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DEALING WITH UNRESOLVED WATER CYCLES IN THE EXPANDING CITY AN URBAN DESIGN INVESTIGATION ON MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE

Nicolaas Van Orshoven


Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles in the Expanding City An Urban Design Investigation on Maputo, Mozambique Nicolaas Van Orshoven

Eindwerk aangeboden tot het verkrijgen van het diploma Master in de Ingenieurswetenschappen: Architectuur Promotor: Bruno De Meulder Co-promotor: Wim Wambecq Local promotor: JosĂŠ Forjaz

Academiejaar 2013 - 2014

Master in de Ingenieurswetenschappen: Architectuur


Š Permission for Use of Content: The author herewith permits that the present dissertation be made available for consultation; parts of it may be copied, strictly for personal use. Every other use is subject to strict copyright reservations. Particular reference is made to the obligation of explicitly mentioning the source when quoting the present dissertation’s rules. Leuven, 2014 All images presented in this booklet are, unless credited otherwise, made or drawn by the author.

Š Copyright KU Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the author it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to dept. Architecture, Kasteelpark Arenberg 1/2431, B-3001 Leuven, +32-16-321361 or via e-mail to secretariaat@asro.kuleuven.be. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests.


KULeuven Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen

2013 - 2014

Master’s thesis file

Student: Nicolaas Van Orshoven

Title: Dealing with unresolved water cycles in the expanding city an urban design intervention on Maputo, Mozambique.

Abstract: Throughout history Maputo has coherently matriculated itself in a highly undulating relief. A north-south oriented central sand ridge with an asymmetric slope represents the topographical centre of the city. From east to west the landscape rises and falls from the mangrove forests of the Incomati estuary, over the erosive steep eastern flank of the ridge and the gentle western flank with local wet depressions, to the Infulene valley. This wavy landscape in combination with the rapid urban expansion of the city gives rise to a very context-specific water situation. The safe high places of the city quickly lead to formal consolidation with a corresponding organized water network, while still growing informal tissue fixed itself in the remaining erosive slopes and floodable lower regions, where the contrary is true. These low-lying areas often have to deal with difficult-to-manage seasonal flooding issues, pollution and water shortages that negatively affect the living conditions. On the other hand, these are the places where community identity still exists and where urban agriculture plays a prominent role in the city’s food production. A local depression in the weak western slope of the ridge forms the focus area of a draft proposal that aims to rethink the relationship between water cycle, urban agriculture, tenant and community. Instead of solely following the engineering logic that has proved its advantages and downsides in organizing the water network in other parts of the city, this thesis aims to implement intermediary organizational structures that have the potential to give the depression’s contested space a new future in which symbiotic life with the water becomes natural and productive instead of problematic and obstructive.

Thesis submitted to obtain the degree of Master in Engineering: Architecture

Promotor: Bruno De Meulder Co-promotor: Wim Wambecq Local promotor: José Forjaz


Acknowledgements Hereby I would like to express my gratitude to the people who have made the outcome of this thesis possible. To JosĂŠ Forjaz, our local promotor, for pointing out the complexity of the situation and using his experience to guide us in the direction of a concise yet thorough design investigation. To Bruno De Meulder, our promotor, for his constructive comments and his ability to conceptualize complex issues during our many meetings. To Wim Wambecq, our co-promotor, for his critical insights in the field of landscape urbanism and his compelling enthusiasm. His motivating guidance kept us focused on our end goal throughout all stages of the thesis process. To Srini, our host and first friend upon arriving in Maputo, for giving us our own place to come home to after a long day in the field. His sincere interest in the cultures of the world and its inhabitants were inspirational and our worldly conversations over Indian dinner will stay with us forever. To everyone at the Faculdade de Arquitectura e Planeamento FĂ­sico of Eduardo Mondlane University, in particular Luis Lage, for sharing his considerable experience in Mozambican urbanism and addressing his personal network to get us in contact with experts on certain matters. To VLIR, ASRO, and OSA, for the institutional and financial support that made our stay in Maputo possible. To BTC, Tom Smis, Verde Azul Consult, Wsup and everyone else who answered our quest for information, for providing us with the means to fund this thesis on accurate information. To my family and friends, for their sincere interest and motivating encouragements. To my parents, for all the given opportunities. However far from home I find myself, the thought of your support always makes the next step so much easier. And last but not least to Laura, for being my complementary partner of Studio Maputo. Your effort and motivation were contagious and inspiring, your organizational skills indispensable and your company always a joy. The joined memories will be treasured forever.


Preface

Throughout history Maputo has coherently matriculated itself in a highly undulating relief. A north-south oriented central sand ridge with an asymmetric slope represents the topographical center of the city. From east to west the landscape rises and falls from the mangrove forests of the Incomati estuary, over the erosive steep eastern flank of the ridge and the gentle western flank with local wet depressions, to the Infulene valley. This wavy landscape in combination with the rapid urban expansion of the city gives rise to a very context-specific water situation. The safe high places of the city quickly lead to formal consolidation with a corresponding organized water network, while still growing informal tissue fixed itself in the remaining erosive slopes and floodable lower regions, where the contrary is true. These low-lying areas often have to deal with difficult-to-manage seasonal flooding issues, pollution and water shortages that negatively affect the living conditions. On the other hand, these are the places where community identity still exists and where urban agriculture plays a prominent role in the city’s food production. A local depression in the weak western slope of the ridge forms the focus area of a draft proposal that aims to rethink the relationship between water cycle, urban agriculture, tenant and community. Instead of solely following the engineering logic that has proved its advantages and downsides in organizing the water network in other parts of the city, this thesis aims to implement intermediary organizational structures that have the potential to give the depression’s contested space a new future in which symbiotic life with the water becomes natural and productive instead of problematic and obstructive.


Acknowledgements Preface

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7 8

Prologue

Sharing Water Climate Vulnerability

I

Water Cycles

II

Water Strategies

III

Design Proposal

Introduction The Search for Water Formal Watersupply Private Watersupply in the peri-urban Areas Handling Wastewater Coping with Stormwater The case of Stormwater Canals in Mafalala Conclusion

Context Characterizing the Project Area A Vicious Circle Two Different Conditions The Bottom of the Depression The Hillslope Towards a Productive Landscape The Canal System on a Macro-Scale The Canal System on a Micro-Scale

Combining Existing Potentials Functions on the Hillslope Laundry Station Altering the Water Cycle Public Space and Vegetable Gardens Laundry Station with Sanitary Facilities Season Dependability

Aftermath Bibliography

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54 57 58 62 64 66 68 71 72

77 78 79 84 86 88 90 92 94 96

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PROLOGUE

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ABUNDANCE & SCARCITY This short introduction will focus on the general water context of Maputo and illustrate the apparent paradox between the climatic trend of increasing stormwater quantities and the decreasing amount of runoff water discharging into the Maputo Bay. By zooming out the eventual small-scale design intervention that will be introduced in chapter III is placed into a bigger regional context where the same water dynamics present themselves on a larger scale. As such the relevance of the intervention as a pars pro toto for the entire metropolitan area is justified.


SHARING WATER From a geographical point of view Maputo is not very privileged with its position on the downstream end of three major internationally shared rivers. Although all three river basins discharge into the Maputo Bay less and less water reaches the city of acacias each year due to increasing water abstraction in the upstream riparian countries South Africa and Swaziland [Carmo Vaz & Van der Zaag, 2003]. Both countries use extensive amounts of rain- and runoff water to irrigate around 400.000ha of commercial forestry and sugarcane plantations along the Incomati, Maputo and Umbeluzi rivers and their tributaries. The export of sugar generates 50-100 million dollars a year in the entire basin and is especially important in Swaziland, since the waterhungry sugarcane is the country’s leading export earner [Carmo Vaz & Van der Zaag, 2003]. In the Incomati basin the irrigation and forest plantation sectors account

for 91% of all consumptive water use, compared to only 5% for urban water consumption [Carmo Vaz & Van der Zaag, 2003]. In 2002 the Tripartite Interim Agreement (TIA) for cooperation on the protection and sustainable utilization of the water resources of the Incomati and Maputo watercourses was signed by all three involved parties. Curiously enough the agreement allowed water use to further increase through an expansion of the irrigation and afforestation sectors of Swaziland and South Africa, while Mozambique was not allowed to expand its irrigated area beyond the area that already has irrigation infrastructure (TIA, 2002). With this expansion 69% of the rivers’ mean annual runoff would be used, a very high level of commitment for a catchment. Due to the water vulnerability the region is charaterized by a number of large dams to secure the increasing water demand.

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1952 - 1979 (av. 2.297Mm3/a)

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1979 - 1999 (av. 982Mm3/a) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Oct

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Average discharge (Mm3/month) of the Incomati at the Mozambican border; 1952– 79 and 1980–99. The picture shows a dry tributary of the Maputo river in Swaziland with sugarcane irrigation and the sugar processing plant in the background.


Incomati basin

Mbombela (Nelspruit)

Maputo

Umbeluzi basin Mbabane

MOZ Maputo basin

SA

SW

River basins

0

10

Country borders

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50 km

Commercial forestry plantations

Sugarcane plantations

Small-scale agriculture

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

Dams

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CLIMATE VULNERABILITY Although the runoff of the watercourses that discharge in Maputo bay during the dry season decreases year after year, paradoxically flood events become ever more frequent during the wet season, bringing along devastation, health and sanitation problems and economical setbacks. A combination of torrential rains and tropical cyclones regularly cause severe flooding. When too much rain accumulates in the dams upstream in South Africa and Swaziland they simply release the redundant water in the river again, sometimes causing problems in Mozambique. The biggest flood in living memory of Southern Mozambique occured in 2000, when a number of tropical cyclones released half of the average annual amount of precipitation in only 4 days, leaving 600 people dead and 1 million affected in some way or another. One of the reasons that these torrential

rains have such a devastating impact in the cities is the uncontrolled urbanization and decreasing permeable surface area, especially in Maputo. Although outside of the cimento still only main streets are paved the density of houses grows at an incredible rate. Runoff from zinc roofs accumulates and saturates the groundwater table in the low-lying areas, where water becomes trapped. Also floodplains and naturally marshy areas are increasingly occupated, lowering the natural capacity of the city to cope with floods. Secondly the influence of climate change has been growing over the last few decades. Both the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones has gone up and sea level is expected to rise 0,2m by 2034 [ICLEI, 2012], among other things increasing the negative impact of salt intrusion on agricultural schemes along the coast.

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1908 1913 16

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1984

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Feb

Mar

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Left: Maximum daily rainfall (mm) in Maputo between 1907 and 2000. Right: average monthly precipitation in Maputo constructed from satellite pictures of a peri-urban area in the period 2000 - 2014 and seasonal color differences depending on the amount of received rainfall.

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

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2014


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2

1

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0 Prologue

Rivers characterizing the Maputo surroundings: impressions of the Maputo [1], Umbeluzi [2] and Incomati [3] rivers.


[1]

[2]

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

19

[3]


WATER CYCLES

I

A GEOGRAPHICAL DEPENDENT Despite the fact that the dichotomy between cimento and caniรงo is outdated a clear difference in water-related facilities still exists between both. This chapter introduces the infrastructural water reality of today and distinguishes different water cycles based on geographical constraints and considerations implied by the landscape. By depicting the route of the water from start to finish a conclusion can be made regarding the sustainability of the cycles. The least sustainable water cycle will then be filtered out as the starting point for a site-specific design intervention in the next chapter.


FIPAG

FIPAG

FIPAG

FIPAG

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INTRODUCTION

Peri-urban areas

Suburban areas

The collective research [Book I] tried to accentuate the importance of a thorough consideration of both the limits and intrinsic qualities of the landscape in general when expanding, developing or modifying the city. Looking at the water cycle the same strategy can be applied. People’s relation with water is extremely dependent on the area in which they are settled. In most places in the cimento running water and flushing toilets are evident. The obviousness of the presence of water makes people forget its true value. The further away from the city centre the less likely it is to be connected to the organized water network and the more people developed a special bond with water or the lack thereof. Since the proclamation of independence few upgrades have been made on the water network. Due to the passive or impotent attitude of the government the inhabitants took measures into their own hands, especially in the field of supply. A system of privately operated boreholes, known as POPs (Pequenos Operadores Privados), ‘popped’ up in the periurban areas since the mid 90s as a bottom-up movement of self-sufficiency and a groundwater alternative to the formal river supply. Its obvious succes due to the primary nature of the product has a clear impact on the neighbourhood structure and community relations.

Cimento

Regarding wastewater drainage few structural measures have been undertaken by anyone recently. Organized systems don’t exist or are in a bad state due to misuse and lack of maintenance. This problem doesn’t affect most people directly and therefore isn’t a high priority for the poor population, even though they will face severe consequences in the long term if the unsustainable situation continues. Finally stormwater has a severe impact on the lives of many people. Floods in the vulnerable informal areas cause environmental, economical and medical problems year after year yet continuing land use pressure still forces people to live in the most affected areas. In what follows three different water cycles will be examined based on their geographical occurence.

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

23


THE SEARCH FOR WATER Although characterized by its majestic location on the edge of the bay Maputo’s geographical position also entails some disadvantages. The potential of large-scale groundwater abstraction is limited due to high saline intrusion along the shore of the Indian Ocean and up to several kilometres into the river mouths. Ever since the colonial era water intended for urban usage has consequently been transported from a treatment station 30km inland, where the water is abstracted from the Umbeluzi river. During the mid 90s however a new trend emerged. It became clear that the end of the civil

war wouldn’t imply an exodus of the peri-urban areas and that most refugees wouldn’t return to their original settlements. The realisation that the government wasn’t able to supply these newly inhabited areas with basic facilities and infrastructure inspired a few retired employees of the South African mining industry to take measures into their own hands. With the fair amount of cash they received after their retirement they returned to Maputo and decided to invest in very small groundwater supply businesses or POPs, strategically located in order to avoid the areas where salt water

FIPAG

37%

of water market (2011)

FIPAG

AdeM

Large scale formal centralized river water

810.000 People served

117.000

Household connections

25%

POPs

Small scale informal decentralized groundwater

500.000 People served 24

of water market (2011)

I Water Cycles

55.000

Household connections


ruined the abstraction potential of the groundwater aquifers [Chapponière & Collignon, 2011]. Originally their only intent was to extract just enough water to provide their families, friends and neighbours, yet soon the economic potential of the businesses due to the high demand and willingness to pay for a reliable connection became clear. Before long POPs started to appear everywhere. Hence the water market in Maputo is currently shared by two different types of water providers. On the one hand the POPs, on the other hand AdeM (Aguas de Moçambique), a private

12%

of water market (2011)

consortium that leases the formal water abstractionand distribution infrastructure from FIPAG, a public entity that holds the assets of the system. Despite the government’s and AdeM’s original disapproval of the often illegal POP activities they recently changed their attitude towards them and started looking for ways to include the POPs in the formal water supply scheme, undoubtedly driven by the approaching deadline of the Millenium Development Goals in 2015.

26%

of water market (2011)

100.000 m3/day

current Umbeluzi intake +

100.000 m3/day lost due to leakage and illegal connections

450

Public standpipes

240.000 m3/day Resale

max Umbeluzi intake

560.000 m3/day

projected demand 2035

25.000 m3/day

Current yield (Estimation)

450

80.000 m3/day

Potential yield (Estimation)

Standpipes Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

25


FORMAL WATER SUPPLY

South-east of the Espirito Santo estuary the water mass contained by the Pequenos Libombos Dam stretches out over 47 km2 of valley between two mountain ridges. The dam was completed in 1987 with the purpose of preventing Umbeluzi river overflows and regulating the water supply to Maputo city and the surrounding agricultural lands in view of their future developments. Its capacity of 400 million m3 allows some very necessary water storage given the city’s vulnerable situation. A few kilometres downstream of the dam a water treatment station distracts the water from the river, after which it is purified and pumped through the main distribution pipes to the distribution centers in the city itself. Currently almost operating at full capacity every day approximately 200.000m3 of water gets transported in this way towards urban usage. Since the population of the Greater Maputo Area is projected to grow to 4 million people by 2035 and demand to 560.000 m3/ day [World Bank, 2012] a new source of water is needed along with the corresponding infrastructure

to guide this demographic expansion in a controlled way. Therefore a connection to the Corumana dam is being made, located 100km away on a tributary of the Incomati river. The new system will eventually transport an additional 120.000m3/day of clean water to the area and benefit both dwellers of the urban centres of Moamba, Maputo and Matola and farmers in the transition zone between urban and rural areas. In the long term however the additional supply still won’t equal the demand which is why the discussions about the construction of a new dam, Moamba Major, are going on for several years now. Recently an agreement was signed between the Mozambican government and the bank of Brazil to construct the dam for 500 million dollars [MACAUHUB, 2013]. It would safeguard the water supply for decades to come. The new treatment center will be located at a safe height in comparison to the one at Umbeluzi that sporadically floods, leaving Maputo without running water for several days.

FIPAG

FIPAG FIPAG

FIPAG

FIPAG

FIPAG

Lowveld

Barragem dos Pequenos Libombos

Umbeluzi water Rio Umbeluzi treatment plant

Distribution centre

Pequenos Libombos mountain range

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I Water Cycles

Conceptual section and real plan of the Greater Maputo Area water supply main distribution network.


Rio Incomati

Corumana dam

Rio Sabie

Moamba Major dam

Moamba

Maputo Matola

Pequenos Libombos dam

Rio Umbeluzi

Rio Maputo

WTP Umbeluzi

0

3

8

15 km

Existing supply main

New supply main

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

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0-10

10-20

20-50

50-100 Watershed

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I Water Cycles

0

0,5

1

2 km

100-150 POP

Well

>150 Public standpipe

Groundwater depth (m): an important factor for POPs to take into account when looking for a place to settle.


PRIVATE WATER SUPPLY IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS

Geographically POPs start to appear where the formal water distribution network ends, except for the area around Laulane where both systems exist side by side because the POPs were already present before a new distribution centre was commissioned in 2007. They exploit the groundwater aquifers underneath the city by digging a borehole and pumping water up with submersible pumps. The POPs use the landscape to their advantage by settling as high on the sand ridge as possible in order to be able to distribute water by

Supply mains, under streets

Standpipe

Vending kiosk

gravity to their customers from an elevated water tank. Lately the systems are starting to convert from the amateuristic ‘spaghetticonnections’ in the operators’ compound to a hierarchical distribution system in which the ‘main’ pipes are burried under the streets and household connections can be easily made. Some POPs also offer standpipe services to the people who can’t afford a connection. Water is sold per 20 liter jerrycan from vending kiosks in the operator’s compound. [Hydroconseil, 2008].

Elevated water tank 5 - 15 m3

Yard tap household connection

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

29


New Corumana dam connection: 120.000m3/day

Matola

Water Treatment Plant max. Capacity: 240.000m3/day

Barragem dos Pequenos Libombos Commisioned: 1987 Capacity: 400 million m3

Rio Umbeluzi

Swaziland

Mozambique


Rio Incomati

POPs extracting groundwater

Machava

MAPUTO Inhaca Island

Katembe

Machangulo Peninsula

Rio Maputo

0 7,5 15

30 km


Impressions of the formal (left) and informal (right) water distribution systems.


HANDLING WASTEWATER

Open canal system Sewerage system Watershed Uphill pumping Original wastewater drainage Baixa

0

0,25

0,5

1 km

Originally, when the city only occupied the baixa, it was pretty obvious that the resulting wastewater was discharged into Maputo bay. Later however urbanization moved uphill and the logical drainage direction changed to the other side of the escarpment, into the depression of Mafalala. A large system of open canals was built in the 60s by the Portuguese colonizers to direct both stormwater and wastewater towards the treatment plant in the Infulene valley. The effort was even made to pump domestic wastewater from the baixa uphill from where it could flow gravitationally to the treatment plant through the same canal system while a second system drained stormwater from the Baixa 34

I Water Cycles

directly into the bay. Both systems were connected in many points though, and currently the pumping station is out of use, meaning that nowadays both stormwater and effluent from septic tanks south of the watershed line discharge into the bay directly [Wsup, 2010]. Between the 80s and 2008 the system was rehabilitated and expanded to service the new bairros that host the diplomatic institutions and associated residential areas of many expats and the richer part of the population in general. This sewer system also used two pumping stations in order to be able to connect to the large open canal system from where gravitation could once


again do the rest. Since a few years both stations are out of use however [Wsup, 2010], so currently only the areas inside the watershed are benefit from the system while the pumping stations downhill are replaced with trucks transporting sludge and wastewater to the Infulene valley. The treatment plant uses an anaerobical purification and discharges into Infulene river, after which the water can be reused for agricultural purposes along its riverbanks before discharging into the bay. Nowadays the treatment plant with a capacity for 90.000 people is still the only of its kind in the entire country, and even though its capacity is nowhere near enough to deal with wastewater from the entire city it is underused since the closing of the pumping stations [Wsup, 2010].

The peri-urban areas have no organized means at all to direct wastewater out of their neighbourhoods so it is released in the streets and yards while sanitation is arranged with basic pit latrines, improved latrines or septic tanks. Only recently drainage canals started to be implemented along newly asphalted roads, but the purpose of this measure was more to protect the infrastructure from stormwater damage than for sanitational reasons.

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

35


When adding the existing drainage and sanitation situation to the previously discussed schemes three different water cycles can be distinguished based on the origin and destination of the water before and after use. In two of them the balance is more or less correct. The water that serves the cimento is abstracted from the river and eventually discharges in the bay after use,

closing the natural cycle. Same thing happens with the groundwater that is pumped up by the POPs. After use it infiltrates back into the ground, recharging the aquifers. The only cycle that doesn’t form a closed loop occurs where formally distributed water reaches bairros that aren’t connected to the main drainage canal and where wastewater consequently infiltrates into the ground.

FIPAG

FIPAG

Suburban areas not connected to the drainage canal

AdeM

RIVER TO GROUND Peri-urban areas (POP-served)

POPs GROUND TO GROUND 36

I Water Cycles


Bairros linked to the drainage canal

WTP Infulene RIVER TO SEA

Cimento

200.000 m3/day

25.000 m3/day

Current yield (Estimation)

80.000 m3/day

Potential yield (Estimation) Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

37


Impressions of the engineerd (left) and natural (right) water drainage systems.


COPING WITH STORMWATER Stormwater infrastructure is only present in the cimento and the Mafalala depression, and in both cases it equals the wastewater/sewage systems. In all three water cycles a mixture of grey, black and rainwater therefore causes environmental pollution. The cycle in which the huge canal system drains water towards the treatment plant in the Infulene valley can be considered the ‘best’ one, although in this case the ‘least bad’ one would be a better way to put it. The canal does its job well but

its implementation was a huge project considering its eventual purpose. It costed a lot of money and energy to cut an artificial gully straight through tens of meters of landscape in order to be able to use gravity for the purpose of getting rid of wastewater. On top of that it completely changed the logic of the landscape, as stated in [book 1] and meant a drastic change for everyone living in the informal tissue alongside the newly created slopes.

FIPAG

FIPAG FIPAG

Suburban areas not connected to the drainage canal

AdeM

Peri-urban areas

POPs 40

I Water Cycles


Original stormwater situation in the depression

Bairros linked to the drainage canal

Situation after the Portuguese landscape operation

Cimento

WTP Infulene

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

41


THE CASE OF STORMWATER CANALS IN MAFALALA

While the realisation of the stormwater canal system may have been a merely rational decision based on hard climate statistics and the logical solution to the water drainage problem from an engineering point of view it was still a huge project to carry out and had a lot of consequences both on landscape and people. A distinction can be made between the main canal and its principal branches on the one hand, following the border between bairros and running along main entrance roads of the city, and the hierarchy of canals that actually penetrate the urban tissue and form the decor of many people’s daily realities. The former constituting a hard border flanked on one or both sides by large roads and consequently dividing the city in different sections, the latter less radical and with more potential for its surrounding tissue. The bairro where the canalsystem is most noticable is Mafalala, due to its position in the centre of the depression. Where the slope gradually flattens the density of canals goes up accordingly to avoid stagnant water and breeding grounds of water-borne diseases. The canals are diverse in both dimensions and geometry, thus creating very

42

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specific environments for the people who live around them. Some are situated along secondary roads that still alow car traffic, some replace the road but are still accessible by cars, but most of them are located in the narrow passageways between houses, sometimes replacing the paths, sometimes running alongside them, sometimes big, sometimes tiny. In this way the engineering machine was accepted and surrounded by tissue that started to use it and embrace it. Of course the passages aren’t always pleasant. Often the canals are filled with solid waste as a sad reminder of the shortsighedness of the inhabitants. Sometimes terrible smells fill the air, originating from unidentified substances in the water. Due to the lack of available space the canals are squeezed into the margins that are unusable by any other activities. In some places though, whenever a little extra space is available, city live starts to organize itself around the canals. Small bars, informal marketstalls with vegetables and charcoal deposits are often gathered around them, creating very particular and pleasant urban areas where people pass by, children play and jump over the canals and neighbours meet.

Bairro Mafalala, the centre of the depression. Open drainage canals direct redundant water to the wastewater treatment plant in the Infulene valley. Next page: the canals structuring public space.


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Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

43


1. Tiny gutters form the start of the drainage hierarchy.

5. At times the concrete canals organize the life around them and attract all kinds of activities.

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2. Narrow passageways along the canals between houses make not falling in almost a challenge.

4. Where concrete trenches are missing people dig their own connections to the drainage system.

6. Outside the bairro tissue the by now huge canals run along main roads and start to be vegetated due to lack of maintenance.

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

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Impressions of the canal hierarchy in bairro Mafalala.


Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

47


CONCLUSION

Water resources

Service providers

FIPAG

Type of user settlements

Type of redundantwater

Drainage

Final discharge

ETA Umbeluzi

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Now that the most important aspects of the urban water situation have been discussed the time has come to propose an intervention in the most problematic water cycle. In this case that will be the one that geographically corresponds with the periurban areas. Even though water supply is handled surprisingly well given the fact that everything is self-organized by POPs, drainage of storm- and domestic wastewater is virtually nonexistent. Despite its unsustainable character compromising the living conditions at the moment however a latent but considerable potential for improvement can be discovered. The absence of drainage infrastructure contributes to the disequilibrium between the 0

0,5

1,5

3 km

natural state of the area and the rapidly urbanized environment that popped up all around it. This unbalance imposes severe consequences for future development and demands a reconsideration of the relation with water. ‘Fixing’ the water cycle and adding the necessary steps to make it sustainable could drastically turn around the contested situation towards a harmonious coexistence with the water instead of the constant struggle against it. A few elementary infrastructural alterations can catalyze a change of attitude of communities facing recurring groundwater pollution and flood problems and turn the landscape into a productive environment for them to benefit from. Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

51


WATER STRATEGIES

II

BUILDING CAPACITY This chapter will zoom in on the most problematic of the three previously distinguished water cycles in a peri-urban depression that is often characterized by an abundance of water. A strategy will be formulated to achieve an intensification of urban agriculture through the addition of a number of steps to the existing water cycle. At the same time the intervention aims to redefine the contested relation of the inhabitants with the water and guide the pair of them towards a sustainable and symbiotic future.


CONTEXT The central sand ridge that acts as the spine of the expanding city also forms the division line for runoff water. In the west the sand ridge slopes down gradually, draining rainwater towards the Infulene valley. A number of topographic intradune depressions aligned with the ridge however act as natural stormwater retention basins along the way, trapping the runoff water for a certain amount of time after which it infiltrates into the ground, hereby recharging the water aquifers. Although the soil in the depressions consists of very fine white sand [Vicente et al., 2006] which usually allows a steady water infiltration, floodproblems still regularly occur in the lowest areas due to a high groundwater table during the wet season, depending on the frequency and intensity of the rain showers. Although the abundance of water in the depressions often causes all kinds of discomforts to its residents, it could at the same time offer a great potential for smallscale agriculture provided that this is triggered by a minimal infrastructural operation. The reason these unfavorable areas remain popular to the poorest social class is simple: they are the closest available areas to the city centre, on which a large percentage of the population still depends to generate an income. Proximity of a residence to the centre thus prevails over the landscape logic. Even during the colonial era available land around the perimeter of

the cimento consolidated quickly. Mafalala, one of the oldest suburbs of Maputo, is located in the intradune depression closest to the centre [1]. As one of the denser neighbourhoods in the city the urbanization made agriculture here impossible except for some banana and papaya plants that are cultivated on individual plots for own consumption. Recurring floods led to the implementation of the extensive hierarchical drainage system in the 1960s. Now, 50 years and a exponential urban growth later, the same problem reoccurs in the peri-urban areas, where the tissue gets more and more consolidated eventually leading to the occupation of the second big depression around bairro Magoanine A [2]. This chapter aims to learn from the Mafalala case and reinvent its physical implementation in a way that makes the problematic water cycle sustainable and incorporates the safeguarding of available land for urban agriculture before all the available space is consumed by the encroaching tissue. The rapid expansion of the city and the peri-urban areas in particular is projected to continue for many years to come. The following design intervention might therefore be an interesting precedent for development by the time the third depression around the town of Marracuene [3] gets absorbed by the urbanization due to the insatiable desire for land.

Project Area

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Vision on an infrastructural intervention in the depression, see book II


[3]

[2]

[1]

Watershed 0 0,5

1,5

3 km

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55


0

100

250

500 m


CHARACTERIZING THE PROJECT AREA The Magoanine depression is located between the sand ridge and the huge military domain. The distance to the cimento (20+ km) is the reason that this depression only got urbanized pretty recently. After the floods of 2000 the people that had to be relocated to safer areas were allocated plots in the formally planned tissue north of the depression. Originally the slope and low-lying areas were not inhabited but this changed quite quickly due to the settling of low-income families that could not afford housing elsewhere. The lowest areas in the depression are wet throughout the whole year, and have wetland characteristics. They are the only places that have not yet been occupied by people, but this is starting to change. The urban tissue encroaches more and more into the

2000

Regardless of the season the lowest areas of the depression always have wetland characteristics and have consequently been safeguarded from urbanization so far. This is about to change.

wetlands, thus affecting the valuable ecology and even further compromising water infiltration and retention. Usually the wet season brings along a few tropical cyclones and intensive torrential rains, after which the water stands still for multiple weeks on the bottom of the depression. During the floods of 2000 however the Magoanine depression was flooded completely. It took months for the water to infiltrate, causing diseases like malaria and cholera to thrive and sanitation to deteriorate. The proposed intervention therefore focuses on the drainage of waste- and stormwater since water supply is self-regulated and pretty succesful already.

2014

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A VICIOUS CIRCLE

As established in the first chapter, a specific water cycle applies to the infrastructure-lacking peri-urban areas, including Magoanine. Water supply is decentrally organized by POPs without much regulation of the formal water company because the amount of available riverwater just doesn’t suffice to service everyone in the city and money lacks to expand the formal distribution system anyway. Given its nature as a primary need water supply was thus arranged by a bottom-up process. Unfortunately the same can’t be said about drainage of domestic wastewater. Being mostly used to cook, wash and do laundry this water isn’t highly polluted but still causes distress when released untreated into the environment, especially in combination with the lack of solid waste management that causes garbage to lie around everywhere. Yet this is the reality. People dump their wastewater in the streets or dig a shallow pit in their backyards to get rid of it. Also sanitation plays 58

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a role in this since most people use basic pit latrines, the effluent of which infiltrates into the ground. Both actions pollute the groundwater aquifers, the same ones that are the source of the water supply. Furthermore stormwater runoff causes problems in the lowest areas and floods them regularly. Even though most houses here are elevated 20 to 40 cm by a treshold extreme rainfall events can result in an even higher water level, damaging personal belongings inside. Outside the damage is of an environmental nature: flooding of basic pit latrines spreads human excreta around and their temporary inavailability makes people resort to open defecation, an unhealthy practice that forms a breeding ground for diseases. It is clear that regarding the intervention on the water cycle an inclusive approach is necessary; tackling all these issues at once in an integrated design project will be far more efficient than searching solutions for each issue separately.


Floods cause severe sanitation problems in areas that use pit latrines.

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Impressions of common sanitation facilities (latrines) and the lack of wastewater drainage structures.

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TWO DIFFERENT CONDITIONS Essentially two different landscape structures can be distinguished that together constitute the genius loci of this region. On the one hand there are the semidensely inhabited hillslopes, differing around 30m in height and leading towards the centre of the depression, on the other hand there’s the relatively flat bottom area with a few elongated lowest points that differ another 1m or so and are clearly visible as green, fertile, unoccupied areas contrasting against their increasingly built surroundings. De design strategy will consist in implementing a canal system that works differently in each of the two parts. The scope of this thesis only allows a detailed focusing on the eastern part of the depression, comprising the western slope of the sand ridge and half of the bottom area, but essentially the strategy could be mirrored to include the other half as well.

The depression is characterized by

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3

1 4

2

0 50

150

300 m

Watershed

Informal tissue

Wetlands

Fertile areas


THE BOTTOM OF THE DEPRESSION

1. The lowest areas of the depression are characterized by wetlands.

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2. The wetlands are connected through green fertile structures that are getting increasingly occupied and sparse..

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THE HILLSLOPE

3. On top of the sand ridge formal and informal tissue meet. Broad streets and a few underused public spaces offer potentials for the implementation of new community functions.

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4. Even in the informal tissue on the slope a few scattered areas are still unoccupied.

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TOWARDS A PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPE

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Concept drawing of the existing water cycle and the proposed one.


Proposed water cycle

Current water cycle

Ecological drainage canals Solid waste catchers Purifying wetlands

Re-use for agriculture

Compared to other places in the peri-urban areas the Magoanine depression is characterized by the abundance of water due to runoff during the wet season. According to local inhabitants this water only brings along problems. People have no means of dealing with large quantities and therefore don’t realize the potential benefits that are slipping through their fingers. The infrastructural intervention proposed to eventually become the backbone of the cycle is a network of simple canals, similar to the system in Mafalala. Instead of being executed in concrete though, these canals are ecological, meaning that they are basically just excavated trenches with inclining sides that are overgrown with water-loving plants. Their only artificial component is a concrete gutter on the bottom of the canal to prevent wastewater from infiltrating into the ground. Solid waste grids, sand filters and the purifying capacity of the plants on the canalsides allow water to already be reused for irrigation of crops and vegetables on a micro scale

at certain places along the canals. People can dig gutters from their plots to connect to the system when it runs by their houses. As such the system drains wastewater during the dry season and a mixture of storm- and wastewater during the wet season. At strategic points on the slope, where small free spaces can still be identified, community centres become a place where the collected water can be reused on a larger scale for a number of purposes, after on-site treatment by partly constructed purifying wetlands. After reuse the resulting wastewater is discharged into the canals again and continues its path downhill. Along the way households keep on adding greywater to the passing flow. When it arrives downhill the water is stored in interconnected retention basins that are also linked with the existing wetlands until the following dry season when it can be reused a third time for urban agriculture in the green and fertile areas on the bottom of the depression. Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

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Watershed

Canals

Wetlands

Fertile areas

0 50

150

300 m


THE CANAL SYSTEM ON A MACRO-SCALE On the hillslope the main goal is to slow stormwater down and to hold it as long as possible to avoid a flush of runoff water overwhelming the bottom of the depression during heavy rainfall. For this purpose only the streets parallel to the contour lines are suitable to host canals. Guiding water parallel to the slope greatly increases the time it takes to arrive downhill and at the same time provides a large contact area between the abundant water and the permeable canalsides, meaning part of the runoff water can infiltrate into the slope of the hill even before it reaches the saturated bottom of the depression. Of course streets can’t run parallel to the slope forever. At some point connections between parallel streets have to be made by using the perpendiculars to the contour lines. In these parts of the canals the water accelerates, which is why they are kept as short as possible. Only at two or three specific places a perpendicular transports water straight downhill by using a system of overflowing terraces. These axes automatically gain importance for public activities because of their particular appearance, connection to

available water and inaccessibility for cars. DOING THE MATH The catchment area of the hill that drains into the depression is more or less 2.000.000 m2. The wettest month a year acounts for 100-130 mm of rain spread over 10-12 days on average. The catchment area of the hill comprises 16,5 km of streets aligned parallel to the contour lines. Assuming that canals are implemented in all of these streets allows us to calculate the necessary capacity per running meter of canal to prevent the area from flooding. Using the extreme data (130mm of rain in 10 days) gives us a necessary capacity of 1,58m3/ running meter of canal. For comparison: during the floods of 2000 328mm of rain was registered in a single day. Doing the same calculations this results in an astonishing necessary capacity of 39,83m3/running meter of canal. Of course these are impossible numbers to design with, but they illustrate the magnitude of the problem.

Slope

Slope

Bottom

Canals parallel to the contour lines are long, slow down water runoff and offer capacity during intensive

Canals perpendicular to the contour lines are short and only serve to connect parallel canals.

Unidirectional canals connect the green structures on the bottom of the depression with each other and the slopesystem


THE CANAL SYSTEM ON A MICRO-SCALE FUNCTIONING

Dry season

Drainage of wastewater by concrete gutter Wet season

water-loving plants.

CANAL CONDITIONS

The canal can turn around the main orientation of its adjacent plots by creating an interesting public space and passageway. Backsides can become entrances etc. 72

II Water Strategies


Examples of possible effects of the landscape alterations on human (non)interactions.

Topography alterations

Depending on local conditions it must be decided if increasing stormwater capacity prevails over public space intimicy or the other way around.

Vegetation

the desired aesthetics, privacy considerations and commercial intentions vegetation intensity and species can be chosen to grow on the canal sides. Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

73


A simple overlay of a picture showing a huge green canal in the Mafalala depression over a picture showing can organize the landscape and the relation with water.


one of the wide streets in the formal Magoanine tissue gives an exaggerated impression of how infrastructure


DESIGN PROPOSAL

III

This final chapter translates the strategies mentioned in the previous section into a concrete physical proposal that aims to be an inclusive and repeatable example of how the future can be uncompromised and the landscape made productive. By introducing small mutations in the water cycle their immediate benefits can serve as an example to the population. Eventually they can convince them of the importance to start a bottom-up process to regain control of the entire water cycle, instead of only the supply part.


COMBINING EXISTING POTENTIALS Numerous potentials can be distinguished in the urban tissue that colonizes the depression. One of them is the presence of scattered free spaces, be it plots that have not yet been occupied, marginal areas in the transition area between formal and informal tissue or wet and fertile structures on the bottom of the depression. Since the continuing urbanization and densification play an important role in the increasingly unsustainable water situation of today the strategy here will be to occupy these spaces to engange in the water cycle. In this way they are safeguarded from further human occupancy while at the same time providing benefits for both comunity and environment.

Landscape

Urbanization layer

Just like in the case of the POPs the revolution towards sustainable use of the abundant water resources should be coming from the community itself as a bottom-up answer to recurring local problems. If the same project would be imposed on the community by other parties like donors, NGO’s, etc the possibility of an emergence of the ‘dependency syndrome’ exists: “When a finished solution, a self-sufficient answer is given, the sense of ownership cannot grow. As strange as it might seem, when this ‘gift’ starts to fail and needs intervention, the receivers don’t act even if it means that they no longer get the benefits. The solution, then, lies in them. They may need just a wake-up call”. [Designing Development, 2006] The only way the community can be mobilized is by showing them how they can generate direct benefits for themselves by participating in the bigger project. Therefore this design proposal is a small intervention that can be expanded and repeated once proven succesfull: a community laundry station on the hillslope, a place where several of the main problems and potentials converge, a place where water is collected by the canal system, purified through natural processes and reused several times to benefit the community. This process can be easily started by individuals digging trenches in the streets in front of their houses and planting them with vegetation. Once connected to each other the flow of water can be made productive and expand until in the long term eventually the new water drainage network meets the POP supply network to form an integral, productive and sustainable water cycle.. 78

III Design Proposal

Scattered and connected unoccupied areas


0 50

150

300 m

POPs

Watershed

Canals

Wetlands

Fertile areas


0

20

50

100 m


FUNCTIONS ON THE HILLSLOPE

Existing situation, 2014

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Natural conditions.


Urbanization layer

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LAUNDRY STATION 1. Ecological drainage canal 3. Water tank 4. Small-scale agriculture 5. Neighbourhood resting area 6. Terraced vegetable gardens 7. Anaerobic pond 8. Facultative pond 9. Constructed wetland 10. Emergency outlet 11. Clean water retention basin 12. Laundry station 13. Rainwater showers 14. Sanitary block 15. Purifying reedbed 16. Small drainage canal

13. 16.

15.

12. 11.

14. 10.

9. 8. 7.

0 2,5

7,5

15 m


1.

4.

6.

5.

3.

2.


ALTERING THE WATER CYCLE

2014

2015

2018

2020 Second drainage

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Reedbed

III Design Proposal

Laundry station & Sanitary block

Clean water retention basin

Purifying wetland

Stabilization ponds

Dike


Ecological drainage canal

Public resting area

Terraced vegetable gardens

Water tank

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PURIFICATION FOR AGRICULTURE

By leading water through a sand filter and a reedbed it is purified sufficiently to be re-used for the watering of small cropfields and vegetable gardens along the street and on people’s individual plots. One side of the canal is excavated to make a gradual transition between canal and street and to make the clean water accessible for cultivators to fill their watering cans in a small overflowing tank. Water that is not abstracted from this tank continues its way through the canal. During the wet season the whole basin can fill up, thus creating capacity to deal with the stormwater.

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PUBLIC SPACE AND VEGETABLE GARDENS

The canal narrows down into a second sand filter just before one of the sides becomes the concrete retaining wall of a little public resting area on the intersection of 3 roads. The area is marked by a large mango tree that provides shelter from the burning sun to the workers of a few terraced vegetable gardens on the other side of the canal. Both sides are connected through a few concrete steps that lead down into the canal and allow an easy filling of watering cans. The terraces can flood in case of extreme rainfall without affecting the surrounding houses because of a small earthen dike constructed with the excavated soil.

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WETLAND PURIFICATION AREA

In order to reuse the water that arrives in the canals for purposes such as laundry and showering a more intensive purification is necessary. Therefore a system of small maturation ponds in combination with a constructed wetland precede the actual laundry station. Through cut and fill operations an artificial landscape is created, consisting of deeper and shallower areas that allow different grades of purification while the topographic alterations offer a certain stormwater capacity. The entrance to the laundry station is accessible by crossing the wetland area, confronting users with the purification process and sensibilizing them to participate in the process.

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LAUNDRY STATION WITH SANITARY FACILITIES

The actual main project in this chain of consecutive events is a sheltered laundry station that uses the clean water that exits the wetland for the washing of clothes. Here people can meet and talk while doing a job they would usually have to do alone. The water is free and the concrete sinks prevent them from hurting their backs by bending over. The canopy of the structure protects them from the burning sun and also allows rainwater harvesting that can be used for showering and to service the incorporated sanitary block. By excavating the natural hillslope the station is embedded in its surrounding landscape and water can be delivered by gravity.

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SEASON DEPENDABILITY

Dry season

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Normal wet season

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Tropical cyclone

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AFTERMATH

Through an intervention in the water cycle the paradox of the twofaced water problem can be addressed, working its way up as a bottomup urban process, a benign waterborn virus of sustainable progress that spreads across canals and boreholes, wetlands and retention basins. The introduction of a purifying canal system in the urban landscape forms the organizational structure for a reinterpretation of the concepts abundance and scarcity. The intervention unites two opposite extremes, makes them benefit from one another and searches for a new equilibrium between man and nature in which living with the water becomes profitable, both from an economical and an ecological point of view. More means to grow crops and vegetables for autoconsumption or informal sale, less damage when tropical cylones hit the Maputo shores. In general the point of this project is capacitybuilding. Capacity to expand urban agriculture through safeguarding vacant plots of land, capacity to withstand stormwater deluges by buffering water in intensively used canal systems, capacity to deal with uncontrollable expansion through geographically-oriented modifications of the landscape.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Academic articles VICENTE, E.M., JERMY, C.A., SCHREINER, H.D., Urban geology of Maputo, Moçambique, IAEG2006 Paper number 338, 2006 UNEP-IETC, Danida, Waste stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands design manual, University of Dar Es Salaam, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2005 CARMO VAZ, Á., VAN DER ZAAG, P., Sharing the Incomati waters: Cooperation and competition in the balance, Unesco, IHP-IV, Technical documents in hydrology, PC-CP Series, N°14 AGENCE FRANCAISE DE DEVELOPPEMENT, Entrepreneurs in transition: small scale private water supply operators in Greater Maputo, October 2010 HYDROCONSEIL, Improving water services in the peri-urban areas of Maputo, Mozambique: the role of independent providers, Field note series urban water supply, October 2008 WSUP, Formulation of an outline strategy for Maputo City: Citywide sanitation planning, September 2010 WORLD BANK, International development association project appraisal document on a proposed credit in the amount of sdr 118,8 million to the republic of Mozambique for a Greater Maputo water supply expansion project, Report n° 75919-MZ LVIA, Catadores de lixo de Maputo: Quem são e como trabalham?, Promoção da Protecção Social e Trabalho Informal no Seio da População de Rua, April 2013 DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FÜR INTERNATIONALE ZUSAMMENARBEIT (GIZ), Economic instruments in solid waste management: Case study Maputo, Mozambique, August 2012 MUIUANE, E., The Quality of Groundwater in and around Maputo city, Mozambique, Department of Geology, Eduardo Mondlane University MATSINHE, N. P. et al., Water services with independent providers in peri-urban Maputo: Challenges and opportunities for long-term development, ISSN 0378-4738 = Water SA Vol. 34 No. 3, July 2008 CHAPPONIERE, E., COLLIGNON, B., PPP with local informal providers aimed at improving water supply in the periurban areas of Maputo, Mozambique, Refereed Paper 1138, 35th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 2011 JUIZO, D., MATSINHE, E., Water services in peri-urban areas of Maputo city with private sector participation, Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Engineering CAMPOS, L., ROSS, P., PARKINSON, J., Building Climate Resilience. Adapting sanitation systems to climate change through participatory research and local action in Maputo, Mozambique. ICLEI-Africa, ISBN: 978-0-9921794-4-1, 2012 100


Books FORJAZ J. et al., PEUMM - Plano de Estrutura Urbano do Municipio de Maputo, Maputo, 2008 RAXWORTHY, J., BLOOD, J., The mesh book: landscape infrastructure, RMIT University Press, Melbourne, 2004

Websites MACAUHUB, Bank of Brazil expected to fund construction of dam in Mozambique (http://www.macauhub.com. mo/en/2013/04/17/bank-of-brazil-expected-to-fund-construction-of-dam-in-mozambique/) [Last visited 03-062014] TUDELFT, Sustainable freshwater supply in urbanizing Maputo, (http://www.citg.tudelft.nl/nl/over-faculteit/ afdelingen/watermanagement/secties/gezondheidstechniek/onderzoek/nieuwe-projectengrants/sustainablefreshwater-supply-in-urbanizing-maputo/) [Last visited 21-05-2014] WORLDWEATHERONLINE (http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Maputo-weather-averages/Maputo/ MZ.aspx) [LAST VISITED 03-06-2014]

Other Designing Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Lund University, University of Nairobi, UN-HABITAT, 2006 Re-cultivating the garden city of Kumasi, Columbia University, ISBN 978-0-9822174-3-6, 2012

Image credits 0. PROLOGUE p 9 : RUEF, D., Mozambican people in the rain, 2000 (http://didierruef.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/Mozambique2000-Floods/G0000k4vUXjs4kyw/I0000xNCiooQvVuU/C0000IGrQ2ZgD1S0) p 14 : Sugarcane factory, 2005, (https://www.flickr.com/photos/justinkrugerpark/7076651791/in/photolist) p 15 map redrawn by author based on information in SARAIVO OKELLO, A., Global change issues in the Incomati river basin - Impacts on streamflow regime, Riskoman Project & Incomati Basin (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa) Negotiating a water sharing agreement, author unknown. p 16 : WWALERT, 2012 (http://wwalert.wordpress.com/2012/01/21/deadly-floods-hit-mozambique-leavingthousands-without-shelter/) Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles

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p 17, 18, 19 : sattelite images, retrieved 12-05-2014 (Google Earth) (fair use) I. WATER CYCLES p 24-25 : Schemes drawn by author, numbers based on WORLD BANK, Greater Maputo Water supply expansion project, Report No 75919-MZ, june 2013 p 27 : Map drawn by author based on height data derived from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM), 90 Meter horizontal resolution, (http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/) p 28 : Map drawn by author based on information obtained from the Faculty of Architecture of Eduardo Mondlane university p30-31 : Sattelite image, retrieved 14-05-2014 (http://maps.yahoo.com) (fair use) p 32-33 : Pictures by author p 34-35 : Map drawn by author based on information from: WSUP, Formulation of an outline strategy for Maputo City: Citywide sanitation planning, September 2010 p 38 : Top picture by author, bottom picture by JOHANNESSEN, A., 2009, (https://www.flickr.com/photos/ aseroon/5220684376/in/set-72157625373625745) p 39, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 : Pictures by author II. WATER STRATEGIES p 51 : Map drawn by author based on information provided by FIPAG, 2008 p 52 : Sattelite image, retrieved 12-04-2014 (http://maps.yahoo.com) (fair use) p 57 : left: sattelite image, retrieved 26-05-2014 (Google Earth) (fair use), middle: sattelite image, retrieved 26-052014 (http://maps.yahoo.com) (fair use) p 60-61 : all images by author p 63, 70, 71 : All maps drawn by author based on information obtained from sattelite images (http://maps.yahoo. com) (fair use) p 64-67 : Sattelite images, retrieved 03-05-2014 (http://maps.yahoo.com) (fair use) p 74-75 : Both pictures by author III. DESIGN PROPOSAL p 78-81 : All maps drawn by author based on information obtained from sattelite images (http://maps.yahoo.com) (fair use) p 99 : JOHANNESSEN, A., 2009, (https://www.flickr.com/photos/aseroon/5220096093/in/set-72157625373625745) 102


Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles in the Expanding City: An Urban Design Investigation on Maputo  

Master Thesis Project in Architecture and Urbanism, KULeuven 2013-2014

Dealing with Unresolved Water Cycles in the Expanding City: An Urban Design Investigation on Maputo  

Master Thesis Project in Architecture and Urbanism, KULeuven 2013-2014

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