RIVER & ROAD AS WARP & WOOF Interweaving Ecologies and Economies in the deltaic Territory, Banjarmasin, Indonesia 2015 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning
VOLUME 1_EXPLORATIONS VOLUME 2_DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS
Prof. Dr. Bruno De Meulder, Prof. Guido Geenen, Tom van Mieghem, Cynthia Susilo, Stefanie Dens
WATER URBANISM STUDIO 2015 STUDIO TEAM Guido Geenen, prof ir-arch KULeuven Tom Van Mieghem, arch Stefanie Dens, ir-arch SUPPORTING STUDIO TEAM Bruno De Meulder, prof dr ir-arch KULeuven, program director MaHS/MaUSP Cynthia Susilo, phd KULeuven Sari Aryani IN COOPERATION WITH UN-Habitat, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific The City of Banjarmasin, Indonesia YKKS/P5 UNDIP, Indonesia Arcadis MORE INFO ? MAHS / MAUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO, K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ISBN 978-94-6018-975-3 Wettelijk depot D/2015/7515/31 © Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering – Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (België). Telefoon +32-16-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests. All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Water Urbanism Studio Banjarmasin, 2015).
RIVER & ROAD AS WARP & WOOF Interweaving Ecologies and Economies in the deltaic Territory, Banjarmasin, Indonesia 2015 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning
VOLUME 1_EXPLORATIONS VOLUME 2_DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS
Prof. Dr. Bruno De Meulder, Prof. Guido Geenen, Tom van Mieghem, Cynthia Susilo, Stefanie Dens
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1
diary of a studio
This introductional text gives an overview of the masterclass in Banjarmasin and the studio that continued in Leuven. It highlights on steps in the process, decisions that have been taken throughout the studio sessions, and gives a quick overview of the elaborated strategies and projects that grew out of the debates.
Five strategies and key projects for Banjarbakula: Directed Wetlands Receptive Landscapes Adjusting the Regional Network Coloring the Polarized City Framing the Adhesive Green Armature
As part of a diploma thesis, these writings research and critique on issues related to the developped designs, in similar or opposing contexts. These writings form a theoratical background, and an extended vision on the proposed strategies and designs.
DIARY OF A STUDIO
Last February 15-26, 20 KULeuven Mahs-Mausp international students and 4 KULeuven staff members went on a fieldtrip to Indonesia, South Kalimantan, Banjarbakula, Banjarmasin. The invitation was by UN-Habitat, implementing the initiative â€œMaking Urban Investment Planning Workâ€? in partnership with the Directorate General of Human Settlements (DGHS) of the Ministry of Public Works. In Banjarmasin 17 Indonesian participants joined our students (City of Banjarmasin Government, South Kalimantan Province Government, University of Lambung Mangkurat, IAP South Kalimantan, University of Diponegoro, Ministry of Public Works and Housing, and Indonesian KUL Alumni). Partners for the event were UN-Habitat, YKKS/P5 UNDIP, Pemda Banjarmasin, Arcadis and KULeuven. The first results of this fieldwork-masterclass were presented during the CDS closing event in Java, Semarang 27-28 February. Allow us to once more sincerely thank everybody who made this fieldwork-masterclass possible, and also to apologize again for adjusting the carefully prepared fieldtrip schedule and agenda last minute, for the sake of building a more thorough understanding of the region. The warm welcome, sound support, inspiring enthusiasm, fruitful collaboration and wonderful company have been amazing. We would especially like to thank UN-Habitat Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and Bappeda Banjarmasin. And underline the very essential full preparation work and guidance of Nini Purwajati, Cynthia Susilo and Stefanie Dens. Back in Leuven on Sunday 1st March sound and safe, no time to recuperate (except for unfortunate Tarek) from the hard labour. The day after, on Monday 2nd March, we summoned our students in the Water Urbanism Design Studio Banjarmasin, as we would do for the next consecutive 9 Mondays in a row (Easter holidays excluded). The Water Urbanism Design Studio would have the fieldwork as a start for Design Explorations by the 20 KULeuven Mahs-Mausp students. It is the summary of these Design Explorations we present in this booklet.
Fieldwork groups (tissue, water, production and infrastructure) were reshuffled in 5 design groups of 4 students each, at the very beginning of the design studio: an iterative process since we desired one member of every field group in the design groups, and mixing nationalities. The first weeks were to be divided in finalising the fieldwork in the booklet Explorations , and simultaneously setting up design issues derived from this fieldwork. Animated discussions started up as design group members brought along fieldwork issues they wanted to further investigate. And at the same time a large amount of more and less official plans and documents were analysed to build an understanding of all the challenges the Banjarmasin region would be facing in the near future. This information very often seemed uncertain, unclear or even conflictuous.
REVIEW MATERI TEKNIS RAPERDA BANJARBAKULA !
KABUPATEN KUALA KAPUAS (PROVINSI KALTENG)
2°0'0"N 2°0'0"S 6°0'0"S
Rencana Sistem Pusat Kegiatan :
Jaringan Sutet Jaringan Transmisi Mikro Rencana Jalan TOL
Rencana Jembatan Barito 2
Rencana Rel Kereta Api
Sungai / Anak Sungai Laut
Rencana Jaringan : !
! ( ! ( ! ( ! (
Perkotaan Inti ( PKN/Kota Inti ) Perkotaan Inti ( PKW/Kota Inti ) Perkotaan Inti ( PKWp/Kota Inti ) Perkotaan disekitarnya (PKL/Kota Satelit) Perkotaan di Sekitarnya (Kota Kecil)
h h h h h
Jalan Lokal Jalan Lain
Batas Propinsi Batas Kabupaten
Kota Kecamatan Bandara Pelabuhan
( h! ! (
Banjar Baru Selatan
Banjar Baru Utara
! ( Martapura
! ( ! (
! ( ( h ! ( o! ! ( !(
! (b ! (
! ! !
Astambul Martapura Barat
! ! !
! ! ! !
Banjarmasin Barat (TengahBanjarmasin Timur Banjarmasin!
Banjarmasin Utara ! (
! ! !
( h ! ! ( Vh V h
: ...................... Tranverse Mercator : ...................... Grid Geografi dan Grid Universal Transverse Mercator : ...................... WGS84 - Zone 50S
Proyeksi Sistem Grid Datum Horizontal
Terminal Type A
Terminal Type B
Rencana Dermaga ASDP
Terminal Type C
Rencana Stasiun Kereta Api Tempat Pemakaman Umum Sport Center
SUMBER : 1. Peta Rupa Bumi Indonesia, BIG Tahun 1999 2. Bappeda Kabupaten/Kota Tahun 2008 3. Bappeda Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan Tahun 2008 4. Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan 3°45'0"S
Therefore the studio would switch constantly between design group discussions and discussions with the full studio group, in an attempt to define specific design issues that are complementary to each other, and could support each other in a joint effort for envisioning a future for the region. At times the studio was thus considered as a semi-professional research group questioning the challenges for the region and how to deal with them. Trying to mitigate between the understanding of the territory from a meticulous fieldwork and the governments policies and projections. Trying to mitigate also between a genuine appreciation of local traditions and habits, and the projected pressure of a globalizing economy.
PETA RENCANA STRUKTUR RUANG BANJAR BAKULA
Soon it became obvious that it would be necessary to work not only in individual design groups, but also to work as one big group investigating a potential flexible spatial (landscape-) structure, derived from an understanding of the territory and preparing for a very uncertain future to come. From the very beginning of the design studio indeed, we received additional aspirations and expectations, and uncertain additional information, and this would go on during the full course of the studio. Some of the most upsetting information being a (serious) study for moving the Indonesian capital to Kalimantan (Palangkaraya or Pangkalan Bun) during the next 20 yrs, the announcement of Russian and Japanese studies for train infrastructures in Kalimantan, or upgraded national food efficiency programmes. Thanks Cynthia Susilo and Aryani Sari Rahmanti for keeping us updated and for your translations!
BADAN PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH PROVINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN
 Water Urbanism, River & Road as Warp & Woof, Interweaving Ecologies and Economies in the deltaic Territory, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, VOLUME 1_EXPLORATIONS, 2015 KULeuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning. This booklet holds the studio topic, issues, and methodology, and the findings of the fielwork groups tissue, water, production and infrastructure. It holds the full list of participants and partners on the fieldwork-masterclass.
In a very short notice, 5 design concepts were tested in a mid review jury. Students prepared a design group analysis or statement, and formulated a draft design strategy. The statement maps are included in this booklet, while design strategies were further elaborated and refined during the second half of the design studio, and have replaced the first drafts.
1_Lost and Found_SCAPES / Time Earth Water_SCAPES 2_Reveiling Troubled Landscapes / Healing (the) Landscapes 3_Interplaying Flows / Shaping Mobilities mid review at KULeuven
4_Towards a Generic City? / Edge as Catalyst for Identity 5_Exploring the Diver(c)ity / Articulating R-Urbanity
We were very honoured with the interest of prof. Hari Wibisono who finally was not able to join the jury, and to receive prof. Sudaryono Sastrosasmito, Aryani Sari Rahmanti, Annelies Denijs, Yuri Gerrits, Matteo Motti, Julie Marin and of course prof. Bruno De Meulder as (guest) critics. The jury took note of the presented fieldwork and commented the first concepts. We remember prof. Sudaryonoâ€™s involved comments on typologies (scales, history, community patterns) and the questioning of the uncontrolled development that comes along with the new infrastructure within the very sensitive settlement patterns. A vivid discussion took place related to the supposedly dramatically shifting conditions that would occur during the coming years. What is the time frame considered? If change must come, what kind of change, for whom? Same people in other spatial conditions or other people that may need other spaces and will do other activities? What kind of space or infrastructure will be needed? And what can this landscape bear? Isnâ€™t the direct relation with the landscape alarmingly disappearing? This studio must take position!
3_APRIL DESIGN EXPLORATIONS
Mid review critics and Easter holidays immediately after were obviously very inspiring!
A prelim on the v hydro a
Full group discussions multiplied, with or without the studio staff. A solid awareness of other design group’s aspirations grew, and design strategies started to leave room for each other and at the same time complement each other. The (attentive) reader will find elements of other design groups within the different projects. We consider this a true quality and an achievement of the studio as a whole.
Guido G Tom Van Stephanie & Studen 2015
1. Kalima Flood & U
Therefore we did an extra effort to summarize the different strategies and combine the students’ work in a single comprehensive map. It manifests a constructive ambition of us all to contribute to the debate, grateful for the invitation and the local support, and eager to make these efforts worthwhile.
2. Banjarb Landscap
topography - the liquid territory of Banjarmasin
One vision explicitly triggered the interaction and reciprocity of design strategies: the ‘water’ design group came up with a very clear and sensitive strategy. It was as much innovative as it was pre-existing and thus conservative. A threefold strategy for runoff water (natural flow, activated drainage system, and enhanced storage capacity) combined with dealing with flood and saline intrusion pressures from SLR. It is based on a precision topography, and a solid understanding of existing water systems. At the time it felt like a breakthrough: a vision with excessive consequences! Therefore the water group did an extra effort to present this vision in an intermediate draft report, that we would try to double-check with water management experts. This did not really work out within the compelling time-schedule of the studio. The studio then decided to accept this vision as a structuring frame.
Flood & Underground Water Situation Source BMKG Maps
Legend High Risk of Flooding
High Ground Water stress
The occurance of oods and relation to ground water highlights an interesting situation around the site of e plorations within the region. for instances of oding some of the internal areas suffer ooding during peak rainy season, scuh as areas between banjarbaru and martapura. Similarly regions near the mouth of the river face the worst underground water conditions.
4_MAY CONCLUSIONS 1 DIRECTED WETLANDS enhanced identities through a cyclic waterscape Indeed the water vision highlighted the very delicate areas that should stay free of any new urbanization and must give room to water. 1
2 RECEPTIVE LANDSCAPES successional transformation and recovery/open-ended absorption scenarios
Afforestation strategies (mangrove forests and foothill forests) strongly support this vision, while simultaneously inviting new economies (harbour related or manufacturing and food processing) as partners to help and apply these afforestation strategies. A Barito mangrove-harbour or harbour-mangrove? A foothill forest-city or city-forest? Time will tell. A thorough understanding of production processes and soil conditions supports these strategies. 3 ADJUSTING THE REGIONAL NETWORK IN BANJARBAKULA activating the latent urban system
The ‘infrastructure’ group exactly needed these clarifications to adjust the infrastructural network to the expected and projected change. A clear hierarchy of the mobility network is implemented, reusing as much as possible of the existing or planned infrastructure and restricting the necessary new investments. It distinguishes the need (and probability) of public transport on a Kalimantan, regional and local scale. It recognizes the need of a long-term vision that can be gradually implemented. It understands the important role of raised infrastructural lines within the very low lying territory, as a strong tool to implement the envisioned water strategy. But basically this vision tries to build resilience against the purely speculative habit of developing every new road along its borders. (Development thickens to the extent that the road gets saturated and must be replaced by the following, spreading sprawl all over the territory without a proper mobility flow.) The result is a clever positioning of infrastructural lines in line with the water vision and with the ‘receptive landscapes’. Finally, this consolidated territorial landscape- and network-frame initiated an explicit vision on the relation of Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru(/ Martapura). The development pressure along this 30 km strip can be considered as the catalyst for the sprawl condition. Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru together tend to form a linear city. But this is happening in a flood prone territory with bad soil conditions: Gambut low lying area, swamp, space for water storage! The thickening of this development along
5_JUNE FINAL REVIEW
Jeneral Ahmed Yani (Transkalimantan road?) is furthermore congesting the major infrastructural spine, whereas extra room should be made for intercity (public) transport passing the Syamsudin Noor Airport. Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru must be understood as clearly separate cities, with very different characteristics and very different future potential. At the same time they are closely related and dependant one another, in a delicate balance. They share the airport and drink water facilities, as they may share the future train station, water park, natural water purification systems and power supplies? Twin cities?
This studio was a fine journey! Thank you students for your enthusiasm and pro-activity! The combined plans and captions seem to make a coherent story! Overall gevernment policies are confronted with territorial realities. It would be great if some of the proposed strategies - either based on incomplete (traffic) counts during fieldwork, or developed more intuitively due to lack of correct numbers (waterflows) - could be evaluated with more precision? We are pleased to present this work to policymakers and stakeholders, hoping it helps to envision a possibly sustainable future for a region we have come to appreciate in very many ways!
4 BANJARMASIN_COLOURING THE POLARIZED CITY Banjarmasin - traditional river city - located at Barito River is the harbour city as ‘gateway to Kalimantan’. It sits delicately on the slightly raised riverbanks, surrounded by floodable (swamp) territory. It urgently needs to clarify protective strategies against flood risk and saline intrusion. But some of the expected new development may be crucial to the region’s economy and should probably be absorbed here? The harbour is shifting towards the Java Sea, whereas universities and public amenities shift towards the Transkalimantan road and Barito Bridge in the north. The traditional city quarters and Kampongs experience pressure from infrastructure and development. The typical harbour city at one side of the mighty river is everything but radio concentric, so it should not need a ring road. But the main city road is blocked by through-going traffic. And how can Banjarmasin cherish its water-based origin? The Banjarmasin group investigates potential new identities for the polarized city that are in line with its landscape (and waterscape) and with its territory. 5 BANJARBARU_FRAMING THE ADHESIVE GREEN ARMATURE Banjarbaru on the other hand sits (with Martapura) safely on the dry edge of the swamp at the foothills of the mountain range, as a slope city, and has good soil conditions. It has a history of distinct natural settlements and consecutive planned urbanism. Lately the provincial headquarters were founded here. But (the periphery of) Banjarbaru is sprawl-like and still holds a lot of potential for densification. Banjarbaru holds many identities. Today it lacks cohesion and consistency and a clear urban structure. Water run-offs from the higher grounds pierce through the tissue. The Banjarbaru group investigates the characteristic open (green) spaces around these water bodies as a potential adhesive structure, and as a necessary complement of the road network. A potential for Banjarbaru to receive new programmes and more housing, and to simultaneously gain urban qualities?
Leuven, July 2015 studio staff: Guido Geenen, Tom Van Mieghem and Stefanie Dens with the very much appreciated support of: Bruno De Meulder, Cynthia Susilo and Aryani Sari Rahmanti 13
Banjarmasin, the city of 1000 rivers, seen from the Martapura River
DIRECTED WETLANDS Enhanced identities through a cyclic landscape Spandan Das Quynh Nhu Le, Ashim Manna, Valentine Van den Eynde
Indeed the water vision highlighted the very delicate areas that should stay free of any new urbanization and must give room to water.
mid review map: reading of the liquid territory of Banjarbakula
Sea level rise and precipitation
peat alfisols istosols
entisols ultisols inceptisols
STRATEGY - The idea is to manage water and landscape in such a way that it allows to provide space to extend for the city but also for the economic activities and most certainly for water itself. To reach those goals, the strategy is to connect people, green and water to form one common language. The idea is to boost a compact development north-south of the cities in order to reinforce their own and distinct identities and to preserve a natural protected area between the two urbanized zones. This way we can direct water through this corridor instead of to the cities and re-organise productive landscape and waterscape. Taking time into account, the strategy is to reinforce drainage and storage of excessive water during the wet season while increasing flows and irrigations during the dry season to ensure production, life and security.
Understanding the territory: conditions on Sout Kalimantan scale
+0,5 +1 mining
crop agricult grass
1950 1985 2010
prod. wetland forest wood production urbanisation
Strategic project for Banjarbakulas water management
The approach is to create a blue corridor between the cities to give a path to the excessive water from the foothills down to the sea and to reduce pressure on Martapura river and Banjarmasin. The city becomes an island using infrastructure like dikes and doors letting the water cross or blocking it following the needs. Coming from the foothills water has different itineraries to join the sea without flooding Banjarmasin: an almost completely man-made and controlled system in the north with the polders and canals network, a mostly controlled system through Martapura river and Banjarmasin city, an almost not controlled and natural system in the south through the creek landscape. 20
Taking time into account, the strategy is to reinforce drainage and storage of excessive water during the wet season while increasing flows and irrigations during the dry season to ensure production, life and security. Looking at the territory, its landscape and its landuse, we can develop alternative ways of interpreting it. It is crucial to consider the existing situations and recognise its potentials. Water is more than streams. It becomes a resource, part of the public realm, supporting activities according to each landscape types and to seasonal landscapes. But the quantity and quality of water can easily become a massive issue if not handled properly. Looking
at the landscape with the intermediate scale allows to answer both large issues and specifi c needs and conditions. This way the landscape is shaped based on a multiscale approach both from a stakeholderâ€™s point of view and from a landscape and development one.
The development plan of Banjarbakula is mainly in line with the presented strategies. Whereas industries and unified urbanized area are not part of the strategies, several actions are similar (forest, peat, mangroves, fisheries, ...)
The crucial points are developed in order to manage the main water issues while protecting the cities and redirecting the flows.
Lines are reinforced while offering more specified opportunities to middle scale stakeholders in order to intensify the potential of the region.
Small scale appropriations of the new landscape and waterscape are implemented, collecting the benefits and multiplying stakeholders in a more individual scale.
1 2 3
Strategies at a Regional scale: Banjarbakula water management, plan and section
CHECK DAM SYSTEM
supporting economic local productions.
Section 1 “The Productive and Protective Forest”
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS & WATER CLEANING SYSTEM
ORCHARDS & PADDIES
ORCHARDS & PADDIES
Section 2 “The Agricultural Terrace”
In the foothills, the protective and productive forest is reinforced to keep water longer. Using small scale check-dams the water is slowed down, favouring infiltration, recharging the a uifer and protecting topography from erosion while
The wetland is associated with cleansing systems, storage areas and intensive productive landscapes that defines the transition between the city and the wetland. The waters of Banjarbaru are collected to be cleaned in a park mixed with orchards before joining the wetland.
After the wetland, the water passes through a cleansing waterpark forest before joining a storage area. Forest and storage are located in productive peat forest in order to take advantage of the high retention capacity of peat soil while protecting the region of ground fires in dry season.
Section 3 “The Cleaning Water Park Forest”
Section 4 “The Creeks System”
The creek system acts as a sponge. Coming from the sea, a productive mangrove forest aims to become a buffer zone, consolidating the river bank and reducing saline intrusion. Natural landscape and man-made irrigation meet in a system of ponds and islands by profiling the topography to increase the productivity and protect ecosystems.
RECEPTIVE LANDSCAPES Succesional Transformation and Recovery Marion Mukolwe, Sadia Subrina, Michael Stas, Joyce Stijnen
Afforestation strategies (mangrove forests and foothill forests) strongly support this vision, while simultaneously inviting new economies (harbour related or manufacturing and food processing) as partners to help and apply these afforestation strategies. A Barito mangrove-harbour or harbour-mangrove? A foothill forest-city or city-forest? Time will tell. A thorough understanding of production processes and soil conditions supports these strategies. 25
0 plan scale
mid review map: a reading of threatened landscapes
READING - The map diagnoses the conflicts in the landscapes under threat especially if the current trend of land use was to continue. Troubled landscapes are an expression of the evolution of time in ever increasing development and the search for better livelihoods. The threat increases with the passage of time spent in the same trends. Excavations and mines will expand, ecosystems will continue to shrink 26
and plantations will fight forests for space. The contradiction is landscapes that have been heavily invested in but have not met their full potential. The level of irreversible damage is fast approaching requiring a strategic that takes into account the communities living in the region, the resources and the time factor.
STRATEGY - Diverse landscapes are under threat by the current use of land and the demand for absorbing the new. The level of irreversible damage is fast approaching; requiring a strategy that frames a balanced, systematic transformation and recovery. By
taking advantage of the existing conditions of each landscape a feasible groundwork for the future is shaped. This project focuses on the mangrove and mining landscapes because of their strategic location within diverse conflicting edges in the area and their capacity to receive
the new along with enhancing the ecology. We consider three scales of transformation within a timeframe of fifteen years that shows a scenario, an open ended story for an uncertain future.
Two territories; mangroves and mines, in transformation are holding the capacity to absorb and receive the new. A strategic plan gives way to different possible scenarioâ€™s: Ecologically driven, development driven and a balanced scenario of the two previous. The strategies for transformation are to rebuild mangroves on the river edge and to do reforestation in the foot hills. These strategies are projected in different phases with small steps of interventions. The mines are exceptional landscapes that gives space for production, flood protection, facilities and services for future growth, ... while the mangroves provide room for new economies and reestablished ecologies.
A place for â€˜the newâ€™ ?
Landscapes that can absorb
Banjarmasin + Banjarbaru
new urban entity:
Current estimate populaton new urban and port
Current estimate populaton
= 140, 02 sq km = 933.933 persons = 126,00 sq km = 840.420 persons = 30 000 persons
density Banjarmasin: 6670 pers / sq km
= 21,14 sq km = 141.003 persons = 8000 persons
Edge Dynamics as starting point
Mangrove and productive landscape Banjabaru City, the mines the swamp and the plantations The tropical forest and plantations
RECEPTIVE LANDSCAPES - matrix showing 3 scales of transformations within a timeframe of 15 years
CONTEXT AND SUCCESIONAL GROWTH
MINES ( part 2)
RECEPTIVE LANDSCAPES - matrix showing 3 scales of transformations within a timeframe of 15 years
CONTEXT AND SUCCESIONAL GROWTH
Interplay of Mangrove and Port
Ecological driven scenario Ecology as a frame to absorb the new
Port Framework: Safeguarding space
Mangrove + coconut structure
pioneer, saline tolerant
inner mangrove, saline tolerant
inner mangrove, saline tolerant
Development driven scenario Transport and social infrastructure
brackish areas, sunny position
Dredged waste into new land
Nypa Fructicans shore protection, sunny
Cocos Nucifera inner mangrove, protection
From scars to Identities
Port as clearances in the mangrove forest, structured by waterways and vegetation
Aquaculture intertwined with mangroves forming a productive dyke
Port and mangrove as interweaving river bank protection Mangrove as protective and productive dykes
Mines as structuring voids for the new
industry university campus dense park edge flood protection
university campus dense park
flood protection swamp
detension swamp reservoir
bigindigenous galam amenities forest restoration
dense park edge
food galam production
edge foothill commercial - riverbed hub
indigenous forest restoration
industry university campus dense park flood edge protection detension reservoir swamp food big production amenities indigenous galam forest edge foothill restoration - riverbed commercial social hub centers
Ecological driven scenario Ecology as a frame to absorb the new
flood detension protection reservoir
food big production amenities
edge foothill - riverbed
Adapting new social topography
indigenous forest edge foothill restoration - riverbed
commercial social hub centers
Development driven scenario Transport and social infrastructure
High density + student housing typologies as border/threshhold
Water as swamp protection
Planting patterns as future definition
Anisoptera (Mersawa) along riverbanks
Eusideroxylon zwageri (Ulin) well drained soil along river
Sapindaceae (Rambutan) well drained soil, rich organic matter
pioneer, grows on rocky soils
Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) well drained, weathered soil
Melaleuca cajuputi (Gelam) peaty loam, coastal swamp forest
From scars to Identities
Mine as space for large amenities
Excavation mines as public space and mixed-use hubs
University campus and football stadium as objects in a water purifying park
New settlements, industries and commerce
Topography as a border and oppurtunity: University campus and football stadium as objects in a water purifying park Mines as commercial hubs: from tree nurseries and plantations to productive forest market
ADJUSTING THE REGIONAL NETWORK Activating the latent Urban System Baidya Emerald Upoma, Bosmans Claire, Matton Isabelle, Tran Trung Vinh
The ‘infrastructure’ group exactly needed these clarifications to adjust the infrastructural network to the expected and projected change. A clear hierarchy of the mobility network is implemented, reusing as much as possible of the existing or planned infrastructure and restricting the necessary new investments. It distinguishes the need (and probability) of public transport on a Kalimantan, regional and local scale. It recognizes the need of a long-term vision that can be gradually implemented. It understands the important role of raised infrastructural lines within the very low lying territory, as a strong tool to implement the envisioned water strategy. But basically this vision tries to build resilience against the purely speculative habit of developing every new road along its borders. (Development thickens to the extent that the road gets saturated and must be replaced by the following, spreading sprawl all over the territory without a proper mobility flow.) The result is a clever positioning of infrastructural lines in line with the water vision and with the ‘receptive landscapes’. Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru must be understood as clearly separate cities, with very different characteristics and very different future potential. At the same time they are closely related and dependant one another, in a delicate balance. They share the airport and drink water facilities, as they may share the future train station, water park, natural water purification systems and power supplies? Twin cities?
AA - Martapura Lama
+7m canal 5m
BB - North Transkalimantan Road
+27m road 12m
CC - Ahmed Yani Road - Banjarbaru
DD - Regional Road
GG +7m canal 3m
right of way 30m
EE - Ahmed Yani Road - Banjarmasin
+10m right of way 18m
FF - Landscape line - Banjarbaru
0 plan scale
right of way 28m
Planned new satellite cities
GG - Industrial Corridor 0 sections scale
mid review map: a reading of the current infrastructure lines and their section
READING of INTERPLAYING FLOWS The analysis highlights an urban structure linking two cities, made by only one axis: the A. Yani road, single symbol of modernity. A systematic sprawl characterizes the recent urban developments replacing productive landscapes all around the city. Up to now, ring roads and new satellite cities are the weak planned alternatives to the street-city system.
Peoples flow - road based
How can infrastructures and mobility guide the urban growth, while preserving the landscape features of the environment? Products flow - road based
ONGOING - The way infrastructure is currently produced in the Banjar Bakula region and in Kalimantan has oversimplified the role of ecology and underplays the social aspect of urban infrastructure by an extreme reliance on efficiency. Being at a turning point in the region development, it is the occasion and the necessity to think about territories in another way, more in terms of quality and character.
734 vehicles/hour 6128 vehicles/hour
counting realized during the fieldwork, during peak hours
BANJAR BAKULA - Ongoing infrastructure developement
Borneo - Transkalimantan road and railway project
Legend strategy map
0 plan scale
a strategy on the regional scale
Toolbox to upgrade the local network
1. REGIONAL SCALE AA’
Legend regional map
Legend urban map
a REGIONAL network for Banjar Bakula
AA’ Transkalimantan North
REGIONAL BUS + TRAIN - Adjustment + New network 5 to 10 km radius - 5 stops
Through strategic interventions (cut, add, profile) we adjust a n ongoing situation, clearing out a double system, along with its tasks, qualities and rhythms, always keeping in mind the waterscape as backgroung for any decision. The new network are thought to prepare for new developments, either urban or regional, opening up alternatives to a current overcrowded street-city system.
BB’ Transkalimantan Road + Urban Line / waterscape
DD’ - Transkalimantan / New line
2. URBAN SCALE
an URBAN network for the twin cities of Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru
ee’ - Ring road / Banjarmasin
LOCAL BUS - Improvement of existing network Integrated - 300 m radius - no formal stop
cc’ - A. Yani / Banjarmasin
FAST BUS (BRT) - New network Separated line - 1 km radius - 30 stops
Intermodal node - phase 1 - design for the meeting between systems
Banjarmasin / Along the historic canals - public space & local public transportation
Intermodal node - phase 2 - ready for the train to come
Banjarmasin / Banjarbaru/ A. Yani - public space, drainage & fast bus line - preparing for density
Banjarmasin / Along the main rivers - public transportation Hybrid terminal, preparing for new major urban functions
COLORING THE POLARIZED CITY Kathleen De Beukelaer, Saima Musharrat, Hanne Van Gils, Amaranta Vargas Mendoza
Banjarmasin - traditional river city - located at Barito River is the harbour city as ‘gateway to Kalimantan’. It sits delicately on the slightly raised riverbanks, surrounded by floodable (swamp) territory. It urgently needs to clarify protective strategies against flood risk and saline intrusion. But some of the expected new development may be crucial to the region’s economy and should probably be absorbed here The harbour is shifting towards the ava ea, whereas universities and public amenities shift towards the Transkalimantan road and Barito Bridge in the north. The traditional city uarters and Kampongs experience pressure from infrastructure and development. The typical harbour city at one side of the mighty river is everything but radio concentric, so it should not need a ring road. But the main city road is blocked by through-going traffic. And how can Banjarmasin cherish its water-based origin The Banjarmasin group investigates potential new identities for the polarized city that are in line with its landscape (and waterscape) and with its territory.
Reading of Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin is a key city that will grow rapidly. In order for the predicted doubling of population to take place, the growth model of the city needs to be closer looked at. Following the current trend, the edge of the city forms the first layer of possible urbanisation. As this 46
already causes some difficulties for the waterbased landscape, the question arised how this growth can take place differently. On top, it can be even stated how the new development can improve the old. Shifting from a concentric model towards a polycentric constellation, the
city will regain present identities including both present conditions as well as additional inputs. By shaping a clear urban figure and proffer a toolbox of actions, a transformation of the city will occur.
RIVERFRONT KA PUNG
SOLID OB ECTS
NEW DE ELOP ENT
FROM CONCENTRIC TO POL CENTRIC GROWTH Banjarmasin is a key city in the Banjarbakula region, framed all around by water. It is founded on the highest spot in which multiple rivers collide, resulting in a traditionally highly-water based growth. Nowadays, the city expanded between the rivers and is moving more and more within its edge. De-attached new developments and generic implementations as ring roads, reinforce this landscape-ignoring evolution. At first glance, the edge of the city forms an important area of tension as it will be the first new layer to be urbanised
commercial market education
health offices public services
tissue edge of 5m topogrphy line proposed ring roads focus zones CDS profile
Looking towards the edge
Two pending uestions arise: How will the city grow further? How can the new improve the old?
We distinguish multiple potentials and lingering identities at hand. Reinforcing this results in a shift from a concentric growth model towards a polycentric city. city
How the new can inforce the old
Colors of identity
REINFORCING THE INTERMEDIATE SCALE Each district will base itself on its specificity in order to induce change, created by a strong urban figure that symbolises the system of transformation. On the highest scale, it starts to uestion the collaboration of city, the 48
developers and the (future) inhabitants. In order to invest in the poly centre, all of them will have to place themselves in a set of rules. ooming in, the specificity of each district, will come into place. Today, various spatial conditions are present and have the possibility
to recalibrate the new urban system resulting in a new spatial figure with more pronounced hierarchy of these conditions. All together, this results in various spatial scenarioâ€™s on site, which also include the social dimension of each poly centre.
As the waterbody in between Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru will clearly divide the two cities, Banjarmasin will have to opportunity to be more explicit framed. The multiple centres allow to pursue the lingering identities present in the current condition. By directing the growth of the city towards these nodes, it allows the city to preserve its productive and water-regulating landscape in between or even be strenghtened waterscapes as wetlands. The specificity of each polycentre will be brought to the surface, resulting in various strategies. Covering the different designs, each searches for connections within the spatial as well as the programatic and social relations. A new urban system colours this transformation towards a polorized city.
REDIRECTING OF FUNCTIONS
commercial market education
health offices public services
inhabitants GAME RULES general
CITY new typology
new spatial figure
present spatial conditions
A CORE AND ITS DISTRICT - Each poly centre aims to create a higher uality of urbanity. It consist out of one or two cores within a certain district or influential zone where within these facets have their own implementation.
TOOLBOX OF ACTIONS - Depending on the scale and its corresponding actor, a toolbox of actions guides the new development. According to different categories, multiple strategies are stated.
$ wetland systyem
big shops along road
public transport water-based
CONNECTING CENTRE markets
small scale industry
urban shops along platforms road water-based
large scale industries
Each polycentre has a clear hierarchy $ $ of lines that create a new frame for each district. To enhance the identity, various spatial elements or programs are implemented.
A SYSTEM OF URBAN FIGURES -
5 p. GREENED INDUSTRY
LIVING WITH THE GREEN $
REINFORCING THE TRADITIONAL
SEQUENCING URBANITY + 250 000 p.
LIVING WITH THE GREEN
REINFORCING THE TRADITIONAL
The Trans-Kalimantan road forms the catalyst for the Northern part of the city. It holds the potential for having new typologies and being charged with urban elements. Bordered by an orchard system, the starting point is the green. The design strategy is to bring balance between the upcoming settlements and existing green. Taking the design toolbox as checkbox, the new developments are to add the improved living ualities that the city is missing. By connecting the voids with a green corridor and transforming them into platforms for large-scale functions, i.e research centre, university, commerce, park etc the strategy tries to break the current mono-functionality of the area and giving it an identity which is more than only living.
Being the oldest road since the birth of Banjarmasin, the artapura Lama holds great historical significance, including the commercial character. The challenge is thus to create conditions that would strengthen the traditional attributes of river settlements as well as creating new points of opportunities. In regional scale, this area lies in an important crossroad that can purify and retain the upstream water in a natural way before entering the city. Specific design strategies like connecting the water lines, upscaling small-scale industries and creating eco-tourism and recreational facilities provide for the future. All these, naturally, can be connected by introducing public water transport and reprofiling the existing road. By sharing common platforms of facilities, the new can meet the old while building an image of traditional, cultural and artisanal identity.
As one of the main links between Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru, A. ani road has gone through great transformation in recent years, which is mostly turning the buildingsâ€™ front facade towards the road into linear and dense commercial corridor. This has often been done by razing the first layers of dwelling and blocking the water. As a challenge, this road asks for creating beneficial choices for living and working by taking advantage of the existing landfill and references from landscape. Our design strategy gives orientation to the spaces by e uipping the road with public transport, generating secondary connections by strategically replacing bridges and making space for public facilities. Using the existing cross roads and water lines, micro worlds are created, while the landscape keeps flowing through. Layers of zoning redefine the spatial hierarchy providing options for a healthy urban mix.
5. FRAMING THE ADHESIVE GREEN ARMATURE Xxxx
FRAMING THE ADHESIVE GREEN ARMATURE Eleni Kasselouri, Danny Andres Osorio Gaviria, Sheeba Amir, Tarek Morad
Banjarbaru on the other hand sits (with Martapura) safely on the dry edge of the swamp at the foothills of the mountain range, as a slope city, and has good soil conditions. It has a history of distinct natural settlements and consecutive planned urbanism. Lately the provincial headquarters were founded here. But (the periphery of) Banjarbaru is sprawl-like and still holds a lot of potential for densification. Banjarbaru holds many identities. Today it lacks cohesion and consistency and a clear urban structure. Water run-offs from the higher grounds pierce through the tissue. The Banjarbaru group investigates the characteristic open (green) spaces around these water bodies as a potential adhesive structure, and as a necessary complement of the road network. A potential for Banjarbaru to receive new programmes and more housing, and to simultaneously gain urban qualities?
a STRATEGY for banjarbaru, lying on the outskirts of the mountains
URBAN GROWTH ALONG WATER AND INFRASTRUCTURE
A gradient of R-urbanity in the existing and emerging centers that drive urbanization
FRAMING THE ARMATURE
The existing green flows inside the city of Banjarbaru are currently part of a fragmented and dispersed urbanity, or being suppressed from the expanding urban tissue. The hidden potential of these flows is crucial for the new city, as they can constitute the new public spaces for the dense structure. Reversing polarity from negative to positive, they create ecological corridors that work together with the drainage system, while at the same time, connecting to the waterscape. In the framework of a compact but porous city, the green flows have a crucial role.
5 Minutes Walking Circle
Ridges and Valleys_ sub-watersheds and saddles
Amenities concentration along Ahmad Yani_ the civic spine of Banjarbaru
The relation of high land and low land
LEGEND urban green
Interwaving with the existing civic spine, the green armature constitutes a growing structure for the emerging city. Higher density and multiple new functions come along with the natural ecosystem. The green lines are formed by different green qualities; urban green, productive green, natural green and wetland green come together producing a variety of public spaces. The green lines are incorporating multiple scales and structure the territory for the ongoing urbanization process.
continuity of green system
Agro-city_ Densify as a strategy to protect the productive landscape
Green boulevards upgrading the airport-city
Open public space_ the center of the emerging city
Banjarmasin, the city of 1000 rivers, seen from the Martapura River
(RE) ORGANIZING THE TERRITORY: From Land use to Water rst approach to development - A case study on Banjarmasin
ASH M KUMAR MA A Academic ear 201 -2015 Master of Science of Human Settlements Faculty of ngineering Science Department of Architecture, Urbanism and lanning KU Leuven romoter Guido Geenen
Historical evolution Banjarmasin is typical e ample of development of Asian cities, growing out of an initial traditional nucleus and e panding due to impact of colonial and contemporary events. The city grew as a strong maritime trading settlement, trading mostly in pepper along with fruits, forest products and precious gemstones with China, ndia and urope3. The earlier production elds were present along the slanted dry landscapes as most of the marsh and swamps were une ploited and uninhabitable. Martapura river became the safe,ef cient and the only connection between the port of Banjarmasin and the hinterland. This led to the early settlements and agriculture along the Martapura river. The end of 1 th Century saw the decline of the pepper trade due to e ploitation and the trading importance of Banjarmasin was lost. The 1 th century discovery of Coal and trading of natural resources has once again revived and established Banjarmasinâ€™s economical role within Kalimantan.
1 2 - River and Road as complimentary system. Rice feilds only present in upstream communities.
Multifunction role of water Banjarmasin is the largest, signi cantly water oriented city in Kalimantan sland. The regions economical position has further strengthened its multi-functional role as space for settlements, daily use by inhabitants, sustaining agriculture and a uaculture, production of hydroelectric power. t also supports numerous small and large scale industries, mining and coal e traction, used for discharging of waste water and as a mode of transportation for nished and un nished materials and imported goods the port. roduction, rocessing and trading diagram shows a comple relationship between production, processing & trading activities in relation with water & road network in the region. ew con icts are emerging due to increasing shifts towards road based infrastructure, which is considered 3 SA D , A., R. A S, ., g 2, Volume 1
1 2 - tension of regional Roads. Agriculture along the River coridor
2015 - Stronger road network, additional connection to ort and Riam kanan Dam. Conversion of swamps to rice elds.
plorations, Water Urbanism Studio, 2015 21
a faster compared to waterways. Large scale activities such as coal manning and palm oil plantation are considered to be the new threats, though very small areas are within Banjarbakula, but large scale mining and palm oil estates are threatening the rivers upstream, bringing pollution, increase downstream sedimentation, increase ood risk and have reduced productivity by increasing pH value5 in water.
Current Situation - Abundance or Scarcity? The series of images represent a dichotomy of water and its impact on the growth of the city and region. The increase in seasonal variation is altering the landscape, settlements and might also play a negetive role in the economic aspiration set out by the regonal authorities.
Regional growth â€˜Banjarmasin and Banjarbakula, South Kalimantan, feature prominently in the medium-term plan ndonesia 201 -201 of the ndonesian government Simultaneously Banjarmasin is undergoing a dramatic transformation, shifting its waterbased origins towards road-based transportâ€™ Conte t for Urban planning and design studio 2015. The feildtrip revealed that the increased purchasing capacity of the inhabitants has allowed them to invest in private automobiles and also better uality housing outside the city. The peripheries of both Banjarmasin and Banjarbakula are dotted with private housing development due to more value in real estate. The road infratructre is being given priority and has led to similar fate of strip urbani ation along the major urban coridors such as Ahmed ani and the upcoming port road. The future metropolitan area without the lack of a visionary policy might lead to Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru become a continous urbani ed strip, lacking identity, and less connected to its landscape.
5 F A T , A., GR 22
The port bene ts the most due the presence of water, increasing a fast pace, it has become the major anchor for the regional import and e port activities.
The city owes its development success to the its ports and markets linked to the water. The water-trading ne us further supports a thriving services, banking and hotels industry. This additional infrastructure will support the future of city. Source http www.skyscrapercity.com showthread. php t 1 2 5&page 5
The increase in tides threatens the conditions of the slum like settlements, already under pressure due to poor condition of housing, lack of sanitation and public amenities. The new gated communities, are completely missing the water, wetland and e isting realities of the landscape. Source http www.citralandbanjarmasin.com
Unplanned warehousing built over reclaimed swamplands. are constantly ooded or need fre uent repairing.
The new speculative reclaimed landscape has become the new form of development. Leading to more locali ed oods
Reduced productivity due to constant ood and salinity 23
2 AR G
FRAM D B
verlapping Regional Conditions with ow networks
Economic Role of water in Production Water plays a signi cant role in the economy of Banjarmasin, with provision of water supply to the trading ports, hydroelectric production, and water for irrigating and water transportation routes for transporting coal, timber and other forest products. Water also supports the two important household industry of food production for local markets and Sasirangan cloth. The port, regional markets, transportation and warehousing, services and nance supported by water related activities constitute 50 of economic activity in Banjarmasin . The Comparison of the of decadal reduction in rainfall, reduction in agriculture production and increase in estate plantations and construction activities re ect change of economic priorities are changing due to un predictable water availability . The economic pro ling during the eldwork period revealed that water plays a crucial role in the large scale ort, rocessing, inter-island transportation and small scale Household agriculture, orchards, shing, shrimp farming economic activities of the region. The medium scale activities compose primarily of the trading and transaction and mid scale processing activates giving rise to increased dependency on road infrastructure leading to speculative warehousing corridors along the two key roads in the region. Many small and medium scale activities show a co-productive relation due to use and reuse of water creating a comple network of economic ows spread along the Banjarbakula region, yet tied to the framework established by the water landscape
Banjarbakula Region - A crucial intersection for Flows of water, trade of natural resources from upstream such as coal, palm oil and timber, e port of un nished products to ava, and import of nished products and The intersection of an e panding regional road create a con uence of natural and man made networks.
HAB TAT, City Visioning ro le Banjarmasin,
Banjarmasin in Figures 201 , B S Statistics of Banjarmasin City g 52 & 1, Volume 1
plorations, Water Urbanism Studio, 2015 25
Role of large scale projects in transforming the landscape? The process of initial occupation of the swamplands began with the 1 C Dutch canals connecting the Kapuas and Barito River and opening up swamps for occupation and polderi ation . The post-independence period saw a number of development projects, aimed at increasing food production. Tidal swampland development 1 0, Transmigration 1 0 to 1 0, and Mega Rice projects 1 having immense impact on the wetlands of South Kalimantan. These projects aimed at reducing poverty by rural development, promoting agricultural production to boost economy and natural resource conser-vation by intensive and diversi ed agricultural practices10 . The migrating population due to different agricultural practices signi cantly altered the landscape replacing traditional agricultural practices. The peat swamp acted as water holding reservoir during oods were affected by reclamation projects. eat swamps become dry leading led to fre uent res, acidic pollution of water.
mpact of olderi ation and swamp reclaimation. Source http www.kalteng.org projects.php news D 205 M GA R C R 10 F AR S D , . 2
Typical water intensive agricultural plot from Transmigration project in Barito Kuala. The productivity has dropped to one crop annually forcing farmers to nd work in city. Land conversion to il alm plantation - The mediocre yeilds and increased acidity of the soil led to failure in rice production. many such territories around banjarmasin are being converted to il alm lantaions. 11 alm plantation re uire forest clearing, leading to removal of essential biodiversity and old vegetation leading to washing of nutrient rich top soil. alm oil has provided much needed nancial gains to land holders, yet in longer run they led to total degradation of land, water resources and have drop in productivity.
25 year yeild and impact on production. Source http news. mongabay.com 200 0 1 -indonesia.html 11
TT R, L.,
Stone Mining along the foothills of banjarbaru, Major impact on the Riam Kanan watershed. Source Michael Stas, Studio eld trip
Large scale coal mining mpact in South Kalimantan,. Source Greenpeace Mining activities have altered the watershed and allow more runoffs downstreams. Thus increasing the risks of downstream ooding. Mingin industry also uses huge amount of fresh water for cleaning and transportation. Appro imately 33 of Barito watershed has been affected by mining activities12. Riam kanan and Riam Kiwa watershed have also been affected signi cantly by mining related to gem stones, construction stones, soil for swamp reclamation and other small scal activities13.
Stone Mining along the foothills of banjarbaru, Major impact on the Riam Kanan watershed. Source Marion Mukolwe. Studio eld trip
12 F A T , A., Greenpeace 13 g , Volume 1 plorations, Water Urbanism Studio, 2015 2
Water - roducing
Water - Holding &Transmitting
Water - Discharging 2
3 A W RK G LA DSCA Watershed Impact over Banjarbakula region Watershed study at the scale of Kalimantan is very crucial as Banjarmasin itself is located at the southernmost point of the basin. Banjarbakula region is part of the landscape shaped largely by the Barito River watershed,. t also includes the watershed regions of Martapura, Alalak, Riam Kanan and Riam Kiwa Rivers. Riam kanan watershed covers an area of 1000 S Km t is more important for the banjarbakul region as it provides water for the Dam power, ood control and irrigation . t is identi ed as one of the critical watershed within ndonesia 1 . Signi cant part of the Barito watershed and Martapura sub watershed has been affected by the agriculture, gra ing, gem stone mining, leading to heavy silting of the rivers. Further reclamation of swamps for housing and warehousing projects further reduces the water holding capacity and increase risk of ooding in future. The increase in mining, crop estates upstream ampli es the downstream impacts such as reduced productivity, ooding etc15 . A major part of the lower watershed lies within the Banjarbakula masterplan region,. Due to the low lying marsh swampy character and location it is continuously affected by the tidal and fresh water uctuations. Further urbani ation, increase of industrial activities, e pansion of port and development of regional infrastructure, roads and railways need to be carefully planned for both use and risk prevention in relation to water.
Total Watershed Blue Affecting Bajarbakula Region Black 1 MaC K , K., 15 g 3 , Volume 1 plorations, Water Urbanism Studio, 2015
Source Author, Spatial analysis of Digital levation Data for South Kalimantan 2
A Topography full of ‘Landscape Sinks’ - D M topography analysis. Source Author Area ‘A’ enlarged to show low lying areas in north of the city. The Topographic analysis shows a comple mi of swamp marsh and dry land and presence of ‘landscape Sinks’. The darkest areas highlight the lowest areas ranging from 0 to meters correspond to the swamp marsh conditions present between Banjarmasin and Banjarbakula. The city of Banjarmasin can be considered as a higher island between the Barito River and the marshes around it. 30
Revealing the landscape qualities. The Banjarbakula region re uire a deep analysis of its topography and geology, to reveal the hidden landscape potentials and also presenting distinguishing characteristics enabling us to divide the landscape into distinct parts. The Foothills - Are the primary forests for the water catchment. They received the early migration settlers primarily cattle herders from from Madura islands, who initiated the conversion of primary forests into productive forests and grasslands. Today the landscape includes production of rattan, minor forest products, gemstones and mining, house hold scale rubber due to its nutrient rich soil.The hills also have soil which allow water penetration.
Foothills - otential for developing forests. Source Studio Group work.
Riverbed eat Swamps - the low lands present a different hydro-geological composition with seasonal or permanent water logged conditions. A signi cant 12 .3 S Km area of the marsh is also occupied by peat swamp. eat swamp has various bene ts such as capacity to absorb water up to 50 of its volume. Acting as a huge water reservoir it provides resilience to saline intrusion, seasonal oods provide downstream water for irrigation during dry season and act as an ecological carbon sink. eat swamp in itself re uired huge amounts of water above it surface, during dry season many res are reported in the peat swamps in Banjarmasin.The e isting peat swamp along Ahmed ani Road area is reclaimed for development, which poses a threat in future. Riverbed Marshes - The wetlands are an important source of freshwater shes, duck farming to supplement rice production in rural areas.The traditional practices of burning the water hyacinth allowed the nutrients to return to the ecosystem, bene tting the a uaculture and produce paddy, galam wood, shing, water chestnut cultivation and house hold water.
Lowlands swamps and Marshes dominate the landscape of Banjarbakula regiona. Source Studio Group work.
Climate change challenges and impact Banjarmasin and its surrounding areas are below or e ual to sea level. This condition leaves the region vulnerable to climate change such as Sea level rise SLR , increase in upstream oods and saline intrusion of agricultural land. Reclaimed tidal swamplands which are crucial to the economy of the region will be signi cantly impacted by the sea level rise, risking the livelihoods of farming and agricultural communities. rovinces of Banjarmasin, Banjar and Barito Kuala are already impacted by the SLR. SLR of 0. 5 M can lead to 50 loss in 0 years and 100 loss of production in years production of rice 1 elds, fruits and sh shrimp farming. Saline ntrusion Level - The one around Banjarmasin is already effected by saline instruction. The tidal rise, dry irrigation channels during summers has aggravated the intrusion further. The peat along the eastern periphery of the intrusion shows resistance due to its freshwater holding capacity. Source Author
1 SA D , A., R. A S, .,
Sea Level Rise and Tidal Flooding - The analysis of D M and SLR
Upstream Floods - Deforestation, changes in topography due
highlights the areas which will be signi cantly affected by the combination of tidal ood and SLR. The dark blue ones show the ones with ma imum impact in such events. Most parts of Banjarmasin city will face tidal oods in within 25 to 50 years.Source Author
to mining and swamp reclamation has resulted in increased run off water causing major oods inland. The city with it narrow and urbani ed channels creates a barrier for the water discharge into Barito River. Source http www.bpbdkalselprov.info
mpact one mpact one
Superimposing climate change threats. Source Author
Banjarbakula Masterplan â€“ predicting land use over an unpredictable water landscape? The combination of the three different risk types the result is that the region orth and south region of Banjarmasin city will be the most affected areas of the Banjarbakula Masterplan one. The ones of Alalak, Sungai Tabuk, Mandastana, Martapura Barat and Astambul reserved for agriculture will be affected by the tidal rise of water. The proposed large a uaculture one near Martapura Barat will re uire a comple system of ood protection. The large one urban e pansion Gambut one close to future warehousing, food processing ones, should be minimi ed to prevent harm to the peat layer.
should be utili ed to minimise the impact. Areas south of the ndustrial corridor show decline of agricultural production and shift towards saline sheries near the estuaries and creeks. To sum up the greatest threats due to climate change will be the loss of productive capacity of the landscape. The reducing productivity and e isting road network will provide least resistance to speculative resistance and get urbani ed faster in future.
The tidal increase combined with salinity will also affect the warehousing and industrial corridor and Ahmed ani Road, in fact these two roads serve as perpendicular system which 33
Orchard City Experiential Corridor
Peat forest reservoir Regional Corridor
Safe Level 4.4 masl
Peat soil Salinity
Strategy Section - How three different ones are linked together Source Author Studiowork 3
WAT R F RST A
R ACH T
D V L
From source to confluence â€“ 3 strategic zones for water use. A deeper analysis and understanding revealed three distinct landscapes i.e. the hills are the source of water. The middle lands composed of both non tidal wetlands and Martapura River, the third one as a comple mi of rice elds, creeks and mangroves combining the agricultural and estuarine landscape ualities. The design approach was to create three distinct ones i.e. absorption one in foot hills, retention one as the transition between dry to marsh and nally the discharge one being the City and the agricultural areas south of the city. This approach helps on creating improved utili ation of water resources in conjunction with supporting landscape. Water management based upon the e isting and future possibilities helped to draw a water frame, capable of promoting upscaling, co-production amongst the stake holders and absorbing future economic activities.
T The following te t looks at how these three ones bene t water management and presents cases of traditional, hybrid and future land management techni ues based on water rst approach. The case studies are real e amples based on upscaling and co-productive strategies which are dynamic, accommodate changes and bene t the population supporting both the conomic and cosystem relationships. The U Millennium cosystem Assessment 200 states that water management based planning provides direct bene ts such as natural resource preservation and production enhancements with improved water uality, ood regulations, habitat conservation.
Rural Forest Clusters Rural Corridor
Fish Farms Urban Corridor
Fresh Water Production Waste Water Nutrient Flows
one 1 Abosorbtion one The main principle is to slow down the release of water into water streams, promote more surface in tration and provide for subsurface water recharge bene tting the dam and region. during dry season. Rehabilitation and addition of small scale water retention structures will enable retention of water, help revive surface water to promote afforestation and agro forest cluster practices Rice-Chicken- rchard . w forest will absorb more sub surface water and supplement the dam during dry season. Case Study - ‘Strengthening Community-Based Forestry and Watershed Management SCBFWM roject’ is already in practice to prevent forest and land degradation in order to
isting small scale Agro forestry clusters such as the above have the potentioal for upsacaling an inclusion into the larger vision plan. ne can see surface water rice cultivation along with Chicken and orchards. Source Author, Studio Feildtrip
one 2 Retiontion one
restore watershed functions and ecosystem services. Sumber aya program of - ‘Community Forestry’ land management contracts. Supports cluster farming at small and medium scale and improiving the social forestry aspect of the seconday forest.Source http www.scbfwm.org en
The retention one consists of the vast foothill swamps and low land marshes wetlands. These wetlands have immense potential for holding water and impove the regional landscape uality. These wetlands along with the occurance of peat can become the regional water reservoirs, provide an e panding landscape for water during rainy reason. They also trap sediments, promote ora and fauna and can support public programs, ecological parks and support medium to large scale production rocessing ones for sheries. or orchards. The banjarmasin wetlands have an immense potential to support economic development by supporting the and environmental dimensions of sustainable development of the region. Case Study - ast Kolkata Wetlands are a perfect e ample of ‘resource recovery systems using the city waste and storm water at rergional and urban scale’1 . Hong Kong wetland promote strong eco-tourism opportunities, along with waste water treatment at an urban scale. 1 CR M R, A RUDA K , H.
The kolkata wetlands are a vast landscape of shallow waster water ponds whihc allow shers and settlements on the eastern periphery of Kolkata. Source TH These wetlands collect e cess rainy season water also counter the daily and seasonal inter-tidal effects. the average production capacity of the Kolkata wetlands is 15,000 Tonnes Day of sh and 3, 00 Tonners Day of vegetables Refer and diagam. and also allows recycling of 50 Million Liters day of sewage and 2,500 tonnes of solid waste each day. supporting 1,000 inhabitants and 2,000 direct and indirect emplyment opportunities. 1 Case Study - Tan Hoa Lo Gom, Ho Chi Minh City. The roject is considered to be an innovative Urban upgradation project. The roject has had multipurpose effect on the neighbourhood. t is a 30 Hectare waste water lagoon, and provides ood risk, urban open space, social housing and public ameneties and public progreama such as markets, communiy house, and boat pontoon were concentrated within a speci c area. the 30 Hectare aerated lagoon serves a population of 120,000. 1 refer . Apart from recycling water the project also processes 2 tons of waster day.
Started a sites and services scheme the project enabled consolidation of the urban periphery and provided a large green lung space for the city. t also acts as limit for urbani ation. Source BTU
Fish pond & orchards within Banjarbaru can be potential urbani ation magnets, attracting housing, waste water treatment and productive agro-a uaculture. Source Google arth.
1 CR M R, A RUDA K , H. 1 BTU, Urban Upgrading n Ho Chi Minh City 3
one 3 - Discharge one The third and the most urbani ed one is the discharge one. t pro imity to river and to the river sea estuary creates two different conditions and re uires different strategies for development. The city-river sections should be removed of encroachments and develop ood proof infrastructure and urban oodable terraces within the city. ur project foccused more on the River sea estaury one as its the part which will accomodate the future urban e pansion. Looking back at the ualities of landscape the most appropriate strategies would be integrate develop a se uence of water pools supporting village development, agriculture and a uaculture to counter the salinty risk. Many farmers are shifting from paddy to shrimp farming, whihc over a period of time will gradually increase salinty in soil. The strategy is use land pro ling and multiple use for growing sh shrimp and ricea and water vegetables.
Case Study - G2 roductive, pro table, resilient agriculture & a uaculture systems project ndia and Bangladesh is aimed at mproving year-round a uaculture & rice-a uaculture productivity in salinity and water logged conditions. This practice can withstand the increase of 30 to 50 cm of water rise, and support more than two rice crops along with growing sh and vegetables. These practices have promoted cost and labour effective co-productive water management by involving indvidual farmers.
Stage one of the Farm-dyke consruction called â€˜gherâ€™ or enclosure. Source https cgspace.cgiar.org
isting systems such as the Rice- sh farming systems along with orange in Banjarmasin are an adaptation towards increased ooding and salinity and preseve the productive balance. Source Author, Studio Feildtrip Stage two of Rice on the elevated middle terrace and sh in the deeper periphery. during highwater level. The Man is seen to be cathing sh. Source https cgspace.cgiar.org 3
Stage three Growing paddy in the periphery during low water condition and vegetables on the dry middle terrace. Source The adaptation and land pro ling approach will reduce the risk of migrating to new agricultural areas, and yet provide and increased production value. conomic assesments of such intiatives at the scale of south Kalimantan show a higher economical bene t 20 for the small sector farming.
20 SA D , A., R. A S, ., 3
nformative comics strips for environmental awareness and potential of wetlands. Source http www.ramsar.org
Water is essential for all human settlements, and more so for Banjarmasin. The studio studies shows that current urban e pansion will continuously reduce the space for water and also impact production. The challenges for such an e panding region can be summari ed primarily as ood risk, space for urbani ation, ample economic opportunities, food and water security and identity. The watershed water management based approach re uires attention and planning right from its source to the con uence. Carefull assement of landscape and land use practices and thier relationship to water. n our case the Riam Kanan basin should be considered a priority one and included as part of the Banjarbakulaâ€™s Vision plan. A successful vision can be become the success story for adaptation along the Barito basin. The project conceived for Banjarmasin is result of overlapping natural systems, landscape ualities, e isting production practices and spatial possibilities for future, which are based on the e isting conditions of Banjarmasin. A strong water management approach will create multiple use of the e isting space, creating new productive opportunities and providing natural ecosystem services. The shift from the generic land use to a more sensitive location speci c water centric approach has to be thought as a long term process which re uires a long-term planning process. t will re uire detailed data collection and mapping of the region. Finding the right stakeholders and educating them for developing partnerships, appropriating clever investment from both public and private sectors and the combination of environmental and technological advancements. The approach, process and implementation of a water vision itself will create a nature like evolving network, generating small, medium and even large scale activities providing immense economic opportunities and support the e panding population in a holistic way. 1
R F R
SHA , K. D M ULD R, B., Water Urbanisms ast, urich ark books, 2013 Volume 1 KU L UV
plorations, River and road as the warp and woof, , 2015
U HAB TAT, City Visioning ro le Banjarmasin, Kalimantan, U HAB TAT ndonesia f ce, akarta, 2012 B SS TT , .F. B R ARD, S. D K CK, R., Borneo Transformed Agricultural pansion on the Southeast Asian Frontier, US ress, Singapore, 2011 MaC K , K., The cology of Kalimantan, Tuttle ublishing, Vermont 2013 M GA R C R CT, http www.kalteng.org projects. php news D 205 May 30, 2015 TH S C AL A D VR M TAL M ACT F ALM L http greenpalm.org about-palm-oil social-and-environmentalimpact-of-palm-oil May 30, 2015 F A T , A., GR AC , Coal Mines Kalimantanâ€™s Water, Greenpeace, akarta, 201
TT R, L., il alm And The ew Transmigration n ndonesia amples From Kalimantan, Resource Management in Asia aci c rogram,A U, SA D , A., R. A S, ., Sea Level Rise in South Kalimantan, ndonesia - An conomic Analysis of Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture, Technical paper o. 200 -RR1, SA, Singapore, 200 A T , ., D., Sarah LUML , S., and RUML , D., Farming Systems in Swampland cosystems A case study in South Borneo, ndonesia, th Annual Conference of The Australian Agricultural and Resource conomics Society, erth Frematle, 12 1 February, 2003
AH AT, S., ., epper Trade and the Sultanate of Banjarmasin in the 1 th 1 th Century, nternational ournal of Science and Research SR , Volume 3 ssue , August 201 H LM S, A., D., ndonesia Where have all the forests gone , nvironment and Social Development Unit AS S , ast Asia and aci c Region of the World Bank, 2002. F AR S D , ., M., Transmigration in ndonesia Lessons from ts nvironmental and Social mpacts, nvironmental Management Vol. 21, o. , pp. 553 5 0, Haryanto, ., T., t al, Actual Water Availability and Water eeds in rrigation Area of Riam Kanan in South Kalimantan rovince, Academic Research nternational, Vol. o. ovember 2013 DRABUD , H. D G R, A. FR SC , L., ., Deforestation and its driving forces a case study of Riam Kanan watershed, ndonesia, Land Degradation & Development, Land Degrad. Develop. , 311 322 1 http blog.worldagroforestry.org inde .php 201 10 01 thir typercent-forest-or- 0-agroforest-which-will-make-an-indonesianwatershed-healthy https miftahulmunir.wordpress.com 200 03 0 peta-potensibanjirtanah-longsorkebakaran-dan-kekeringan-kalimantan-selatanjanuari-april G2 roductive, pro table, resilient agriculture & a uaculture systems, nternational Water Management nstitute WM , https cgspace.cgiar.org bitstream handle 105 1 5 0 G2 RR roject 20description.pdf se uence 1 CR M R, A RUDA K , H. Kolkata -the bodies of water, TH Basel
BTU, Une pected Social mpact of an nfrastructure roject, Urban Upgrading n Ho Chi Minh City, Re ection paper o.2, anuary 201 3
WATER URBANISM REMEDIATE WETLANDS IN TROPICAL URBANISM A CASE STUDY ON BANJARMASIN Subtitle
In the context of South East Asian, especially in Indonesia, wetland is everywhere as paddy field, marsh land and swamp forest. However, under the pressure of hyper urbanization and the threats of climate change, the potentials of wetlands have not been activated. While wetlands have its great benefits in reestablishing Banjar ecology and accommodatingthenextcomingpopulation,ifbeingwellmanaged.By studying on the science of wetlands, I want to explore the potentials of wetlandeco-systeminBanjar‘desa’and‘kota’environment,getinspired fromitsnaturemechanismtoapplyindevelopingdesignguidelines,and re-qualify its importance to local authorities’ research.
Content: 1. Science of tropical wetlands 2. Beneficial interaction: Potentials of wetlands to Banjar ‘desa’ and ‘kota’ 3. Recovering device: The mechanism and cycles of exchange to recover the urban - nature ecology 4. Developing Design Strategy: Wetlands as a room for water | public | productivity | urban puntuation 5. Intermediate scale: Water management in time - space (scale) framing productive and recreational activities
STUDIO TEAM Bruno De Meulder Guido Geneen Tom Van Mieghem Stefanie Dens Cynthia Susilo Spring Studio 2015, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Quynh Nhu LE Thesis paper, June 2015 Master of Human Settlements, K.U Leuven Promoter: Guido Geneen, prof ir-arch K.U Leuven
HIDDEN STORY OF WETLANDS’ SYNERGY Potentials and threats of wetlands to Banjarmasin ‘desa’ and ‘kota’
WATER SHIFT, the manmade system destroyed the wetlands’ ecology and caused serious flooding
THE SHIFT The dramatical shift in plantation causes the loss of wetlands area. In the past Banjar districts were developing along the linear structure of water bodies. New canals and Irrigation were set up in 1919 during the Dutch came but not yet destroyed the patch work of existing water patterns. When the new Dam was constructed in the late 1930s and A. Yani road came in 1942, these provides system for water and transport serving for intensive farming and paddy cultivation. The shift from natural swamps to tidal rice swamps, more or less still enhancing the wetlands ecology. However, we all know, agriculture industry may cause pollution water resources, Also the shift from waterbased urbanism to road-based urbanism turned wetlands and rivers into backyard for gabbage dumping. Now the problems started seriously. One of the threats nowadays causes disappearing of Banjar wetlands is Plam plantation, This is a cash crop but consequencely a disaster if not being wellmanaged by the government. Intensive plam puts wetland in danger because they dried out the land by dense irrigation system, and damage the soil, especially on peat soil. However, there are many sustainable adaptation for plam oil plantation if they were planted in mix crops or multi crops together with forest ecogoly.
PLANTATION SHIFT, the dramatically changes from swamps to dried palm plantation within recent years 6
DESA: In Banjar districts’ “desa” environment, the counties Martapura has an extensive freshwater wetlands becoming suitable for raising fish. Vegetable production is also a household activities for income. Variety species can be found here as: water spinach, nut, paddy, Rambai trees, lotus, reeds, etc. Apart from those who raising fish and growing vegetables. Matapura kampungs are very lively with traders, retailers, porters, auctioneers, people making nets, handicrafts, etc. A great many people... and poor people depending on the Wetlands for thei livelihoods.Wetlands often refer to economic value because they help inhabitants in this rural area. Wetlands themselves provide commodities, but they are also a processing place for those goods. or environmental benefits, wetlands play variety of roles as water infiltration, flooding management and natural proccess maintenance. However, the government is less monitor these areas. As we know, the less control will lead to more spontaneous private development covering up the swamps. Acknowledging about wetlands can teach farmers to be self-improved in skills and technic. For example, developed wetlands towards the biological resources (fish agriculture - forest) and energy (biomass, hydropower, solar energy). In coastal swamp community, they can learn the mix agroculture (fish-shrimp, paddy, mangrove) natural disaster prevention (extreme floods, winds, storms), and maintaining water quality for further crops. Farmers can be teached to be protector.
KOTA: In the urban conditions, besides of constributing to bio-diversity, wetlands can play a role as parklands which contributes to a very important aspect of visual uality. This usually reflects the real estate increase. The relation between economic value of real estate and parkland is the distance between home and park, the nearer, the higher. Moreover, â€œthe natural sustainable features of neighborhoods are always evaluated by residents as a desirable places for social interactionâ€? (Noiseux and Hostetler, 2010). Therefore the value of real estate increase due to proximity to the park. For Banjarmasin context, instead of being a backyard, gabbage collector, and sewage ponds, wetlands can be transformed into a new public park, which is just only 10km away from the city center. The desire of wetland park not only serves for Banjarmasin citizens but also for next coming of Banjarbaru citizens due to its inbetween location.
WETLANDS ECOLOGY in South Kalimantan
According to this new program, wetlands have additional culture benefits for children, where designer can provide enough open space with vaious out-door activities to encourage active play (Ozdemir, Yilmaz, 2008) and opportunities for children to learn about ecological functions and food production (McAleese and Rankin, 2007). In summary, there are growing evidences which showed that human contact with natural features in the urban environment can help to reduce stress and promote well-being, leading to greater community pride, and increased social interaction and ties (Alberti, 1999 and Chiesura, 2004).
source: group work, Studio Water Urbanism 2015 7
SCIENCE OF TROPICAL WETLANDS Wetlands’ definition in tropics “Wetlands are areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season. Water saturation largely determines how the soil develops and the types of plant and animal communities living in and on the soil. Wetlands may support both aquatic and terrestrial species. The prolonged presence of water creates conditions that favor the growth of specially adapted plants and promote the development of characteristic wetlands soils.” (USA, EPA, 2012). Wetlands vary widely due to both local and regional differences in topography, soils, climate, water condition, vegetation, and also human factors. There are different needs for distinguishing among hundreds types of wetlands, so far, no single wetlands classification system is being used. Indeed, in tropics, particularly in Banjarmasin case study, two general types of wetlands are recognized: tidal wetlands (as coastal area) and non-tidal wetlands (as inland area). Defining by vegetation typologies, Banjarmasin periphery has three types of wetlands. The first one is Marshlands, which have soft-stemmed vegetation and plentiful nutrient soil conditions. According to the studio site visit, there two sub types of marshes: tidal marhses (i.e, riparian marshes) and non-tidal marshes (i.e, wet meadows, productive fields, sinkholes...). Secondly, Swamps where wetland is dominated by wood plants have two sub types as forested swamps (with hardwoods) and mangrove swamps living in fresh, brackish and saline tidal water. The last one is Peatlands characterized by spongy peat deposits. Surrounding Banjarmasin, we also found a complex peatland condition where the forested bogs live side by side with the shrub fens.
Wetlands as home for wild life
Relation of size of wetlands and its function
Left - Forested peatlands Right - Productive marshes with livelyhood in Banjarmasin city
Multi use of wetlands in tropics ilter: They filter pollutants and excess nutrients out of water, as it soaks into the ground. Sponge: They absorb stormwater, reducing the risk of flood. This slow absorbtion also allows for much of the water to soak through the soil, recharging our ground water supply. Nursery: any species of amphibians, mammals, reptiles and birds rely on the safe wetland environment to raise their young. Wetlands often lack the large fish species and other predators that may feed on their young. Hotel: any migrating waterfowl, shorebirds, and songbirds rely on stopping at wetlands during their migrations in the spring and fall. Wetlands offer a wide variety of high protein organisms for them to feed on, allowing them to refuel.
SEWAGE SYSTEM, comparison between hard engineering and natural system. Another benifit is open system saves much money than the underground one.
Home: In addition to the other wildlife mentioned, countless small organisms (insects, worms, snails, leeches, crustaceans) and plants make wetlands their home. Wetlands offer a very unique habitat. Recreation destination: They provide beautiful views and plenty of opportunities for recreation (birdwatching, canoeing, hunting, exploring). Different from the hard engineering system, which just only transfers the pollutant from one place to another place, wetlands can be considered as a soft engineering to purify and manage both surface and underground water. Moreover, â€œnot just only use for pollutant treatment, wetlands is also recognized as an riparian buffers functioned in many different ways depending on the size itselfâ€? (Hellmund and Smith, 2006). Managing urban wetlands can be challenging due to the competition between demands of wetland habitat conservation and the need for recreational, educational and scientific opportunities for people. Nevertheless, multiple uses must coexist in an urban environment (Zedler and Leach 1998). So that the only thing left is deciding how best to coexist with increasing interesting of people. Designers should make decision of which area is limited to the public and which is allowed low-impact recreation as well as the place for intensive public activities.
ONEONTA TIDAL LINKAGE project, a 0.7 ha of multiple use wetland at Tijuana Estuary, which is the restoration site and also serves both recreation and research.
MULTI USES, depending on the size itselt, wetland can be manged with variety of flora and fauna, and ,plus, pulic activities. 9
RECOVERING DEVICE THE MECHANISM AND CYCLES OF EXCHANGE TO RECOVER THE URBAN - NATURE ECOLOGY 10
EXCHANGE DEVICE Basing on the character of tropic condition: high temperature, a year round strong sun light, extrem rainfall in one season and dry in the other period... Banjar districtsâ€™ area can be divided into three possible major practices of water purification: Lagoons occupied on the low-lying downhill of Banjarbaru city are collecting wastewater from the city and serving for the new coming population. Gambut forest working as a natural proccess which can absorb and recycle wastewater from productive activities. With the abundant peatsoil, preserved peat forest can serve as a multi defense of saline instrusion. Wastewater treatment can also used in Productive wetlands as the indigenuos way farmers using in rural area by fisheries and growing paddy together with vegetables on gabbage or sewage compost.
THLG project, HCM city, Vietnam
PROPOSED BANJARBARU lagoons, SK, towards 2050 with double of population
LAGOON: Tan Hoa Lo Gom as a reference project based on simple technology is constructed a blight swampy area within the urban fabric. The self-purification of lagoons as natural ecological wastewater treatment gives priority to discharge and reuse. The lagoons not only solved the problem of water pollution but also provided public open space, water storage and created micro climate benefiting for surrounding neighborhoods.
source: group work, Studio Water Urbanism 2015
This kind of system can give more opportunities to Banjarbaru city where the lagoons is situated on downhill side with advantages of micro-topography slope and in between many flows of blue and green system. This gives possiblity for lagoons to be catchment area and revives the ancient water flows to be once again an important part of the city 11
REDIRECT WETLANDS Proposed Strategies
PROVINCIAL PLAN towards 2050
THLG project, HCM city, Vietnam 12
PHASE 1 proposed strategy
source: group work, Studio Water Urbanism 2015
PHASE 2 proposed strategy
PHASE 3 proposed strategy
source: group work, Studio Water Urbanism 2015
INTERMEDIATING SCALE Water management in time - space (scale) framing productivity and public domain GAMBUT: In South Kalimantan, peat subdistrict can be found 17 kilometer away from Banjarmasin city with 12 930 hectares which is 2.77% of Banjar district. Peatlands have high porosity as waterlogged areas, which can absorb water up to 85% of its weight. Therefore it has ability to prevent flooding during rainy season moreover, it reserves water in peak event and can release water during dry season, in which case it has much potentials in prevention of saline instrusion. At the coastal area of South Kalimantan, there are multi layers of peatlands which give great potentials as a multi defense of saline instrusion together with the mangrove ecobelt. The peat itself as a back-up resources not only stores water but also provides vegetables and food resources, wildlife, and energy sources. However, intensive plantation is rapidly expanded reclaming peatlands for agriculture. This would damage the ecosystems, and in the end, the shift of peatlands’ function leads to serious flooding. Actually, the peat bogs in South Kalimantan protect people and bring a lot of benefits, however, whereas with no reclamation will the authorities reconsider these things? PRODUCTIVE WETLANDS: “Chiken waste from domestic industries and kitchen waste from cooking are composted to enrich the land fertilizer for growing vegetable and fruits. Sewage water feeds the orchards, vegetables and fish. After removing contaminants, this water used for growing rice and irrigation before coming back to rivers.” (interview, Studio fieldwork, 5). This zero-waste cycle in rural Banjarmasin areas is experienced with sewage and waste composted farming system. This system currently is a very good experiment for our design being used by indigenous farmers, however, lack of technical support. This simple and ecological technique began simultaneously and has remained since then. The term of aquaculture makes use of wastewater from human and farming as a source for nutrients and warmer temperature to grow plants and fish. This is also used in the case of East Kolkata Wetlands (India) with the total areas of 3500 hectares which can produce tons fish and 5 tons vegetables per day. (source: www.dfid.stir.ac.uk/ dfid/nrsp/kolkata.htm.) DEVELOPING DESIGN STRATEGIES: According to the Provincial Plan 2008, Bajarmasin will double the population and fill up may parts with conrete surface. We want to adjust some details for the new development in the next 50 years. First of all is taking into account the wetlands’ ecology system as an extra rooms for water together with reducing urban footprint on swampy land. The constructed lagoons and wetlands should be placed in the first phase too, by which the authorities can manage the waste water for further develpment. Secondly, the saline defense is being raised as the second important step to protect the ecosystem inland and intensive productive activities. Decentralized the productive and industrial processing area is a part of the second phase to provide dynamic agri-aquaculture and enhance and preserve the peat bogs for wildlife culture and second saline defense. When all the big strategies of the machine are established, then the next are small interventions within various community can be implemented to strengthen the system where new coming urbanization can be protected on dryer land and decentralized within the landscape.
WET LANDSCAPE Although the integration between wetlands and public domain is neccessary and bring a huge and various benefits, how to apply them in the design is also a question for urban designer? For example, by reviewing the thoeries of landscape ecology principles, buffer zone is required between urban and nature, wet and dry, high land and low land to reduce the impact of one on each other. Wetlands is the one that has ‘in-between’ chracteristic to enhance the two identities. In addition to the edge theory, while the straight one encourages more pieces of movements long it, the convoluted one tends to have more movements crossing through. In this case we provide infiltration of movements in or just along the environment. Comparing to the straight edge which separates two areas aside, a curvilinear edge with tiny patches may provide a number of ecological benefits, including less soil erosion and greater wildlife usage.
Landscape Ecology theory, patterns landscape elements (Richard T.T Forman, 1995) 13
Extra storage in peak events for emergency
The mechanism of cycle and exchange of waste , water and production between Cities and Wetlands can be showed in this scheme. This also shows the relation among different local stakeholders in water management. Normally, the system starts from the compact agencies (Riam Kanan DAM) provide clean water for downstreams. Plus, in the case of Banjar districts, we can have several small check dams benefiting for productive forest and chicken farming communities. These work as forested swamps storing more water in extreme wet season and reducing pressure on downstream. Then, clean water will be provided by feeder system (canals) to irrigation. On the city scale, there are different services working as drinking water supply, recycling service, purification service and compost service for better output water quality.
RIAM KANAN DAM
check DAM villages
check DAM villages Excess of clean water
Water purification forested swamps
PDAM AGENCY Drinking water storage D
Service of water reuse
Drinking water consumption
Excess of drinking water
FOREST (peatlands + swamps)
Lagoons (water purification) CONTRUCTION COST
TIME FOR PURIFICATION
Comparison among three main purification system in tropics MULTI DEFENSE of Saline instrusion
Contruxted PEAT + WETLANDS
Productive wetlands villages
WATER QUALITY OUTPUT
E Compsted service
B Drinking water consumption
Service of water reuse
Spongy forest (peat + manrove swamps)
Extra storage in peak events used as sources in dry season
Unrine PD PAL wastewater plants Grey water
Proposed wastewater management based on Banjar Districtâ€™s wetland-ecology and local angencies 14
PRODUCTION CYCLE Rainwater run-off and water discarded after being used for a wide range of human activities every city of the world must find a way of dealing with its wastewater, but it can be ca useful resources for municipal authorities, development agencies, farmers, fishers by wetlandsâ€™ treatment. As an exchange, productivity can increase by wetland management. According to the local production cycle through out a year, farmers can manage and mix crops due to wet and cry conditions, especially paddy and fish farming in which young paddy needs great amount of water in transplanting period and mid-growing period, in these period, fish can be growed together with rice and be more productive. In the same logic multi and mix crops can be cultivated on dryer land such as dyke system, which created a dynamic productive landscape in Banjar desa area. On regional scale, the exchange of production and water is much stronger as each area plays a role in the system. Wetland management leads to economic and ecological sustainability.
Production cycle, relation of local aquaculture and agriculture and precipitation in one year round.
Rural Forest Clusters Rural Corridor
Fish Farms Urban Corridor
Orchard City Experiential Corridor
Peat forest reservoir Regional Corridor
Safe Level 4.4 masl
Fresh Water Production Waste Water Nutrient Flows
Peat soil Salinity
Water and production cycle in regional scale
source: group work, Studio Water Urbanism 2015 15
FLOODING MANAGEMENT Wetlands as a room for water
8 to 10 meters 6 to 8 meters 4 to 6 meters 2 to 4 meters 0 to 2 meters 0 1
Sea level rise and precipitation in S.K
Provincial lood risk according to topography condition
source: group work, Studio Water Urbanism 2015
BUILDING RESILIENCE The urban water management challenges in South Asia are immense and will increase due to the predictd effects of climate change, disturbed terrain due to urbanization process and continuously rise in population. Todayâ€™s world, many science and advanced technological implementation are applied to con uer natural forces. et, perhaps, ancient and indigenuous territories offers resources and efficiency to tackle the contemporay water management problems. In the case study of Banjarmasin, Wetlands and Gambut can, probably, be an efficient model to this. However, in fact, these ecologies are disappearing while large investment are being made to build new urbanization, contain water in pipe, embankment riverfronts and relaimation of intivesive plantation, especially plam plantation. But urbanization, agriculture and flood control are developed in different sectors giving contrdictory problems. There is the possibility for regional planning to take the soft engineering approach to work with nature. Vision for Banjar districtsâ€™ territories can build a resilient landscape which reconstructing the settlements 16
source: by Author
The rivers and wetlands are choreographed to respond to different levels of flooding
WATERSCAPE : multi-purpose space at the core of intertwined scales A study on Banjarmasin
Valentine VAN DEN EYNDE / Bruno DE MEULDER - Guido GEENE Master Thesis : Studio urban design and planning
K.U.Leuven, faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Department of Architecture, Master of Science of Human Settlements, 2014-2015
CONTENTS ROLES & NATURES OF WATER Water cycle, water types, issues and opportunities Uses and appropriation of water FROm TRAdiTiONAL hOUSES TO CURRENT ORgANiSATiON USiNg WATER mANAgEmENT interaction between culture and spatiality Ways to live in South Kalimantan Shifts in waterscape, urbanscape ad socialscape Evolution of living with the water Conclusion
CONTEXT OF ThE STUdY many cities in the world, and especially in South-East Asia, are dealing with strong water conditions. Often heavily depending on river networks, they are currently facing issues such as flood, pollution, salination or drought. Attitudes toward water are changing with urban development and “live on, or next to, water” might become a renewed concept. South Kalimantan is one of the four provinces of Borneo island. The province is crossed by the mountain chains of meratus, dividing the area into two distinct regions with different conditions. The western part of the province is mainly made of fertile lowlands such as marshlands, swamps and mangroves forests while the eastern part is mostly higher lands with agriculture and productive forests. People and traditions are a real mix of Javanese, maduranese, Banjau, Bugenese, Chinese and Arabs cultures as dayak, malay and Javanese populations met with Arab and Persian traders 1. most of the people live from agriculture, mining and trade. South Kalimantan is commonly named the Province of a Thousand Rivers due to its intense territorial water, both rivers and swamps. The main river of the province is the Barito, which is also the longest river of indonesia (6,000 km) 2. in a context of islands, sea rhythms, such as tides, have crucial influences on the environment. Rivers like the Barito bring the tides into the land, creating variations of water levels and tidal swamplands with saline conditions. Various water types as well as different kinds of soil and profiles offer great and various economic opportunities for the region to develop. The water context of the province could be described as a superposition of surfaces, such as swamps, lakes or valleys, of lines, as the combination of natural rivers and man-made canals, and of crucial points, such as dams, junctions of systems and cities. This organisation interplays more or less efficiently and is the main element of landscape. Banjarmasin, capital of South Kalimantan, is located next to the region of Banjar, in the middle of the lowlands, on the Barito banks and is crossed by the martapura river and a dozen canals. Subject to tidal influence, the proportions of water and land constantly evolve, punctuating inhabitants lives and changing territorial limits 3. The city has long been part of a culture of living with water either it is for economy, transport or daily lives. Located below sea level and due, among others, to environmental changes, the city needs to define a new relation with water and challenges the way to live with it. 1 http://www.borneo.com.au/bo00010.htm 2 SAidY A., AZiS Y. “Sea Level Rise in South Kalimantan, Indonesia: An Economic Analysis of Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture” 3 KUSLJANSJAh K., SURiANSYAh Y. “The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model “
Rivers system in indonesia with current coastlines and Sundaland area when low sea level - TVEdT E., JAKOBSSON E. « A HISTORY OF WATER : water control and river biographies »
+ 0,5 m
+2 m Crops Agriculture grassland
Wetland Forest Wood production Urbanisation
Flood drought Forest
Peat Wetlands Urbanisation
Water levels, land use, infiltration soils and condition of South Kalimantan province 5
WATER CYCLES, WATER TYPES, iSSUES & OPPORTUNiTiES 1_hydrological cycle
3_water issues and opportunities
Water is continuously circulating on the planet. Access and use of this water rely on the hydrological cycle and its management or preservation. The hydrologic cycle is the continuous transfer of water from one of the four storage site to another one. These four storage sites are: in the oceans, in the atmosphere as clouds and water vapour, on the land surface in lakes, ponds, streams and rivers, and underground as groundwater. To move from a storage area to another one, six solar-driven processes are recognised: evaporation, transpiration, precipitations, infiltration, runoff and base flow (through seepage) 1. in order to use the water, human interrupt the cycle in three ways: pumping from rivers, storage and pumping groundwater. Those actions can have negative effects such as water mining leading to withdrawal of groundwater and contamination of aquifer when waste water is released, affecting water sources both in the short and the long terms (quality and quantity). While a huge amount of water reaches the Earth surface, only a few percentage is suitable for human use. Among it, around 70% is used for agriculture purposes, 20% for industry and power generation and only 10% used for direct human consumption 2.
in the context of South Kalimantan, several issues related to water can be noticed. Among them, some are more related to natural phenomena while others are due to human activities. Salination affects water and soils located close to the sea and can lead to difficulties in terms of agriculture, farming and fisheries (even though specific plants and fishes can be raised in salt water) but mostly it decreases soil quality and makes it complicated to provide fresh and clean water. As consequences of current environmental concerns, sea levels are rising and seasons are disturbed and reinforced. Those conditions lead to threatened delta cities, coasts and ecosystems, to reinforce salination and to increase rains and droughts 4. human activities for agriculture and urban development led to huge deforestation in South Kalimantan, increasing land erosion and sedimentation while decreasing water ground quantity and quality and protection of ecosystems 5. Another issue caused by human interventions is stuck water because of re-profiling land or of infrastructure. Those constructions might interrupt the way water has to flow to join the sea and lead to stagnant wetlands. Water withdrawal may cause the watershed to lose its ability to function as a purification system. However, even human activities might be affected as dried-out soil encourages salinity, erosion and water retention while pollution increases 6. industries, agriculture, domestic life, fisheries and mining contaminate water creating polluted water and destroying natural balances. however, the nature and level of fresh water pollution strongly depends on socio-economic development 7. human settlements on the banks of rivers also have effects on streams, reducing width of the river and polluting with waste. in addition to that, when banks are reinforced, water cannot find space to extend anymore, leading to stronger floods. Urban development also reduces infiltration by increasing impermeable areas and runoff water (as well as pollution). All those issues must be taken into account while managing water to develop opportunities and improve both quality life and economical aspects but also to preserve ecological dynamics. in fact, without doubt water and its abundance or its scarcity as well as its quality will define human well-being, environmental sustainability and economic activities 8.
hydrological cycle and various pathways of water in a catchment area - TVEdT E., JAKOBSSON E. « A hiSTORY OF WATER : water control and river biographies »
2_multiple types of water Back in time, water was mainly used for daily needs and transportation. Overtime, sedentary populations developed and increased their needs of water, developing technologies to divert water for irrigation, domestic purposes or transport 3. Water can be available under various forms such as salt water, fresh water, surface water, groundwater, black and grey waters or drinkable water. Following water quality and uses, water can be more or less treated to reach clean water standards, fresh water levels or less polluted conditions. 1 WAPAC “The Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Rhode Island” 2 UNEP “Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication” 3 FAO Agriculture Series “The state of food and agriculture” 8
4 SAidY A., AZiS Y. “Sea Level Rise in South Kalimantan, Indonesia: An Economic Analysis of Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture” 5 FAO Agriculture Series “The state of food and agriculture” 6 WAPAC “The Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Rhode Island” 7 FAO Agriculture Series “The state of food and agriculture” 8 UNEP “Measuring water use in a green economy”
USES ANd APPROPRiATiON OF WATER
CVUA L U
Equity Poverty Sustainability Climate changes
S ED S
1 KOCi V. “LATTiCE dURRËS: Water Urbanism in Periurban Area” 2 mUNASiNghE m. “Water Supply and Environmental Management“ 3 BAC dORiN P. “Sustainable development – A theoretical approach” 4 UNEP “Measuring water use in a green economy”
NEOOD SIC I H BLAIVEL
The notion of sustainability, which must be taken into account in today’s reflexions, can be approached from a three-ways relationship between nature, people and economy. in fact, current landscapes are made of both natural systems, such as hydrology, airflow, climate, vegetation or topography, and human settlement, such as urban development, infrastructures, productive areas, etc. in addition to those two elements, a third one can be added: human organisations. in fact, culture, social relations, politics or even economic environments shape landscape and influence territorial design 1. Those three approaches to sustainable development were brought to light by munasinghe. “The economic view is geared towards improving human welfare, primarily through increases in the consumption of goods and services. The environmental domain focuses on protection of the integrity and resilience of ecological systems. The social domain emphasizes the enrichment of human relationships and achievement of individual and group aspirations. The interactions among domains (represented by the sides) are also important to ensure balanced assessment of trade-offs and synergies that might exist among the three dimensions. Issues like poverty may be placed in the centre of the triangle to re-emphasize that they are linked to all three dimensions” 2. Each one of those aspects has its own forces and objectives but a balance between them must be found in order to integrate sustainability into the reflexion 3. in every context, we can find those three aspects but in various proportions. While talking about water management, economy is often the most developed axe, sometimes to the detriment of ecological values and social aspects of water, probably because it is the value that brings the most advantages of development in people’s perspective. however, water is vital in three ways: “it is an asset essential for life and a common good for human well-being, it is a production factor and economic asset essential for economic prosperity, and, integrating these two, it is a vital environmental asset essential for the maintenance and regulation of the ecosystem services that ensure the long-term sustainable provision of the economic and social goods and services on which prosperity depends” 4. Water is one of the most crucial natural elements that create the landscape. And, as we saw, it is way more than landscape. This is even more true in the context of South East Asia and South Kalimantan where water imposes its rythms.
LT E UR S E
1_triangle of sustainability
2_ecological aspect The ecological aspect of sustainable development should maintain resilience and robustness of biological and physical systems. Fresh water is a vital resource to humans, animals and plants health both in aquatic and land based systems. Unfortunately, this aspect of water is rarely taken into account while organising economical assets for further development. Water provides habitat for fauna and flora but it also transports nutriment that can feed other ecosystems while it can influence climate and generate insitu benefits 5. Natural environment is a clever balance between various ecosystems that need to be protected. Some of them strongly depend on water while others use it as an irreplaceable contribution supply. Protecting the natural ecosystems of river basins and restoring degraded catchment areas is crucial to secure the world’s water supplies, maintain their quality, regulate floods and mitigate climate change 6 . Considering water as an ecological asset brings the fact that water is made of flows that keep running. Everything is about movement and at the same time water does not stop flowing. The question of water as a renewable resource or not is brought on the table. The notion of water cannot go without the aspect of evolution. due to tides, seasons and uses, water levels, withdrawals and floods constantly modify the shape of the region, giving rhythms to the landscape and to people lives. 5 GLEICK P., WOLFF G. “The New Economy of Water : The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water” 6 UNEP “Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication” 9
3_social aspect The social aspect of the triangle of sustainability must maintain stability of cultural and social systems. individual well-being as well as the overall social welfare are both refering to the notion of social development and bring a higher level of civilization for all members of the society 7. Widespread availability of clean and accessible water is a social good in the sense that everyone should have access to it within affordable conditions. however, value of water may significantly change to people according to their cultures, social conditions and needs. however, social aspect also refers to the respect of traditions and cultures that represent people identities, water playing an important symbolic role. Strategies should be designed based on an analysis of the social aspect such as history of the civilization, society organisation, traditions, religions, moral and behaviours in combination with the spirit of the place (notion of genius loci) 8. Water is a support for, among others species, humans. Fresh water and clean water have often been controlled and canalised to offer supply to urban development. As well, grey and black waters are (or should be) collected in order to be cleaned before being reintroduced in the hydrological cycle. Those man-made networks support human life within their environment and should be implemented while keeping in mind economical but mostly ecological challenges. This form of water privatization, from a free public good to a private water service that you need to pay for (even with low rates), brings the questions of stakeholders and investments that connect social aspects and economical issues of development. Talking about the social aspect of water brings new ways of considering water as well. in fact, water, as rivers, wetlands and lakes, can be considered as a place in itself, especially in the context of South East Asia. it can become a place to use as a network for transportation for example. Transportation that becomes useful for economic reasons and daily opportunities as well. But it can also be used a space to live and to share while considering how people use riverbanks as settlement areas. Types of floating houses, public spaces on and next to water and water villages, such as Kampungs for example, were developed since ancient times and are adapted to evolution of uses and habits.
7 gLEiCK P., WOLFF g. “The New Economy of Water : The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water” 8 KOCi V. “LATTICE DURRËS: Water Urbanism in Periurban Area” 10
Protect, flows, evolve, live, share, move, grow, produce, trade
4_economical aspect From an economical point of view, it is crucial to maximise incomes while maintaining a constant, or increasing, stock of capital. most of water uses have an economic value, either it is clean water for daily purposes or fresh water to irrigate agriculture fields or space for markets and trade or a tool for industries 9. Water is an economic good but the question of governing it by rules of market may lead to issues of equal and affordable access to a social good and human right 10. in addition to the character of economic good, water has a strong spatial economic aspect since it can also be used as a space. A space to grow fishes, agriculture and aquaculture goods, a space to produce products like wood for stilts or energy and a space to trade, at various scales such as from the small village floating market to the international port and harbour. Water and its uses connect stakeholders from the individual user to the big industries and companies together with politicians and municipalities. Various scales and sectors, public and private, need to work with each other, in order to balance power for the common interest of further welfare and growth 11.
9 gLEiCK P., WOLFF g. “The New Economy of Water : The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water” 10 FAO Agriculture Series “The state of food and agriculture” 11 UNEP “Measuring water use in a green economy”
5_in the context of Banjar region Water connects. it connects economic interests together, it connects regions, cultures and even opinions 12. in South Kalimantan context, landscapes are mainly made of the outstanding character of the structure of the water body, artificial and natural, and human uses of it. Each city and context has its own view of development and proportions of nature, people and profit. For example, some historical cities might have development plan based on the cultural and traditional assets of their region even if it is not always the most effective way economically speaking. Some other regions can be developed by paying particular attention on the green and blue structures or by looking for the most cost efficient approach while decreasing quality of life for users and inhabitants. in Banjarmasin and Banjar region, they seem to try to develop further and further the economy, at every scales but without really considering people and their well-being and most certainly, without regarding water issues. People are daily subject to flood, do not always have supply of clean water and often arenâ€™t connected to sewage systems, spreading diseases and pollution. Within this context, water can become a crucial tool or a devastating element. As a matter of fact and as a result, relationship with water seems more and more complicated and leads to stronger problems of flood, drought and water quality while for centuries people have chosen to live on this context where they have to deal with water, either it is a threat or a blessing. ideally, the three elements should be balanced within every project. Unfortunately, it is not always possible. Some projects conditions and actors may lead to develop one of the aspect more than the others, which is not an issue as long as within each scale and all the interventions, a balance is kept and ensures sustainable development for the nature, the economy and the society.
12 UNEP â€œMeasuring water use in a green economyâ€?
Water as a natural element that connects ecosystems
Water as a space to live and share
Water as an economic good and as a space for trading 11
FROm TRAdiTiONAL hOUSES 1_interaction between culture and spatiality
2_ways to live in South Kalimantan
Culture is a vague concept. Anthropologically speaking, we could quickly define it as all practices, uses and habits of a civilization. Culture concerns many various fields and spatial organisation of the space and the society is one of them. Architecture and the relation with the physical environment reflects the way of thinking and people’s personality as well as their relation with nature. Following Rapoport classification (2005), culture can be seen as an arrangement of room, time, meaning and communication, a background system, a cultural landscape or a configuration of permanent elements (infrastructures, wall, roof, foundations,etc) and semi permanent elements (building, interiors finishing) together with nonpermanent elements (human, behaviours, clothing, animals and plants). According to Altman and Cherner in 1984, they classified five important factors that link culture and environment and show their association: natural environment, environment orientation and way of life, environment cognition, environment behaviour and environment as final product. In addition to this culture-environment relation, the expression and shapes of built environment is influenced by three aspects that are its function, its structure and its culture. “To understand culture in built environment more easily, Rapoport dismantled culture vertically and horizontally. Vertically, culture can be elaborated into tangible social expression with potential for observations; this includes kinship, family structure, social role, social network, status, identity, institutional, etc. Horizontally, culture can be explained into life philosophy such as values. These values are divided into two, first is about ideals, images, scheme, meaning, etc; second is about way of life and activity system” 1.
The people living in South Kalimantan are called the Banjarese. They are a the descendants of mixed cultures such as the dayaks, the Javanese and the malay. Most of people rely on farming and fishing for their daily needs and incomes. Farming concerns more specifically plantations and crops that are grown both for local use and exportation. Fishing produces different kinds of fishes following environment and supply in water (saltwater, freshwater, runoff water, etc). In farming and fishing, water conditions, both in dry and wet seasons, is a crucial element that defines more than what people can produce. It defines people life conditions and economic development. Social life can be represented by the term “jam karet” that can be translated as “time that stretches like rubber”. Banjarese prefer to take moments as they come instead of planning everything. meeting each other and taking the time to share is really important in the social life of Banjarese, in addition to praying times related to their islamic believes. Family is a strong organisation in indonesia. The concept of extended family is extremely frequent. Often, family members live really close to each other, if not in the same big house. By member of a family, we mean more than two parents and their children but grand parents, aunts, uncles, cousins and so on. most of children will go to school while some of them will have to help with farming and fishing. Elders are highly respected for their advices and experience of life 2. houses and villages are often organised along a main axe with small shops, schools and mosque, either a river or now a road. houses are located by families, children building their house next to the one of their parents. There are eleven different kinds of houses in South Kalimantan. The most common ones are the long houses, that are more than 100m long where several families live together, and the lanting houses as semi (or completely) floating houses, adapting to water levels or traditional houses on stilts. Factors like local natural condition, disposable natural resources, human organization and local culture, influence housing that is adapted to the environment 3. Banjarese have always been close to the river. daily community activities take advantage of the presence of rivers, including economic purposes such as trading, social interaction and as the main transport route before the land transportation such as we can recognise a water based culture 4.
1 FAqih m., hAYATi A. “Changes of Architecture Expressions on Lanting House Based on Activity System on the River” 14
2 http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-1_u-149_t-452_c-1608/NSW/5/Lifestyles/ Traditional-community-life/indonesia-understanding-our-nearest-neighbours/hSiE/ 3 FAqih m., hAYATi A. “Changes of Architecture Expressions on Lanting House Based on Activity System on the River” 4 RAhmAN A. “Pelestarian Rumah lanting berlandaskan budaya sungai masyarakat kota Banjarmasin”
TO CURRENT ORgANiZATiON 3_shifts in waterscape, urbanscape and socialscape
4_evolution of living on the water
Back in time, water was the decisive condition for settlements. it allowed to connect points of interest while serving to produce food and goods and support daily needs. The system of rivers shaped the entire region, from the foothills to the wetlands and the forests 5. during the dutch colonization and looking for improvement in water management for irrigation, water supply, transport and productivity, men-made canals systems were built, leading to a network made of a combination of a natural and an artificial grids. Around the 1970’s, a system of roads was put in place by landfill (covering existing canals and marshlands), reducing width of water network and slowly replacing the role of river as structuring axe. Transport became faster, new kinds of business were born and activities and urban development shifted from water based to road based landscape 6. Socially speaking there are also some changes. Education is consequently improving, leading to higher jobs and new ways of thinking, challenging current and traditional lifestyles 7. more and more people are moving to cities which are already pretty crowded, questioning quality of life. Traditional lifestyle are being threatened by big corporate companies like mining or palm oil productions. in addition to this, tourism is more and more developed, offering new opportunities of development. The city and its region are shifting from a water culture to a land culture 8. Anyway, water is still there and those human interventions changed its natural flow creating advantages and problems at the same time. municipalities still have opportunities to develop new ways of living with water through further developments. Besides, recently, the way we think about water has begun to change. Around the world, water scarcity and shortages will increase in the future, failing at meeting human needs and leading to more and more tensions around water supply. Therefore, large water infrastructure built and operated by governments was considered vital for national security, economic prosperity, and agricultural survival 9.
Houses reflect human needs and organization. It is expected to evolve as society and environment, to illustrate the evolution through life requirements and transformation of the context and its surroundings. A few decades ago, most of the settlements on the delta of the Barito river used to be built next and on the water as stilts and floating houses, as a response to water fluctuations. “Floating houses are the architecture capable of floating in the water and maintaining a functional floor height above the water surface when exposed to high tide or flood. Kalimantan floating houses models are known as lanting houses, that is a traditional raft house the Banjarese in South Kalimantan with a floating rafts foundation built on a structured arrangement of large trees trunks, and always locked by waves from ships going up and down the river” 10. Three reasons seem to explain the development of lanting houses, called Rumal Lanting. Banjarese community needed a moveable housing to accommodate their occupation. By its construction, lanting house is portable and can be moved following job needs. River is the main transport mode and people sell their products by the river, using lanting as a store to get near their customers. And people from hulu Sungai who are traders using rivers came with their lanting houses to settle in preferable place to live and trade 11. Lanting houses were based on a simple rectangular plan, positioned lengthwise to the river. houses were fronting the rivers and canals since it was the space for economic, social and transport activities. Front doors were facing the water through a series of platforms joining the water 12. Those platforms were used as a space to park the boats, to produce goods but also as an area for sales and trade since houses were often associated with shop. A small wooden bridge used to connect houses with the land and was used as a washing area, testifying that back then, the land side of the house was considered as the backside.
5 KUSLJANSJAh K., SURiANSYAh Y. “The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia“ 6 mUTiA i. “Living on the Water : Spatial Planning Experiences from the Netherlands and Indonesia” 7 http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-1_u-149_t-452_c-1608/NSW/5/Lifestyles/ Traditional-community-life/indonesia-understanding-our-nearest-neighbours/hSiE/ 8 FAqih m., hAYATi A. “Changes of Architecture Expressions on Lanting House Based on Activity System on the River” 9 gLEiCK P., WOLFF g. “The New Economy of Water : The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water”
10 KUSLJANSJAh K., SURiANSYAh Y. “The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia” 11 FAqih m., hAYATi A. “Changes of Architecture Expressions on Lanting House Based on Activity System on the River” 12 mUTiA i. “Living on the Water : Spatial Planning Experiences from the Netherlands and Indonesia” 15
Since the roads were built and then modernized, houses started to face them instead of the river. domestic activities, kitchen and toilets are on the river side of the house while the social and economic aspects are connected with the new axes of roads, minimizing spatially the role of water. Rivers are now used mainly as drainage and accommodate waste disposal, even if some transportation still remains while the decks are not even always built anymore. Today people still living on the river are either the one that could not find a landed house or could not afford it either the ones who’s job is still strongly connected to water. Strong family links can also influence people implantation. Nowadays, traditional lanting houses need to be protected and could be developed as a tourist asset for the region 13. Those houses are the transition between water and land, playing the difficult role of waterfront. This transition adaptations were meaningful of a true consideration of the local culture and environment, expressing the physical form of Banjarese river culture, architecturally, socially and historically 14. Floating houses have this incredible advantage that they are adapted to the water environment and could be adapted to current issues to live with water.
13 KUSLJANSJAh K., SURiANSYAh Y. “The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia“ 14 RAhmAN A. “Pelestarian Rumah lanting berlandaskan budaya sungai masyarakat kota Banjarmasin” 16
Relation between water and lanting houses
WATER mANAgEmENT AS A TOOL TO imPROVE The relation between water and people is as old as human society. human have been trying to change nature by controlling water running through landscape. Those “implementations” lead to crucial changes in the way water was joining the sea while trying to deal with flood, dams, canals for irrigations or river for transportation. “Dams have stored, regulated and raised water. Watersheds have been reworked and linked. Rivers have been forced between levees and dykes, canalized, straightened and cemented. Water has been diverted from areas of water surplus to areas of water deficit. Lakes have been lowered and wetlands drained and the artificial river is definitely not a modern invention” 15. Water availability and opportunities to manage it are affected by the fact that water flows in complex ways. However, understanding those streams is crucial in order to provide a sustainable development 16. The different kinds of water should be managed together as a fragile resource to enhance public spaces, revitalize neighbourhoods, strengthen habitats and provide opportunities for economic growth 17. Slowing down water and store it are two main actions while talking about sustainable water management. in fact, by slowing it down and storing it, infiltration, evaporation, habitat and uses are increased while erosion of the land and sedimentation decrease. Circulate and recharge water systems both in surface and in the ground allow to improve quality of water and quantity as well as it reinforce the region’s ecological health. in any event, Nature already applies those principles. Artificial processes can help and enhance those actions to facilitate relationship between Nature and humans. however it is crucial to keep in mind that landscape, waterscape and urbanscape are dynamics patterns. in fact, changes should be designed to support diverse uses while keeping in mind that water knows no political boundaries 18. In order to fit to the triangle of sustainable development, water management should also support economic growth. it is time to strengthen regional identities and consider water at every scales, not only the city scale anymore. Water is part of a watershed that needs to be considered in its entirety in order to adapt the most efficient tools. Sometimes, smaller scales intervention will adapt easier to the environment and allow people to appropriate them on a local scale while often reducing costs 19.
15 TVEdT E., JAKOBSSON E. “A HISTORY OF WATER : water control and river biographies” 16 UNEP “Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication” 17 NAiNg N. “Living on the Floating Houses for Sustainable Livelihoods at Lake Tempe” 18 WAggONNER & BALL architectes “Greater New Orleans Urban water Plan” 19 UNEP “Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication”
“It is important to study both the unnatural and natural history of water disasters, since not only will floods vary and have different causes and consequences but fundamental concepts like flood, drought, water shortage and water conflicts have different meanings and connotations in different physical and social settings” 20. indeed, two challenging issues need to be studied to adapt future development: implementation of local policies to guide spatial and urban growth on a macro scale and on a micro scale, architectural and spatial innovations to live with water 21. There are probably no one-shot strategies to solve water issues. According to the context (environmental, social, political, historical), specifics set of mixed tools and solutions can be elaborated. Water is clearly fundamental to food production and vital for industrial production and energy generation and in addition, accesses to clean water and sanitation is crucial for every household 22. Water is a natural element needed for life. But water is also a central element in the organisation and appropriation of space, collectively but individually as well by being of functional use. Social relations and economic development are heavily influenced by the presence of water, as history of cities implantations can tell. however, relationship between people, cities and water are simultaneously moving and uncertain. Water is a positive and negative element at the same time. To deal with the negative effects of water and improve its uses water has been more and more controlled using canals, dikes, dams or reinforced banks. While improving quality life near those interventions, natural flows are modified, increasing risks of more issues in other regions. modern way of life is challenging the identity of Banjarmasin and its surroundings. Transformation of urbanscape and environment is influenced by both natural and artificial conditions and actors. We need design strategies capable of intervening into the contemporary city, dealing at the same time with socio-cultural, environmental and ecological issues 23. Water is a fact of life on the delta. We can allow it to become an asset for the region by making space for it while making it visible across the urban landscape. This way, we create a possibility of cohabitation between people and water in a sustainable development.
20 TVEdT E., JAKOBSSON E. “A HISTORY OF WATER : water control and river biographies” 21 KUSLJANSJAh K., SURiANSYAh Y. “The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia” 22 UNEP “Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication” 23 KOCi V. “LATTICE DURRËS: Water Urbanism in Periurban Area” 17
BiBLiOgRAPhY 1_books . ANDINI D. “Exploring the social life of urban riverfront public space: A case study of Sudirman and Tendean Riverfront quay in Banjarmasin”,
LANTiNg Journal of Architecture, Vol 2, dosen Program Studi Teknik Arsitektur Universitas Lambung mangkurat, 2013
. BAC DORIN P. “Sustainable development: A theoretical approach”, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics . BROOKFIELD h., POTTER L., BYRON Y. “In Place of the forest: Environmental and socio-economic transformation in Borneo and the eastern Malay Peninsula”, United Nation University Press, 1995 . EFTEC “The Economic, Social and Ecological Value of Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review”, Final report for the department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2005 . FAQIH m., HAYATI A. “Changes of Architecture Expressions on Lanting House Based on Activity System on the River” history Research. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015 . FAO Agriculture Series “The state of food and agriculture”, Water policies and agriculture, Food and agriculture organization of the united nations, Rome, 1993 . GLEICK P., WOLFF g. “The New Economy of Water : The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water”, Pacific Institute 2002 . GOURLOT N., GRISSOT C., PAPIN J., PUTHOD S. “L’eau en ville : approche environnementale, ouverture territoriale et gestion durable”, Chercheur et étudiants master 2 Urbanisme et Territoires, Parcours Environnement Paysages et Territoires - institut d’Urbanisme de Paris, . KOCI V. “LATTICE DURRËS: Water Urbanism in Periurban Area”, EPOKA University, department of Architecture, 2012 . KUSLJANSJAH K., SURIANSYAH Y. “The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia“, RAFTA, The international Journal Of Engineering And Science (iJES), Vol 2, 2013 . McGLADE J. “Measuring water use in a green economy”, A Report of the Working Group on Water Efficiency to the International Resource Panel, 2012 . MUTIA i. “Living on the Water : Spatial Planning Experiences from the Netherlands and Indonesia”, First biennale - international conference on indonesian architecture and planning, Yogyarkata, 2012 . NAING N. “Living on the Floating Houses for Sustainable Livelihoods at Lake Tempe”, South Sulawesi, doctoral candidate, Architecture department of iTS Surabaya, indonesia . RAHMAN A. “Pelestarian Rumah lanting berlandaskan budaya sungai masyarakat kota Banjarmasin”, Program magister Arsitektur, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, E-Journal graduate Unpar, Part d – Architecture, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2014 . ROGERS P., BHATIA R., HUBER A. “Water as a Social and Economic Good: How to Put the Principle into Practice”, global Water Partnership Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), TAC background paper n°2, Stockholm, 1998 . SAIDY A., AZIS Y. “Sea Level Rise in South Kalimantan, Indonesia: An Economic Analysis of Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture”, Economy and Environment Program For Southeast Asia, research report n°2009-RR1 . TVEDT E., JAKOBSSON E. “A HISTORY OF WATER : water control and river biographies”, Tauris, New York , 2006 . UNEP “Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication”, 2011 . UN Water “Cities and their rural surroundings. The urban- rural interface”, media brief / UN-Water decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication . UN Water “A water toolbox or best practice guide of actions”, UNW-dPAC, conference ‘Water in the green Economy in Practice: Towards Rio+20 . WAGGONNER & BALL architectes “Greater New Orleans Urban water Plan”, Vision, 2013 . WAPAC “The Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Water Use in Rhode Island”, impact Analysis Subcommittee Report to the Ri Water Resources Board’s Water Allocation Program Advisory Committee, 2003 . ZOHRAH L. “Traditional High ridge house groups of Banjarese Kampung to clarify the organizing principle in the meaning of urban fabric”, LANTiNg Journal of Architecture, Vol 1, department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung mangkurat University, 2012
2_websites (consulted in may and June 2015) http://journal.unpar.ac.id/index.php/unpargraduate/article/view/1054 http://www.indonesia-tourism.com/south-kalimantan/ http://www.emp.pdx.edu/htliono/KALSEL.html http://banjarculture.blogspot.be http://travelwriter.ws/kalimantan/banjarese-the-river-people/ http://www.borneo.com.au/bo00010.htm http://indoborneonatural.blogspot.be/2011/10/buildings-and-houses.html http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-1_u-149_t-452_c-1608/NSW/5/Lifestyles/Traditional-community-life/indonesia-understanding-ournearest-neighbours/hSiE/
3_illustrations . All the pictures are from the author personal collection from field trip . diagrams are taken from sources above-mentioned or redrawn based on them
WATER URBANISM SCULPTING THE DESOLATED LANDSCAPE: EXPLORING THE UNSEEN OPPORTUNITY OF POST MINING TRAJECTORY: A STUDY ON BANJARMASIN Thesis presented to obtain the degree of Master of Human Settlements, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Department of Architecture Academic Year 2014 ~ 2015
Spring Studio 2015, Banjarmasin, Indonesia Author : Sadia Subrina
Introduction The Mining sector has become an integral part of Banajr akula,Indonesia, as it is a significant source of foreign exchage, economic activity and regional development. The booming of the mining industry has contributed to the increase of over a hundred working mines in the country in the recent years and created opportunity for new employment. But mining industry has negative impacts on environment such as soil, air, water pollution; habitats fragmentation which play a cumbersome role in the process of forming new ecologies in post-mining landscapes. The level of irreversible damage is fast approaching requiring a strategy that takes into account the need for future growth since the population is expected to be doubled and the threat increases with the passage of time. Instead of rejecting the obvious future urban sprawl the idea is to ensure a systematic growth and balanced coexistence of urban growth, ecology, public facilities and services and production in both food and economy. These understanding
mining scars...active-inactive mines, excavation
come up with the case study of mining area of Banjarbakula, Indonesia and in the thesis I try to outline the vision for a better role for the acceptance of new after mine closure preserving the essence of the unique landscape. This thesis attempts firstly to examine mining industry near Banjarbaru area in Banjarbakula regionthe and acknowledging the problems of post mining condition try to explore the opportunities in the post-mining landscape. Post mining landscape with larger volumes of soil, large quantity of contaminated-water, mounds of dust, the open-pitsand-dumps-undulated-surface are the problems which are usually seen as problems or scars in landscape have possibilities to be transformed to be potentials. Some proposal emphasizes the eminent build ability of mining lands whereas other preference is to consider its dynamic open space potential serving the purpose of preserving the vast open space which otherwise would most probably have been consumed
Methodology The study was done in inductive approach.This study has been started with visiting site to see the mine-closure and post-mining landscape and understand the reality, to collect information and taking interview of the community people and related actors in Banjarbakula, Indonesia. The process is followed by Developing interpretive map, designing and discussing in studio about the vision and the strategy in regenerating the postmining landscape. literature-study has been done in all stages of analyzing, designing and finally writing process of the thesis.
Historical development of mining in Banjar Bakula, Indonesia In Indonesia Small Scale Mining essentially consists of four major sectors: gold mining,diamond mining, coal mining,tin mining.But in the thesis as a part of design studio I investigated the mining site within the study area in Bnajarbaru which consists of mainly gems and some excavation mining. Diamond and gems’ mining exploitation in Martapura-Banjar - Banjarbaru area have begun since 9 A.D. Cempaka village, located at the area of Martapura and Banjarbaru. was the central area of excavation. The Martapura area has became well-known for diamond production since the Dutch colonisation and in nowadays it is one the biggest site of diamond mining in southeast Asian region. During the Japanese colonisation in 1942-1945 the mining site of the Dutch in Cempaka was taken over and local people were forced to excavate diamond and gems in their traditional way and collected them in their warehouses. By the end of this Japanese era pasar Martapura emerged as the site where the diamond and gems’ transactions and collections between the Japanese authority and the traditional miners took place. The big scale of diamond and gems mining company was stopped after the independence of Indonesia in 1945. But it started to boom again from 1960 after one 166,7 carat of diamond; wellknown as Trisakti Diamond was found in the northeastern area of Banjarbaru. Since then until today; the traditional mining
exploration sprawls beyond the cempaka village and spread over along the areas of Sungai Tiung, Bangkal village, Palam village and Pumpung village. The pasar Martapura itself then becomes the biggest centre of diamond and gems transactions; covering not only the local transactions but also worldwide including the export its diamond production to Antwerp’s diamond network. Exploitation by a big foreign mining company has created huge environmental pollution and destruction on these villages and the local traditional miners are also banned by the company to do mining activities in their own villages that are occupied by these companies. The immediate neighborhoods and local environmental NGOs protested against this mining company after a huge pollution emerged along the rivers next to the excavation site in 2008 (kompas, 10 April 2008). As a reaction the province government of Kalsel declared temporary closure of the mining activities of this company until they are agree to provide production system that are safe for environment and also willing incorporate the local miners. Recently the gems excavation has begun to boom again in Banjarbakula after a 200 carat of diamond; well-known as Putri Malu diamond; in Antaraku village at Banjar area is found by a traditional miner (Kompas, 8 February 2015). As a result, the local traditional gems’ mining is now growing again in a more alarming scale in Banjarbakula area since this is been known as one of the main production sites of gems.
Character and context of mining site Two types of mines are found in Banjarbakula: excavation and gem stone mines. Some landscape are active with continuing mining and some inactive mine are now in the post mining phase of landscape.Excavation mines are usually connected to road infrastructure and gem stone mines are linked with the water
system. Excavation and gems mines can be categorized into compact porous of nature respectively. For purpose of detail analysis six mining zone have been selected as representative of different mine within the study area. Near the town of Cempaka the mines have been slowly moved as old workings have been worn-out. Mining has become more difficult now than in the past because the upper gem-bearing gravels have been worked out extensively. The gem-bearing gravels can be found 10 m below the surface of the swamp, with the water table lying just underground. In South Kalimantan small-scale artisanal mining are still continuing but orneo is no longer considered a significant source for diamonds. The primary diamond-producing areas in this region are to the west of Riam Kanan Lake in the south, and the Upper Barito, Sungai Lahung, and Gula areas in Central Kalimantan. Martapura is known as the “City of Diamonds” and the villages of Lukaas and Sungai Tiung in Cempaka are a primary source for diamonds in South Kalimantan. Indigenous miners in this region still depended on this mining activity in gravels and muddy sediments. “Black diamonds,” “colorless” which are rare collection are found in South Kalimantan. Lower-quality yellow diamonds known as “petrous”, and “pink diamonds” with a high brilliance are also found in this area. (Gemstone Industry in South Kalimantan, 2015)
QUARRY influencing water buffer capacity and higher erosion, monofunctional community big companies in harmony with the community
GEM STONES dying out resour reuse of land
PLYWOOD GEM STONES scarce wood resources and deforestation dying out resources, radical changed landscape human resources and technical knowledge reuse of land
PALM OIL domination of la less monofunctio
Nine big companies control the stone quarry and they also employ the local people for working in the quarry sites. The locals can buy the excavated stones to break them into small pieces and sell them to construction industries through some agencies. The households around these mining sites are mostly depended on the mining activities for their living. The miners now usually work together in a communal mining association. The women are part of this industry with involvment in every element of the work except the strenuous lifting of equipment. The post mining sites are threatened by different forces like QUARRY influencing water buffer capacityand and higher erosion, growth, monofunctional urban sprawl, unplanned commercial industrial vastcommunity big companies in harmony with the community cash crop plantation i.e. rubber and palm oil plantation. 10
Mining cycle Source : studio Booklet
location 12 CAPTION, this is a caption
Post mining desolated landscape and challenges Abandoned industrial sites have always been responsible for environmental problems. Mining activities can be considered a special type of industrial site and these are well known by their harmful effects on the environment. Environmental impacts range from water pollution, noise pollution, air pollution in the form of airborne dust and the sterilization of productive land and so on. Environmental issues related to gem industry are mainly soil erosion and sedimentation, destruction of river banks, ground water depletion and pollution of surface water bodies, causing damage to the public and the private property etc. Due to poor management and neglect tailings dams have been subjected to varying degrees of water and wind erosion. Acid mine drainage generated from underground mining operations are the primary reason for the contamination of water. The stone quarrying activities initiate deforestation, and thus influence the water balance, the erosion of soil and sedimentation in the river system.
For the mineral close to the surface where the mineral itself is part of the surface soil or rock, surface mining methods are often considered as more economical. Disruption of the surface has significantly affected the soil, fauna, flora and surface water leaving the area as barren land. The ecological habitat has been destroyed by the extensive dredging operations. Large amounts of waste are produced in the process. Post-mining landscape has created many other challenges in Banjarbakula region such as abandoned mines-voids, series of formatted open-pits and dumps creating undulating landscape, large quantity of stored water, mounds dust, contaminated soil. Together with the general environmental problem Banjarbakula is struggling with socio-econimical issues as post mining effect such as unemployment, abandoned mining camp/ hostels and industry Platform and other infrastructure, survival and health related problem of humans, plants and animals due to the toxic landscape, huge cost for remediation of the disturbed landscape and searching for new urban identity.
UNSOLVED SCENARIO 13
Sculpting the mining landscape
From scars to identity
The area around the mining sites in Banjarbaru has good soil condition and Banjarbaru would be centre for new government provincial the investigated area is most promising to welcome the projected future growth of Banjarmasin. The main strategy is to keep the mines as structuring void for new so that it is not lost in time under pressure of development or negligence and preserve the dramatic post mining landscape safely for future generation as â€˜history landscapeâ€™. Since no one can predict the exact future growth, this is an open ended story, instead of detail planning/solution for each side a system has been proposed that can accommodate uncertain future. Ecological driven scenario, Development driven scenario, Optimum growth scenario can be visualized. In the Ecological driven scenario ecology serves as framework for guiding the future development whereas in development driven scenario transportation and social infrastructure like school, mosques are the initiator/ guidance. The optimum scenario would be where urban growth develop/co-exist with ecology in a balanced way Regardless the scenario in every cases mining scars/site should remain as a unique landscape. These should not be seen as barren land from where valuable things/minerals are taken out leaving the desolated landscape but also appreciated as new terrain which open a door for new experience, new opportunity.
mines as the structuring void for the new
In the starting of the planning strategy of the post-mining landscape some things should be kept in mind, like what elements should be retained? What should be transformed? What should be added? and what should be reprocessed? Introduction of human related systems, consideration of long term economic generators and long term system development has been included in different phases.
ecological driven scenario 16
There are several options to transform the apparently unusable post-mining landscape to the potential trajectory. The opportunities varies according to specific post-mining landscape condition, is highly dependent on the site and context, level of damage etc. Some mining sites are more appropriate for ecological facilities like retention pond for flood protection, agriculture, food production, diverse aquaculture, reforestation and some are best suited to absorb future growth, services and facilities for future growth, public space, mixed use development depending their character and location in Bnajarbaru These desolated landscapes can be transformed into potential sites that can act as attractor, void, absorber while keeping the unique landscape of old mine system. To implement this strategy post mining operation for all the mines focuses on three general steps. The first step is the remediation and purification, the next step is to guide the future through grey, green infrastructures. The final step is to obtain diversification and matured landscapes depending on the context and types of mines. Environmental protection The main concern for post mining trajectory is the reintroduction of local flora and fauna while retaining as much of the mining landscape as possible. Remediation and purification can be done using water purifying plants. For stabilizing the mine dumps from water and wind erosion different methods have been experimented and vegetation cover is proved to be the most documented and mostly widely used method. The proper selection of plant species that will grow, spread and thrive under the hostile conditions provided by the nature of dump material is very crucial for the successful establishment of vegetative cover. Local plant species like Rubber, rambutan, Ficus, Ulin can be planted in Banjarbaru area as remediation and reclamation.
character of mines 18
The tailings dams are quartzitic (siliceous) and generate acid on the surface and lack organic nutrients for plants to grow and are thus totally unsuitable for vegetation growth. So the revegetation of tailings dams requires some preparatory measures prior to vegetating which include altering these conditions by using methods such as liming and leaching. (Mphephu) Reforestation and selective cutting is proposed in forest area near Query and to support this building community training center ,wood processing industry can be a wise strategy
strategy in phases 19
strategy in phases 20
Social and community well being Designing a â€˜memory landscapeâ€™ by minimizing the changing on the topography in order to develop educational landscape and research center on it for the community and future generation. This will also serve as a breathing park, social nodes that drive people to gather, meet in the future dense urbanized scenario which are lacked in present Banjarmasin area. This will allow people to access by walking, cycling to the mine legacy showing the remediation process. Infrastructure and facilities excavation mine as public space and mixed use hub
Starting with the preservation of the landscape created by the mining different functional activities and services will be added to the site as time progresses, benefiting the surrounding communities and increasing economic generation of the site. These can include industry, commercial, mixed used development, educational facilities, recreational facilities, horticulture and varied research center for exploration and investigation of Reclaimed landscape and tailing ponds. The mine near the Banjarbaru is a potential location for constructing future educational facilities like university campus, infrastructure for sports facilities considering the soil map and their proximity to the center of the city. mines as space for large urban amenities Anisoptera (Mersawa)
well drained soil, rich organic matter
Eusideroxylon zwageri (Ulin)
well drained soil along river
From scars to Identities
pioneer, grows on rocky soils
Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) well drained, weathered soil
Melaleuca cajuputi (Gelam) peaty loam, coastal swamp forest
e new Adapting new topography
High density + student housing typologies as border/threshhold
Ecological driven scenario Ecology as a frame to absorb the new Post-mining infrastructure can be reused with another functions being a part of landscape components that has the strong relationship with natural elements like pedestrian trail, bicycle path. It is envisioned that recreational uses unique to the sites conditions will be very useful and successful public space. The haul road in Query mine has the scope to be develop as a topographically diverse biking trail for various modes of recreation (hikers, bikers, and vehicles).The unique reclamation design of the haul road can transform the mine site into a major mountain-biking destination enabling visitors to experience a part of history. Economical prosperity
Water as swamp protection
Planting patterns as future definition Species + structured + ecological
The pumped and treated water can be used as resources that can generates some economic activities , i.e. water irrigation system for watering the urban agriculture, community garden, fish production for the people and the city. After remediation food production on and around the mining sites will help to meet the increasing demand for food as well as earn money by exporting this product.Operational Wastes can be used as Resource for New Businesses, in some instances these can substitute the river sand as an input to cementatious building aggregate. Involving the local people in the reclamation process will address the problem of unemployment. Different character- different identity High density social housing, student block can be built near the periphery to protect/ stop/control the urban sprawl over/ on the mining site. Waterways/ canal, topography can also be used as elements as barrier/border.Because of the good soil condition it is possible to build higher than the existing building on the land near Banjarbaru which will accommodate more people occupying less area.
Conclusion Strategies for post mining landscape should respond the changing social expectation, economic fluctuations, and political instability..The miners of today have a responsibility to produce minerals and metals following the law and restrictions so that they meet the needs of he present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Recreation, reclamation, and the generation of new ecological habitats are possible and capable of coexisting with a mined landscape.This project positions as a possible set of opportunites for achieving an ecologically and economically sufficient landscape which is also a part of history. ot only cleaning up the contaminated lands, but also incorporating reuse planning in the cleanup process should be considered in the strategy Participatory approaches to post mining revitalization have shifted from focusing on the mere cleanup of contaminated lands to ensuring their cleanup with beneficial and productive reuse plan. Screening on the future vision of Banajarmasin and surrounding areas that will try to put the focus of the urban expansion and the conservation requirements, considering the expectations from local community, mining associated people developing agriculture as the economic In the future of 50 years, after mining closure, most of the post-mining area can be proved to be a successful receptive landscape to absorb new growth and scenarios.
mine as commercial hub from tree nursery and plantation to productive market
Reference Buchko, J., & Hitch, M. (2010). Designing the Reclaimed Landscape | Integrating Landscape Architecture into the Mining Process. Mine Closure 2010. CHile. Gemstone Industry in South Kalimantan. (2015, 5 28). Retrieved from Indonesian Gemstone Info: http://www.indogemstone.net/ Mphephu, N.F, Rehabilitation of tailings dams on the central rand, Johannesburg, Centre for Applied Mining and Exploration Geology School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand. Post-Mining Landscapes. (2015, 6 1). Retrieved from https://www. bfn.de/: https://www.bfn.de/0303_bergbau+M52087573ab0.html Spay, V. (2014). A new productive landscape: Regenerating the post mining landscape West Rand, South Africa. Leuven: Thesis submitted to K U Leuven. Wahju, B. (2002). Indonesian mining industry in the period of transition, between 1997-2001. International Convention, Trade Show Investors Exchange. Canada. All drawings and images are used from the studio work from Studio Banjarmasin, 2015
As a part of the WATER URBANISM STUDIO 2015: Rooted in The Landscape: Regenerating Mangroves as a Framework for Future Urbanity_A case study of Banjarmasin By Joyce Stijnen Thesispaper submitted to obtain the degree of Master in Human Settlements Academic year 2014-2015 Promotor: Prof. Guido Geenen
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Faculty of Engineering Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning [ASRO]
Content 1_A landscape under pressure 2_Productiveness and protectiveness _Natural breakwaters _Growing land _Flood control and hydrological regulator _Livelihoods and economic potential _Carbon sink and biodiversity 3_For greed all nature is too little _The key-drivers of mangrove loss _Shrimp farming _Agriculture _Lax spatial planning _Existing regulations _Silviculture _Concessions 4_Strategies for Banjarmasin _Community involvement _Conservation of exhisting forest _Preparing room for the future _City vision _Mangrove framework _Restoration of mangrove _Distribute knowledge _Ecological restoration approach 5_Mangroves a a framework for future urbanity 6_References
ROOTED IN THE LANDSCAPE
Regenerating Mangroves as a Framework for Future Urbanity - A case study of Banjarmasin WATER URBANISM STUDIO 2015 _ Thesis paper by Joyce Stijnen
1_A landscape under pressure The city of Banjarmasin will undergo dramatic transformations in the following years: the city is planning a new additional port southwards, the former river-based city will be changed into a road-based one, a regional railway line will be introduced and Banjarmasin is expected to double its population by 2030. (1) A handful of factors that put an enormous pressure on the area which will be craving for housing, work opportunity, food supply ... The city is rapidly encroaching upon the territory, taking over rivers, paddy fields, forest, swamp, mangrove, ... There is no specific plan to guide this development and important ecosystems lose ground. One of these ecosystems are the mangroves: salt-tolerant, intertidal forests that grow along riverbanks and coastal areas. (1) Not very long ago, the city of Banjarmasin was surrounded by mangrove forest as we can see on a map of 1945. (image 1) In less than a century almost all the mangroves have been replaced by rice paddy, development, port area, fishponds, infrastructure, ... If this trend of land use will continue there will be no mangrove left and the consequences will possibly be catastrophic. Therefore things need to be turned around. Can there be a coexistence of mangrove forest and future growth? And how can we return to Banjarmasinâ€™s natural landscape where mangroves play a leading role mediating between water and land? Can mangroves be introduced as frameworks, guidelines where the new port area, railway line and the increasing population can find their way through? To be able to measure the consequences of mangrove loss it is important to understand the importance of the forest on diverse scales: the local importance to traditional settlements, on the scale of the country for its economy and on a worldwide scale addressing climate change. Image 1 Historical map from 194 showing intertidal mud flats and mangrove areas in blue. (Source: Landsarchief Batavia.)
2_Productiveness and protectiveness Natural breakwaters Indonesia gives home to 1/4 of the world’s remaining mangrove forest which is still declining by 1-2% every year. Studies in 2009 reported that 30,7% of Indonesia’s mangroves were in good condition, 27,4% moderately destroyed and 41,9% heavily destroyed.(2) All these numbers may not visualize the problem but catastrophes like the tsunamis of December 26th 2004 around the province of Aceh certainly do. Although the tsunami was a natural disaster that could not have been foreseen, the high death toll could have been much lower. According to Quarto1 the greed and short-sightedness of man resulted in the clearing of the natural buffer zones which have historically been barriers against wind and waves and are widely considered as the backbone of tropical coastlines. (3) In India mangroves have proven their protective capacity in 1999 when a super cyclone struck the coast of Orissa. This super cyclone caused death to 10.000 people and 7 million people were left homeless. The most affected areas were located where shrimp ponds, port facilities, ... had replaced the mangroves. In areas where mangroves were left undisturbed (Bhitarakanika in Orissa), villages were secured by the natural buffer. (7)
Growing land Next to the ability of providing a protective dike against forces of nature, the mangroves stabilize the ground with its extensive root network and thus prevent abrasion (coastal erosion). The mangroves are also able to adapt to sea level rise by colonizing landward zones and growing into seaward areas. Mangroves can survive in between the mean sea level and the high tide level. When the sea level rises; more land will become sea thus the lateral accommodation space2 increases. Therefore mangrove forests are referred to as land creators. (image 3) 1
In a report of The Nature Conservancy, Wetlands International and the Cambridge Coastal Research Unit in 2013, a broad range of existing evidence (historical and current) were reviewed by scientists and they found out that mangroves are able to build up soil at a rate of 1-10 mm a year. For many areas this is well within the current 3 mm sea level rise per year. The rate of 1-10mm is very dependent on various factors: sediment deposition, erosion, root growth, mangrove species, decomposition and more. How all these factors are intertwined is a very complex manner that needs more data over the next years. “We are just beginning to develop this picture. It seems that mangroves won’t keep up with seal level rise in all locations but there’s also tantalizing evidences that we might be able to manage mangroves to help the process.” says Mark Spalding, senior marine scientist and co-author of the report. (6)
Flood control and hydrological regulator The sturdy trunks of mangroves (image 4) are able to reduce the velocity of water flow when heavy rain arises. An additional instrument that mangroves use to mitigate in flood hazards is by absorbing water in its substrate. Mangrove can also play an important role in reducing the intrusion of seawater into the land: by preserving terrestrial fresh groundwater levels on one hand and preventing tidal waves from reaching rivers, on the other. Mangrove is capable to survive in high saline areas where other flora fail to do so. The trees can adapt by absorbing salt into its roots and leaves, this way they also again contribute to the reduction of water salinity in the environment. (5)
Livelihoods and economic potential Mangroves are characterized by their shallow inter-tidal reaches that offer a comfortable place for various fauna to take refuge in and provide the perfect nursery grounds for young shrimp, oysters, fish and crabs.
Co-Founder and Executive Director of the Mangrove Action Project (MAP) which began in 1992. MAP is an international network involving over 450 NGOs and 250 scientists worldwide,
who are dedicated to coastal resource issues, including mangrove protection and sustainable coastal development.
The forest is further a perfect breeding place for hundreds of bird species. Also monkeys, manatees, lizards and turtles make use of the wetland. (3) Traditionally mangroves have been sustainably managed by local settlements. They utilize the mangroves for its fruit, vegetables, fish capture, medicinal plants, resin, fire wood and constructing materials. The forests offer a dependable source for livelihood, direct food supply for own use and make it possible to preserve their traditions. (5) Mangrove is known as the ecosystem that has the highest productive capacity. Most of its productivity is derived from leaf-fall which can be 3 ton of dry weight every year for Indonesia alone. The fallen leaves produce very fertile waters which make fishery productivity in and along mangroves very high. (5) This blend of the two is very beneficiary the fish ponds become very fertile and the mangrove controls and absorbs waste nutrients that are created by the ponds while protecting the ponds from forces of nature. Timber is also a direct benefit derived from the mangrove forests. Although its high timber potential, it is not as lucrative as other types of forest due to its smaller coverage in area and the number of commercial species that is considerably lower. The timber products for which the mangrove forest are used are: wooden planks and plywood, scaffold, charcoal, building material, poles and firewood. (5)
Image 2: The role of mangroves in protecting coastal areas against tsunamis. (Source: Mangrove Action Project.)
Image 3: Mangroves adapting to sea-level rise and colonizing new territory seawards. (Source: Natural Coastal Protection Series. )
Carbon sink and biodiversity Mangrove originate from the Indo-Malayan3 region. This is why we can find the highest amount of mangrove species here. There are 45 species of the worldâ€™s 75 species of true mangrove to be found in Indonesia. (5) Therefore Indonesia is the country possessing the most mangroves both in area size and in the number of species. This wide variety provides a rich environment and canopy for numerous wildlife of which crabs are keystone species: the presence of this animal makes it possible for many others to survive here.
Image 4: Rhizophora mangroveâ€™s sturdy trunks along a river bank. This is a preferred mangrove species for commercial harvest. Fast growing, straight and tall: ideal for construction poles. (Source: Prota4u)
Accommodation space refers to the space between the level of the substrate and the highest level that sediment could remain without being eroded away. (Jervey 1988)
Also known as Oriental region, a zoogeo-graphic area occupying the southern part of Asia and most of the islands between Asia and Australia of which Borneo also is a part of.
They go through their larval stages in the water near the roots of the trees. When they are mature they climb up and feed on the leaves. This way they are crucial for the leaf litter production that make the mangroves such a rich ecosystem. (8) Mangrove forests are one of the most carbon-rich forests. The mangroves convert carbon dioxide (CO2, a greenhouse gas) to organic carbon (C) through photosynthesis and then store it into its biomass. There is an estimated capacity amount of 100-200 ton C per hectare which is why they call mangroves the carbon sink of the world. In the ideal scenario where mangrove forest would be increased on a large scale, even more carbon dioxide could be converted. Today however, mangroves are more logged than anything which even releases CO2 and increase the concentration in the atmosphere. (5) It is clear that the mangrove forests play a key role in climate change, coastal protection and carries a significant economic potential for Indonesia (around Rp 820 trillion).This last one has led to the current over-exploitation of land. (5) What seems to be overlooked by ignorance and greed are the once healthy ecosystems that could protect the introduced aquacultures and industries from natural hazards.
3_For greed all nature is too little The key-drivers of mangrove loss Before the 1970â€™s mangroves were considered wastelands, useless, mosquito-infested swamps. This preconception made it easier to exploit the mangrove forests as cheap and meaningless land that could be used for all sorts of useful and economic purposes:
Shrimp farming Mangroves have been widely cut all over Indonesia for extensive shrimp farming, supported by millions of dollars of World Bank loans and succession rights provided by the government. This led to fast and unconstrained distribution of shrimp aquaculture in the country. In total shrimp pond expansion has lead to 50% loss of the mangrove forest in Indonesia. (5) The highest peak was due to the â€˜Shrimp Feverâ€™ of the 1980s. Where the development of the world shrimp market was introduced and massive amounts of mangroves were cut in the whole of Southeast Asia. (9) When shrimp diseases hit the pond production, many investors went bankrupt while others moved to other coastal areas. It is reported that 250 000 hectare of shrimp farms are left abandoned. (3) Current aqua-cultural operations in Asia show a better prospect on the future by having mixed cultivation methods. For example in Vietnam, where shrimp farming is being combined with mangrove rehabilitation. In the Philippines mangrove is integrated in the pond system for fish and crabs. Also Indonesia developped a variation on their traditional system (tambak (pond) system): tambak empang parit, also called mixed-farming crop ponds system. Although, heading in the right direction, these systems need to evolve more and more research is needed.
Agriculture In South Kalimantan and thus Banjarmasin, the mangroves were almost completely cut down and replaced for rice paddies and horticulture. (5)
Lax spatial planning The pressure on the land gives governments the urge to make hasty decisions and to make short-cuts by sacrificing mangrove systems. These human exploitations made the mangrove forests thinner. Today the areas are more vulnerable to heavy storms and tsunamis than with the dense, mature forests of the past. But the thinned out forest doesnâ€™t only affect the threat to the physical environment but also on human health. A study conducted by Flores NTT from 1970 to1990 concluded that malaria outbreak was closely related to mangrove loss. Also the shrimp ponds that replaced the mangroves are now left abandoned and polluted which affect the communityâ€™s sources of drinking water. (5)
Image 5 Rice fields planted on land of former mangrove forest (Sulawesi) (Source: Mongabay)
Existing regulations Management of mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia is under supervision of five ministries the Ministry of Marine and Fishery, the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Life Environment, the National Land Bureau and the Ministry of Forestry. They all have their own focus concerning mangrove management. For example the Ministry of Marine and Fishery is dealing with the mangrove resources and the importance of these to mangroves in coastal fisheryâ€™s. The Ministry of Forestry however, has the leading authority in managing mangroves in the country. Mangrove resource management in Indonesia consists of mangrove forest exploitation, protection and rehabilitation. Due to the many authorities overseeing the mangrove regulations, there is no one clear policy. This leads to confusion and carelessness towards the regulations. Mangrove forest exploitation is managed by 2 main regulations. The first handles about the silvicultural practices in mangrove harvesting and the second controls the leasing arrangements to allot the mangrove forest concessions. (2)
Image 6: Shrimp farms encroaching upon the mangrove swamps (South-Kalimantan) (Source: Getty Images)
Image 7: North from Banjarmasin where almost all mangrove have been replaced by ricefields (brown) and shrimfarps (blue). (Source ahoo Maps)
Accommodation space refers to the space between the level of the substrate and the highest level that sediment could remain without being eroded away. (Jervey 1988)
Silviculture In 1933 mangrove harvesting was regulated for the first time. It was allowed to cut mangrove within 3 km from a settlement, to control mosquito plagues. By 1938 a clear cutting system was introduced where seed trees (mother trees) of 20 cm diameter were to be left uncut to procure the regeneration of the cut areas. World War II interrupted the application of this regulation, thus uncontrolled cutting went on for years until 1978 when the rule was finally put into the official law. In addition to this law they introduced a Decree that stated the silvicultural system: Seed-Tree-Method where cutting is only allowed in areas where 40 trees with a minimum diameter of 20 cm and spaced 17 m from each other per hectare can be left to produce seed for regeneration of the forest. This Decree includes a green belt of mangrove to stay untouched: 50 m along the coast line and 10 m along the rivers and main roads. In 1990 a Presidential Decree was composed that stated that the width of the mangrove green belt in any coastal area should be set up to 130 x the annual average of the difference between the highest and lowest tides. (2)
Concessions4 Before 1970, the provincial government had the power to issue all permits, disregarding the size of the mangrove area to be leased. In 1970 the Indonesian government modified the leasing process. From then on the Minister of Agriculture was entitled to issue concessions of mangrove forests of more than 100 hectare for 30 years. From 1983 to 2002 the Ministry of Forestry added a permission for provincial governments to grant 2-year concessions for mangrove forests smaller than 100 hectare to attract foreign investments. From 2003 on, only the central government was entitled to arrange leases. In 2009, just three concession holder companies were still operative in Indonesia.(2)
Even though regulations on mangrove management has been introduced since more than half a century ago, Indonesia still has lost 5 million hectare of mangrove forest (mostly in the 1980’s and 1990’s) as a result of uncontrolled development, a scattered and weak law enforcement and an absence of supervision from the government. Looking back, the ‘regulated’ forest exploitation has not been a good evolution for Indonesia. There were many cases where trees cut by the companies were more than allowed and trees where the diameter was smaller than the allowed minimum. It is also reported that some government field officers were involved in a collaboration’ with companies and high officials were bribed to close their eyes. (5) Next to the regulated, legal mangrove exploitation, there is also the illegal. This is defined by the central government as a national problem: it happens in all the Indonesian provinces, cost the nation a lot of money (2010, Rp. 14,13 trillion, source: Jakarta Post) and it is almost impossible to control. (5) Human greed and uncontrolled development have been taking over mangrove land for decades now. Today the ecosystem exist in an alarming minority. Therefore, there has never been a time like now to turn things around and carefully plan the future of the mangrove in Indonesia. This has to go together with a consensus between all stakeholders towards a one clear strategy.
> Image 8: Landscape under pressure by port development and agricultural exploitation. (Source: Water Urbanism studio 2015.)
Concession holders are given the right to exploit the forest within the regulations fixed by the Indonesian government.
4_Strategies for Banjarmasin 1 Community involvement Local community involvement from the start is very important. The mangroves traditionally were sustainably managed by local settlements, they were really valued by the people. Involvement of NGOs and local governments is also needed to really insure sustainable development where the NGOs can support the local villages and the local governments can make appropriate guidelines and supervise the whole. (3) In Da Loc, Vietnam a project called CARE worked closely together with the community to restore mangroves. The project aimed for an improvement of awareness and empowerment of the local community by ensuring their security by restoring the protective green belt and at the same time generating new sources of livelihood. The inhabitants were trained in collective management on how to create nurseries, plant mangroves and take care of them. A core group of local enthusiasts was created to really support the project as leaders of subgroups: nursery group, planting group, protection group, ... As a result the mangrove greatly improved in quality and quantity and although still young the mangrove already changed the environment by stabilizing the soils and an increase of marine life. The 50 hectare of mangrove planted along the coast (700 meter wide strip from the sea to the village) will form a protective dike when mature. (10) Developing a platform for over all participation, eduction and by doing this really including the community; is crucual as a start and as a consistent factor in every step of the strategy for the future of the mangroves in and around the region of the city of Banjarmasin.
> Image 9: Community involvement in mangrove restoration and sustainable farming. (Source: Water Urbanism studio 2015, own designgroup.)
2 Conservation of existing forest Before talking about reforestation it is important to conserve the mangroves that still exist and prevent further loss of mature, indigenous species. The remaining species can then get a chance to recolonize the territory. As mentioned, co-management between local communities, scientists, G s and local governments must be clearly fixed to conserve the existing mangrove. Along with this, land tenure rights must be granted to the communities to ensure real interest and enthusiasm that go together with a sense of ownership. (3) Along the Barito river near Banjarmasin we can see that almost all mangrove forest is gone. The ecosystem has been replaced by port area and settlements. When we have a look outside the city, more southwards there is hardly any difference. But in this case most of the mangrove has been replaced by agriculture, only a tiny strip along the river is left. (image 7) Entirely to the south (along the Java sea) we can see that there is still some mangrove left but also massively replaced by fisheries and shrimp ponds. The importance of the mangrove forests seems to have been forgotten by blind development. Development has not been guided, regulated well in the last decades which lead to this robbed landscape of its natural ecosystem. It is important to learn from the past and learn from cities in other countries that dealt with similar issues. Ca Mau (Vietnam), for example, a city that used to be surrounded by massive mangrove forests as well; went through wars, heavy industrialization, agricultural development, ... which lead to its dramatically reduction of mangrove forest. For this city UFO3 (Explorations of Urbanism) did a research design: Mangroving Ca Mau. In this design, mangroves were given a new ĂŠlan, a new role for the future. A framework was created where both nature (mangrove, future sea level rise) as man (rice production and shrimp farming) could coexist while the mangroves act as the mediator between land and water. (1)
1. Ecologically driven scenario
2. Development driven scenario
3. Balanced scenario
> Strategy map: Interplay of mangrove and port.
3 Preparing room for the future For Banjarmasin the Ca Mau project can mean a source of inspiration. Reconfiguring the role of the mangrove in the current context will be of great importance in Banjarmasin as well. The clearing of the mangroves in the past can be seen as a blank canvas to start from today.
City vision Between 2011 and 2012 Banjarmasin was chosen as on of the pilot projects for the ‘City Development Strategies’5 (C S) approach. With this a City isioning Profile’ was drawn for Banjarmasin and named: “Gateway to Kalimantan”. Three main visions for the city were projected: Banjarmasin as economic hub, as traditional river city and as livable city. It is clear that Banjarmasin will play a dominant role in the development of Kalimantan. For this gateway a sea port and regional railway line will be introduced in the area. ut first on the agenda is the area south from anjarmasin, which is the regency of Banjar, where they plan an additional harbour to Trisakti where the regional Kalimantan railway line will plug in to in time.
The mangrove here, will serve as a framework for the landscape in transition. In the first place the arito riverbank and the existing waterways landward will be tackled. (image 10) In time the mangrove forest will grow mature and form a protective dike for the region in and around Banjarmasin. This way the mangrove’s leading role in the landscape is re-established: acting as the mediator between water and land where future expansions has to take the mangrove forest into account and not the other way around. The mangrove forest will grow and decline according to the time frame of the development: f.e. The railway line is not yet built but while pending, the line for the railway line is shaped by a linear orchard or coconut trees. The point is that whether the plans will go through or not, the main framework of mangrove is set out.Thus if the railway would not come through, this is not a problem: the established trees can stay. If the railway would be built, this is OK as well, because the right place for it was planned in the framework and no mangrove forest has to be cut down to do so. Therefore, the framework of mangrove is strong enough to adapt to either an ecological driven scenario, development driven, a balanced one (image 10) or anything in between. Adapting to the territory in transformation leaving and creating suitable room for the future plans of the city.
To develop an economic hub with all its massive infrastructures (port and railway) and at the same time maintain a traditional and livable city, it is important to plan with caution not to encroach upon the land as before with an unsustainable, scattered landscape as a result.
4 Restoration of mangrove
In this stage community participation has started and measures are being made to conserve existing mangrove forest. Now room can be prepared for future developments through strategic afforestation and restoration of the forest.
> Image 10: Mangrove strategy for the Banjar region, South of Banjarmasin (left) with 3 development scenario’s. (right) (Source: Water Urbanism studio 2015, own designgroup.) 5
“Restoration follows where conservation has failed, or where disaster has struck. Of course, failed con-servation can be looked at as a disaster itself.” said Quarto in his report of mangrove reforestation. (3) Restoration in the past has not always been successful. The intension is there but the right strategy to do so is absent in many cases. Either the mangroves are planted in the wrong places interfering with other important ecosystems such as the swamp or the mangroves are planted using only one or two commercial mangrove species.
Pilot project implemented by UN-Habitat and the Directorate General of Human Settlements (DGHS) of the Ministry of Public Works as a tool that help local governments to develop comprehensive strategies for urban development in order to link public funding with local investors.
This then leads to a lack of biodiversity, an unhealthy ecosystem and a inefficient restoration process. Millions of dollars are being pumped into the projects but because of monotonous management the actual goal is missed. (3) To create a sustainable mangrove forest it is again important to work together: scientists, NGOâ€™s, locals and local governments putting their knowledge and resources together. These resources encompass the existing site conditions together with the desired and needed mangrove species to be restored for that specific location. A correct restoration approach can reduce the cost of restoration enormously. Introducing an educational program to distribute this knowledge and involve community members is important to insure a sustainable restoration and empower local communities. (3)
Ecological Restoration Approach According to R. Lewis6, there are three approaches which are used in mangrove restoration programs: 1: Hydrologic restoration with no planting 2: Hydrologic restoration with planting 3: Planting without consideration for hydrology The first method is natural and proofed to be the most successful and ecological because it leaves the seed trees or mother trees as they are and this way a natural colonization can take place. But this method is also the most time consuming. The second method is artificial but also effective and provides a quick recovery by planting young indigenous mangrove that were cultivated in the nursery. But the cost of planting may double the overall cost of the project and may limit biodiversity. Method 3 is applied most commonly and always leads to problems. Mangroves species are very fixed on their specific hydrological requirements, not all species grow according to 6
the same conditions. Planting species where they should not be is often more damaging than helpful. Most mangrove restoration of the 3rd method utilize one variety of mangrove: the Rhizophora or Red Mangrove. This mangrove is fast growing, tall and grows straight, perfect for building construction. But this leads to a monotonous, unhealthy mangrove forest. (3) The mix of mangrove species is vital in creating a robust and more natural self-regenerating mangrove forest for the future.
5_Mangroves as a framework for future urbanity Mangroves carry a undeniably high potential to deal with future growth in Banjarmasin through a coexistence of ecosystem and development. The territory goes back to its roots and the mangroves obtain a renewed responsibility. It establishes its position within current communities, the city, the country and the world. Working with the mangrove as a framework, for urban growth in the territory around Banjarmasin is a win-win-win situation. Local communities are protected, empowered, receive new sources of livelihood and can preserve and pass on their traditions related to the mangrove. The city of Banjarmasin is able to grow in a sustainable way guided by the framework of mangrove and supported by local settlements. Indonesia can invest in mangrove restoration that is truly worth the effort and the money through ecological restoration approaches enhancing the quality and the quantity of the mangrove ecosystem. Finally on the world scale, mangrove restoration in Indonesia and the other carbon sinks of the world, can help with the battle against green house gasses and reduce the effects of global warming. > Image 11+12: Port as clearance in the mangrove forest, structured by waterways and vegetation. (Source: Water Urbanism studio 2015, own designgroup.)
Wetland scientist, certified environmental professional and member of the Mangrove Action Project. He designed over 200 wetland restoration or creation projects over the whole world of which 1250 acre of mangrove restoration.
Territories of Absorption
The Successional Transformation of Expanding Regions in Banjarbakula, Indonesia Marion Mukolwe 2014-2015
Thesis presented to obtain the degree of Master (of Science) of Human Settlements KU Leuven, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture PROMOTOR Prof. Guido Geneen
! ( Anjirpasar
Banjarmasin Utara ! ( Sungai Tabuk
Banjarmasin Barat (TengahBanjarmasin Timur Banjarmasin!
! ( Martapura Timur
! ( Tatah Makmur
! ( Martapura ! (
Banjar Baru Utara
Banjar Baru Selatan
! ( Beruntung Baru
! ( Bumi Makmur
Greater Banjarmasin Fig 5. METROPOLITAN CHANGES Banjarmaskuala Banjarbakula Metropolitan
High Density ( > 657 pple/Km2 ) Medium Density ( 329 - pple/Km2 ) Low Density ( 0 - 328 pple/Km2 ) !
KABUPATEN KUALA KAPUAS (PROVINSI KALTENG)
Fig 6. POPULATION DENSITY
KABUPATEN KUALA KAPUAS (PROVINSI KALTENG)
! ( ! (
! ( ! (
! ( Martapura ! (
Liang Anggang Landasan Ulin
Banjar Baru Selatan
! ( ! ( !( # 0
! ( Martapura
( Yh ! o! (
! ( ! (
! ! !
( h! ! (
! ( Bumi Makmur
Banjar Baru Selatan
! ( Beruntung Baru
Banjar Baru Utara
! ( ! (
Banjar Baru Utara
! ( Gambut
! ( Martapura Timur
! ! ! !
! ( Kertak Hanyar
Astambul Martapura Barat
! ! !
Banjarmasin Barat (TengahBanjarmasin Timur Banjarmasin!
Banjarmasin Utara ! (
Banjarmasin Barat (TengahBanjarmasin Timur Banjarmasin!
! ! !
Banjarmasin Utara ! (
! ! ! ! ! !
! ( ! (
( h ! ! ( Vh V h
! ( ! (
Fig 7. PLANNED LAND USE Pendidikan Perkebunan Trade Plantation Perdagangan dan Jasa Pertanian Lahan Basah Education Agriculture Wetlands Pergudangan Pertanian LahanAgriculture Kering Warehousing services Dry land Perikanan Industri Fishery Industry Perkantoran Kawasan Bandara f ce comple Regional Airports Permukiman Kawasan Pelabuhan Settlement Port area Defensedanand Security Pertahanan Keamanan Kawasan Umum PublicPelayanan Service Region LandPembuangan lls Tempat Akhir Kesehatan Health Airport Development Rencana Pengembangan Bandara Pariwisata Tourism
Protected Forest Production Forest Forest Park Coastal Conservation Game reserve Ruang Terbuka Hijau Space Green Open Taman WisataPark Alam Nature Sempadan BorderPantai Sempadan BorderSungai River Hutan Bakau Mangrove Forest
Fig 8. PLAN ACTIVITY CENTRE SYSTEM Banjarmasin Urban Core (City Core) Martapura Urban Core (City Core) Banjabaru Urban Core (City Core) Cities around (Satellite City ) Urban Area ( Small Town Fig 5: Noor 2015 Fig 6, 7, 8: Regional Development Planning Agency, S. K. Province, 2008
Territories of Absorption The Successional Transformation of Expanding Regions in Banjarbakula, Indonesia
Banjarbakula Metropolitan Region Banjarbakula is a territory structured by a deltaic water system joining the ava Sea. Metropolitan Banjarbakula is composed of ve regencies of Banjarmasin, Banjarbaru, Banjar, Tanah Laut and Barito Kuala6, 11. Its total population of over 1.3 million is expected to double to over 2.5 million by 2030. Its creation drew from the spread of uncontrolled sprawl development and the aim to assimilate further growth with the strong polarity of the greater Banjarmasin area, composed of the three cities Banjarmasin, Martapura and Banjarbaru5 (Noor, 2015). Banjarmasin, the oldest city, developed from a centre on the Martapura River and consolidation of linear river based settlements. After the end of Dutch colonization, Banjarmasin grew exponentially12 along the Martapura and Barito Rivers on lowlands under the sea level. The landscape changed dramatically with the introduction of rice, shifting from swamp to productive landscape. Water was and still is the basis of food production and livelihoods (Water Urbanism Studio, 2015). Martapura developed from the pro table gemstone mining activities to the south while Banjarbaru is a planned city, designated as the new provincial administration centre of South Kalimantan. The National Medium-term Plan of Indonesia places importance on Banjarmasin, Banjarbaru and South Kalimantan as a whole in their role as primary service centres2, 8 attracting new growth[RPJMN, 2010]. Historically, what is now Banjarbakula area was composed of swamp lowlands stretching into the forested hills3, 4. In recent decades, the remaining ecological landscape of swamp, mangrove forests along the Barito River and the tropical forests in the hills became a source of big business for companies with private concessions for extractive resources. These concessions promoted oil palm and rubber plantations, shrimp farming, logging, gemstone mining, quarrying and excavation at the expense of ecology, water systems and water quality [Halim et al, 2013]. With the development of road infrastructure urbanization has shifted from water-based to a roadbased orientation.
Necessity for Absorbing New Growth As the economies have evolved so has the territory, with transposed systems that continue to alter its realities. These changes continue to revise the undercurrents of the urbanizing poles, Banjarmasin, Banjarbaru and Martapura, which are currently expanding. These dynamics demonstrate the rampant urbanization pitted against natural resources. It is essential to examine the character and potential of these poles to receive projected growth.
Banjarmasin Banjarmasin, originally a water-based merchant city along the Martapura River, has grown to become a port city.The population of Banjarmasin rose from 66,000 in 1930, to 444,000 people in 1990, to 652,000 people twenty years later in 2010 and has been projected to double to 1.27million people in fteen years in 203010. The city’s edge on the Barito is dominated by the Trisakti Harbour and related industrial/economic activities that partly depend on harvesting the territory of its forests and plantations.
14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
Banjarmasin Banjarbaru Banjar POPULATION 2006 | 2028
Barito Kuala Tanah Laut
The city is downstream of the Martapura River, obstructing the water’s natural oodplain. t is located below sea level where the effects of tidal uctuation, saline intrusion and rising river levels in the wet season are experienced dramatically (Water Urbanism Studio, 2015). The Martapura River’s network of tributaries, which are increasingly getting canalized, are subject to excessive sedimentation from deforested zones and water pollution from settlements.
Martapura 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
Banjarmasin Banjarbaru Banjar Barito Kuala Tanah Laut POPULATION DENSITY 2006 | 2028
3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
POPULATION 2006 | 2028 Banjarbakula
Fig 10: Data adapted from Noor, 2015 Fig 11: Google Earth Map, last checked 5/6/2015
Banjarmasin’s fringe is a dynamic section growing into the paddy elds and forming linear growths along regional infrastructure. Swamps are lled with material from excavated hills transferring the land condition to the sprawling edges of the city and along the infrastructure corridors emanating from it13. Banjarmasin is envisioned as the ‘Gateway to Kalimantan’ building on its tenets as a traditional river city, as a regional economic hub and a liveable city [UNHABITAT, 2012]. This vision directs regional growth to Banjarmasin with the expectation of capacity to absorb and expand for growing populations. Expansion means the paradoxical reduction of the food production landscape when there is a projected need for higher production. Therefore, the exponential growth will have to look to the surrounding territory as Banjarmasin, with a density projected at 17,755 people per km2 in 202811, will inevitably spill outward unable to cope with this upsurge. 15
Fig 13: BANJARMASIN, sprawl into productive area and swamp along infrastructure
Fig 14: BANJARBARU, porous city with low density with infrastructure-based intensity
Fig 12: URBAN GROWTH, the evolution of growth 16
Fig 15: MARTAPURA, high density growth into Banjabaru in the south Fig 12: Tissue Group, Studio Explorations, 2015 Fig 13. 14, 15: Google Earth Map, last checked 5/6/2015
of an orthogonal garden city. Its designation as the headquarters for provincial administration elevate it from a local city to regional city, expected to absorb the regional paraphernalia that accompanies the task such as new infrastructure, bigger economies and new settlement [Water Urbanism Studio, 2015]. It is a porous, distributed city14, with a density of 409 people per km2 in 2006 and a projected density of 1,203 people per km2 in 202810. Banjarbaru is capable of receiving measured spillover growth from Banjarmasin and Martapura at this juncture. Banjarbaru is already housing populations that work in Banjarmasin, part of the production cycle of goods/ foods destined for Banjarmasin and large scale infrastructure such as the Syamsudin Noor Airport. Banjarbaru’s capacity to absorb make it an integral part of the economy of Banjarmasin. Simultaneously, the city limits are fast inching outwards and densi cation will occur within these limits.
Metropolitan land use Planning as for future growth Fig 16: PROJECTED GROWTH, fragmentation of productive landscape no. of people
no. of people
no. of people
Fig 17: POPULATION DISTRIBUTION PLAN 2028, searching for room for growth [Noor, 2015]
Banjarbaru and Martapura Martapura and Banjarbaru have in recent decades coalesced to one urban zone bearing different identities12. Martapura started on the banks of the Martapura River and continued to grow on the adjacent land higher than swamps. It is the meeting point of the tidal wave effect and the pressure from the two tributaries, Riam Kanan and Riam Kiwa, owing down the hills. As such Martapura’s edge on the river e periences ooding events in the rainy season and low level inundation in dryer months. Martapura city is bound by the river northwards and swamps on either side. Thus the only edge capable of sound expansion has grown southwards into Banjarbaru merging the two cities15. The expansion possible in Martapura is inward through in ll and densi cation which is not suf cient for doubled growth. Banjarbaru is the city on the highest topography. It was planned based on the Ahmad Yani Road with the principles Fig 16: Adapted from Fig 7 Fig 17: UNHABITAT, 2012
The future plans for Metropolitan Banjarbakula7 feature a consideration for where the new and the extensions will go. They propose commercial zones, a new port with related industries, public spaces and even conservation areas. However, the plans do not re ect how the new work with the old only superimposing on an existing system. How does the existing system react to this imposition and vice versa? The possible interactions that could arise will impact expansion of settlement on ecological or productive areas and dysfunctional growth. The redeeming aspect of this plan is that it designates green protected areas which are presently under threat of exploitation. A resolution of the relationship of these proposed elements to each other, to the context and to future growth necessitates further strategy. The capacity for e pansion creates the possibility to reshuf e certain activities. The dif culty is that every part of the territory has its purpose linked to economy or urbanization. It is unfeasible for the two urban zones to absorb the expected doubling of the population of the region. Banjarmasin’s city vision takes into account goals for growth in the future. This has led to city extension proposals to Alalak and Gambut17 [Noor, 2015, UNHABITAT, 2012]. These plans mean land conversions from rice paddy to city and from swamp to city. There is need to nd suitable locations in the territory that can take new populations, economies and the infrastructure to support them. Currently, the projected areas of growth extend on swamps and rice paddy zones effectively reducing their ecological function and yield capacity respectively16,17. There is need to nd absorptive areas in the Banjarbakula Metropolitan Region that are already ‘connected’ to the current tissue, social systems, infrastructure and economic logics. Areas that provide room for future landscapes while safeguarding the essential existing urban, productive and ecological landscapes. Finding these areas can allow the re-prioritization of the landscapes, depending on new necessities or pressures arising from growth. 17
Fig 18: VERTICAL LANDSCAPES, investigation of the territory
Investigating the Growing Territory The search for absorptive areas requires an investigation of the territory. This landscape-based approach of design investigation is to rst identify the character of the territory, how this character has shaped growth, absorption and if visible adaptation to evolving uses.
Landscapes in Con ict Banjarbakula is made up of ve vertical landscapes18 based on the type of soils. These are mangroves, paddy elds, swamp, mines, plantations and tropical forest. They are places in transition e periencing scalable landscape con icts that are representative of the problems facing South Kalimantan.The expansion of settlements with increasing populations has prompted the encroachment of ecologies of mangroves, forests and swamps19. There has been a devastating loss of mangroves in the conversion of land to rice paddies. Swamp areas have been fragmented, lled and drained 18
reducing the water storage capacity of the oodplain thus a higher risk of e treme ooding.The forests have been victims of concession and illegal logging activities impacting in large-scale deforestation with increase in river sedimentation. Another large scale land conversion has been the adoption of rubber and oil palm plantations which have required and felled vast amounts of forested land resulting in devastating deforestation and soil erosion20. Oil palm produces higher revenues for the region and has become the preferred cash crop. The danger is that the oil palm plantations surveys have identi ed over 0 of the Banjarbakula land as potential zones for oil palm plantations. While forests have given way to oil palm plantations, the food production zones could be next. At the same time small scale economies are affected by preference for oil palm which is established by big companies while rubber is operated by small scale holders. This premise questions the focus on economic development at a regional level but
cological con ict Fig 1 Past
Present Encroachment of swamps, forests and mangrove Reduced ecological capacity Deforestation
Future Scenario with current trend
Extensive spatial coverage Soil erosion Deforestation
Extensive plantation blocks [Fig 20]
Future Scenario with current trend 19
overlooking the small scale. New developments, both settlements and industrial, along infrastructure corridors are cropping up on lled swamp land and are increasing rapidly21. Settlements along canal systems comprising productive housing are also expanding. This increase in development arises from water and infrastructural con gurations within rice paddy elds. addy elds are starting to become the absorptive landscape for infrastructure and industry. The consequence as mentioned previously, will be a fragmented productive landscape of reduced capacity and yields. The industrial growth appears dispersed but road based stretching across different landscapes. New industries have been proposed in swamp areas which will further lead to land conversion. The gemstone mining, quarrying and excavation activities have created scars in the landscape by altering the topography22. Excavation mines have migrated entire sections of the hills to the swamp fringes of Banjarmasin attening large chunks of land along with the tropical forests that stood on them. Gemstone mines have dug into swamps and forests along water drainage paths to leave contaminated pits that have eventually lled with water. The uarry is in the heart of the forest next to Riam Kanan, one of the tributaries of the Martapura River causing deforestation and sedimentation. This inversion of topography is driving land conversion, giving the swamp the ability to absorb development. The attened lands are also converting to residential developments. D’Auria and Vescina  on La Plata, Argentina, write about such results caused by the inde niteness of a landscape. t allows all manner of appropriation of resources as they are open to interpretation which varies for individuals. The ecologies of Banjarbakula face such inde niteness. conomically motivated appropriations which are largely uncoordinated generate con icts of use resulting in degradation of resources with domino effects on water storage capacity, sedimentation and water quality issues. Despite these con icts it is possible to envision possible productive appropriations that may not imitate the original but protect its existence. It is inevitable that these activities will continue as most are sanctioned by the government implemented by private companies while others are by individuals or small groups in response to economic tensions. Andrusz provides another characterization of this discord of economy versus ecology. He outlines that regions in metropolitan zones such as Banjarbakula can be divided into two types, ‘ruined and peak zones’. Ruined zones have been degraded by capitalist activities while the peak zones have been ignored by the same capitalist motivations [Isikkayaa, 2012 citing Andrusz 1996]. The succession of these socio-spatial dichotomies have resulted in e tensive land conversion, from a natural state, to a modi ed state, and to a replacement state. If these trends were to continue in a similar manner in the context of exponential growth a catastrophic future is to be expected
characteri ed by intense ooding, contaminated water, destroyed water catchment zones and lack of food security. The effects of climate change requiring adaptation also emphasize this competition of values between rapid growth and degradation of resources. Flooding, tributaries drying up from disturbed sources, reduced rainfall and projected sea level rise are problems that future growing populations in Indonesia will contend with [IPCC, 2014].
Effect on the economy Water-based economies generate more than half of Banjarmasin’s economy through related transportation, nance, and services activities [UNHABITAT, 2012]. However, monetary conversion and consequent degradation of resources has had negative economic returns. Banjarmasin’s primary extractive industries are facing decline, particularly rubber and timber extraction. While they are products that depend on cyclic growth patterns, they have been harvested uncontrolled without any regard for regeneration time. The decline of both industries has resulted in exhausted, degraded and converted landscapes and reduction in job availability. To remedy these problems, part of the plan by the city is to grow its service and tourism sectors. These plans, in addition to the low growth rate of manufacturing industries heralds a new kind of economic growth that requires the relevant infrastructure and programs to achieve. They re uire modi cation of e isting land uses to absorb new capacity. Banjarmasin intends to strengthen the city’s role as a port city by upgrading and extending the port in the future thus encouraging new industrial and related economic activities along the banks of Barito River [UNHABITAT, 2012]. It is clear that Banjarbakula’s landscape is changing at a fast pace and will continue to change due to resource economies and adaptation to the outcomes of this dynamic.
Capacity-driven con ict mitigation in absorptive territory Banjarbakula re uires a landscape con ict mitigation process with capacity-driven focus. The approach proposed in this case is to use the points of con ict as an entry point to both needs of con ict mitigation and nding room to grow. Finding room for the new in the landscape can mean re-evaluating certain sites. Wall proposes ‘peripheral sites’ that are at the moment deemed to lack in uence. These sites can hold potential to become important locations to receive new growth [Wall, 1999]. Through design investigations an in-between one is identi ed between the vertical landscapes, a zone in transition into a new use23..These ‘peripheral sites’ have the characteristics of their anking landscapes e pressing ecological value and urbanizing tissue in various degrees. Desvigne, in his interviews with Bordeaux, proposes such a system that focuses on such traces that are almost invisible23, transforming them into new landscapes so effectively that “everything remains in 21
place but its nature changes”. These zones can form points where the new can be accommodated while simultaneously correcting the de ciencies and con icts of the e isting landscapes that ank them on either side. This absorptive capacity for new growth can be channelled to upgrade the existing landscapes based on ecological systems which accordingly can remain in their place. Desvigne does point out that this system is not intended to be a restoration but a transformation of the landscape [Bordeaux, 2009]. These landscape transition zones form the starting point for absorbing future growth24. Transition one 1 is between con ict of the natural forces of the Barito River, degraded mangroves and rice production paddies. This transition zone is crucial to create a protection system for the river banks by reforestation of mangrove forests. This zone is also capable of absorbing the planned harbour with related industries and new settlements such as desakota*. Transition zone 2 is between the con ict of the city of Banjarbaru and the swamp. t has the capacity to absorb new urban ecology protecting the swamp edge, new public space for the city, desakota and productive swamp to bene t economically from ecology without land lling. Transition one 3 is between the con ict of mines, swamp, plantations and Banjarbaru city. It has a promising possibility of transforming into a new mixed city, new ecology, and new economies/industries due to its strategic position on high topography, adjacency to the new provincial administration, strong infrastructural connection and its industrial farms. The mines provide a possible structure of open spaces for new growth. Transition one forms the con ict of forest and plantations where there is deforestation. It is capable of absorbing reforested community forests ran under social forestry programs and controlled sustainable logging. These zones are capable of receiving the new to correct the problems of the territory by responding to growth pressures with the landscape as priority. Eventually they expand into the rest of the vertical landscape, adapting and growing into it as the sustainable future expansion necessitates into a transformed landscape. Desvigne warns that predicting the speci c type of city that will be built decades from now is impossible. Therefore, an ‘intermediate nature’ must be planned for re uiring and designing for e ibility. He states that “the idea of transformation overtime thus leads one to imagine urban forms that are not superposed on the site but that draw their substance from these changes”. Such a process means that only certain future programs are proposed adapting to future changes. In this way coherence may not be immediate as the territory is in ‘perpetual transformation’ with a deferred completion [Bordeaux, 2009]. Perpetual transformation necessitates consideration of the growth at every stage of transformation affecting the capacity of absorption of new programs at a later stage. Wall’s  writings supports this with the statement that “the goal of designing the urban surface is to increase its capacity to support and diversify activities in *desakota: Settlements having both village and city characteristics
time-even activities that cannot be determined in advance, then a primary design strategy is to extend its continuity while diversifying its range of services”. Capacity-driven planning and design works towards resilience of the region by incorporating the new elements either missing or inadequate. At the same time the consideration of the quality of landscapes generated at various carrying capacities entails the choreography of new conditions for a tentative time. Wall also suggests that focus should shift from forms of urban space to processes of urbanization in capacity-driven design utilizing the regional scale networks. Visualization of these processes considers larger dynamics which may include; shifts in economies, how industry types will evolve, how settlements might consolidate or shrink, how entire plantation blocks are being replaced, how infrastructure will morph or how water appropriation systems might change. In totality how these processes in uence the imprint of growth on the territory in time. He combines capacity-driven design processes with their transformation over time, as a system of successional transformation.
Successional Transformation of Absorptive Territories Following these perspectives, the design strategy focuses didactically on the successional transformation of absorptive landscapes. The strategy is the process and the process is the strategy. It takes advantage of the immense potential of the transition zones by planning for processes that will change over a period of time. Such an approach evokes a sense of uncertainty. Prominski , however, highlights the unpredictability of evolutionary processes where he argues that “uncertainty is not seen as something that has to be resolved, but as an integral part of the design”. He is quick to point out that success of this system is only possible with ‘speci c instructions’. n his case these speci c instructions consisted of a water management framework with a formal system that encourages evolution which manages to be coherent in the future. He proposes the term ‘limited self-organization’ implying a sense of freedom in change over time but its purpose directed from the inception. This starts to uestion the kind of ‘speci c instructions’ that can be enforced to encourage successional transformation of the landscape. These instructions can start with the categorization of these absorptive landscapes. As ecological in character, comprising forests, swamps, mangroves and river edges; or as emergent rural-urban zones that are starting to urbanize. In both instances the programs and character of absorption must be different as it is entirely based on the composition and de ciency of the one. The project strategy focuses on Transition zone 124 (Barito River and mangroves) as an ecological absorptive landscape and zone 3 (Mines and emerging industry) as emergent urbanizing absorptive landscape for their strategic position in the regional networks and potential to absorb future growth. 23
FIG 25: GROWING a new parkland over time, Field Operations, 2006
Ecological absorptive territory Mangrove as structure for the port
Reforestation of mangrove, new port, shponds
Urbanizing absorptive territory
port extension, new industry and settlement, increased mangrove and shponds
new railway, increased rice- sh production
Mixed use development, public space
Water remediation, test plantations, tree nurseries 24
Light Industry structured by mines, commercial hub,
Mixed use development, open markets
Fig 26: SUCCESSIONAL TRANSFORMATION, absorption of the new over a period of time
Instructions and Catalysts Corner speaks of allowing e ible change and adaptation of growth over time in such landscapes that are considered in terms of scale. He proposes designing the process using ‘catalysts of transformation’ as opposed to designing a static proposition [Bordeaux, 2009]. Field Operations’  proposal for the remediation and development of Fresh Kills Park, New York adopts such a successive process.Where each stage is driven by catalysts from the previous stage25. In the case of Banjarbakula, three stages have been considered where speci c instructions and catalysts of transformation have been applied26. The rst stage, before growth spreads into these absorption territories is to set up a protection system by re-establishing ecology and building a landscape structure where ecology is a frame within which growth will take place. The second stage is to steer growth in favourable direction by reinforcing the appropriate and catalyst infrastructure reinforced with social centres. The third stage, and the stages after, are adaptive stages where initial absorption has taken root and there is increasing pressure for food, water, more space to grow. Expansion can be envisaged further into the landscape in a sustainable and cyclic method. Middle phases develop and sustain relationships between re-establishment of natural resources and intense use later. Ecological Absorptive area strategies face the challenge of how to prioritize ecological value while supporting economies of scale such as e tensive paddy elds and plantations. They face growth pressure from settlement, food production and industry. Therefore, every addition to the system has a role in safeguarding ecologies and natural protection systems while increasing capacity. The water structure of creeks and rivers de nes the location of the new programs26. The strategy envisions the harbor and new industries from a mangrove point of view which forms a protective mass at the banks. The new port is absorbed in the mangrove forest, structured by waterways and vegetation. A hybrid protection system from erosion and saline intrusion is created, arti cially by the built port edge and naturally by the mangrove forest. The paddy landscape that extended to the banks of the Barito River is pushed back, rst entirely then framed by productive mangrove dykes with aquaculture. Urbanizing absorptive territories derive their character and potential for growth from the dynamics of existing land uses and programs. They require a system of absorption that build on these existing dynamics. Transition one 3 is de ned by intersecting regional roads that stimulate growth of industrial farms, mining and plantation warehouses. Its higher topography create its limits terminating at a swamp on the west and south east and extensive plantation blocks. Connectivity, topography and good soil conditions make it the best location in Banjarbakula to grow on. Its northern edge meets the sprawl of Banjarbaru and the new provincial headquarters. These dynamics of sprawl, growing plantations, evolving economies, growing industrial farms, inactive gemstone mines, and hyper active land excavation sites have spurred related transitioning satellite villages along the roads. The goal is to mediate the growth of settlement and industry steering it towards a mixed use transition by reinforcing
the ecological structure as a frame. Commercial, light industries and service components can be absorbed evolving with time to with settlements.
Open-Ended Absorption and Adaptation Wall  proposes that the modern metropolis functions more like ‘a spreading rhizome’, proliferating the new and facilitative of change. This capacity driven system needs to be open-ended and adaptive. Banjarbakula can embrace the inevitable development but steer it appropriately to ensure the territory can absorb exponential growth and economies while natural systems are protected. However, clear directions have to be put in place to accommodate the tentative growth pressures subject to socio-political in uences. According to Catoor and Gosseye , consideration of the weight of economic and political regimes at a multi-scalar level dictates a level of e ibility as these settings can upset the precarious balance of urbanization with the natural systems. These are cyclical systems, each stage taking advantage of the substance of the previous stage thus increasing the resilience of the region. This espouses the idea of intermediate natures as put forward by Desvigne [Bordeaux, 2009] that utilizes successive phases that build on each other’s dynamics, at times coexisting, condensing, converging, progressing or employing historical rhythms. The bene t of this system is that it views development as a positive addition, albeit cautiously. Re ection of the regional scale of transformation considers that industries can diversify and evolve to new forms such as service-based, processing or research; plantation coverage or types can change effectively altering economies; informal economies become legitimate as part of an ordering principle; typologies can evolve to higher or mixed densities; provincial administration can organize new development; and that polycentric rural villages can consolidate into strong satellite towns. This uncertainty of planning and adapting systems of land use for future growth dictates the identi cation of how and where to expand the region; It considers what this system needs to be viable such as dyke, infrastructure and water, essentially the lines that matter presently and in the future; and establishes the guidelines that will ensure freedom of evolution.
Bibliography BORDEAUX D. C. Intermediate Natures / Natures intermédiaires : les paysages de Michel Desvigne: The Landscapes of Michel Desvigne. Birkhäuser Berlin, 2009 CATOOR B. and GOSSEYE J. [r]Evolutionary Land Structure | Infrascape, Hiep Phuoc.Vietnam. In: DE MEULDER B., SHANNON K, D’AURIA V., GOSSEYE J. [Eds.]. Water Urbanisms UFO 1, SUN, p82-87, 2008 D’AURIA V. and VESCINA L. Between Pampa and the river. La Plata Argentina. In: DE MEULDER B., SHANNON K, D’AURIA V., GOSSEYE J. [Eds.]. Water Urbanisms UFO 1, SUN, p59-65, 2008 GEENEN G. and DERDEN D. River and Road as Warp and Woof. Interweaving Ecologies and Economies in Banjarmasin Delta, in: DE MEULDER Bruno & SHANNON Kelly, Water Urbanisms East. Emerging Practices and Age Old Traditions, Zurich, Park Books, UFO Explorations in Urbanism 3, , p. 70-78, 2013 FIELD OPERATIONS. Fresh Kills Park: Draft Master Plan. The City of New York, 2006 IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [EDENHOFER, O., R. PICHS-MADRUGA,Y. SOKONA, E. FARAHANI, S. KADNER, K. SEYBOTH, A. ADLER, I. BAUM, S. BRUNNER, P. EICKEMEIER, B. KRIEMANN, J. SAVOLAINEN, S. SCHLÖMER, C. VON STECHOW, T. ZWICKEL AND J.C. MINX [eds.]]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA. 2014. HATTA G., HALIM H., MACKINNON K., MANGALIK A. The Ecology of Kalimantan: Indonesian Borneo, Tuttle Publishing, 2013 ISIKKAYAA D. “Reconstructing the ‘In-Between’: An Urban Transformation Scenario for the Haydarpasa Harbour, Istanbul”, in: Sociology Study 2 p742-756, 2012. NOOR B. Banjarmasin and Banjarbakula. Banjarmasin Masterclass presentation. Hotel Victoria Banjarmasin on 21/02/2015. PROMINSKI M. “Designing Landscapes as Evolutionary Systems”, in: The Design Journal, 8 p25-34, 2005. RPJMN. Ministry of National Development planning. National Medium Term Development Plan [RPJMN 2010-2014]. Republic of Indonesia, 2010. U -HAB TAT. 2012. City Visioning ro le, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan. Cities Development Strategies Making Urban nvestment Work CDS . U -HAB TAT Regional f ce for Asia and the aci c and Cities Alliance Trust Fund. ndonesia f ce WALL, A. Programming the Urban Surfaces. In CORNER J, [Ed]. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press New York, 1999 WALDHEIM, C. [Ed.]. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2006 Water Urbanism Studio, 2015. River and Road as Warp and Woof. Interweaving Ecologies and Economies in the Deltaic Territory, Banjarmasin, Indonesia. Volume 1 Explorations, KU Leuven, 2015. Citation: ANDRUSZ, G. Structural Change and Boundary Instability, Cities after Socialism. Blackwell Publishers, London, 1996. 27
6_References (1) DE MEULDER, B., SHANNON, K. (ed.) (2013) Water Urbanisms East; River and Road as Warp and Woof: Interweaving Ecologies and Economies In Banjarmasin’s Delta. pp. 70-79; 118-137, Leuven. (2) FARIDAH-HANUM, I. and REHMAN-HAKEEM, K. (2014) Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia: Status, Challenges and Management Strategies, pp. 3760, London. (3) QUARTO, A. (2005) Mangrove Restoration - Natural Protection from Natural Disasters’, Biodiversity 6:1, pp. 3-12, London. (4) SHIHIR , M. (1997) Mangroves as a Coastal Protection from Waves in the Tong King Delta, Vietnam. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, pp. 127-135. (5) ILMAN, M. (2011) State of the Art Information on Mangrove Ecosystems in Indonesia. Wetlands International, Bogor. (6) MCIVOR, E.A,, MOLLER, I and SPALDING, M. (2013) The Response of Mangrove Soil Surface Elevation to Sea Level Rise. Natural Coastal Protection Series Vol 3. (7) MACINTOSH, D.J., MAHINDAPALA, R., MARKOPOULOS, M. Sharing lessons on Mangrove Restoration, Bangkok 2012. (8) TOPKE, K., Mangroves: Marine Habitats and Ecosystems, Available: http://www.marbef.org/wiki/mangroves last revieuwed on: 18/01/2013 (9) PRIMAVERA, J.H. (1997) Socio-economic Impacts of Shrimp Culture. Aquaculture Research Vol 28:815-827. (10) UFF E, P., THI E , ., TH MSE , M.F. (2011) Community-based Mangrove Reforestation in Da Loc, Vietnam. Ecosystem & Livelihoods Adaptation Networks (ELAN).
Connecting Evolving Urbanities with Public Transportation A proposition for Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru Academic year 2014-2015 Master of Human Settlements Faculty of Engineering | Department of Architecture | KU Leuven
Author Emerald Upoma Baidya Promotor Guido Geenen Studio Team Bruno De Meulder, Tom Van Mieghem, Cynthia Susilo, Stefanie Dens Spring Studio 2015, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
A preface to the flow of mobility Contextual Study and Analysis The scope of design inspired us to see Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru as integrated entity in term of capacity and facilities but at the same time having their own identities and function to serve. Historical city Banjarmasin and itâ€™s burgeoning new administrative capital Banjarbaru have to be connected in a way with a public mobility option which could prove to be more efficient and affordable for the inhabitants than their current mode of transports and help to improve and preserve the urban identity and form of the cities. In a quest of answers to how to design a correspondent public transport for Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru, it is crucial to understand some issues: what is the core mobility principle that is in function, how can this principle be advantagous or disadvantagous to a future possible public transport design strategy and whether or not existing infrastructure can be used to envision these strategies and how.
Existing hierarchy of major road infrastructure by Author
Comprehending the scales We firstly tried to capture Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru within the regional frame of referrence to understand the mobility flows. We We take into account two major types of existing infrastructures: arteries and collectors; It is apparent that the arteries carry both good carrying heavy vehicle (the regional flow) and a major flow of pessenger flow who need to move back and forth the major destinations of markets, universities, administration centres, offices, residentail areas in banjarmasin and Banjarbaru, while the collectors carry a light flow and they did not yet evolve to be bigger infrastructures but it is apparent that with the new planned agglomeration in the next few years those infrastructures will also evolve in a same way. The overall tendency, hence, is not resource efficient and overlook the future outcomes. In the existing situation, the Ahmed Yani road carries a heavy flow and often faces congestion, heavy vehicles can pass through the dense city to serve the riverside industries and the ring roads are planned to make thrice their current size. These tendencies are the reason why we can see â€œeveryone moving on every roadâ€?, rather than an organized flow which serve different flows their purposes better.
A draft sketch of how the hierarchy can be changed to re-streucture flows by Author
The major flow lines have a potential to express themselves in two different scales, regional and urban. This is the first instance where urban public transport can be prioritized on the urban infrastructure, and thus making its flow uninterrupted and attractive for users. 5
A preface to the flow of mobility Contectual Study and Analysis Defining the latent interplay of flow The hypothesis of re-structuring the flows are instantly revised with a set of intuitive flow map. With the flow maps showing mobility of produced good on road and mobility of people on road, we further agree on the point these flows can be suggested to work as seperate layers, rather than being over-used and consequently bring in more new infrastructure in the network. This would support protecting the urban identity of the Ahmed Yani road and defining the productive green and protecting it from unplanned urbanization by placing the planned regional spine on the line that is passing across the proposed urban line. Car cities or river cities? It is obvious that, as a present and future potential important port city the importance of water in terms of trade and business is very significant here. This is also suggested by the flow maps. It is quite apparent that inhabitants are habituated to use water for necessary purposes; itâ€™s the lack of suffiecient water infrastructure that puts all the pessenger transport flow on the roads.
small bridges make canals formal and informal Mobility in Kampung gangs inaccessible terminals Skecthes showing conjugation of formal and informal mobility infrastructures; A complex intertknit system of formal and informal infrastructure form the mobility system in the two cities, specially in Banjarmasin. The common travel modes here here motorcycles, Non-motorized intermediate public trnasports, water taxis, taxis and cars. by Claire Bosmans
With reviving the river and canals and the green canal spines in Banjarbaru and integrating them with public transport system is an integrated road-water infrastructure, then the cities will tend to develop towards regenerated water cities and the inherent identities will kept restored.
Flow of product by Road
Flow of product by Water
Flow of people by Road
Flow of people by Water
Flow maps by Isabelle Matton and author 6
Projects to learn from The design discourse came to a point where implementing a Bus based public transport was decided relevant. The main goal was to test a system which can be integrated with the existing urban environment, would be rather cost efficient and could easily use the existing infrastructure.
The BRT project in Ahmedabad, namely Janmarg, however, built in 2009, was proved to be quite successful. The design was a result of a comprehensive analysis of urban forms and settlements; and the project successfully avoid the mistakes done by prior BRT projects in India.
This chapter of the paper discusses about the research on relevant projects that seemed important to learn from. The Curitiba BRT project in Brazil is a famous project with its influence on sustainable city building process all over the world. It is an ideal case to learn from but an important question to answer was to that, how is this being followed in cities that are contextually relevant to Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru. Hence, the BRT projects in Jakarta, Indonesia and Ahmedabad, India are also investigated. TransJakarta started in 2004 as Asiaâ€™s first BRT project. Even though, it created positive difference in public infrastructure usage in a city where motorized two wheelers and cars are largely popular; it faced major problems, such as bus congestion on dedicated lanes, accidents while using the Bus etc. and for most of it, the lacking of future vision in deisgn and the poor management can be held responsible.
A study of consumption of space by different modes of transport, occupancy and speed (Schropfer,2012) 7
â€œA normal bus in a normal street transports x passenger per day, if you have a double articulated bus in a dedicated lane, paying before entering the bus and boarding at same level, you can have four times more passengers per day, one bus takes 300 passengers, every 30 seconds, 36,000 passengers per hour, which is number on a subwayâ€? â€“ Jaime Lerner (Press, 2009)
Section showing the Trinary road system and the land-use plan 8
Projects to learn from BRT of Curitiba, Brazil The Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) of Curitiba is globally famous for its sustainable design and implementation. This has played a big role in making Curitiba a livable city and one of the model cities in the world to introduce sustainable urban design principles. How the world leading urban design strategy came into place A population boom in Brazil followed the agricultural mechanization during the years 1950-1980, mainly due to migration of people from rural to urban areas. Regarding the increasing number of inhabitants Curitiba´s former Mayor Ivo Arzua initiated a public invitation to tender to face Curitiba´s growth and the linked issues in 1965. To find solutions for a third world city, limited in resources, large-scale and expensive projects were replaced by a number of simple and modest solutions. A group of young architects and planners, foremost Jaime Lerner, from the Federal University of Paraná replied and they laid out plans. Marked as a start of shift from top-down to bottom-up approach in city planning, this was quite a different approach of city during that time when sustainable urban development still was not in fashion. “Metro-nizing the Bus” The mass transit system of Curitiba started developing in the early 70s The main idea of developing the transportation system was to deploy buses which were used before, instead of building a new subway; due to the shortage of time and money. According to architect Lerner, compared with the Curitiba bus network, a light rail system would have required 20 times the cost and a subway would have cost 100 times as much. (Lubow, 2007) From this need was created a simple but sophisticated and integrated system of buses; the BRT of Curitiba, roads and a whole functional urban environment. A BRT is defined as a “bus-based mass transit system. A true BRT system generally has specialized design, services and infrastructure to improve system quality and remove the typical causes of delay.” Reorganization of the city’s road system introduced a unique road type, the Trinary roads (Sistema Trinário). These roads consists of two one way streets for local vehicles and pedestrian walkways on two sides and one devoted lane composed of two lanes for the express buses with
synchronized traffic lights providing smooth thoroughfare. (Gunderson, 2014). The express bus service was being developed to work in replacement of a subway- uninterrupted by traffic signals and congestion, fare collection before boarding, swift passenger loading and unloading and all these above the ground and visible. This idea is called by the principle designer, Jaime Lerner, the “metro-nizing of buses”. To increase the efficiency of the, tubular bus stops were introduced with same loading-unloading level, ticket purchase and boarding facilities separated before getting on the bus. The passenger don’t have to get on the buses with steps, instead by the ramp that extends out to these stops from the bus. The cylindrical, clear-walled tube stations with turnstiles, steps, and wheelchair lifts are attractive, comfortable and user-friendly; obviously they caters for specially-able users also. This tubular bus stops results in a typical halt time of around 15 to 19 seconds at a stop. (Goodman, Laube, & Schwenk, 2006) Creating an Urban Environment The success of the transport system does not only depend on the BRT system or the roads. There were other design decisions too which complemented this to make a functioning urban transport system. Following the principles of the new Master plan, the city center was partly closed to vehicular traffic, and a number of streets which had higher pedestrian traffic, were made accessible only to pedestrians. The designed treatment at intersection involved controlled and unhallowed turning of other vehicles and longer “green period” and shorter “red period” for buses at the traffic signals. Land use planning was integrated with transport design by encouraging commercial growth along the arteries radiating out from the city center and discouraging central area growth. And importantly, the land along the main arteries were for highdensity development while lands farther from these roads are zoned for low density development; this policy generates more transit ridership per square foot and pulls traffic away from the main roads. The five transit corridors work as physical references for the city development. This shaped the city to grow further not radially but along the designated corridors in a linear form. This is how the principle designer wanted to promote the idea of working and living together. 9
â€œWhile Indonesians currently refer to these systems as BRT, it is perhaps a question of semanticsâ€?- Sutomo, Heru and John P. Ernst.
Certain TransJakarta terminals often becomes buc bottlenecks
Buses near a roundabout: These situations often create Bus congestion along the bus lane
Projects to learn from TranJakarta, Indonesia TransJakarta was launched 2004 by the city administration of Jakarta. This was the first full BRT system in Asia with separated bus lanes, same level boarding and pre-paid ticketing. Covering more than 172 km with its 11 routes, TransJakarta is now the longest and the most extensive BRT system in the world. BRT to save the city TransJakarta was a way for the city to improve the traffic condition of the city. Commuters used to suffer largely because of congestion and pollution caused by the increasing number of cars and motorcycles. This project initiated with the objective of building a positive image of public transport and use it as a catalyst for urban transport reform in other major cities of Indonesia. This would mean also to improve pedestrian facilities, non-motorized transport facilities, manage travel demands and reform land-use options. In 2011, the usability of public transport increased to a large number of 32% with the presence of BRT. This translated in a result of saving of more than 54,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions or equivalent of taking 10,000 cars off the road. A venture towards efficient transport Preliminary planning for the BRT System started in 2001, but it not until 2003 when the program was accelerated as a result of the mayor being inspired by the BRT system in Bogota, Equador. In February 2004, after only 9 months the first corridor of 12.9 km corridor was made operational and it cost around 2million USD. This would pass through the city center and along the two most congested road of the city. Following this, the rest of the 10 routes were built one by one is the next few years, the last one being built in 2013. The BRT stops connect residential areas, major Municipal infrastructures as stations and offices. Except the first corridor built in 2004, all routes have busses with CNG run on them, the more environmentally preferred option over diesel run buses. Articulated buses carrying 170 persons and single buses carrying 85 persons run on the busways. The elevated bus stop platforms connected to walkways, by pedestrian bridges and ramps ensure quick and easy access and efficient boarding for commuters and they can use the service for an affordable price of 40 US cents per
ticket. The BRT System is managed by BLU TransJakarta, a public authority under the transportation Agency of the Jakarta Municipal Government. Nine different bus companies operate the buses, and all operate under BLU TransJakarta. Some of these operators were formed from existing bus companies whose routes overlapped with TransJakarta bus companies, while the rest were selected from a competitive tender process. These operators are paid per bus kilometer travelled throughout their seven yearsâ€™ operating contract period. This makes it possible for the municipality to have the financial and revenue risks on itself. What could make Transjakarta Better? The reason the BRT System is considered as the metro on the road is largely because of the fast operational quality of the buses, this includes smooth boarding system and the physical designs of buses and station. The buses which run for TransJakarta could use better bus designs with doors on borth sides, separate doors for entering and exiting to meet the standard of efficiency compared to other BRT Systems worldwide. Also introducing bus lanes without regulatory measures increased congestion in the mixed traffic road in the case of TransJakarta. Being an unit under Jakarta Municipal Government, the management of BLU TransJakarta sometimes makes the operation process slow due to the proceduresâ€™ excessive bureaucracy. The TransJakarta was planned to be an example for the other citiesâ€™ BRT systems, however the most important issue to remember in this matter was to provide dedicated bus lanes for the buses and that was missing in the other BRT system, thus the realts were even less effective than those of Transjakarta.
“An increasing number of transport planners have started believing that a transport system that prioritizes walking, cycling, shared and public transport is equitable as well as low-carbon”- (Datey, Joshi and Mahadevia, 2012)
Map showing the Janmarg’s Bus routes
Section along a 60m road with the dedicated bus lane
Projects to learn from Ahmedabad BRT Sysytem, India The Ahmedabad BRT, known as ‘Janmarg’, opened in 2009 is until today the largest BRT network in India. The global and national award winning project, since opening of the first corridor, carries .15-.18 million passengers per day. The mobility modes and transport tendencies on the roads According to 2011 census, at least 35% households in Ahmedabad had a motorized two-wheeler and 9.7% had a car. The number of cars per 1000 population was a still low: 117 in comparison to US (828), UK (544), Brazil (275) etc. However, with the vehicular growth with an inclining tendency and the high economic growth rate, the car growth rate will surely increase if not decrease. Although the walking and bicycling share is 42% on the roads, they are certainly not the preferred choices for the people. The public transport share is 16% but the Public transport systems in Indian cities nor have kept pace with the increase in demand, neither the service have been maintained or modernized properly, thus having people to turn to either personalized modes or IPT creating congestion and air pollution. The public transport share is 16% and although the fare is kept low but the Public transport systems in Indian cities nor have kept pace with the increase in demand, neither the service have been maintained or modernized properly, thus having people to turn to either personalized modes or IPT creating congestion and air pollution. In this context, a sustainable transport development strategy would be to keep the non-motorized mobility share constant, while developing the public transport, increasing its capacity, make it attractive for most people and make it more accessible.
city inhabitants. This was considered viable even when compared to the cost that would incur even a rail project was built instead; Delhi’s recently constructed metro rail of 190 kilometers (Phases I and II) cost $29.5 million per km while it would take the same amount of money to build a 2,900 km corridor of BRT. This would also be a motivation to keep the modal share of walking and bicycling constant as with the re-structuring of the road would also be a viable opportunity to include safe cycle ways and walkways. This would also be suitable over metro because of the urban forms of the city which has mixed land use and trips distributed in multiple directions that makes trip lengths low, thus a reason for low ridership corridors for efficient metro services. Development of Janmurg The project was approved in 2006 and work began in 2007. The proposed length of the corridor is 88.8 km which was divided into two phase; the first phase being 58.3km and second 30.5km. According to the preliminary expectations from detailed reports that were called by NUTP in 2006 and 2008, the roads would be well-laid with ample spaces for vendors, walkway, cycle ways and on-street parking space. The core idea of the project was to “complete a project, not a corridor”; so as to create a city-wide network, not just isolated corridors. The project learned from similar cases in Delhi and Pune, who built their BRT corridors in the busiest spines resulting complains from private car users, so with the idea of “connecting busy places but avoiding busy roads”, the first corridor was designed. The project did not cause problem of congestion because while constructing it provided a similar amount of road space as it occupied.
A paradigm shift in public transport The Janmarg project were conceived in 2006 when The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) and the National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) of 2006 took initiatives to bring a change in the scenario of public transport system and especially developing bus rapid transit (BRT) projects in particular in various cities of India. This initiative emphasized safe, comfortable, reliable, affordable and sustainable accessibility to jobs, education,and recreation for India’s growing number of 13
Design Strategies to Connect Public Mobility The public transit system is conceptualized as a component of the matrix of public places along the main road and river corridors. This is an attempt to reform the road from a transport corridor to a public realm and the river from a backyard to a place to celebrate. The strategy developed with the idea of integrating a BRT route with the existing and new planned pieces of infrastructure. Firstly, a “fast line” system is envisioned to run on the main spine connecting the two cities, the Ahmed Yani street. This flow is further supported by the peripheral roads of Banjarmasin city and the one connecting to Martapura road upto the market. In Banjarbaru this flow is supported by the parallel secondary roads to A. Yani. These “fast lines” are then made accessible with “slow lines” which would stop frequently and serve densely the new neiw future neighborhoods. The dense settlements of Banjarmasin would be also covered with the Water taxi connections, which would extend to the other side of the Barrito river and are connected with “fast bus line” by the “slow bus line”.
Map of the Urban Line showing functions and stoppages along it by Claire Bosmans 14
Bus and water-taxi stoppage points on the “fast line” by Author
Bus and water-taxi stoppage points on the “slow line” by Author
Design Strategies to Connect Public Mobility Public Transport as a catalyst of re-strcutured urbanity The conceived public transport system should translate in the context as an adaptive and integrated design entity. The infrastructure design strategy is to re-use as much existing infrastructure as possible, thus making an cost efficient project. In major spines, the design suggests to take up some space from the ROW of private motorized traffic and heavy traffic for the dedicated bus lane and at the same time suggest ample amount of user-friendly cycle and walkways; and thus attempting to retain the urban character of the major spines. Visualization along the main urban spine, Ahmed Yani Road by Tran Trung Vinh
Visualization along Martapura>> Terminals bringing public realm along the water by Tran Trung Vinh
Along the A. Yani road, a secondary road system is envisioned along the main spine, this allows slow motorized mobility along with non-motorized mobility and is seen as an public-private realm conecting the street and the properties, e.g. shops, schools etc. As Infrastructure projects are usually not easy to build in one go, it phasing has been an important issue in the desgin discourse; for example, the new proposed regional road that goes along Banjarbaru also is designed with a flexbible middle spine to add the dedicated bus lane later when with growth of BanjarBaru city, the nearby settlements demands so. In this way it is considered that with the evolution of the city the infrastructure will be able to adapt and make way for improvment or change.
Section CC’>> fast line along A. Yani road by Author
Section EE’>> slow line along the peripheral road by Author
References 1. Datey, A., Joshi, R., & Mahadevia, D. (2012). Low-Carbon Mobility in India and the Challenges of Social Inclusion. 2. Datey, A., Joshi, R., & Mahadevia, D. (2013). Ahmedabad’s BRT System: A Sustainable Urban Transport Panacea? Review of urban Affairs. 3. SUTOMO, H., & ERNST, J. (n.d.). BRT’s Influence on Public Transport Improvements in Indonesian Cities. Built Environment. 4. Press, E. (Director). (2009). Curitiba’s BRT: Inspired Bus Rapid Transit Around the World [Motion Picture]. 5. Goodman, J., Laube, M., & Schwenk, J. (2006). Curitiba’s Bus System is Model for Rapid Transit. (B. Clarke , Ed.) Race, Poverty and the Environment. Retrieved from http://reimaginerpe.org/node/344 6.Schropfer, Thomas. Ecological Urban Architecture: Qualitative Approaches to Sustainability. Basel, 2012. 15
RESHAPING INFRASTRUCTURE IN A GLOBALISED ECONOMY From connectivity to resilience : A study on Banjarmasin
Isabelle Matton / Bruno de MEULDER - Guido GEENE Master Thesis: Studio Urban Design and Planning
KULeuven - Faculty of Science, engineering and technology Department of Architecture - 2014/2015
FOREWORD mo ing a a from t e former autonomous gures of ur anity to a hyper-connected territory, mobility becomes more than ever an essential component for a region’s running, and conditions its egree of mo ernit e intensi cation of cross order trade, coming as a direct consequence of the industrial revolution, shaped a world based on infrastructural system from which is resulting a flo o ien ed e i o (Berlingieri – 2014). Already in 1766, Adam Smith recognised in his book, e l o N ions, the power that infrastructure has to overtake local economies and develop trade on an unprecedented scale.The fact is that roads and railways are linking completely different regions and nations, which allows the distribution of wealth on a broader territory and, as a consequence, scales are changed. Nowadays, as it has been called by economists, a path dependency situation is established where the urbanity doesn’t seem to have any more limit and is expanding to the whole continent. With that in mind urban footprint isn’t limited to cities but constitutes a much broader concept that goes beyond the strict border of the metropolis. Large portions of territory are now urbanised as a c e e o olis (Neutelings)with patches of distinguished programs in which infrastructure really constitutes the lue o u b ni ion (Bélanger, 2012). They are as an invisible background that supports both urban and industrial activities until the precise moment when it breaks down. And this is particularly the case in Banjarmasin and developing countries in general, where infrastructure often fails on a daily basis and governments are now aware of their infrastructural needs to push their economy to the next level of modernity and global inclusion. As such we are on a turning point as designer to give more complexity to infrastructures since they are now embedded in a territorial system in which they necessarily meet multiple functions. The question is then raised of how infrastructures should interact with the context they have been inserted in, indicating therefore that they are as crucial as before, but in a new way. In fact, infrastructure has to be re-conceptualized in order to construct new forms of urbanity and the site itself. Therefore it cannot be excluded from its socio-ecological and aesthetical role.The potential of infrastructure as a tool to develop urban strategy is essential as it prepares the ground for new development and conditions future perspectives.
He i s o e
P il del i c s ud o ec ouis n ess e o u b n o e en s nd i s co le i . cco din o i c i ec u e s ould be el ed o o ion Uni e si o Penns l ni ( )
e l s cen u , c i l nd o e bec e o e i o n n l nd John Kennet Galbraith, 1967
ORIGIN OF A STANDARDISED SYSTEM Roads were originally built to conquer and reclaim new spaces and were often coming out of military necessity. Since they weren’t always maintained afterwards, roads construction had a really slow development until the outcome of the Industrial Reo ution an t e e niti e s ift from a rura agrarian societ to an urban-industrial one. In other words, Modern time means a e niti e transformation from a edes i n ci to a ne o ed ci (Joel Tarr, 1988) embedded in an economic regionalization. In that context, infrastructure was seen as the ultimate oli i c l o nd (Jo Guldi, 2012) for capitalism and democracy where the intention is to prove that technology is the solution to permanently frame the national’s trade and reduce long-term poverty. Often emerging from crisis situation, infrastructure quickly became e i e un in ound o en inee s (Marc Smet, 2001), implemented as “ n e c e is o e s e o ec nic l o e”1. Consequently infrastructure ended up being a technical element; strictly codify by certain typologies of uses. As for designers, they marginalized themselves, maybe unconsciously, by focusing more and more on e ec nolo o e esen ion (Stan Allen, 1999). T ou ou l e s o indus i lis ion e e co e o belie e e oli ics o e cienc e be ond ues ion nd s nd dis ion is e ul i e e ession o de oc c ( . Pool)
Quickly, with the advent of imperialist economy, industrialised countries required new sources of prosperity overseas. Indeed, with the process of globalization, production and outsourcing is mainly relocated abroad, in colonies for instance, where labour forces are the cheapest. A globalised system that seems to be an irre ersi e enomenon an t at errian e ster e nes as e de elo en o n inc e sin l in e ed lob l econo ed b ee de, ee flo o c i l, nd in o c e e o ei n l bou e s. In that process, Indonesia, as many other south-east Asian countries, became part of the worldwide capitalist system under the governance of the Dutch colony. After the creation of the private company VOC2 in 1602, the productive capacity of the country was pushed towards an exportation economy which obliged peasants to convert rice paddies into more lucrative crops or so-called cash-crop plantation. Indonesia and East Indies in general, became then the main source of raw product for the Dutch Empire, a situation that was still true after Indonesia’s independence in 1945. This major shift had a relentless impact on its economy, its demography and its landscape. Indeed, in order to support the Cultivation System3, infrastructure (roads, dams, irrigation channels…) started to be erected throughout t e countr to a o fluent cro trans ortation Batavia, known today as Jakarta, was the capital of the Dutch colony which encouraged the development of the Java Island before any others like Sumatra, Bali or Borneo. It is only during the post-war period, after the Great Depression of 1929, that things started to change when sugar4 ceased to be the key product to be exported. Other goods took over the global market like rubber or petroleum, and during the sixties the core of foreign im ortation asse from a a to umatra as a rst ste soon followed by Kalimantan.
ons uc ion o
ollec ie T o en useu
1 Berrizbeita, Anna and Pollack, Linda, inside outside: between architecture and landscape (Rockport, Mass, 1999 ) 152. 2 VereenigdeOost-IndischeCompagnie or United East-Indian Company. 3 The Cultivation System is established by the Dutch authorities after the Java War (1825-30) in order to intensify production of raw product for exportation. 4 In 1920, Indonesia and particularly the Java Island was the third exporter of sugar cane worldwide right after Cuba and India.
BORNEO’S AGRARIAN TRANSITION The post-World War II economic expansion marked the beginning of an accelerated growth of both demography and agricu ture in orneo s an it t e in ustria intensi cation the rural landscape and the livelihood of its inhabitant lastingly changed In general terms, the Kalimantan region is endowed with a large tropical forest cover and a dense hydrographical network. Countless rivers create a really particular ecosystem along the lowland of the coast where most of the island’s population is settled. Watershed constitutes the most important and irreducible element of the landscape, and rivers used to be the key corridors of communication between the different agglomerations. However, since the integration of Kalimantan within the national and especially the international economy, territories came to radically evolve towards being considered as an ultimate resource frontier territory (De Koninck, 2011). T e isl nd o Bo neo lone s o ided le s l o e o ld’s o l e o s o non coni e ous o ic l d oods since e e l se en ies nd si e cen in (Potter et al. 1995 referring to roo e an r on P oduc i e o es o ed o es nd icul u e P o ec ed un ouc ed o es
Projects of wide extent have earmarked Kalimantan whose soaring economy was demanding even more cleared lands for production. Consequently the attractiveness of the region’s growth induced an important labour in-migration coming mainly from neighbouring islands and particularly from Java. In only forty years the population tripled, going from 5.4 million inhabitants in 1960 to 16.1 in 2000. For now, the current issue is the lack of internal linkage within the different provinces of Kalimantan et er aeria flu ia or roa connection t e fact is t at Borneo is more integrated into national and international trade. As a consequence, an interesting momentum is now created where the local authorities are willing to liberate themselves from the Java’s supremacy and in order to do so, one of the biggest point of investment is, and there is no much surprise about it, infrastructure. Highlight this territorial transformation is crucial to be able to project any kind of future for the region and its cities. In fact Banjarmasin cannot be envisaged only by itself but rather as an active part of a bigger geographical and socio-economic system. As Linda Pollack wrote, the si e e is s n unli i ed nu be s o sc les and therefore a road or a railway needs to include a multiplicity of uses and identities. From this horizon, we can start to see the importance of infrastructure as one of the last remaining too s for u ic aut orities to influence an structure Borneo in a more sustainable manner, even more since private corporations are taking over the land to initiate palm oil plantations and other mining industries. All in all, infrastructure is an intricate system of politics, economies and ecology as the space where the human is linked to its broader relationships. Although economy is too often coming at the front page, it is time now to assess landscape as an active actor of urban growth structuring. Infrastructure has to go beyond its technical aspect to embody a higher level of functional complexity. In order to be truly sustainable, strategies have to include and design the social and ecological aspect of infrastructure. Figure 3 : Borneo Map where are represented its complex internal connections and economy. It clear, through that map, that extent of productive forest (rubber, palm oil...) are taking over protected area.
sin in Sou
LANDSCAPE AS PRIMARY INFRASTRUCTURE 1_ Contextualisation of infrastructure
2_ Strategy of scale
Sprawl is inevitable as well as land speculation and the growing number of productive lands throughout South Kalimantan. For these reasons, the challenges are to supply dwellers with numerous new services to sustain the on-going urbanization. Infrastructure is one of these.
At the contrary, infrastructure is constructed and used by such a plethora of different actors that any project should support their interactions to produce dynamic relationships between them and therefore allow the unexpected to happen. To recognize the complexity of the urban condition, infrastructure becomes l e ed, non ie c ic l, fle ible, i e b sed nd, os i o n l , s e ic a eim strateg of sca e e niti e includes landscape as a design material where the new forms of urbanities are interacting with its surrounding, a framework that truly construct the ground by making it more visible.
Until just recently there was a tendency, in modern design, to t in mo i it an flo s in econte tua ize terms a most as a a er un e to t e groun en more t ere as a genera consensus about landscape that was often seen as an unproblematic background, as a oid ound build u e s (Linda Pollack, 2006). This conventional dichotomy between city and countryside, architecture and landscape has relegated nature as an invisible feature of the urban daily basis experience. By not seeing landscape, you can hardly pretend to build it and, instead, you foster an architectural culture where everything is at a human and tangible scale. Furthermore, taylorist principles made infrastructure a monofunctional element embedded in a planning where everything is a ocate into s eci c zones n suc tra itiona master an a highway often constitutes a buffer zone between so-decreed incom ati e an uses an as suc conflicts are reten e to be resolved by simply avoiding confrontation. The outcome of suc an infle i e anning is a steri e en ironment imite an obsolete antagonism in which nature is excluded. At this point we realise that the monopoly of engineers over infrastructure is inherently contrary with its essence. In fact, this hyper-professional segregation has compartmentalized landscape and urbanism in two different domains while infrastructure includes a myriad of layers that it cannot express by being restraint to one discipline.
Scale is a key to the development of urban representations that celeb es di e ences o si e e n su essin e in n e o o in in u n sc le, cul u l cons uc ion iden i ed e clusi el i e e su ble nd e no n (Linda Pollack, 2006). In Banjarmasin, the water infrastructure that once structured the city is increasingly being hidden under informal lanting houses and a countless amount of bridges. In many cases, within or around the city, rivers are at the backside of settlements and almost constitute the private backyards of its inhabitants in which daily activities are realized such as bathing, clothes washingâ€Ś Water spaces are often relegated to individual activities and in that case nothing provides people to colonize and urbanize the river as their private territory. Although the mains water arteries are still dynamic places where a myriad of activities are happening the threat is that, because dwellers are in a need of broader connectivity, the roads system takes the lead to the detriment of soft infrastructure. Figure 4 : The growing city, along A.Yani road, sprawl is taking over swamps, considered as spaces for land speculation.
The task of planning, in that sense, is to acknowledge the water e ement as an instrument to re e ne t e ur an con ition as well as the regional forms. Natural processes are highly imbricated with human activities and as such, infrastructure should be designed in order to facilitate, rather than interrupts, those ecological dynamics, without however professing to be managing nature. By bringing contingency to infrastructure they will ecome more signi cant t an ust a ine in an o ercro e urban system. Landscape-based strategies help us to integrate urban fabrics in another condition than just their selves and allow a bigger variety of identities to be enhanced. Infrastructures, by being the space of multiple scales, have the means to include cities into their broader ecological and geographical context by shape relationships between them. Hence each scale is bein nes ed in e c o e (Waldheim, 2006).
3_ The i
ibili of a system
By being recontextualize, infrastructures show us what is behind the road and reveal the different gradients of urbanity throughout the region. For instance just by following the A. Yani road that links Banjarmasin to its foothills, we could easily think it is a dense-constructed line and that there is no transition or difference between the two cities. The reality is elsewhere; indeed the fact is that we only perceive an opaque faĂ§ade of buildings without knowing their thickness and such homogeneity enables us to truly understand the logic of the territory, its quality and character. In the same way we should act for Banjarbaru which tells us another story. Situated on higher lands the topography varies more and water is less present than in the lower lands. Again nature is changing and the interaction that people will have with it equally varies.
Therefore Banjarmasin becomes merely part of a deltaic territory with again the waterscape being the central element of its system. Urban economies are even more turned towards water it t e intensi cation of ar our acti ities an cana s are eing re-opened as a public space that everyone can appropriate for its o n use n t at frame roa an ater nee to n a ne balance and work as complementary system without one dominating the other as it is happening now.
onse uent t e ara igm of ef cienc an s ace rationa ization needs to be substituted by design and openness. By oversimplifying a system, the collective imagination of its users is thus impoverished and the environment, by not giving the tools of orientation, is lacking character and ends up being chaotic. For these reasons, the perception of our surrounding has a great importance in how we understand cities and regions, hence any strategy should consider as a leitmotiv the stimulation of the siteâ€™s experience. Regarding infrastructures, now considered as a
Figure 5 : River in Banjaramsin colonized by informal lantings.
Figure 6 : Kampung area whereas landscape is visible as well as its use.
primary public space, they convey collective memory and makes a d n ic i ession (Lynch, 1959) on its users although they also constitute a static element in the landscape. Through the different elements of infrastructure that irrigates Banjarmasin’s region, its inhabitants should be able to identify the constitutive elements of the urban scene whether it is landscape features or build-up character. To do so the notion of rhythm and sequence within the space of a road or a river is key.This linear element go across a variety of spaces and if they are comprehended by the user’s eye then decisions are easily taken and people could better orientate themse es recognizing t e s eci cit of t eir ocation in re ation to the bigger whole. The purpose of it is multiple; it allows a sense of transition between distinctive elements as well as it enhances the image of the environment which, therefore, acquires a meaning. In Banjarmasin, integrating complexity and frequency in the infrastructural network could make people aware of the various functions and identities of the territory which is now almost vanished under an uncontrollable sprawl happening mainly along the roads. Signalling the use of what is produced in which kind of land and who is living where, informs us what the space is standing for and will eventually create more opportunities along the infrastructure than only concrete walls.
4_ The latent infrastructure If infrastructures condition people’s migration then they should be thought in terms of ecological impact rather than exclusively in terms of economy, and the strategic approach has to be integrati e n icating t e isi e an sca e is a rst ste to ac ie e resilience but constructing the ground is also about the subsurface conditions of a site which takes into account soil conditions, the water table, the geomorphology… All those elements, even t oug in isi e are art of an acti e s stem t at influences irectly the urban environment and that is incompatible with a centralised and dominant system of infrastructures. As such, expliciting the landscape and its latent dynamism is a way to make it a powerful and structuring element for the framing of the urban complexity. Therefore when ecosystems are becoming that essential to the urban condition, n u e beco es ul in s uc u l (Allen, 1999). In South Kalimantan soil typologies as flu io a ui a or gam ut ea soi s are t e reflection of what is found on its surface. Having tenure knowledge of those conditions and their movement shapes the way infrastructure has to be built in relation to it. In the lower lands, for instance, floo ing is a main issue an an roa as to e e e ate on an arti cia to ogra to ensure t e goo functioning of t e mo i it flo s o e er in some strategic case a roa cou be exaggeratedly elevated from the ground surface in order to protect urbanism from water movement. All in all, landscape starts being an integral part of the urban system whereas ecological processes are constantly put in tension with the soaring of hard infrastructures. This step is a necessary operation in order to achieve a semblance of self-generating ecosystem. The landscape is not just a two dimensional element but consist of a ic sec ion o c c e is ics nd s s e s e e in e su ce o e con e o e o olis (Prince, 2013). Figure 7 : Throughout the city, intersection and crossroads are the space of intense activites of any kind whether it is a market or a meeting place. In suh chaotic system, the urban corners are very often place of reference for its inhabitants where they can grasp the complexity of their environement. A place of opportunity. source ersona icture from t e e tri in an armasin cit center
PHASING INFRASTRUCTURE If nature is an integral part of the project, acting as a structuring frame, then the notion of temporality becomes essential in any strategy. By being ine i bl o ision l, s ed nd cu ul i e (J. Corner, 2009), landscape cannot be understand as a simple form but more as a process that evolves through space and time as it is also the case for urbanization processes. The future of a city and its landscape is unpredictable for sure and a unitary and stable project becomes therefore irreleant ut foreseeing a fle i e an e o ing net or of infrastructures, we establish an element that forges permanent relationships between a growing population and its dynamic surrounding. Consequently, infrastructures should be conceived as a living matrix, which prepares the ground for evolving scenarios where new relationships are made possible meaning ne inds o c i i ies nd ne e ns o occu nc (Rahul, 2011). Such contingency provides infrastructures with a sense of time
that enables the accommodation of potential unknown developments without entailing the collapse of the entire system. Very often infrastructural enterprises are of such a sheer size that their construction goes along various political mandates and through evolving visions of the territory. Indeed urbanities are the result of successive decisions that are not necessarily compatible with each other; by the vagueness of political processes, infrastructures seldom are as it was drafted or promised. Hence, in order to be sustainable, they have to integrate in their design the fact that urbanization, as ecological systems are, is an unstable and on-going process. Regarding the lifespan of an infrastructure, whether a road or a railway, as designers we have to esta is at is e an at is o en for c anges so t e whole infrastructural network becomes bo ecise nd inde e in e (BĂŠlanger, 2011).
Figure 8 : How a space can grow in relation to the different needs of the evolving society. Can it be an in e edi e n u e (Desvignes, 2009) where the resent necessities are reac e an future ers ecti e are o en to mo i cations rea in t e cit center of an armasin aiting to e constructe
CONCLUSION Globalisation is a growing phenomenon that conquers progressively more and more regions throughout the world and integrates them into a global economy. As such, globalization is not t e ro uct of an societ s tra ition ut rat er t e intensi cation of flo s associate it t e tec no ogica re o ution s it is now, we are engaged in an irreversible process and for that reason we shouldnâ€™t denied it for some nostalgic reminiscences of the past and frankly engage the strategy within the global system as an echo to our contemporary system. n ee t e ur an an sca e is t e reflection of our time an as it stands now, a multiplicity of actors are engaged in the expanding space of the metropolis which also suggests a myriad of different perceptions. The era of the dogmatised master plan should be substituted by an integrative approach of the landscape where e di e en e din o e e i o e e l so e in e i ed u li ies o e s bu lso be c ble o e i in nd cl i in e o ci ies o e esen (Girot, 2006).
In Borneo, the projects of the Indonesian government are ambitious. A new capital city might l eventually be developed in Central Kalimantan as well as an entire network of railway lines which would foster more than ever the industrial production of the Island and its demographic growth. Changes are coming but maybe not at the extent that the public authorities are expecting to be, or at the contrary it will maybe go beyond expectation. However, in any cases, changes are imminent and the challenge is to use infrastructure to frame the territory in terms of ocesses o beco in (Rahul, 2011) which allows whatever future scenario to take place in a better interaction with its surroundings. Infrastructure, far away from being a neutral and monofunctional element, is a space of tension that explicit both natural and urban processes.
In that frame, the strategy of infrastructure has the potential to recalibrate an entire network at different levels of operations and avoid the current tendency towards a global homogeneity. The goal is to enhance the various identities of the landscape throughout Banjarmasinâ€™s region rather that only support what is consuming it. Therefore we need to reconstruct, through infrastructure, a logical system where a maximum of possibilities are allowed and in which ecology is the primary and structuring actor an sca e is t en in este it signi cance an e s us to rethink the urban condition in a sustainable way where nature is not relegated to a simple void around cities. Often through history, infrastructure went to successive phases of visibility and invisibility. Progressively, in Banjarmasin, we are forgetting how things are made and thus we lose the access to our natura en ironment cit or a region is ne er a nished product and constitutes an on-going process incompatible it a e master an ence ne strategies a e to eig ten means rather than ends, potentials and landscape rather than programs.
BIBLIOGRAPHY t ALLEN Stan, In s uc u l u b nis , in «Center 14: On Landscape Urbanism», Dean Almy Ed., Austin, University of Texas at Austin, 2007, pp. 174-181.
t BELANGER Pierre, ndsc e in s uc u e U b nis be ond en inee in , Harvard University Graduate School of design, 2012, pp. 276 – 315.
t BELANGER Pierre, ndsc e s in s uc u e in “Landscape journal: Design planning and management of the Land”,Vol. 28 n. 1, 2009, pp. 79-95.
t BELANGER Pierre, Rede nin In s uc u e in “Ecological Urbanism”, Lars Muller Publishers, 2010,pp. 332 – 349. t BERLINGIERI Fabrizia, E e in u es in s uc u e nd u b n o in e cons uc ion o e uni ue Eu o e n s ce in “Trans-
port Research Arena”, 2014, Paris, pp. 1-8. ns o ed icul u e e nsion nd e Sou E s si n on ie , NUS Press Singapore, 2011. EDWARDS Paul, o ce i e nd soci l o ni ion in e His o o Socio ec nic l s s e s in “Modernity and technology”, Cambridge – MIT Press, 2003, pp. 185-225. GULDI Jo, Rede nin In s uc u e in colloquium, Harvard University Graduate School of design, 2012. POLLACK Linda, ons uc ed ound ues ions o sc le, in the “Landscape urbanism reader”, New York, 2006, pp.125-139. PRINCE Erik, In isible in s uc u es ende ed isible in 010collaborative.net, January 2013. RAHUL Paul, o Ob ec ine o ec o ield e Soci l Ins u en in “Infrastructural UrbanismAddressing the In-between”, DOM Publishers, Berlin 2011, pp. 49-61. SCOTT John, e elo en o o d in s uc u e in Indonesi in “Proceeding of institution of civil engineers”, ICE publishing, 2012, pp. 1-8. SPRAGUE Ted, His o o i lis e elo en in Indonesi u c olonis ion in “InternationalMarxist.com”, march 2011. STRANG L. Gary, In s uc u e s l ndsc e in af e eor in an sca e rc itecture imon itions ni ersit of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. WATSON Vanessa, T e l nned ci s ee s e oo u b n l nnin nd s cen u u b ni ion in “Progress of Planning 72”, Elsevier Edition, 2009, pp. 151-193.
t DE KONINCKE Rodolphe, Bo neo t t t t t t t t t
is researc aim to stu t e com e it rocess of transit an an use integration in or er to ue it t e ra i ur anization in e e o ing countries ic s eci c case in an armasin n onesia ase on t e t in ing t at i entif ing ro ems as im ortant as so ing t ose t e rst art i conte tua ize t e territor it c a enges an o ortunities t at it contain i e in t e secon art i i riefl re ie t eor a out transit an an use an re e ant cases in t e simi ar conte t en t e t ir one ou e esign an actions ic is consi ering infrastructure as a too an instrument for e ning an sca e an transforming cities 3 s stems cities an no e ast ut not east t e ast art i e conc usion an essons tr ing to contri ute t roug stu io e erience
rans ort iffers from ot er ro ems e e o ing societies face ecause it gets orse rat er t an etter it economic e e o ment i e sanitation e ucation an ot er c a enges im ro e it economic gro t trans ort gets orse nri ue e a osa resi ent of t e nstitute for rans ortation an e e o ment an former ma or of ogota
e e ne transit to ar s s atia transformation a stu ransit an
on an armasin an use integration for suitaina e e e o ment
esign t esis aster of uman ett ements an sca e r anism tu io an armasin n onesia romoters runo e eu er ui o eneen om an ieg em
nt ia usi o
onte tua ize territor onte t
n t e ra i e e o ment conte t of an armasin in s eci c an a imantan s an in genera t e go ernment s am ition is to gain more economic in e en ence from entra s an in a a um ers of ro ects are anne or un er construction for etter interna connection suc as e tension of e isting regiona roa rans a imantan setting u ne rai a s stem for ot in ustr an ci ic ur oses ere is a ossi e scenario of a ing a ne ca ita in entra a imantan ese economic ri en forces ut a ressure on t e e isting ur an s stem an raise a uestion of a sustaina e e e o ment in t e future e ert e ess in genera it is seeme i e t at e er roa simi ar attract t e same ur anization a ong t em o ic e oses its e ce tions an oo o es an im ies to acce t t ese gro t s i e sim a usting t e ee of imitation t roug time itt e regu ation gi es riorit to t e ri ate user car an truc ut asica t is means t at e er roa i ra i get congeste an in ee starts o structing t e traf c flo t t e moment t e on a to so e t is ro em is a ing ne roa s ic again ea to a simi ar future s suc t e territor is ing it e er ne ine t at is ra n an ur an s ra a ens e er ere cause t e osing of agricu tura an natura en ironment n t e sca e of an armasin cit articu ar t e im act of mentione ten enc is economic gro t o u ation ur an ua it an traf c congestion ing roa an sate ite cit are not a com romising so ution ic not on cannot so e t e ro ems rat er t an u sca e t em n ee mono functiona a roac an stan ar ize esign it out ta ing into account t e ro e of eco og as e as socia as ect is raising a uestion of resi ience of t e an to ue it uncertaint an un re icta e e ents in t e future
onte tua ize territor ities for ars
ot for eo e
ities for ars
ut or ase on
ot for eo e
utomo i e e en ent e e o ment is one of t e iggest c a enges for cities or i e ue to economic gro t as man cities in t e e e o ing countries an armasin a e a tren to re eat t e tra ector of e e o e countries it a muc uic er s ee conomic gro t rising incomes are encouraging car o ners i ere is not on a s ift from ater to roa ut a so from ess or no motorize trans ortation to ri ate car or motor i e sing t eir car eo e can ot reac a or e ucation an faci ities in t e cit as e as a ing a arger ot in su ur an t in it is true to sa t at if e an t e cit for cars e get t e cars an ro ems suc as uncontro e ur an s ra a acent an use unfrien e estrian an o ur an ua it o utions is an a oi a e in an automo i e oriente an arce ona an
t anta case
ne of t e e e ements of sustaina e e e o ment is gui ing e e o ment an restrict o ensit ur anization e iagram s o ig ifferent in foot rint of t o cities arce ona an t anta ic a e t e simi ar o u ation con ition of mi ion in o e er t anta a e a ui t u area ic is times igger t an arce ona s one reser ing green s aces is an o ortunit ro i e ess ui t u area oreo er cost of e ten ing ur an infrastructure roa s maintenance trans ortation o eration aste ater an sanitation energ istri ution are re uce ess s ra ing e e o ment
an s ecu ation contri utes to s ra
Faci ities e e o ment create transit infrastructure ser er for a gi en num er o u ation an commerce r an s ra a en is not t e fau t of infrastructure itse f ut t e a an or can e o e t e e tra a ue create u ic in estment For e am e norma an a ue in t e area aroun metro or i increase after t e ro ect im ementation t e an o ner tr to ee t e sites an against integrate it an use e orst t ing of t is an o ing action is creating moti ation to e e o c ea er neig or oo ic ea to ur an s ra ecause once t is in of c ea an is e it in a itants t e usua create o itica ressure to a e infrastructure e tension for ser ing t eir area nce t e e tension of infrastructure a en an in an t e an rice of t ose remote an c ea areas i increase en t e simi ar tra ector a ens it en ess ur an s ra ing is t e of s ra ing e e o ment is c aracterize non contiguous an use an o ensit ic con ne t e s o mo ements an transit i e increase t e nee of ri ate automo i e an ea to man ot er ro ems ec
atent ur an s stem
an armasin an an ar aru t e t o cities ic a e ifferent c aracter ocation attern an acti ities in erent or as com e mentar structure e ur an s stem as t ere ut asn t e o e it otentia an no a a s t ere is a t reat of saturations t at t e are gro ing to ar eac ot er it t e gro ing of o u ation unc ear i entif s stem is ig ris to ecome a c aotic mess i e at a en in man e e o ing countr erefore infrastructure s ou see t e c ance an e a strong statement to ee t o ifferent i entities an en ance t em for a stronger com ementar s stem
ource ertau an a ezzi 3 ote ensit of cities is re resente t e actua sca e t e re resentation of o centricit or is ersion is e erience ase
it t e increasing ra i ur anization t e infrastructure is ecoming more an more com e ere is a signi cant transformation an ma ing ne an sca e t roug infrastructure e e o ment ore o er arge sca e an signi cant infrastructure ro ects are tota transforming ur an an rura areas in t e same manner n or er to e sustaina e infrastructure muc en ance t e ua it of an sca e erefore infrastructure engages creating arc itecture ma ing an sca e an setting u i ing en ironment ransit riente e e o ment ransit s a es ur an e e o ment an an use atterns influence tra e eman in essence it s a trans ortation management too ic using an use anning strategies t at create commercia an ousing areas to ma imize access u ic trans ort ransit s a ing ur an e e o ment im ro ing accessi i it ro erties of t e an suc as resi entia ensit egree of commerce em o ment su e e of mi e an use a of t em effect tra e eman e fo o ing case stu ies main focuses on t e effects transit in estment on an use an ur an form
a en eimer
o ert er ero
n or er to re ucing t e tren of ur an e ansion ue to automo i e e en enc an acing cities in e e o ing countries in a sustaina e e e o ment transit an an use integration is one of t e most com romising instrument s stems articu ar is consi er as t e ma orit of ur an e e o ment in t e future are e ecte to ta e ace in me ium cities cities it ess t an eo e a itat it imite nancia ca acit s stems ic can a a ro e as metro on t e groun are muc more ess e ensi e t an it an ot er forms of u ic trans ort can meet t e nee s of t e cit traf c uring t e ast eca e o er 3 s stem egan o erating romoting i e es ecia im ortant to ue it contem orar c a enges suc as un re icte gro ing o u ation concentrates t e o u ation of a cit an re ucing t e eman for ri ate e ic es rotecting natura en ironment ong it it o itic regu ator an su ort mec anisms for re ui ing ui t u areas articu ar ro n e s or a an on area ic is neg ecte ur an esign in t e neig or oo an street e e as e as nancia constraints sing case stu met o t is a er tr to ra s on essons earne from g o a case t e est e am e of t e arge ur an na igation re ate irect to cities in t e e e o ing or an ot er ace t at is current in este in us ra i transit or ot er ig ca acit trans ort ere are t o interesting case of ra i e e o ment an motorizing cities t at intro uce s stem e ansion uriti a razi an ogota o om ia an contri ute to un erstan ing of t e im ortant factors for cit transfer it trans ortation
Source: Knight and Trygg 1977.
ource a te from transit ine
ource uzu i an ot ers re ro uce rans ortation esearc oar
ine re resents a mass
ermission of t e ource
enera cities es ecia cities in e e o ing countr ta e on a o centric form en t e gro o t at t e tas of connecting t ese ig ensit centers ic cou e usiness istrict resi entia or mi use area a goo ua it transit is er im ortant nterconnection et een mi use ur an centers it ig ca acit transit not on create t o or mu ti e flo ut a so armonize t e flo an tra e eman e more e en s rea out o e a n t e case of uriti a onstruction of transit oriente as stemme from a goo ur an anning ar in t e anning rocess t e ea ers of uriti a ro i e a master an t at searc out t e a to c anne t e gro t a ong esigne corri ors it mi e an use ensif an e e o ment aroun stations an intro uce a ig ua it s stem to encourage e estrian access to corri or i articu ate uses o erate a ongsi e si e a s an s o s ee frontage roa s roun floor retai on t e o er floor of ui ings an u er e e of ce an resi entia s ace set ac se era meters to a o sun ig t to reac t e street e e creates a ric mi of an uses a ong trinar corri ors e inc usion of mi e an uses an affor a e ousing a o s e e o ers to increase ui ing eig ts a ing ensit to t e corri or treetsca ing en ancements a e create a easant e estrian mi ieu Fre uent sto i articu ate uses o erate on t e main ine of t e trinar corri or imite sto s ee uses flan ara e one a roa s eo e tra e ing onger istances often o t for t e imite sto uses ereas eo e tra e ing s orter istances or going to estinations asse t e s ee uses usua atronize t e main ine fre uent sto ser ices e mar et as res on e to t is ric ifferentiate mi of us ase ser ices a ong t e corri or it ig rise e e o ment su orte zoning an u ic im ro ements i e si e a s an an sca ing
ana o uc i
team ase on ata from ecretar of
team ase on ata from ecretar of
ogota cou e erience anot er stage of transformation a ressing t e strategic e e o ment of s ace it transit im ro ement For areas t at are ess e e o e no es of anne u ic transit metro ines regiona rai s or t e rans i enio e tension s ou focus on s a ing s ace to accommo ate increase ensit it arie ui ing eig ts an mi e use zoning as e as creating e estrian oriente areas it si e a s carefu articu ate streetsca es an ar s e re e e o ment of areas a ong t e rans i enio s stem s ou e romote t roug mo i e an use an ui ing regu ations to o tain increase ui ing o ume an strategic an use
e ert e ess most of t e a o e cases ere re ie e eo e from e e o e countr it out some a ustment or a a tation to oca rea ities it s er if cu t to a t eir e erience in e e o ing countr conte t suc as n onesia e goa is more to e ne t e e rinci es an core essons can gui e t e anning an im ementation of t e cit ic aim to an or in est in generation massi e trans ort s stems oo ing at t e case of t e cit as een acti e in esting in u ic trans ort s stems ig ig t t e conte t an c a enges of transit an an use integration enera t e e erience gaine from t ese cases of o ic recommen ations an im ementation measures s ou e carefu consi ere in ifferent e e s an sca e of strategic ecisions an anning e ercises For e am e is creating a su orti e institutiona an go ernment en ironment remo ing t e restricti e regu ations an set a ro riate an rices e oiting t e im ementation rocess focussing on socia e e o ment in ma e cities inc usi e creating a sustaina e nance t roug a ue ca ture an ot er t e institutiona frame or an regu ations ut in t is a er i i main focus on at essons an rinci e of esign t at s ou e ta en into account of integration et een transit an an use ne of t e most im ortance rinci es is e e o a strategic an strategic ision is rere uisite for success of integrate transit an ur an e e o ment ransit e s to create t e e ecte attern of ur an e e o ment t in s eo e to ace itera an gurati e so it is a mean to form t e t e of cit an t e area aroun it eir ision of t e future on an use as e as ot er infrastructure e ements s ou e ma e c ear a ic a e to e mar et sensiti e socia inc usi e an ase on nancia rea it n or er to ue it uncertaint an un re icta e conte t s ort term mo i it o ecti es ara e go an in an it ong term sustaina e ur an form goa s erience from g o a cases is t at in esting in creating more roa s an trans ortation infrastructure to im ro e mo i it in t e s ort term e entua ea s to more ro ematic in t e future is is at is ca e in uce traf c rans ort ecision s ou e carefu consi er in ot term of su an eman ers ecti e itse f su si e e ansion often ro i es recarious so ution an again fo o t e re ious tra ector uccessfu integrate s atia e e o ment can a e to ro i e ot near term congestion ec ing an ene t t e onger term ur an transformation ffecti e integration is not somet ing anne once an automatica a en o e er it re uires strong ea ers i as e as testing an a usting t roug time
reate articu ate ensities n sim s ea mass transit nee s mass o e successfu a ie transit integrate an use it is neccessar to romote ig er ensities a ong transit ser e corri ors to ensure a critica flo an estinations t us increase cost effecti eness o ensities s ou e oganize ase on t e re ations i it ig ca acit transit ser ices not a erage ensities as usua ass transit s stem nee to e com ine it ig ensities it i erse an uses an e estrian frien esign itse f ig ensit is not suf cient for sustaina e ur an e e o ment an e erience s o s t at in or er to romote sustaina e tra e an cit form ig ensit must or it i erse an uses u ic s aces an e estrian an ot er s o mo ements articu ar im ortant are green connectors ic ro i e er en icu ar i e a an e estrian a ic in to transit stations an surroun ing areas ese inter entions can s orten tri increase transit use re uce automoi e nee an encourage eo e to use non or ess motorize e ic es reating t o ogies is a so signi cant ase on rea istic nee an mar et assessments ities in e e o ing countries nee to ui a t o og of transit s stems ic is ifferent in sca e ro e t e of traf c r t m an s ee integration or se aration of traf c mo es i erse ortfo io of ans an a outs is more effecti e res on to mar et rea ities an regu ator factors
nfrastructure as a too
it t e increasing ra i ur anization t e infrastructure is ecoming more an more com e ere is a signi cant transforma tion an ma ing ne an sca e t roug infrastructure e e o ment ore o er arge sca e an signi cant infrastructure ro ects are tota transforming ur an an rura areas in t e same manner n or er to e sustaina e infrastructure muc en ance t e ua it of an sca e erefore infrastructure engages creating arc itecture ma ing an sca e an setting u i ing en ironment ocate in an tro ica e taic en ironment eco ogica s stems an it re ate issues suc as eat ers floo roug t is one of t e iin is ensa e as ect an a an foun ationa ro e to ui our strateg as e as t e ac groun of e er actions t e ot er an ue ing it e isting issues an re aring room for future ur anization go an in an it ater management ince t e moment t e infrastructure a s a ro e to not on gui ing t e ur anization ut a so act as a too so e t e a o e issue at t e same time t inc u es ne ur anities s a e an forme oca ecos stems ierre anger oreo er it can a so gi e con itions to t e cit an o en u ne ossi i ities an otentia
esi ience an fle i i it
First ro ect aims to steer ur an e e o ment ot of ur an or regiona sca e an o ening u an a ternati e function to a us an o ercro e roa s stem of t e cit to a en ma ing a c earer ierarc structure i entif ifferent roa t o ogies in sca e ro e t e of traf c r t m an s ee integration or se aration of traf c mo es i ro i e arious a s an o ortunities to interact it t e cit an an sca e n a arge sca e e e t e goa is to go e on t e strict foot rint of a roa an see o t e infrastructure cou e e esigne an t erefore o ious eco ogica an sca e tangi e an intangi e of ater s ices terrain in terms of fle i i it an resi ience at a t e an sca e is t e most fle i e strateg of infrastructure an t e connec tion s stem is em e e in its en ironment
ource ut or
3 s stems
n or er to transform t e e isting s stem fe actions of cut a an ro e in some strategic oint ic i a e t e im act to t e s stem as a oe us t ose means e en t e ou e s stem it its mono tas ua ities an r t m ut ee in min t e o eration of eco og s stem es ecia t e ater 3 s stems it its o n c aracter an functions a e e ne a c ear frame or for t e future e e o ment 1.Transkalimantan â€“ the regional system: is assing s stem t at as a rea merge it t e current ur an structure t ensures t e continuit et een t e ifferent arts of t e region an is c aracterize a an sca e in ic it is em e e ssentia t e ine is somet ing more t an ust in ing rogram it a so a a ro e a structure a ri ge or a namic ter for t e eco og an ur an acti ities eci ca t e ine a a ts itse f to t e terrain in ig er groun an create an rotection for an armasin ur anism from floo ing e ning ifferent t e of an sca es an en ance oun aries et een t em ere is an a roac to mu ti route irect to t e ater ine or ui a ri ge across a an sca e t at nee s to function as if t e roa as not t ere in a regiona ines are usua ocate et een t o ifferent con itions of soi an an use an isc ose a asic con ition of t e territor 2. The train system - a possible hypothesis : ere is a ig in estment in trans ortation es ecia t e rai a s stem use for ot eo e an goo s trans ortation t s o s t e go ernment s effort to a e a more in e en ence econom s man ot er economic ri en t ing t e cost of suc uge infrastructure an its im act in t e conte t can e orri e contrast utting it in t e rig t ocation is er im ortant for t e im ementation an su ort as e as in case of regiona ines atersca es an ur an e e o ment For no t is is an e tra ste in t e far future ut t e s stem s ou or it or it out it
3 s stems
3.The urban system: t inc u es net or of u ic s aces an ifferent centra ities of t e t ree cities an armasin an ar aru an arta ura e net or ro i es s ace an socia ife of t e communit an t erefore is esigne for eo e in ic t e can i e or a earn an interact t gi e t e riorit to t e eo e not for t e ef cienc of t e flo n contrast t e ro e of t e street as e as t e ri er is c aracterize a enser r t ms t at en ance t roug ur an acti ities eit er of cia or unof cia e main i ea is to romote t e oca i entit of t e cit is e e o e it s eci c c aracteristics e s stem a e anot er im ortant tas as a su erior s stem of fee er ser ices ena ing a smoot transition an connection an seam ess et een ifferent mo es of trans ort For instance trun ine ser ices ro i es economies of sca e fee er ser ice it sma er e ic es suc as mini uses ater us oat an sma s i ro i e economies of sco e e t o mo es can e ig com ementar an e integrate it e tensi e ur an rai a s t at ro i e interis an connections n ma or cities s stems an oca uses is essentia t at ecrease use of cars usage sica in non motorize trans ortation it e icate us anes on t e main roa an a s stem of s o mo ement as i e an e estrian t at in to u ic trans ort no es for e am e is an essentia art of a trans ort net or of interre ate an ossi i ities contest t at offers mo i e o tions for ri ate e ic es
an armasin is transforming care from an emerging car cit to a reacti ate ater cit e use of ater resources is en ance not on as a means of u ic trans ort ut a so a u ic s ace an ac in front of t e cit as a generator of ne ur anities For e cess of t e infrastructure is anne it suc ring roa t e s ace is rec c e to e integrate in t e u ic sector o t sti ee it s on c aracter of tra itiona cit mar ets cit i e a oi t e ur an s ra surroun ing an maintain connection it ne room for ur anization in an ar aru ig ua it transit s stem of e icate us ine n t e ot er si e an ar aru t e ane cit is no e an ing to ar t e sout ere a e ig r an more sta e an con i tion it t at in min a ne ine in t e area a een one to e frame its gro t an su ort t e e e o ment of acti ities in t e mining sector on t e con ersion sites n or er to ue it t e uncertaint in ong future t e c aracter of t e area is fle i e an can e e e o e into an ur an ou e ar a s ine for t e cit if necessar in t e future an ar aru ser e as a counter eig t to re uce t e ressure for an armasin an ta ing ene t from it t an s to t e strategic ocation n et een t e t o com ementar entities ani ine is getting a ne meaning to t e in et een ifferent i entities as suc it nee to e transforme re ro e to ser e t is ur ose n ani ut a so in t e o era ur an s stem itt e s ace is ro i e for ri ate motorize trans ort an ea traf c erefore t e sca e is a uste an t e s aft is inten e more for intercit an oca mo ements
ime ine an no e
t seem t at infrastructure ro ects are a a s on o er sca e an ecisions to set t e or er of actions is e treme im ortance ot er i e goo strateg it ina ro riate ste can ea to anot er scenario contrasts once strategic arts e one can affect t e o e s stem an t e rest i come as conse uence oing so e consi er t e e e o ment of ot t e an sca e an a o ur anities an infrastructure in its se f a a tation to c anging con itions erefore t an s to t e c ear strat eg t at gui es t e o e s stem ecisions in strategic no es a e ass ecisi e ut it ou e a er interesting a s to testing t e otentia an ractica reflection of o infra structure ecision can transform t e an sca e an cit sca e
onc usion uring t e ro ect t e goa is to a e an a a ti e an integrati e strateg in ic t e com e it of t e territor an sta e o ers are ta en into account t is a it is ossi e to intro uce a ne in of ur anities it its i ersit n t at sense t e strengt of t e s stem ies in its mu ti function ic ro uces a matri of ife ere nature is unrestraine in a net or infrastructure ut in o e in a s stem t at se era of ifferent e e o ment ma occur us t e ro e of infrastructure is not on to su ort t e nationa econom ut a so structure t e socia an eco og is strateg is not ust a out t e ierarc of roa s stem ut a so a out ifferent in sca e t o ogies ro e r t m erefore t e infrastructure go e on sim of a ine ut a a te itse f to t e ifferent i entities of ur an s stem as e as arious of natura con ition t en ances t e ifference intensit of t e territor an t e em tiness is as im ortant as ui ing en ironment
i iogra iroa i uzu i o ert er ero e e o ment e or an F
oa enza e et er an s
ana o uc i ransforming cities it transit 3 o ing
iroa i uzu i ris astur e astian trien cua uriti a razi i truong en ort
anae a u i ina o aru amai trans ate i san in uong a c i u oac
ozano racia an anman e s irections in e e o ment as ington
nstituto e es uisa e urc e oar ationa
a en eimer e e o ing or e ar gar
utomo i e
e en ence o om ia or an
se m acts of a i
o in an as ington
gu en t i so
n nternationa ource oo
ransit m ications of ecent
ane amento r ano e uriti a
o enstein esearc ounci
an use integration for sustaina e ur an
rans ort strategies for sustaina e e e o ment in
e man o er
nig t an r gg ecretar of rans ortation
se an rans ort in a i otorizing ities onte ts of imitriou an a en eimer â€“ ort am ton
m if ing t e
i e from resentation osts of
u is e
ringer ng t uc
ains from t e
f ce of t e
rans ortation esearc
r an rans ort in t e
Water Urbanism Studio 2015 Thesis submitted to obtain the degree of Master of Science in Human Settlements [MaHS] Academic year 2014 - 2015 Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning [ASRO ] Faculty of Engineering Science KU Leuven Promotor Guido Geenen, prof ir-arch ku leuven Guided and supervised by Guido Geenen, prof ir-arch ku leuven Tom Van Mieghem, arch Stefanie Dens, ir-arch Supporting studio team Bruno De Meulder, prof dr ir-arch ku leuven, program director MaHS/MaUSP Cynthia Susilo, phd ku leuven In cooperation with UN -Habitat, Regional Off ice for Asia and the Pacific The City of Banjarmasin, Indonesia ykks /p5 undip, Indonesia Arcadis More In MaHS / MaUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO , KU Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: email@example.com Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be address ed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgie). Telefoon +3216-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests. All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Water Urbanism Studio Banjarmasin, 2015).
[Re]Defining the Indonesian Urbanity, The Linear City as Urban Structure: a study on Banjarmasin. Amaranta Vargas Mendoza Master of Science in Human Settlements [MaHS] 2014 - 2015 Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning [ASRO ] Faculty of Engineering Science KU Leuven
Towards a generic city? Banjarmasin portrays itself as a city of thousand rivers. Nevertheless, nowadays the identity of the city is weakened by its deprived environment and it is threatened by the implementation of generic solutions properly fitting a good city. Also the upcoming position of Banjarbaru adds a dual relationship. Looking deeper, the city has a rather homogenous tissue which isnt able to serve the inhabitants and lacks an embedment in its natural landscape. The rapidly spreading new developments are an instance of this. They lack on providing all the needed services in order to function within the current community system. Banjarmasin has to potential to stay a capital city for the region thanks to its strategic location and trading position. In order to guarantee a stronger position for the city, the border with its hinterland opens opportunities. Although at first sight it seems again very homogeneous, it is a void offering a variety of characteristics. Decomposing the landscape according to its main layers, different (edge) conditions and principles can be picked up as guiders for future development.
TOPOGRAPHY & WATER - Higher ground define the possible urbanisation areas. Nowadays, there are already multiple zones brushing aside the landscape condition, resulting in trapped water bodies between the land fills. During possible flood situations, multiple areas in the city centre are affected.
GREEN & PRODUCTION - Forest structures are mostly found on higher grounds. The lower areas are productive rice fields, leaving the lowest areas to emerge as swamps which potentially can be productive in terms of Gallam wood production.
TISSUE, FUNCTIONS & CONNECTIONS - Most of the functions, especially commercial are positioned along the major connections routes. Small scale services are spread out according to the dispersion of communities.
CURRENT: density 6670 p/sq km area 98,46 sq km population 656 778
PRO ECTION BY CITY area 187 sq km population 1 246 623
STRATEGY area 141,56 sq km population 944 205 25
City of Banjarmasin, Linear settlements along the river. 26
[Re] Defining the Indonesian Urbanity, the Linear City as Urban Structure: a study on Banjarmasin Author: Amaranta Vargas Mendoza Key Words: Linear Structure Urbanism Corridor Indonesia Abstract Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru are two of the key cities in the Banjarbakula region, Banjarmasin will be the studied city for this project and this research paper taking in account the final design as a conclusion for the studio work. This paper will review multiple linear cities in different contexts around the world, from concepts to real proposals, like Soria y Mata, Le Corbusier, Garnier and others, to support the final design project. In Banjarmasin, Indonesia, urban settlements start developing along the rivers and the canals, taking the water as the main transport system since the beginning of the city. The ordinary settlements along the river can easily symbolized the birth of the linear urban structure in Banjarmasin. Now days the road appropriates this new concept, becoming the main axis for settlements, commercial activity, industries, storage, etc. this recent outcome for developments along the road make us reconsider the linear concept as a working urbanity in the Indonesian context. Our proposal for the new urbanity in Banjarmasin takes the main advantages of the linear structure. The shifting of the existing infrastructure to work as an urban corridor, a control of the growing population that allows it to expand, and efficient public transport for movement of people, a secondary mobility line for the movement of goods. A good transportation and connection to the different emerging urbanities in Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru becomes in the main purpose to tackle in this project. The Morphology of Indonesian Cities The history of the Indonesian cities is very complex, the Indonesian context presents diversity in all its forms, beginning by the cultural groups and follow by its territory, and the different cities are a reflection of this diversity. The tradition and the religion are strongly related to the urban morphology and this is the character that defines some of the settlements, the cities were found due to diverse reasons, as a production center, storage or trading. It has become in different urban forms that have been changing though time. One of the strongest traditions could be the coastal trading, making the cities that are on the coast mostly a provincial city. The European colonization, mostly Dutch had a big impact in the form of the Indonesian morphology, with the imposed landscapes in a very different habitat physically and culturally. This change in the existing environment brought various problems as the city start growing, bringing diseases for the lack of open spaces compared to the Dutch amenities. The colonizers were in control of the cities but not many of them were living in the cities. Many Chinese immigrants were attract for the industrial and commercial activities that represent a big support for the different cities. Chinese introduce their own scenery with small shop houses unlikely adequate for the Indonesian context. In 1700, a normal city in the ava region was compose with a nucleus similar but not quite to the European model, a Chinese town and other Asians societies involved with the trading activity. After the outskirt of the cities, the ava homegrown community produced goods and labour to the cities. Close to 1800, Europeans were abandoned the city centres by the difficulties of the swamp areas and the original settlements to urbanized, looking higher lands far from the original centres, a city model that appeared in akarta. In the city of akarta, another node was developing next to a bigger one. This area was a military ground a few kilometers away from the initial settlement. This new node had the advantages of drinkable clean water, far away from the zone of saline intrusion and from the fetid canals inside the city. With one road that traced the path for houses and government buildings while connecting the new community with the old district. This new community became in the elite newest residence for Europeans and for important people in the government of the old city. The Chinese appropriated the townhouses in the former city this became the new shop houses. Meanwhile the urban ideas were changing the government elite community was building enormous town houses like the European latest trends, farther more the needs for pleasure and health were more important than the defence. 27
akarta was establish as a linear structure by 1800, with 8 kilometers strip with 1-kilometer wideness. Therefore, in mid-1800 akarta had a dumbbell shape, with the old district with the port towards the north and the new district for European urban areas in the south. The axis that connected these two districts grow into a wider area, with the kampungs ( avanese settlements) filling this urban axis, this new axis filling became a model for the future Indonesian urbanity, by the mid-1900 Surabaya and Semarang adopted the same structure and started developing like akarta patterns, but some changes were made. For example, Medan one of the newest from these cities, start growing down river with the agricultural landscape that had a connection with the port. Until 20 century most of the cities in Indonesia continue with a small and compact growth. The idea of the Linear City The linear city structure has been appearing in the history for quite some time, even before the linear city theories in planning started in the modernist urbanism. Unplanned linear settlements in the past has follow the planned linear city in the present. Arturo Soria y Mata One of the most important pioneers for this concept was Arturo Soria y Mata he was an urban planner from Spain. His concept first appearance was in an article in Madrid famous journal of the time, where Soria tackles the municipal policies of planning, advising a radical measure for the future planning of Madrid. The Linear City concept had as principal idea one strip of 500 meters wide, the long of the strip would be the necessary, by necessary we mean it could be as long as the city would require. In the center of this strip, the main actor would be the train line and tranvia. Main pipes for water, gas, sewage, electricity etc. Every certain distance would be building exclusively for municipal services, like fire prevention, cleaning, sanitation, security, etc. In this concept, all the problems that an urban life carries would be solve all at once. The linear city project brought together all the hygienic conditions of rural life to the urban life, with a free transportation system serving all the inhabitants. Soria talks about the ideal form that the cities should adopt, supporting his theory in naturalistic and geometric reasoning that points out the spontaneous grouping of building in linear series along the road of the suburban cities. He recalls ruralized the urban life, urbanized the rural life, this is the problem and the solution is the Linear City . In his argument, he compares the garden city and the linear city, implying the lack of attention that the garden city has for the transport lines, curve streets that are more expensive and inefficient and that this perpetuate the concentric arrangement of land values. Meanwhile the linear city make the transportation the main objective into its consideration and the advantages of metropolitan life are couple with the contact with the rural zone. A system of urbanization is not due to chance, but the product of an invention and results of a study . It discusses the justification of his idea from the simplification and rationalization of the traffic situation, which, in turn, determines the pipes of urban services reinforcing the aspect that the linear form is the most favourable to the needs of locomotion, and how to achieve it, quickly and with least fatigue as possible. Soria s idea was to trace the railway line looking for the softer pendants and spacious curves and along the railway or tranvia line to situate the main strip. The importance of each capital city would be noticeable by the ample length of the main strip and for the most active locomotion, this means by the number of trains or tranvias in the centre of it. This last idea seems to show several important things, it points out the importance it has had in ushering in the idea of linear planning, a certain magnification of the railway and Soria s past experience and dedication to urban transport problems. It shows the sharp focus to the problem of public transport, anticipating the importance which public transport has acquire in the present. Another important point from Soria is the justification on the clean air mater. His critique on the modern city leads him to propose, anticipating the hygienist trends from the later urbanism and planning, a first garden city figure regularized in rectangular blocks of 300 x 200 meters, with isolated buildings surrounded by orchards or gardens. He addresses the problem of soil, taking in consideration the essential difference between the new city and the today city, the price of the land will varies in a different way. In the big metropolis, the highest price is on the centric location, and the price continues decreasing until the labour lands without any sing of urbanization. In the Linear city the highest price is not in just in one point, if not in a whole line of indefinite extension. Therefore, with balance prices that will decrease easily depending on the distance from the railway along the transversal streets so instead of concentric circles that determine the price, it will be the parallel lines from the railway, acting as a spine for the new structure. By this abrupt transition of land prices, rich and poor will live together, in comfort, but not bound in a single ladder and superimposed, all will enjoy their share of land, but without infringing the dignity of the citizen, which is affirm and strengthen when their home is free and independent. Regulating the price of land by a line of hundreds of kilometers, rather than by a central point, he solves many difficult and complex problems or society. 28
Every certain distance on the main strip, close to the railway line, a kiosk with multiple services would be build, emergency telephones, waiting rooms for travellers, security agents, first aid equipment in case of accidents, storage for luggage, almost every public service with an urgent character. As mention before along the two lanes, open ditches with half a meter deep would be position, which contain the pipes, tubes and cables required for distribution of water, electricity, heat, power, gas, etc. The central pipes will start to surround other blocks, and these pipes would supply services for each house. One main strip with double railway in the middle. Secondary streets transversal and perpendicular to the railway that circumscribed the blocks of 40 to 50000 square meters, inner the blocks the new housing would be isolated and separated one from another. The housing with the facade to the main strip would be for the high-class inhabitants, middle class would be in the housing with a facade towards the secondary streets, leaving the low class inhabitants more separated to the main strip. Leaving the big central spaces to all the collective character buildings, industries, storage, markets, religious buildings, theatres, museums, schools, etc. All this general theories entangled with real the Linear City itself. During its construction some variations were introduce according to some details, one example is the size of the blocks, with dimensions of 100 meters towards the mains strip and 200 meter towards the secondary streets, with some regularization that obligate to the developers to not exceed the fifth part of the area with the construction. In summary this are the fundamental principles for Soria s Linear City. The first problem to be solve and where all the urbanization problems emerge, is the locomotion and the communication, in every agglomeration of housing, without minding about the number and the importance of this. The perfect structure of a city would be where the amount of time invested in each house to go to all the other houses be the minimum, as happens in the linear city. This is the reason why the structure of the cities continues transforming unconsciously and instinctively adapting with great difficulties and expenses to the means of locomotion, because the structure of one city is based on the locomotion means. According to Soria, the structure of the city would have to be just as the railway structure, linear and long. Another important issue to be tackle would be that the planning and drawings of the city would precede the construction of it. ust as a plan for the construction of a house is first, the trace on the terrain of the city should precede its construction. The geometric form of the streets and blocks would be preferably a regular form this was in the means of visual attraction, for being more comfortable and cheaper than the irregular forms. It follows logically from the previous two fundamental principles that form in the city should be to a main road axis or backbone of the urban organism, the greater width possible in the central part of two or more railways previously constructed, if possible electric. Regular geometric shapes ,squares, rectangles and trapezoids , are more perfect and with a shorter perimeter that other irregular surface, therefore, it is evident that the parts or city blocks must be determined by lines perpendicular to the railway line main Strip. Separated by 20 meters, at least, where cross streets, making water pipes, gas and electricity and other municipal services would be built through parts or straight parts crossing at right angles with more economy, ease and perfection rather than today s cities. The subdivision of the blocks in parcels would be perfect and economic adopting the same squares, rectangles and trapezoids when there is not a precise block for universities, industries, markets, parks, or any other urban facilities. The division of the area would be 1/5 for housing and 4/5 for urban agriculture. The public or private facilities, under any circumstances would occupied more than the 1/5 of the plot area or the block for construction. The rest of the plot would be specifically designate for agricultural means, gardens and forest. The minimum surface for inhabitants cannot be less than 400 square meters, 80 square meters for small shops and 320 square meters for animal husbandry, orchards, fruit trees and garden. The independence and interaction between the houses and inhabitants. The Linear city has a formula of urbanization applicable in every single part for example for every family there would be a house, a garden and orchards. The double alignment was a principal too, meaning that the alignment between the streets, the sidewalks and the alignment of the housing most be a minimum distance of 5 meters that could be used as a garden or art display, not just for visual maters but for preventing the future widening of the streets. The triangulation, the rational architecture of the hygienic cities cannot pass by from the plane to the real life, crystallizing in visual and tangible facts, without adapting to the environment and landscape, created by the geography and the history. The best intermediate point where old cities where the price of the land decrease according to the distance from the centre of the city with concentric form, can interact with the lineal cities where the value of the terrain decrease according to the parallel lines from the railway on the main street, is between making connections between the current cities or centre cities with the linear cities. The linear cities will configured a network in each country of triangulations where the area or surface of each urban triangle would form the vertex of the centric cities, and the sides along the linear cities would be dedicated to industries and agricultural activities. The difficult intersections like where rivers and mountains emerge, existing urbanisation settlements, check points, or any other circumstances, the wide of the linear city would be reduce to the precise measure for the railway lane in the difficult 29
intersections. The Linear City would have a big comeback to the rural face, with all the benefits and conveniences of the urban life. Tony Garnier Soria y Mata motivated to other famous authors to reexamine the concept of the linear city, one of them was Tony Garnier and his proposal of the Industrial City. This new concept would be occupy by 35000 inhabitans, this new community would be settle in a plain are cross by a river. The main industry would be located in the plain area, by the ends of the river dedicated to textile and metallurgy an easy connection with raw materials and means of transportation. The main railway line would be between the town and the industrial area. The city would be in higher level than the industry area, on a plateau, and even higher, the sanitation facilities protected from the environmental changes. Every single element from the new city, the industrial zone, the city, and the sanitations facilities would be isolated. The different sectors area energy (hydroelectric plants), health (hospitals), industry (textile and metallurgical), housing, transport (railway station, bus station), that were isolated to be possible to expand in the future. The primary materials to the construction of the city would be concrete and iron. The industry would be separate in high-risk zones and green areas that controlled the harmful gases from the different industries. At the same time, some important regulations were created for each sector of this Industrial City, sanitation, edification etc. The most important points for the edification in the housing zone would be that the bedrooms should have at least one window facing south, the housing areas would be projected in rectangular blocks that would count with green public areas. All the primary schools would be located in the sector while the high schools or higher education institutions would be established in the industrial sector. There would be no courtyards in any housing project. From the total plot, the construction should occupied half of it, in housing and public facilities projects, the rest of the non-occupied area in the plot would be assignated to green open public space and pedestrian areas. Le Corbusier Other proposal for the same kind of utopian city was the Contemporary City by Le Corbusier, able to shelter 3 million inhabitants, this proposal for the center of Paris, promised to increase the capacity of the urban areas, but at the same time to improve the urban environment and the efficient of the city. The main aims for this new project was to improve the communication systems, to improve and increase the green open areas, a better ventilation and sunlight and reduce traffic jams. Introducing the high-rise buildings as the ultimate structure to conceive this aims and attend the increasing urban population. The design of this new city was symmetric in the center, which was the hub for the public transportation systems. The central terminal is a point of access to the subway at the bottom of the deck of the underground system. The surface plant is open to cars and taxis. The central part is reserve for 24 skyscrapers. The skyscrapers would have the dimensions of 190 meter for 190 meters and they would be higher than 200 meters. This new area would become a centrality important for all major companies. Around the skyscrapers, there is apartment blocks that offer accommodation for people working in the skyscrapers, in this apartments each one has its own garden. The area would represent the 15 percent of the total surface of the Contemporary city the inhabitants would have a large amount of garden and green areas. There would be a business district, residential district, and the basic transport and street shops are arranged where all the elements work together. The skyscrapers represented the way of construction in the business district meanwhile residential district is formed for 3 blocks of houses. There were 3 versions of the skyscrapers, the most impressive change was the one design with widely sawn forms, that benefit by forming traps lights. Although the contemporary city fulfil the dream of skyscrapers and building blocks of le Corbusier, with open green areas, it lacks of the urban order that the other proposals had. Conclusions After the different theories and projects of the linear cities in the 19 century, we can find why this morphology has been the source of endless discussions. Starting with Soria y Mata proposal and finding good answers to the different issues that he raises, and we can recognized that the linear city could be adapted in different context, providing a fast connection and ways of efficient transport. This concept makes a strong argument in urban structures presenting the promise of being applicable in the future. In the city of Banjarmasin, we adopt this concept for one of the main connections between Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru following some of these theories and applying new ideas according to the landscape and different built context in Indonesia.
City of Banjarmasin, Linear settlements along the river. 31
Floating market, Banjarmasin. 46
(AASA), The Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia, Towards a Sustainable Asia: Environment and Climate Change. Dordrecht: Springer Dordrecht, 2012. Boileau, Ivan, Ciudad Lineal. Town Planning Review 30(3): 230, 1959.
Chapman, David, Dick Pratt, Peter Larkham, and Ian Dickins, Concepts and Definitions of Corridors: Evidence from Englands Midlands. ournal of Transport Geography 11(3). The Governance of Corridors: 179-19, 2003. Collins, George R., The Ciudad Lineal of Madrid. ournal of the Society of Architectural Historians 18(2): 38-53, 1959. Visionary Drawings of Architecture and Planning: 20th Century through the 1960s. Art ournal 38(4): 244-256, 1979. Corbusier, Le, The City of To-Morrow and Its Planning. Courier Corporation, 1987. Daniere, Amrita, Mike Douglass, and Professor and Chair Department of Urban and Regional Planning Mike Douglass, The Politics of Civic Space in Asia: Building Urban Communities. Routledge, 2008. Doxiadis, C. A., On Linear Cities. Town Planning Review 38(1): 35, 1967. Feyen, an, Kelly Shannon, and Matthew Neville, Water and Urban Development Paradigms: Towards an Integration of Engineering, Design and Management Approaches. CRC Press, 2008. Gold, ohn R., The Experience of Modernism: Modern Architects and the Future City, 1928-53. Taylor & Francis, 2013. Kusno, Abidin, Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space, and Political Cultures in Indonesia. Psychology Press, 2000. LeGates, Richard T., and Frederic Stout, The City Reader. Routledge, 2011. Lynch, Kevin, Good City Form. MIT Press, 1984. De Meulder, Bruno, and Kelly Shannon, Water Urbanisms East. urich Park books, 2013. Meyerson, Martin D., and Robert B. Mitchell, Changing City Patterns. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 242: 149-162, 1945. Parker, Simon, Urban Theory and the Urban Experience: Encountering the City. Routledge, 2003. Passanti, Francesco, The Skyscrapers of the Ville Contemporaine. Assemblage(4): 53-65, 1987. Richards, Brian, Urban Transportation and City Form. Futures 1(3): 239-25, 1969. Setiadi, Hafid, Islam and Urbanism in Indonesia: The Mosque as Urban Identity in avanese Cities. In The Changing World Religion Map. Stanley D. Brunn, ed. Pp. 2415-2436, 2015. Shannon, Kelly, Bruno De Meulder, Viviana d Auria, and anina Gosseye, Water Urbanisms. Amsterdam SUN, 2008. Wiebenson, Dora, Utopian Aspects of Tony Garnier s City Industrielle. ournal of the Society of Architectural Historians 19(1): 16-24, 1960. 47
WATER URBANISM STUDIO 2015 DESIGN THESIS Saima Musharrat STUDIO TEAM Guido Geenen, prof ir-arch KULeuven Tom Van Mieghem, arch Stefanie Dens, ir-arch SUPPORTING STUDIO TEAM Bruno De Meulder, prof dr ir-arch KULeuven, program director MaHS/MaUSP Cynthia Susilo, phd KULeuven IN COOPERATION WITH UN-Habitat, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific The City of Banjarmasin, Indonesia YKKS/P5 UNDIP, Indonesia Arcadis MORE INFO ? MAHS / MAUSP / EMU Master Programs Department ASRO, K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel: + 32(0)16 321 391 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
© Copyright by K.U.Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Engineering – Kasteelpark Arenberg 1, B-3001 Heverlee (België). Telefoon +32-16-32 13 50 & Fax. +32-16-32 19 88. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests. All images in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors (Water Urbanism Studio Banjarmasin, 2015).
RIVER & ROAD AS WARP & WOOF CHOREOGRAPHING RURALITY INTO A NEW CENTRALITY In search of supplementary systems in a growing city: a study on Banjarmasin 2015 K.U.Leuven, Master of Human Settlements, Master of Urbanism and Strategic Planning
Spring Studio 2015, Banjarmasin, Indonesia Saima Musharrat and Guido Geenen (promoter)
Case study: Martapura Lama With the vision of serving the city as well as serving the traditional way of living, Martapura Lama Road and its intermediate space starting from the Martapura river has the capacity of being transformed into a new centrality. As stated before, being the oldest settlement along the river and having the lackadaisical lifestyle adapted with the ebb and tide of the river, most of the people depend on its surrounding productive landscape for their livelihood. The Martapura Lama road cutting straight through the landscape as a connector of two nodes, one in the city and another along the irrigation channels houses small-scale business like brick industries, food shops, chicken farms and other commercial activities. However, big patches of landfill have started to appear along the road as an indicator of urban sprawl. This puts the intermediate productive landscape in the risk of being consumed by the housing, just as many other spots have been in other parts of the city. Under these circumstances, to turn this place into a valuable asset the vision must seek to create a framework that reinstates the traditionalism along with creating new spatial qualities and opportunities of employment, introducing water-based recreational activities. All these steps can therefore breed diversity without destroying the innate merits of this area. Based on the notion of water urbanism, the aim of the design exercise is to examine how the micro-stories can be changed in a sequential way by taking up relevant design strategies. In order to do that, a water-based approach of development has been considered to advocate a resilient system to work with the nature and the economy. By sharing common platforms of facilities, the new can meet the old while building an image of traditional, cultural and artisanal identity. Strategy 1/ River as the guiding system The Martapura river has always been the guiding line along which the settlements have gathered themselves. People residing in these settlements hardly bother if the water level of the river rises with the rain or tide. Accepting it as a part of the natural lifestyle, the inhabitants have adapted themselves according to the harmony of water. Profiting from the flow of water, the households orient themselves in a linear way facing towards the river. This typology is an important aspect to underline along with making them more resilient against the growing tide by increasing the height of the stilts. The mosques being placed as dots along the river, the linearity of the system becomes more obvious, which is one of the strengths of this system. As the investigation of urban tissue has suggested before, these households often appeared following 21
a clan system where the families of a main house came into place one by one. By keeping the villages in their forms and upgrading them, a generic development along the riverside can be resisted. Thus protecting the river as the main source of desakota life and meeting point of communities is a vital strategy to keep in mind. Strategy 2/ Cleaning, harvesting and linking the water Being the most important element in this system, water has manifold dimensions in this area. In regional scale, this area lies in an important crossroad that can purify and retain the upstream water in a natural way before entering the city. By cultivating a forest that cleans water also engenders a micro-climate which is suitable to protect the ecological balance in the area. The area also offers a strategic location to retain and reserve water for the summer which is usually â€˜too muchâ€™ during the monsoon. These water reservoirs can be of different scales to feed the agriculture, the city and the communities. Several missing links among the waterways can be connected to assist the capillary web-like spreading of water in the area. The traditional agronomy converts into more effective landscape while water systems turn into filtration machines. Strategy 3/ Intensifying the production and trade Having the aim to balance the consumptive and productive landscape, this area can be the ground to boost up the production as well as reemphasize the small trades and artisanal qualities it possesses. An additional layer of eco-tourism can be introduced by locating the trades in clustered villages where the manufacturers can not only fabricate their products but also have the chance to showcase and sell them to the visiting tourists. By hosting an environment that fosters living and working condition, the ecological footprint of every inhabitant is also decreased this way, which is a prerequisite of sustainable living. Along with the existing brick industries, fruit plantation and paddy fields, the sasirangan production, sago rumba, ketupat making, sagunwood and other start-up businesses in local scale can be housed along the Martapura Lama road. Additionally, intensifying the production in the existing agrolands that makes use of multifunctional production in one land and take advantage of the timeline of the productive seasons can feed the supplementary density in the area. For example, people who work on fields for a certain period of the year depending on the weather can interchange their vocations by cultivating more than one crop or taking up small-scale trade for the rest of the year.
MARTAPURA LAMA: RIVER SETTLEMENTS ANALYSIS
SECTION THROUGH THE TYPOLOGY
LIVING WITH WATER tissue, topography and tides
wet season dry season
Riverbed Martapura lama
PUBLIC / PRIVATE
ZOOMING IN THE URBAN TISSUE: 400MX400M
SOLID / VOID
mosque shadow informal activity
ROAD / WATER
A. Yani road
single storey duplex
Transformation induced in different phases natural water purification along the river communities provided with natural grey water treatment
productions sol by water transp
public platforms as points of opportuniy and connectors
commerce/ small industry productive landscape
redistributing labour force during dry & wet season
work in productive landscape
cradle-to-cradle [using the waste
work in river and productive landscape
sell in the city
productive I road I landscape
productive I road I landscape
I stream I river I settlements
I stream I river I settlements
I road I water transp
design strategies spatial connection network ecological connection
large scale functions
diversity in urban functions, serving the research identity
productive landscape upscaling of small scale industries
rinciple roduction of one as a resource for the other]
education/research centre as points of opportunity
sell products in the city
I house I
I road I shops IcanalI
I house I
I commerce I canal I road I commerce I
plantation I irrigation
I road I I living high density
I road I shops I canal I plantation I irrigation small industry
I education I canal I road I commerce I public public
Vision of the Martapura Lama Road grown as a new urbanity
Strategy 4/ Water as a mode of transport To facilitate the growing industries along the Martapura Lama Road, a route of water transport can work as the economic corridor. Benefitted from both the water and road system, the businesses can take place between the two infrastructural systems. Water as the heart of life and economy, a public transport system based on water can only reiterate the significance of the aquatic existence of this region. By digging and dredging the new channels, a better water transport can be established by cut and fill process, ensuring a better connectivity. Strategy 5/ Providing platforms of interaction Nestled on a small footprint, diverse living-working and blue-green structure, the elements of functions can be connected with platforms that are integrated with stops for the water transport accommodating mosque, school, local market and public space for the communities. These platforms are the urban connectors of an enlarged public realm winding through the territory and linking the communities with one another. Raised on higher grounds, they become the small islets that lodge the urban functions and create hierarchical points in the system. CONCLUSION Since the city of Banjarmasin is confronting difficulties generated from different origins and magnitudes, solutions to this also have to deal with the diversifies factors. One thing is for sure that Banjarmasin cannot escape the tsunami of urbanization that is going to take place in the coming years. Instead of trying to stop it, the urgent stride is to be prepared for it. The city as the center for is in need of reaching outwards, not being introvert within itself. The polycentric growth caters for the possible answers to this problem of shrinking and dispersion of the inner city. Deciding on that, the next step is to agree on identifying the polycenters, find their strengths and lay out the strategies to activate them. In order to achieve this, a sound collaboration among the local and regional government, the real-estate agents and local organizations is truly desirable. With a view to reaching the common goal together, the discrepancies among different stakeholders can be overcome and worked out for.
K.U.LEU EN STUDENTS
UN-HABITAT Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
KULeuven Participants Sheeba Amir Claire Bosmans Spandan Das Kathleen De Beukelaer Eleni Kasselouri Quynh Nhu Le Ashim Manna Isabelle Matton Amaranta argas endoza Tarek orad arion ukolwe Saima Musharrat Danny Osorio MichaĂŤl Stas oyce Stijnen Sadia Subrina Trung inh Tran Emerald Upoma Baidya Hanne an Gils alentine an den Eynde
Bruno Dercon Nini Purwajati Agung Ramadhan KKS P5 UNDIP
Holi Bina Wijaya Achmad Rifai Indra Hadi PE DA BAN AR ASIN
Fajar Desira Windiasti Kartika
K.U. LEU EN
Bruno de eulder Guido Geenen Tom an ieghem Cynthia Susilo Stefanie Dens Sari Aryani ARCADIS
Bert Smolders David Osorio Robert Titus Alex Brook ransisco Bernadeth Nuri
RIVER & ROAD AS WARP & WOOF Interweaving Ecologies and Economies in the deltaic Territory, Banjarmasin, Indonesia volume 2 : design investigations. Banjarmasin had a population of 5 in and is moving fastly towards the one million inhabitants. The city is laced with floodprone waterways, influenced by the ebb tide of the ava Sea. At a certain moment it counted more then hundred canals, creeks and riverways. ollowing this contemporary pace of development, the existing city and its lowlying flood prone periphery are being overlaid with a new scale of urban fabric and programs. New infrastructures and allotments ade uately canalize development but, in general, and in so the Studio aims to explore ( and simultaneously test) in strategic projects development visions for Banjarmasin that could guide its sustainable development in spatial and socioeconomic and cultural terms.
MaHS, MaUSP Spring Design Studio 2015 Leuven, Belgium