in a way no words can, a sense of the mystery and beauty of life, nature, and the achievements of mankind. The aloofness of a majestic, rocky cliff; the warmth of a fire in the hearth; the affection of a mother for her child; the sorrow of an aged man weeping over his wife’s grave...Photos capture emotions and atmosphere where words cannot. A photograph isolates the truth, exposing to us the realities of our time: war, terrorism, abuse, poverty.

  

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Since its humble beginning in 1827, photography has given mankind a new perspective on life and art. We seldom realize the extent to which photography has influenced our culture, helping spread awareness of other cultures and bring about modern globalization. Perhaps most importantly, a photograph is something anyone can create. Our website is devoted to teaching the basics of black-andwhite photography, so that everyone has the opportunity to permanently record the world as they see it.

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF CAMERA PHOTOGRAPHY

1600s-1700s

Camera obscura, a technique existing since ancient time, begins to become refined as telesopic lenses are added. Many painters utilized camera obscura rooms in order to create photoreal likenesses of their subjects.

1900s

Pinhole cameras and 35mm film photography gain popularity and become technologically honed into the art of photography we know today. Many techniques and camera elements are developed.

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1800s

1888

As photography gains popularity, special cameras become available for photographers.

The amatuer snapshot is born, as Kodak provides the public with the very first easy-to-use, commercially available camera.

1972-2000s

Texas Instruments patents the first non-film, electrical camera in 1972, igniting the development of a new technology. Digital cameras quickly overtake film cameras as they become available to the public

Smart phones, equipt with high definition cameras, allow everyone to have a camera in their pocket, contributing to the banality of the snapshot and lessening the awe of the art of photography.


  

CAMERA OBSCURA ROOM

Camera obscura technology can be applied to architecture, and entire rooms can become giant camera boxes. In order to make a camera obscura room, it must be completely light sealed except for one small aperture in an exterior wall. An image will be reflected through the apurture and projected onto the opposite wall, as seen in this image.

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Orpheum Theater Beale Street

Gibson Guitar Factory FedEx Forum arena

Chosen Site

National Civil Rights Museum 120 Degree City Axis Shift Farmers’ Market

Memphis Amtrak Train Station

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A study was recently conducted examining the structure and costs of urban sprawl in the Memphis metropolitan area. The results indicate that urban sprawl in Memphis has produced unintended side effects, including: t1IZTJDBMTFQBSBUJPOPGUIFTPDJBMDMBTTFT t"CBOEPONFOUPGUIFPMEDJUZJOGSBTUSVDUVSFJOGBWPSPGDPOTUBOUCVJMEJOHPGOFXJOGSBTUSVDUVSF t'VODUJPOBMTFHSFHBUJPOPGSFTJEFOUJBMMJGFGSPNDPNNFSDJBMMJGFBOE t*ODSFBTFEEFQFOEFODFPOUIFBVUPNPCJMFGPSBMMXPSL TIPQQJOHBOEMFJTVSFUSJQT

  

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Housing data indicate that the suburbs around Memphis are growing more rapidly than the city; they also attract white residents rather than black, have far less poverty and, generally, have higher incomes per household. The city of Memphis is majority African-American. It also is older, has lower per-capita incomes, and suffers from far higher crime rates than the surrounding suburbs. The suburban areas are becoming more desirable to people who can afford to move away from the city center. This sprawl effects the cultural, economic, and environmental diversity in the city. It also causes a need to devote more infrastructure to the automobile, as public transportation, bicycling and walking are not practical alternatives. In the Memphis area, over nine out of 10 trips are made by car. Adapted From “The Cost of Urban Sprawl in the MSA�

In urban areas, deep blue indicates that the population more than doubled, pure red means that everyone left, grey denotes no change, and the intermediate tones represent the spectrum of increases and decreases in-between. Below 5000 residents per square mile, these colors fade with the square root of density towards white, where no people lived in either year. From Data Pointed

These three comparisons are presented as a method of understanding the severity of the degradation of the urban core throughout the country. Out of all four cities, Detroit shows the worst population decline, but it is evident in all of these cities, as well as many others throughout the country. Perhaps this project can discover ways to reverse this pattern.

Saint Louis, Missouri

Chicago, Illinois

Detroit, Michigan

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A lively, artsy neighborhood in the heart of downtown Memphis, the South Main Historic Arts District is home to some of the most important cultural attractions in Memphis. The National Civil Rights Museum, the Orpheum Theater, and historic Central Station are all in the area. Hip restaurants and boutiques as well as cutting-edge art galleries complete the scene, making South Main an attractive place to spend an afternoon.

  

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The South Main District is an area that is “coming back.� Coming back from boarded up and dark and deserted. This district grew up in the hustle and bustle of the boom era of the train stations – Union Station and Central Station. Most of the South Main buildings were built between 1910 and 1920. The area’s businesses catered to the railroad passengers and employees – hotels, bars, restaurants and other small businesses. But when railroad days ended in the 60s that marked the end of South Main. It became warehouses and empty buildings. In 1982 eleven blocks and 105 buildings were designated as an Historic District and the early 90s the district started it’s comeback. Today there are restaurants, upscale apartments, galleries, photographers, graphic designers and retail with more and more buildings being renovated for lofts, condos and apartments. The South Main Arts District attracts a diverse group of people who love the urban living experience. Whether you want to live in something old or something new, a period place or contemporary chic, lease or own, South Main has it all. The views of the Memphis skyline and the Mississippi River are breathtaking. Residents can enjoy downtown activities just a few short blocks away or take a stroll on the Riverwalk. Living and playing on South Main is a full time job and the sense of community among those living in the area is a strong attraction. From SouthMainMemphis.net

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IMPRESSIONS The site visit to Memphis allowed me to have a first-hand experience with the culture of the city. The experience of the trip centered around the texture and the tastes of the city. The district around the site is an area of many heavy textures of brick, peeling paint, and rust. The city has a slow pace, similar to the blues music that was born in the area. The photographs in this area illustrate these feelings.

  

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A VIBRANT CULTURE THAT REVOLVES AROUND FOOD AND MUSIC

 

     

  

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   A CONTEXT THAT IS DERIVED FROM NEGLECT

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A CONTEXT THAT EMERGES FROM TEXTURE AND A SLOW, STEADY BEAT

        

     

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   A DISTRICT WHICH REVEALS THE PASSAGE OF TIME OVERLAID ON ITS HISTORY

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THE CENTROID OF A CULTURE THAT HAS FOUGHT FOR EQUALITY, AND WON

        

     

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The studio was given two sites to choose from. Both are in the South Main Historic District of Memphis. Both sites have frontage along South Main Street, a popular area for local Memphians to gather for select events, such as a monthly arts fair. During normal times, the street is relatively vacant.

   



The site to the north lies in the center of the district at a street corner. The adjacent street, Talbot, is minimally utilized and a small brick building in fair condition is present on the west end of the lot. Adjacent to the site, there is a one-story building and a parking lot. The site to the south consists of five street front bays of twenty-five feet each. Three of these bays are existing buildings in very poor condition. The other two bays are an area the studio named “Narnia,� a space that used to be a building, now reduced to only the remaining facades and natural overgrowth. In diagramming the context of the city, I was able to make assertions about the charecteristics of each site. The city itself strongly exhibits a shifted grid, following the path of the river. The railroad seems to form a strong barrier for development, historically, and in later years a barrier for poverty. The north site is well situated to take advantage of many views to the downtown area of the city, an extroverted character. The south site, while closer to cultural attractions, seems to lend itself more to an introverted design to to its constraints.

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#$ PRE-VISIT Interests/Concerns: -Removal/ Rehabilitation of small existing structure -Street corner allows for two main facades -Unobstructed northern light and views to downtown Memphis -Different zoning condition than the surrounding properties

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Adjacent building to the north

View from the center of the street looking north

Adjacent building to the north

Existing building on the site

A sign on the existing building, displaying its character and the history of the building.

SITE VISIT PHOTOGRAPHS 63


The five bays that make up the site are sandwiched between two taller buildings. This site has constraints of the existing structures.

Back side of the buildings

The Buffalo Mural, a well known peice of street art, was painted over the plywood covering the face of the remaining facade.

Part of the site used to be a building, but is now reclaimed by nature. The studio nick-named this area “Narnia.�

SITE VISIT PHOTOGRAPHS 64


PRE-VISIT Interests/Concerns: -Adaptation or removal of existing structures -Existing green space, called “Narnia� by locals -Interesting/ challenging lighting condition with tall building to the North. This building also blocks views to parts of the city.

   

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After visiting both of the sites, it was evident to me that the north site had far less constraints than the south site. I determined that the buildings on the south site were not salvageable without the help of an urban renewal or historical restoration expert, and I wanted to keep the scope of my project highly realistic. The south site also seemed to be more contextually constrained because it was adjacent to historic buildings on both sides. The north side offered a chance to introduce new elements because of its unconstrained condition on a street corner. The north site also allowed the architecture to create meaningful views to the downtown area and capture northern light, which the south site did not. The north site, however, was considerably smaller than the south site, further constraining the program of the building and prompting a fourth floor or basement. The building that already existed on the north site was in good condition and was salvageable without extreme measures. Though not historically significant, it offered a chance for the building to remain connected to its context.

  

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$)$%#"# Three main groups of people, on three geographic scales, will utilize this building: visiting art connoisseurs, tourists, and local community members. Catering to each group is important to the overall scheme of the building. Art connoisseurs will be visiting the building to appreciate the work of William Eggleston. Eggleston is more famous in Europe than in the United States, and because of this, it is likely that the museum will draw an international crowd. These patrons value high aesthetic quality and expect to enjoy an experience unique from other museums that they have likely visited. Tourists will also visit the building, likely with their families. Both of the optional sites for the building are located near other tourist stops in Memphis. The city is also a major tourist stop in the southeast. Local community members will primarily use the museum as a gathering space. The users will likely only come to see each exhibit once, and in order to activate the space for these users, the museum must include a community element in the program of the building. The building could include educational elements for users of all ages. It could also become the site of community events, such as weddings or informal gatherings. The program of the building needs to become flexible enough to allow this to happen. Local community members will be the focus of the program of this design. They are the most valuable users of the building because of the opportunity that they present to create a vibrant, community hub. They have the power to allow this building to succeed or fail, and they have the ability to influence the experience of the other users of the museum. While the needs of connoisseurs and tourists will be met, supporting the engagement of the local community will be central focus of the design.

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The program of this building will address the concerns of the three types of users. While appealing to aesthetic concerns, the primary focus of the museum will be to foster interaction between community members.

 

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The program will go beyond the realm of a traditional museum and become a place of involvement and learning. Gallery spaces will serve dual function as display space and community development space. There are many opportunities in Memphis to increase awareness: sustainable transportation, food-desert condition, despairing poverty, elevated crime. There are others which remain to be discovered upon visiting the site and fully exploring the condition of the neighborhood.

!")## The following case studies are buildings of similar program and purpose, and their evaluation will prove useful in discovering the needs of this building. 1. Knut Hamsen Center, Hamarøy, Norway 2. Clyfford Still Museum, Denver, Colorado 3. Pulizer Foundation for the Arts, Saint Louis, Missouri 4. Museum of the Landes de Gascogne, Sabres, France

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KNUT HAMSEN CENTER 1994-Aug 4, 2009 PROGRAM: Historical museum for writer Knut Hamsun including exhibition areas, library, reading room, cafe and 230 seat auditorium CLIENT: Nordland Fylkeskommune (County) ARCHITECT: Stephen Holl SIZE: 24,445 GSF This center dedicated to Hamsun is located above the Arctic Circle near village of Presteid of Hamarøy and the farm where the writer grew up. The museum includes exhibition areas, a library and reading room, a cafe and an auditorium. The concept for the museum is “building as a body,” creating a battleground of invisible forces. The stained black wood exterior skin is characteristic of the great wooden stave Norse churches. The spine of the building body is the central elevator, providing handicapped and freight access to all parts of the building. At the roof garden the long grass reflects the traditional Norwegian sod roofs in a different way. Strange, surprising and phenomenal experiences in space perspective and light will provide an inspiring frame for the exhibitions.

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CLYFFORD STILL MUSEUM

The entry is revealed beneath a canopy of trees, and visitors are welcomed into the museum by a low, long reception lobby. Visitors rise from the lobby and reception area toward the natural light falling from the galleries on the second floor. The museum’s second level features nine lightfilled galleries, totaling approximately 10,000 square feet. Each gallery is distinctly defined and proportioned to respond to specific aspects and needs of the collection and helps trace the different phases of Still’s career in chronological sequence. Gallery heights vary to accommodate changes in scale and media; those with 17-foot, 6-inch-high ceilings showcase Still’s monumental Abstract Expressionist canvases, some of which extend to over 12 feet tall and 16 feet long, while smaller galleries with 12-foot ceilings create a more intimate viewing environment for the presentation of smaller-scale paintings and works on paper. Two outdoor terraces and an education gallery offer visitors a moment of reflection and investigation during the gallery sequence, and allow them to reorient themselves with the surrounding and distant landscape. Moving between galleries, visitors are provided glimpses down into the collection storage and interpretive galleries on the first level.

  

Architects: Brooks + Scarpa Location: Raleigh, North Carolina Project Year: 2010 Project Area: 22,300 sq ft.

From ArchDaily

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PULITZER FOUNDATION Saint Louis, Missouri Architect: Tadao Ando Square Footage: 27,000 square feet Site Area: 135’ x 220’ Material: Reinforced Concrete Program: Galleries, offices, reflecting pool, outdoor garden, outdoor sculpture gallery “In the Pulizer Foundation, I have tried to get the maximum effect from this kind of composition. For example, the reflecting pool in the middle of the building is not very long; but you perceive it is long because the proportion is very narrow. A similar play of perception is involved in the asymmetry, or imbalance, of the building. You perceive each part in relation to another; each part emphasizes what the other is. With the installation of the works by Kelly and Serra, you have yet another complication of these relationships. The space becomes even more layered. And the final layer will be the people who enter the space, bringing their movement and experience. It is the interplay of all these factors that will create the effect of the building.” -Tadao Ando

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Architects: Bruno Mader Location: Sabres, France Project Year: 2008 Project Area: 31,000 sqft

  

MUSEUM OF THE LANDES DE GASCOGNE

For both the park in the Landes de Gascogne and the one in PĂŠrigordLimousin, the objective is to give as many people as possible access to this natural and cultural heritage. Conservation means vitality. The parks encourage actions in favour of the local economy as well as innovations and experiments, with a constant concern for the natural balance of the parks. The two parks propose varied activities: cycling tracks, walking or horseriding trails, canoeing, guided tours, educational workshops, seminars ‌ They are distinguished by their geographical locations, displaying differences in terms of geology, plant life, culture, and architecture. The Landes de Gascogne Regional Nature Park begins a few miles southwest of Bordeaux, takes in part of the Bay of Arcachon, then heads south to the Landes area. A huge eco-museum divided into three sites recounts the history and traditions of the “Grande Landeâ€? and its inhabitants -From Aquitaine

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!"")#!%$ NSF: 21,000 NSF / GSF RATIO: (MUSEUMS) 1.43 GSF: 30,030 CIRCULATION: (WITHIN GSF @ 25%) 7,800 +/- SF MECHANICAL: (WITHIN GSF @ 15%) 4,500 +/- SF EXTERIOR PLAZA: (NOT WITHIN GSF) 5,000 PARKING: (40 CARS -10 X 18 STALL) CATEGORY ‘A’ – PUBLIC SPACES ENTRY: VESTIBULE * RECEPTION * COAT ROOM 160 GALLERIES (3): GALLERY 1 (DEMOCRATIC FOREST) 3,200 STORAGE 220 PRE-FUNCTION * GALLERY 2 (ROTATING / ANALOG) 1,800 STORAGE 140 PRE-FUNCTION * GALLERY 3 (MULTI-PURPOSE / DIGITAL) 1,200 STORAGE 100 PRE-FUNCTION * ARCHIVE: ARCHIVAL OFFICE 200 STORAGE / INTAKE 200 STORAGE / PRESENTATION QUEUE 400 STORAGE / DISPLAY 200 CLOSED STACKS / FLAT-FILE STORAGE 3,200 OPEN SHELVING AREA 600 WORK AREA 200 CAFÉ / DINING: DINING AREA (INTERIOR) 1,000 COOKING AREA 400 FOOD PREP AREA 120 REF. / FRZ. STORAGE 120 DRY FOOD STORAGE (PANTRY) 80 RECEPTION 200 * Nominal square footage included in GSF

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CATEGORY ‘B’ – PRIVATE SPACES OFFICES: EGGLESTON TRUST OFFICES: PRIVATE OFFICES (4 @ 120) 480 BREAK ROOM 200 WORK / COPY / FILING ROOM 240 CONFERENCE ROOM 200 UNISEX TOILET 60 MUSEUM OPERATIONS OFFICES: PRIVATE OFFICES (4 @ 120) 480 BREAK ROOM 200 WORK / COPY / FILING ROOM 240 CONFERENCE ROOM 200 UNISEX TOILET 60 COMMUNITY SPACE: LECTURE HALL 1,500 LECTURE HALL STORAGE 120 LIBRARY 1,000 VIEWING ROOM / PRIVATE GALLERY 320 CONFERENCE ROOM 400 WORK AREA 400 WORK AREA STORAGE LOCKER 200 CATEGORY ‘C’ – SERVICE AND CIRCULATION CIRCULATION: (25% OF GSF +/-) 7,500 MECHANICAL ROOM: (15% OF GSF +/-) 4,500 MECHANICAL COURTYARD: (20’ X 30’) DOCK: (FOR OVERALL BUILDING USE) (FOR ARCHIVE / GALLERY USE ALSO) PUBLIC TOILETS: (NEAR ENTRY) MEN (1) 120 WOMEN (1) 120 BUILDING SERVICE AREAS: BUILDING STORAGE 480 JANITORS CLOSET 40 ELECTRICAL CLOSET 40 DATA CLOSET 80 CATEGORY ‘D’ – SITE EXTERIOR COURTYARD / PLAZA: LIMITED BY SITE CHOICE MAXIMIZE ON GROUND PLANE AND ROOF PLANE PARKING: 40 CARS – OFF SITE 15% GREEN SPACE

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DIagramming the commections between the program spaces allowed me to begin to think through my ideas. This free diagram ultimately orchestrated the final design decisions that were made regarding spacial adjacencies.

 

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 "#$$ The design of the Museum of Photographic Arts challenges traditional museum design in favor of an active, community centered program. The building aims to inspire, educate, and enable community members to participate in photography as an art. Dedicated to the work of acclaimed photographer and Memphis native, William Eggleston, the museum also serves as a permanent home to his collection of work. As Eggleston challenged the world of photographic arts by utilizing commercial production techniques, the MOPA goes beyond the bounds of traditional photographic display by embracing digital projection technology. The street-facing façades of the building become a democratic gallery, allowing passersby to participate in a unique experience. The light display will attract visitors and help to pull activity from the more active Downtown area of Memphis, directly north of the site. In response to this condition, the north elevation of the building will also act as an architectural billboard to more strongly announce the museum’s presence. More than a collection of galleries, the MOPA aims to involve the community with the building. The existing building has been repurposed as a Lecture theater, suitable for small concerts and guest lectures. The introduction of a camera obscura allows visitors to experience the history of photography firsthand. The community can also utilize the darkroom in the basement in an effort to preserve analogue techniques. The building itself has been designed to work like a camera, with two large apertures that contribute to connectivity through the building. Form and program work together to contribute to the education and involvement of the community.

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"$& # Each student was asked to develop six generative models over a period of three days. Due to the time constraint, this required students to quickly produce ideas that built upon eachother. This enabled the studio to come up with concrete design strategies.

 !" "% The studio developed a language of color in order to identify the program spaces of the generative models. This enabled the studio to quickly understand each scheme.

CIRCULATION GALLERY ARCHIVE COMMUNITY SPACE GREEN SPACE/PLAZA OFFICES CAFE

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MECHANICAL






 





 CHOSEN STRATEGY

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The programming and predesign phase accounts for the majority of the the design decisions moving forward. Understanding the local culture and the changing culture of the world of photography became the basis for formally molding the building. The camera provided an opportunity to play with light through apertures, both large and small. The community, in the large sense of the word, is largely forgetting the roots and traditional methods of artistic photography. The museum has the ability to become a place where people can learn about photography and experience its methods. The programming models provide the basis for the arrangement of spaces for the remainder of the design. Formally, some of the massing is beginning to develop with the program, but some tweaks will occur in the following stages.

 

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At this stage, I transitioned the design from the chosen programmatic scheme to a more complete plan. As you can see, much of the spacial associations in plan have been addressed, but the section suffers. I attempted to roughly sketch out the form of the building in order to test its formal qualities. The proportions need to be edited, much of this change again needs to happen in section.

   

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The work for this presentation was all had drawn on trace paper. By staying out of the computer at this stage, my focus could be less formal and more decisive.

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#)#$#$"$  In the design delvelopment stage, investigations were conducted to determine the materiality, egress, and systems of the building. These investigations resulted in the images shown to the right, which were presented at the midreview presentation. Most of the systems were at least 80% resolved in design development.

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At this point in the semester, most of the design has been completed, save a few edits that are suggested by jurors during the midterm presentation. Following this presentation, the studio was encouraged to freeze the design process in order to focus on the detailing and production segments of the semester.



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The area of the presentation was specified for the studio, at eight feet by six feet ( 8’ X 6’ ), posing a challenge to the layout of the boards. The items included in the presentation were specified as follows: Floor Plans at 1/16�=1’ Elevations at 1/16� = 1’ Volumetric Sections at 1/16�=1’ Structural Diagram HVAC System Diagram Site Plan at 1/32�=1’ At least 1 Exterior Rendering

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In the following section, I will utilize two spreads for each section of the presentation in order to show the jurors’ comments. I will first show an unedited version of the presentation board, then highlight areas that the jurors commented on or made suggestions toward.

%" "# PROFESSOR KENT SPRECKELMEYER PROFESSOR SHANNON CRISS NICK NEPVEUAX, PhD CANDIDATE GOULD EVANS ASSOCIATES EDDY TAVIO



CHRISTINE BONO

  



   

 

  

   

   

   

   



 

   

  

  

   

  



   

  





 



 

  



      

 



  



  

  

   













 

   

 

  







 

             



 

  

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This part of the building successfully reads as a museum, but something must be done to make it unique to the art of photography. Possibly, the building itself could be used to project digital images to make a truly democratic gallery, one that is accessible by both the pedestrian and the patron.

    

    

  



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Directional suggestion: Choose a material that ages naturally, in order to allow it to feel more like it belongs in the context of Memphis.



Avoid the feeling of a massive concrete wall, consider adding an additional material to the surface, or embedding an image in bas relief. This could tie back to the artist or his work. .

  







  



 







  

  

   







 



  

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Graphic Suggestion: Do not add program color in final drawings

Design Suggestion: More perforation is needed in this area in order to make the entrance feel more grand.





 

  

 

  

 





 



















   

     

     

      













    



   

 

 



  



      

  

 

   



 





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Graphic Suggestion: Outline these areas on the plan in the same way to help the jurors orient themselves



Design Suggestion: Continue this path of travel through the digital gallery to avoid a dead end hallway. 























   

 

 













       

 

 































 

  

  

  

 

      

     











   

  

 

  



 







 





   

  









 



 

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The information on this board is helpful, but far too large. Some interior shots could have benefitted the presentation.


In practice, saving this building is an extremely difficult task. Consult a structural engineer immediately to validate its realistic prospects.

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REFLECTION / RESPONSE The jurors responded well to the project. They were pleased with it, visually, and thought that the design was clear and intentional. The most successful part of the design seems to be the arrangement and adjacencies of the program elements. The placement of certain elements along the north side of the building is a good reaction to the site conditions. Edits: Extending the hallway of the Democratic Forest gallery through the digital gallery to improve circulation pathway and avoid dead end corridor. Further researching wood rain screen material, in search of one that will age and weather while remaining viable. Investigations must be made into how to utilize the Democratic Forest gallery in a way that better connects to the art of photography. The base of the building should have a seperate band of material to anchor the building to the site and to contextually blend with the building next to it. Consider diagramming the circulation pathways and program elements in a clearer way. Open up the entryway to higher spaces and reconsider the project sectionally.

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The midterm presentation marks the end of the design phase, and only small changes were made after this point. I was confident in the design, and glad to hear feedback from the jurors.



PHASE SUMMARY

The jurors’ comments helped me to further develop the program into a more unique design, by rethinking the specific use of each space. The prescribed changes that I adopted and began to develop helped to bring the project closer to reality. They also helped to further compliment the surrounding context.

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Building the model on the left helped me to understand how the double cantilever over the entry was structured. The physical model allowed me to see that my choice was to either have two separate layers of steel beams, which would thicken the floor plate, or introduce columns at select locations. I learned a valuable lesson in this exercise.

 

   

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#%$ )## CLOSED CELL SPRAY FOAM VS MINERAL WOOL

A revolutionary product, closed cell spray foam insulation is arguably the best insulator available. Spray foam is applied directly to the exterior of the building with a pressure hose. It is challenging to apply evenly and impossible to achieve a smooth surface, which must be taken into account when planning the facade. No vapor barrier is required, as the material itself is air-tight and designed to keep all vapors from permeating. It has very high R values, and in most cases can be applied as a three inch thickness, reducing the overall width of exterior walls. Spray foam is made of chemicals based from polyurethane. Although its chemical composition is completely inert when set, spray foam quickly ignites, and releases carcinogens when burning. It also produces dangerous pollutants during its manufacturing stages. Because it is so air tight, users have noticed that any chemicals in their buildings have difficulty ventilating. Spray foam also has a tendency to fissure in microscopic cracks, which compromises its vapor barrier quality. EPA

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Mineral wool forms naturally when strong winds blow through molten lava to create the thin, gold-colored strands that volcanologists call Pele’s hair. Today’s mineral wool insulation is made in a less dramatic process using basalt and iron-ore slag that is melted, spun into fibers, and held together with a phenolic resin. Mineral wool, also called Rockwool, naturally repels water and does not ignite. It provides excellent sound attenuation and flame resistance and achieves R-values of about 4 per inch. No dangerous chemicals are used in the manufacturing process, and the only significant environmental damage it poses is that it encourages the mining of iron-ore. Building Green, Building Science

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'#$ # Each of these wall sections were developed at sections of the building where many different materials occured in the same plane. Originally developed at a 1/2’=1’ scale, in order to better illustrate the materials and systems at a more detailed level. On the following pages, each of the called out sections are displayed and annotated at a larger scale.

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WALL SECTION A


   

  

 

   

  

   

   

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WALL SECTION B

WALL SECTION C


DEVELOPING THE 3D WALL SECTION This wall section is a three dimensional version of Wall Section A, pictured on the right. It shows details of the curtain wall, bronze fin system, deck, and stainless steel panel system. Details of each section are shown on the corresponding pages.

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PAGE 144

PAGE 146

PAGE 148

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4” Concrete slab with turndown, 6” gravel beneath 8” Concrete Slab 5/8” Steel rod connector 6” Gravel

Engineered Fill

Existing footing, exact size unknown

New footing, at least 36” deep and 2’ wide

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Metal parapet cover Angled wood parapet cap 4� Polyisocyanurate Insulation Filter fabric covering Vapor Barrier 6� Soil 4� Gravel Filter fabric Sloped polyisocyanurate insulation, minimum 3�

5� Concrete and Metal Deck

K-12 Floor Joists W-20 Beam

 

   

1� Drainage gap

Stud Cavity with 2X6 steel studs Vapor Barrier Z-Channel Purlin

Minimum 4� thick Mineral Wool insulation 1X2 Cumaru furring board

Rainscreen Clip, manufactured by WoodHaven

Cumaru rainscreen 1X2 Stud 2 layers 5/8� Gypsum wall board 5/8� Gypsum wall board

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1/2” Laminated glass, free edge Cumaru ergonomic handrail Metal flat-head fastener

Stainless steel toe kick 5” Conrete and Metal floor deck 1/2” bolt fasteners Stainless steel facing to conceal fastening W-20 beam

5/8” thick Gypsum wall board

2 layers 5/8” thick Gypsum wall board

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Aluminum cap mullion system, Kawneer Thermal break

Aluminum mullion Glass panel End cap system, Kawneer Metal flange 2X6 Stacked stud knee wall

K-10 Roof joists W-20 Beam 2x6 Stud wall cap

1x2 Stud 2 layers 5/8�thick Gypsum Wall Board

 

   

White TPO roof Sloped rigid board insulation Vapor Barrier 5� Metal Roof Deck

2 layers 5/8�thick Gypsum Wall Board 2x6 Steel stud wall 2X6 Steel stud cap

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LOBBY INTERIOR

   

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The museum reveals itself to its visitors in the lobby. The floors above are cut away to open the museum as a lively, fluid space. Each floor aims to be an active community space, and the aperture allows light and sound to transfer between floors. The open lobby space lends itself to a variety of uses, but is intended to be utilized as a community art gallery. The exposed brick wall, salvaged from a building that exists on the site, anchors the building to its context in the historic district of Memphis.

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ROOFTOP CAFE

   

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The rooftop cafe boasts views of downtown Memphis, the historic South Main Arts Distric, and the Mississippi River.

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BLOCK PARTY

   

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Not only a center for learning about the art of photography, the museum’s location and presence allows it to become a cultural center of activity for local events. Talbot street, used infrequently for vehicle traffic, holds the opportunity to become an outdoor gathering place for events that the museum may host.

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NICK NEPVEAUX, Instructor: - ‘Plans could be further distilled to more basic shapes and likely would be in practice.’

   

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NILS GORE, Instructor: - ‘It seems like you were able to create a very light an airy space by connecting each floor with the apertures ‘

CHAD KRAUSE, Instructor: - ‘You could have taken the concept of compressing the function of the museum in order to make more room for public space one step further by replacing the traditional museum gallery program with a different function.’ - ‘The camera obscura could be more clearly differentiated from the exterior of the museum in order to allow it to act as a magnet for visitors.’

MATTHEW McKILLIP, Gould Evans: - ‘These are great graphics. Thoughtfully show them in your portfolio -- this project proves that you deserve a job...’

ANDREW KRIVANEK, Gould Evans: - ‘I like the clarity of this project... You will be able to use these skills in your fifth year experience as well as into your career.’ 145


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1. Existing Site

4.Street Activation

2. Urban Typology Extrusion

5. Maximize View

3. Carve Apertures

6. Increase Green Space

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Beam CANTILEVER STRUCTURE

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Column Location


   

CIRCULATION

HVAC PATHWAYS & PASSIVE VENTILATION

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"* #$% #%") In any studio, my goal is always to create a final product that is believable and beautifully represented. I am competitive in nature and treat the project like a true architectural competition. I want my design to feel as if it could be built. ARCH_609 is a studio unlike any other, as it challenges students to not only design through schematic design and design development, but to fully understand building systems and develop design details and construction documents. As a part of my educational career, this studio is essential for me to understand how buildings work. I cannot overemphasize the importance of this course to my education. The combination of my personal drive and the studioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rigor made for an interesting semester. I can say with confidence that the effort I put toward this project, though it led to more sleepless nights than any prior studio, allowed me to complete my highest quality project thus far. I am extremely pleased with the design and feel that I met my goal to create a realistic and satisfying design. The cultural investigation applied at the start of the semester was essential to analyzing the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s locale. The trip to Memphis allowed me to not only gain an understanding of each site, but helped me to choose a site where I felt the museum could make an impact in the area. I was able to absorb the textures, tastes, smells, and sounds of the city. I also was introduced to local architects who taught me more about the area from an insiderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perspective and advised me on my professional growth. By better understanding the culture of the project, I felt confident in the direction of my design intent. It was important to me to integrate the community into every space of the museum in order to perpetuate the knowledge of photography as an art, and to give the community a space to congregate, learn, and grow. The level of construction investigation that was applied in this studio helped me to develop stronger knowledge of building systems. Through researching materials and assemblies, I became more confident with my ability to draw and understand architectural details. In order to fully understand the implications of my material choices, I researched each material and strove to choose the option that was least taxing on the environment and most appropriate for the local context. As part of this investigation, I was able to visit Wood Haven, Inc., a company that specializes in milling and installing wood rain screens. Their expertise in different lumber types taught me an important lesson. I learned that in order to create a durable rain screen, a dense wood should be chosen. The longevity of the system depends upon wood that will endure many years of UV damage. This lesson led me to choose untreated cumaru, which will age gracefully and last a century. My visit to Wood Haven was also a reminder to think innovatively about the installation of systems. They invented a groundbreaking clip system that allows the face of the screen to be free of any mars, doubling the life of the wood. 190


  

The arranged site visit to the construction site of the Cerner complex helped me to begin to see all of the building systems on a large scale project come together. Having the opportunity to see the faรงade of the building in separate and distinct phases helped me to fully understand how the building envelope is assembled and detailed. Although construction phasing was not a major focus of the studio, visiting the Cerner complex also demonstrated how phasing within a large building project can be utilized for efficiency. Aside from the development of technical proficiencies, this studio helped me to develop personally. On the first day of the studio, we were asked to identify our strengths and weaknesses. I was confident in my abilities to design, draw, and represent ideas, but I knew that I needed to work on becoming more patient. Realizing this deficiency, it became my goal to not only to produce my best academic work to date, but also develop a sense of patience in preparation for a career that relies on working with others. I was given the opportunity to develop this sense through studio culture. Because of my knowledge of rendering software, another student asked me to teach her how to use this software for her final imagery. Through teaching her the program, I learned more about how to communicate with people who are unfamiliar with certain applications and how to enable them to learn, benefitting both of us. Throughout the studio, my instructor, Denton Nichols, was an invaluable asset to meeting my goals. Though his time was in high demand by the remainder of the class, he was able to challenge me to produce a meaningful design and showed me how to detail elements of the building envelope. He appropriately questioned my material choices and pushed me to do my best. I am thankful for the professional advice he gave me and am proud to have been his student.

The many sleepless nights and long hours spent on this project were well worth the effort. I was excited to see everything come together and thrilled with what I was able to achieve for the final presentation, which was well received by the jurors. I am relieved that the studio is over and I have a chance to recover from the work, but I am proud of the design that I produced and glad to have striven for it.

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# %"# Ciscel, David H. (2012). The Cost Of Urban Sprawl in the Memphis MSA. The Federal Reserve Bank of Saint Louis. Web. <http://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/br/articles/?id=706> Crime Statistics and Map. Web. <http://www.neighborhoodscout.com> Dye Transfer: The Ultimate Color Print. Web. < http://ctein.com/dyetrans.htm> Image. Web. <http://breezymama.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/Memphis_TN.jpg> Image. Web. <http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2010/07/%E2%80%9Chow-to-masterthe-decisivemoment%E2%80%9D/> Image. Web. <http://www.ggibsongallery.com/artists/christenberry/christenberry_page1g.html> Image. Web. <http://historic-memphis.com/photobooks/memphis1940/memphis1940.html> Image. Web. <http://kreepz.ch/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/tricycle_300_10_2010.jpg> Image. Web. <http://spectrumculture.com/2010/09/rediscover-stranded-in-canton.html/> Knut Hamsen Center Information. Denton Nichols’ Program Notes. McKenna, Kristine & Eggelston, William. William Eggelston Talks: Reminescing with the Father of Color Photography. Web. <http://www.nowness.com/day/2010/10/31/1109/william-eggleston-talks> Mesler, Corey. Memphis Mojo. Web. <http://www.canopicpublishing.com/juke/contents2/meslerpoems.htm> Perfectly Banal: William Eggelston. Web. <http://fadedandblurred.com/spotlight/william-eggleston/> Photographic images from the Eggelston Trust. Web. < http://www.egglestontrust.com/democratic_forest.html> Portrait of William Eggelston. Web. <http://www.autumnsouvenir.com/2010/11/william-eggleston.html#!/2010/11/ william-eggleston.html> Rose, Sarah. (2012). William Eggelston’s Influence. Web. < http://www.azcentral.com/ent/arts/articles/2008/11/11/2008 1111color.html> Space budget calculations. Denton Nichols’ Program Notes. Welty, Eudora. Introduction to The Democratic Forest. Web. <http://www.egglestontrust.com/ df_intro.html> Zoning Information. Web. <http://memphisgis.memphistn.gov/zoning_app/default.aspx> Wood Haven Inc., personal interview.

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