PHAM NGUYEN THAO
URBAN DESIGN PORFOLIO
Pham Nguyen Thao
EDUCATION Currently a graduate student of Ho Chi Minh City University of Architecture. Major: Urban design
Date of birth May 22nd 1995 Nationality
11A Nhieu Tu Street, Ward 7, Phu Nhuan District, HCMC
I strongly believe that we can accomplish anything if we but our mind to it. The only limit to our impact is our imagination and commitment.
nguyenthaopham225@ gmail.com 0972688298
AMBITION I look forward to applying my knowledge and experience of site survey and concept development on real projects. As a recently graduated student, I aspire to experience and learn more about practical experience, as well as sharpen my own skills
Workshop: City space and city life A comparison between Bangkok and Ho Chi Minh City
2016 Global Design Studio LiveABILITY Vietnam
TABLE OF CONTENTS
01 02 03 04 05 06 02
HOUSING TISSUE PROJECT URBAN DESIGN PROJECT URBAN VILLAGE PROJECT GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE VILLAGE BY THE HILL PERSONAL ART
HOUSING TISSUE PROJECT
Design concept project / year 2 Location
The project is located in Binh Tan District, adjacent to Binh Tan Industrial park. Low income workers accounted for the largest part of the residents in surveyed area.
FLEXIBLE HOUSING UNIT Designed for four people Total ﬂat area: 60.6 m2 The main idea is to create an apartment with ﬂexibility. That is the reason why the sofa in living room can turn into a bed, and the living room itself can turn into the third bedroom. The apartment uses wide front door and window to catch wind and sunlight in order to reduce electric energy.
PLAN SCALE 1/100
ELEVATION SCALE 1/100
SECTION A-A’ SCALE 1/50
IMPLEMENTATION OF HOUSING UINITS INTO APARTMENT DESIGN
The “Flexible housing unit”, together with another two types of housing unit, were put together to create apartment complex with functional park.
Figure 1.1: Public-private space
Figure 1.2: Circulation
Figure 1.3: Parking coeďŹ cient
Figure 1.4: Vertical access
PRINCIPLE OF ARRANGING HOUSING UNITS
The main concept here is to create wave-shaped structure based on the different height of the buildings in order to avoid monotonous building. Besides that, different-height building also help promote different viewpoints for residents. In order to develop that concept, we have ďŹ ve modules in our design.
Figure 1.5: Arranging concept
Figure 1.6: Module 1 The L modules is located at the corner of the site in order to create the privacy for the site. In addition, this module can create the space within it which is quite private from the outsider so that residents can be comfortable there.
Figure 1.7: Module 2 This model is also located at the corner of the site and have space within it.
Figure 1.8: Module 3 This parallel module create the landscape run along within it. The bridge is not only the mean of connection between two blocks but also give residents another view to the landscape under it.
Figure 1.9: Module 4 This module is developed from the parallel module with some differences to create diversity.
Figure 1.10: Module 5 This module is the highlight for the site. it has 9 ďŹ‚oors with elevator and great view to the main park of the site.
BINH TAN HOUSING TISSUE PROJECT: The project took place in a vacant space which is adjacent to Binh Tan Industrial Park. The project aim is to develop housing typologies that can respond to the following issues: Available for low-income worker residents, Resilient against the pollution of the industrial park, Adaptable to the changing lifestyles, Promoting open space for social gathering. The design concept is to make a center park in order to create public space for the inhabitants, especially a playground for children, and also promote fresh air. Moreover, each block also has small garden for growing vegetable for the daily uses of its residents. The housing units were put together in the way that form wave-shaped structures based on the different height of the buildings in order to avoid monotonous complex. Moreover, the arrangements of the units also aim to create open balcony at some point to promote more social interaction within a block.
URBAN DESIGN PROJECT Urban Design Studio / Year 3 Kim Bien Market
SITE ANALYSIS Location The project took place at the area surrounding famous Kim Bien Market in District 5. The site is adjacent to District 11, District 6 and District 8 across Tau Hu Canal. The main street axis of the site are Hai Thuong Lan Ong Street and Vo Van Kiet Street.
Figure 2.1: Site location Historical development
Diagram 2.1: Historical Development Kim Bien Market was established in the 1960s, located in District 5 (Old Cholon), in Ho Chi Minh City. The physical elements of the survey area changed dramatically from a canal surrounded by few houses in around 1778 to a hustle and bustle market place. Initially, the market operated spontaneously to exchange, buy and sell dollars and supplies. After 1975, the market was converted to small businesses to rent stalls to trade many items, among them, the most famous is industrial chemicals and food chemicals. This is a place to store many old vestiges of a mixed culture of Chinese and a few Indians.
PHYSICAL ELEMENTS ANALYSIS
Figure 2.2: Use of building
Figure 2.3: Land use
Trafﬁc is quite crowded in the morning. Most people ride motorbikes straight into the market. Spontaneous parking is the majority (concentrating in front of shops and market entry points) and being used more by people than parking places. Roads such as Van Tuong and Go Cong roads, etc. are under construction, so trafﬁc is quite congested.
Figure 2.4: Vehicle ﬂow 13
SOCIAL ELEMENTS ANALYSIS
Figure 2.5: Product type classiďŹ cation
The population is Chinese and Vietnamese people, people have good and close social interaction because this is a large population, busy market. The main activity here is trading. No entertainment activities found. Major trading products are industrial chemicals, handicrafts, and home-based chemicals. The residents are mainly small traders, owners of restaurants, ...
Figure 2.6: Trading actvities during a day 14
Figure 2.7: Figure ground
Figure 2.8: Street axis-Node
Built new Community Building Market Shophouse Shophouse Residential house
Figure 2.11: Zoning
Repaired type 1
Figure 2.10: Impact Level
Repaired type 2
Figure 2.9: Green Axis
Problem: Existing alleys don’t meet government’s standard for safety and emergency access
Figure 2.12: Existing Alleys However, because the alleys’ characteristics here need to be preserved as they are part of this place history and culture (Families in one alley are often related to each other. Our group action is to slightly widen some alleys to meet safety regulations.
Figure 2.13: Planned Alleys
The area in Ngo Nhan Tinh Street is so chaos and the alleys are too small, therefore we decided to clear houses there and build a small apartment (50 houses are affected).
Our group proposed market shop houses typology with 2-3m setback to allow parking in front of the shop in order to solve trafﬁc jam in the market area Furthermore, the surveyed area has many houses which have historical and cultural values. Such housing typology needed to be preserved and developed. Proposed housing guideline: Building density: 70-80% Set back: 0-3m Storeys: 2-4 Roof: Tile roof Style of window and door: French
Repaired type 2: Market shophouses
OPEN SPACE DEVELOPMENT
Project phases: Stage 1: Develop the infrastructure and purifying the cannal’s water Stage 2: Develop the landscape in order to encourage activities and economic for the next stage’s development Stage 3: Repair housing facade and typology according to the guideline
DETAILED DESIGN: RECONNECT WATERFRONT The main idea is to create more open space for the residential area and reconnect the water element in the area. At present, the Tau Hu Canal riverfront is a potential open space but it is being deserted due to heavy trafﬁc on Vo Van Kiet Street. My proposal is to regenerate the riverfront in order to make it become an attractive open space to encourage more public activities. AIM
Enhance local’s lives by more open space
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Develop more open space based on local’s existing elements such as river, road,… Encourage more public activities
ACTIONS Construct an open space on the riverfront. Have suitable regulation to develop street vendors in order to enhance the public space on pavement. Create diverse activities for different group of people.. Planning activities for different period such as day, night and festival.
Enhance the value of buildings
Efﬁcient transport network
Create building guideline for an attractive façade which have unity but still keep existing’s value. Create a friendly and attractive pedestrian road Solve conﬂicts between pedestrians and vehicles
Building still keep some valuable architectural features of the area but also have new, modern feature. Additional elements such as canopy in front of a house must not downgrade the value of it. Plant more suitable trees for more shade. Connection way from the Hang Bang Canal to the river front. Construct pedestrian bridge
Figure 2.14: Master plan 1 Pedestrian bridge 2 Square 3 Cafe shop 4 Waterfront steps
Figure 2.16: Section B-B’ 20
Figure 2.15: Section A-A’ Lantern
Figure 2.17: Perspective 21
URBAN VILLAGE PROJECT
What is urban village? In urban planning and design, an urban village is an urban development typically characterized by medium-density housing, mixed use zoning, good public transit and an emphasis on pedestrianization and public space.
Reduce car reliance and promote cycling, walking and transit use
Help facilitate strong community institutions and interaction
Urban design project / year 3 Location
The project is located in Thanh Da peninsula, Binh Thanh district. Most parts of the project area is populated with low level dwellings. The island is dotted with rice paddies, market gardens, and ďŹ shing ponds - a countryside within Ho Chi Minh City.
Urban villageâ€™s Provide a high GOAL level of self-con-
tainment (people working, recreating and living in the same area)
CASE STUDY - URBAN AGRICULTURE
Millharbour Village The aim of Millharbour Village was to create a sense of place and residential identity whilst satisfying the need to create a 1500 new homes within a restricted site on the Isle of Dogs. Key to the success of Millharbour Village is the creation of a characterful public realm and playful landscape that is able to tell a story about the history of the site. The public realm will become the glue between the various components of the scheme.
Lima - Peru
Lima, built as the foundation of the Spanish “City of the Kings” in 1535, is the capital of Peru and the ﬁfth largest metropolitan area in Latin America Despite the accelerated urban growth in the last few years, agriculture is still being practiced in the areas around Lima and to a lesser extent within the city itself. The most important crops grown are vegetables, grass, and forage in Rimac; fruit orchards, vegetables, ornamental plants, and maize in the valley of the Lurin river; and maize and aromatic plants in the valley of the Chillón. On a much smaller scale, urban agriculture is carried out in small spaces (patios, ﬂower pots, small public spaces) ranging from 1 m2 to 10,000 m2. The crops grown in these areas are mostly used for home consumption and usually no chemicals are used in the cultivation.
Accra is the capital and largest city in Ghana, located on the western coast of Africa. Accra has a long history of urban agriculture and has been the subject of numerous studies on the topic. Backyard gardening remains a socially accepted activity even today. Open-space farming, on the other hand, receives mixed feedback as does livestock farming in the city center and the use of polluted water for irrigation of vegetables. Besides backyard and open-space crop production, ﬁsh farming/ aquaculture, livestock farming, ﬂoriculture/ornamentals, small ruminants and poultry, and non-traditional farming (e.g., snails and mushrooms) are popular.
THEME ISSUES OF SURVEYED AREA
abandoned farm land Inefficient dyke
Natural condition Water pollution
different in landscape
Neglectful Resources Abandoned riverfront
lack of common ground
The natural condition in Thanh Da peninsula, as presented in stage 1 of the project, has some serve problems which we take into consideration such as ﬂooding and water pollution. The ﬂooding is due to inefﬁcient dyke which keep the water inside some low ground in the peninsula after heavy rain. Natural condition leads to the waste of resources in this area. The water pollution which lead to soil pollution and result in vacant land which used to be farmland. Flooding make the riverfront receive little care and landscape design.
Social different lifestyle
IDEA AND VISION
Because of different characteristics of each area and in attempt to create identiﬁable neighborhood (neighborhood with strong characteristics and lifestyle which is not effected by surrounding neighborhoods), we separated the peninsula base on natural condition and main road system.
In each distinct neighborhood, we create a place for people to live, learn, work and entertain. In general, a self-contained area which boundary so that their lifestyle won’t be overwhelmed by others. We called them villages. In each village, we try to solve their issue depend on their existing ecology, and use green methods.
In the boundary between villages, we create common land with common facilities where people in different villages can hangout and know what happen around them. We create street system to connect these villages in some aspect.
CONNECTION BETWEEN VILLAGES
The villages are connected by system of main road, bicycle road and waterway.
ECCO “VILLAGES” 26
URBAN FARM VILLAGE
MANAGE NATURAL PROBLEM BASE ON ECOLOGICAL METHOD - THE USE OF WETLAND
Manage natural problem Reclaim land Wetland is well-known for its ability to discourage ﬂood by reducing the ﬂow and ﬁlter water. The wetland systems here combine of two part: mangrove wetland and grass wetland. Mangrove wetland play an important role in reduce salinity in water while grass wetland reduces ascend and other pollutants. In addition to that, we use “ﬁlter road” along river and canal to clean underground water. Besides that, break crop technique is recommended in order to reduce soil salinity.
Enhance life MAIN CONCEPT
This area of the peninsula was initially the area used mainly for agriculture, however it is now mostly abandoned due to ﬂooding and water and earth pollution. In addition to that, this area also suffer from lacking of essential facilities such as parks, health service,… The main vision in this area is to regenerate farming activities and enhance life. In order to do so, we must ﬁrst solve the natural problem.
Sun ﬂower Duckweed (Helianthus) (Limna minor)
Figure 3.1: Type of wetland 27
RECLAIM LAND FOR URBAN AGRICULTURE
Figure 3.2: Vegetation distribution Figure 3.3: Topography
Green house Low-ﬂood tolerance spieces
High-ﬂood tolerance spieces
We regenerate farming land on the lower ground of the area. The area along the river have more likeliness to be effected by ﬂood, so high-ﬂood tolerance spices are recommended such as rice, water spinach,.... The area inland is recommended for low-ﬂood tolerance spices such as durian, papaya,… The small area is deigned to be cluster of green houses to make use of the vertical planting.
ENHANCE LIFE BY PROVIDING AMENITIES AND ENHANCE INFRASTRUCTURE In order to enhance people lives, we add facilities such as park, community hall, health service, kindergarten, entertainment places, grocery stores,â€Ś. Grocery store is essential in community life and is place on the corner of the street for easy access.
Figure 3.4: Park distribution
Low-land peserved for park
Community park Common land between villages
Figure 3.5: Facilities distribution Kindergarten Community hall + health servive Entertainment (cafe, restaurant, bookstore,..) Grocery store
Street network and boundary Figure 3.6: Existing and plammed streets
Figure 3.8: Types of streets
Figure 3.7: Streetsâ€™ function
Figure 3.9: Boundary and gateway
Internal road Bicycle, pedestrian road
Street classiďŹ cation and street materials
Figure 3.10: Primary street section
Figure 3.11: Secondary street section
Figure 3.12: Filter road section 31
All the street here will be enhanced to become green street (as picture). Since the trafďŹ c density here is moderately low, the use of green road is possible. The green road has aim to be environment friendly, and lower the speed of vehicle entering the village.
URBAN FARM VILLAGE KEY DESIGN Figure 3.13: Location
Tourism village Fish village Farm village Main road Site boundary
DEVELOP HIGH-TECH GREENHOUSE
Require investment in infrastructure
DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Education Technology transfer
Waste water management Canteen
Figure 3.14: Main transportation system
r te en c t ce en use pla m e ho e ag re om an Wa elc M w ist ur o T
Site boundary Primary road
Old residential area
Node New residential area
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Figure 3.15: Functional map
Education + Showroom Working area Park New residential
Agriculture Land Park
Old residential area
EXISTING ROAD IDENTIFY IMPORTANT NODE ASSIGN MAIN FUNCTION DEVELOP DETAILS
Old residential area
Figure 3.16: Interactions between functions
Figure 3.17: Section A-Aâ€™
Figure 3.18: Section B-Bâ€™
the incoming waste is blended and bioaugmented with oxygen to support downstream aerobic digestion
Main road Secondary road
Figure 3.20: Internal transportation map
Figure 3.19: Transportation map 35
VEGETATION GUIDELINE WETLAND No
ﬂoat on or just beneath the surface of still fresh water and wetlands
It is a glabrous tree and grows up to 40 m (130 ft) tall. Recomended heigh: 15-20m
a perennial herb sometimes as tall as 2 meters (80 inches) tall
Golden rain tree
The golden rain tree is a medium-sized tree. Recomended height: 3-6m
It usually grows along the edge of the lake, height 1-3m
It is a small to medium-sized tree. Recomended height: 10-15m
Vetiver can grow up to 150 centimetres (5 ft) high and form clumps as wide.
Most are 0.25–1 metre tall, but some are woody shrubs 0.25–3.5 metres tall.
Aquatic plants are able to absorb ammonia and arsenic very well.
It is a species of ﬂowering plant of the genus Allamanda in the family Apocynaceae.
Suitable for tropical climate and capable of treating N, P pollution
Evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and 1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide.
SOME EXAMPLE OF AGRICULTURE PLANT No
The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres long and 15 centimetres in diameter, and is typically weighs 1 to 3 kg
The jackfruit tree is well suited to tropical lowlands, and its fruit reaching as much as 35 kg in weight
SOME EXAMPLE OF AGRICULTURE PLANT Image
Mango trees grow to 35–40 m tall, with a crown radius of 10 m. Ripe mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. The longan tree is a medium-sized evergreen that can grow up to 6 to 7 metres in height.
The papaya is a small, sparsely branched tree, usually with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall
It prefers alluvial soil, and a cool, moist climate, but is widely adaptable.Yield is high, with an average fruit weight of 150–250 g
Tree height: 3-6m. Tree radius: 5-7m. The fruit is typically weighs 500-700gr
Leafy green are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, such as lettuce and spinach...
The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up frames
The plants typically grow to 1–3 meters in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants
Control room Field irrigation system
GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE Creating a resilient, sustainable and lively neighborhood using green infrastructure
Urban design project / year 4 Location
The project is located in Binh Thanh District and adjacent to OfďŹ cer Academy Ho Chi Minh City. Overall, the surveyed site is in a very dense residential area. Moreover, the site also has sloppy topography feature spread from high land at Binh Hoa crossroad to the main water low stream of Cau Son canal. Because of these features, this site is lake of green space and is prone to ďŹ‚ooding.
SITE ANALYSIS: FLOODING - INFRASTRUCTURE 0m
Houses are much higher than street Equal to steet
Figure 4.1: Topography level
Higher than steet
Alley are lower than main street
Lower than steet
Houses which different cote
Houses which different cote
From the TOPOGRAPHY LEVEL map, we can see that this area’s height is decrease, from No Trang Long Street to Cau Son Canal. The Canal area used to be the lowest part and the drainage for the area. However, due to housing development at the area along Cau Son Canal, the middle part now is the lowest part. Therefore, the middle part is severely affected by ﬂooding.
Figure 4.2: Storm water ﬂow 40
Flooding in small alley.
Houses in the middle part ﬂooded as a result of the development of houses along the cannal.
The FLOODING AREA map shows which area is ﬂooded during rain as well as the ﬂood level of each area. As mentioned above, the middle part is affected the most. Furthermore, the middle part used to be a swamp, which the canal ﬂow into. However, now people here built houses and road to cover up the swamp, which make the ﬂooding worst. The section below shows the different in topography levels. In the section B-B’ we can see the part that used to be the swamp in the middle part and houses on the pile, as well as the contrast between buildings in the middle part and these along the canal. The buildings in the middle part are belong mainly to low income household while building along the canal is for middle and high-income people. From that, we can understand that the low-income people in the middle part are affected by ﬂooding the most.
Figure 4.3: Flooding area
Figure 4.4: Section A-A’
Figure 4.5: Section B-B’
Inappropriate drainage pipe slope and overloaded main pipe
Overall, there are three main reasons behind ﬂooding in this area. First of all, there is the inappropriate pipe slope and overloaded main pipe. This is because the alleys are lower than the main street, which results in the drainage pipes in the alleys are equal to or lower than the main pipes in the street. Therefore, when the main pipes become overloaded, the storm water will come back to the alley pipes and ﬂoods the alley area as well as the residential households. The second type is downgraded pipe, which results in ﬂooding in the area around sewer’s manhole. The third reason for ﬂooding in this area is due to the cote. The lower parts, especially alleys, are more vulnerable to ﬂooding. Houses which are lower than streets or alleys are also ﬂooded.
DESIGN CONCEPT MINI GREENING CONCEPT BIOSWALE AND GREEN STREET
Inappropriate drainage pipe slope
Inappropriate drainage pipe slope OVER LOADED INFRASTRUCTURE
Inappropriate drainage pipe slope
The root cause of the three main reasons behind ï¬‚ooding in this dense area is overloaded infrastructure. Therefore, our group solution is to integrate small green infrastructure into pavements, alleys and park. This is because in this dense area, we do not want to affect the existing too much.
High Point, Seatle
Figure 4.6: Bioswale Referrence
Bullitt Center, Seatle
Bainbridge Island, Seatle
Rego Park, Queens, New York City
Queens, New York City
Figure 4.7: Green streets - Reference
The concept of green alleys is to reduce the concretization in alleys for better drainage. This can be done by both paving with grass as well as small bioswale or green space inside alleys.
Green Alley - Midtown, Detroit
St. Blaise area, in the East of Paris
Green Alley , Detroit
Green Alley , Detroit
The New York Restoration Project
Quartier de la Morinais - Les cĹ“urs d'ĂŽlot
The Metropolitan Promenade Columbia, Maryland The Metropolitan Promenade taught me about the design of bioswales along street and park. However, I consider the playground elements is not very suitable along the street in the research site due to heavy trafďŹ c and narrow pavement.
Qunli Stormwater Park Haerbin, China Qunli Stormwater Park was designed by Kongjian Yu who considers landscape design as a tool to address the issue of survival, not pleasure making or ornament. This project philosophy is to preserve the natural and give function to a landscape. This park functions as a stormwater park to solve ďŹ‚ooding problem. The design took place mostly at the fringe of the park, leaving the inner part for habitat preservation.
CONCEPT PLAN Water ﬂow direction
Bioswale intergrate with commercial area Bioswale intergrate with social area Sponge park Bioswale intergrate with recration area Bioswale intergrate with residential area
Figure 4.8: General concept plan GENERAL CONCEPT DIAGRAM FLOODING: Solve ﬂooding problem
- Using bioswale intergrated with pavement and open space such as park to enhance the drainage system as well as purify the water.
ECOLOGY: Restore and maintain a self-sustaining and diverse site ecology using green infrastructure.
- Restore and maintain the old swamp - the old drainage area of this site - which local vegetation. - Using bioswale as a green infrastructure for ﬂooding problem.
SENSE OF PLACE: Recreate an old - Restore and maintain the old swamp as an old, unique feature of and fading feature of this area and this site. organize open space for suitable - Organize a public space for four main activities mentioned. activities
VISION Resilient, sustainable and lively neighborhood
Sense of place
DESIGN PART 1: BIOSWALE ON STREET
E E’ C D D’
Bioswale intergrate with social area
Bioswale intergrate with residential area
Bioswale intergrate with commercial area
Bioswale intergrate with recration area
SECTION A-A’ On this retail street, the bioswale is designed to have 2 lanes. First is for better water management on this large sidewalk. Secondly, the two lanes of bioswales create on open in the middle which can be used for seating and walking.
SECTION B-B’ Section B-B’ is still on Chu Van An Street. The bioswale here is designed to have to 2 lanes for better water management and also for a resting place in the middle. There are crosswalk paving for every 15m.
SECTION C-C’ Section C-C’ is on Ngo Duc Ke Street where the sponge park and the school are located. The bioswale on the park side includes 2 lanes, one is on the sidewalk and the other is in the park. The open space on the school side is used for parking in the morning and the afternoon to avoid trafﬁc congestion during school start and end.
SECTION D-D’ Section D-D’ is still on Ngo Duc Ke Street. The bioswale here is designed to has only 1 lane. There are crosswalk paving for every 15m.
SECTION E-E’ Section E-E’ is on Nguyen Khuyen Street. The sidewalk on this site is only 4m width and is used mainly for transportation. Therefore, the bioswale here is designed to has only 1 lane.
SECTION F-F’ Section F-F’ is on Bui Dinh Tuy Street which is at the edge of our boundary. The bioswale here is designed to have 1 lane. There are crosswalk paving for every 15m.
SECTION G-G’ Section G-G’ is on Phan Van Tri Street. Due to the fact that there is currently a tree strip in the middle of the street so it will be taken advantage to become a bioswale.
DESIGN PART 2: SPONGE PARK
1. SCENIC STAIRCASE
SPONGE PARK’S MAIN CONCEPT The sponge park’s main function is for drainage, and preventing ﬂooding in the survey area. Therefore, this park main theme is bioswales. For that reason, the park is design with many bioswale instead of normal planting area. Furthermore, the bioswales in the park as well as on the street are connected to the pond and to the canal. The storm water in the bioswale on Nguyen Khuyen, Ngo Duc Ke and in the park will slowly ﬂow into the pond. On the other hand, storm water of Chu Van An, Bui Dinh Tuy and Phan Van Tri will ﬂow into the Cau Son Canal.
Figure 4.9 :Scenic staircase and ﬂoating plank cote
The staircases are the highline and the main attraction as well as a sense of place of this area. It is design to have variable cote so that people can have great view over the pond and the river side. Because the pond is supported to be natural and self-sufﬁcient, therefore its design must limit the interact of people to its core.
2. FLOATING PLANK
The ﬂoating plank is located at the edge of the pond and is designed to have different cote so that visitors can have different view as well as feeling when they come there. Following the principle of Kongjian Yu, it is design only on the edge, so that the core of the pond can be preserved for its ecology.
3. SKATING PLACE This site of the park is designed mainly for skating due to the fact that it is the most well-known activities of teenagers living in this area. However, since the bioswale, the main theme of this park must be the lower than the rest of the park apart from the pond. Therefore, the curbs are designed to replace slopes for skating.
4. CHILDREN PLAYGROUND As mentioned in the analysis, this area has no open space, especially for small children. To reach the vision and aims, this park is designed to have small children playground which is surrounded by sitting place for their families.
5. PARK SQUARE
Park square is designed for group gathering as well as a highlight of the part. This place is decorated with large sitting place which can be used both as chair or table for recreation such as playing chess.
Black eyed susan ﬂower
Blue ﬂag iris
Pennisetum purpureum Schumach
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn
VILLAGE BY THE HILL
The research area, which located at Ward 9, near the famous Than Tho tourism hub, not only has the landscape values of Da Lat in general but it also has a very speciﬁc and typical image. It is an image of a garden town surrounded by a majestic natural landscape which are the lake system that is formed from the French period and the mountain forest system. This landscape characteristic in combination with its strategic location near a tourism hub, lead to enormous opportunities in developing tourism landscape. However, the landscape of this “valley town” is being threaten by the unplanned development of urbanization and agriculturalization. The aim of this project is to recognize the key elements that make the main characteristic of this “valley town”. This lay as a stepping stone to develop the landscape, which not only help to protect and enhance the place “Image” but also create a sustainable income from tourism.
Urban design project / ﬁnal project
HISTORICAL CONTEXT Figure 5.1: Historical development TIMELINE OF NATURE
TIMELINE OF URBANIZATION
1920 From 1916, more French people came to Da Lat to commemorate their homeland since the world war hindered them from returning, which marked the development of Da Lat in general. the research area was initially Vietnamese quarter. However, from 1920-1937, this area remained quite pristine Moreover, in that time, Than Tho Lake was a swamp.
1937 In 1933, a new refurbishment program was set up bay architect Pineau in a more pragmatic way, this started a new development wave in Da lat. The year 1937 witnessed many developments in the research area: - French stemmed Cam Ly stream and constructed 8.5 ha large water reservoirs to water Da Lat City, called Lac Des Soupris (Than Tho Lake). - Cite Saint Benoit was built for wealthy Vietnamese bourgeoisie in 1937.
TIMELINE OF NATURE
TIMELINE OF URBANIZATION
1952 The year 1952 was one of the last year of the French colonial period. At this time, the Saint Benoit resident area around Lac Saint Benoit (Me Linh Lake) was quite completed with many French villas ďŹ‚ickering among pine trees. This area also had facilities such as market, hospital and hotel (Catrinat Hotel which is the military hospital at present).
1963 In 1967, under Sai Gon Government period, there was a several changes in name such as Than Tho Lake (Lac Des Soupris), Me Linh Lake (Lac Saint Benoit), Me Linh residential area (Cite Saint Benoit). Many migrants moved to this place which made it more crowded. There was a new Me Linh Residential area built ro the North East of Me Linh Lake. Agriculture started to develop in area along Ho Xuan Huong Street.
TIMELINE OF NATURE
TIMELINE OF URBANIZATION
2008 After 1975, the area witnessed a dramatic development of urbanization. The pine hill surrounding the East of Than Tho Lake was completely replaced by agriculture plastic houses. Within the research site, agriculture activities expanded along Ho Xuan Huong Street. Moreover, Me Linh Lake was ﬁlled and became agricultural land.
2018 At present, the agriculturalization and urbanization are happening at a slower rate. On September 26, 2010, The People Commitee of Da Lat ofﬁcially started repairing and upgrading Me Linh Reservoir, which completed in 2012. The lake contributes to regulate the ﬂow system, prevent storm water from ﬂooding the area, improve the environment, climate and tourism activities in the area.
Historical Meaning Strength: There are residential areas formed early with clear transportation networks In the past, this was the area with a system of villas and gardens belonging to the French period Diversity of French architectural style villas which has great value. There are many surviving historical symbols: + Than Tho Lake - Lac Des Soupris + Me Linh Lake - Lac Saint Benoit + Me Linh Residential area - Cite Saint Benoit + Tung Nguyen Hill - The camping place of Scouts during 1930 and 1975. Weakness Historical building remained in small number and are in a state of degradation. Historical values are fading. While Than Tho Lake is recognized as cultural historical heritage in 1998. Me Linh Lake, on the other hand is being ignored.
Figure 5.2: Historical meaning 57
BUILDING CONTEXT Figure 5.3: Morphology
Morphology Overall, building density in the research area is quite low. The densest area is Me Linh residential area and area opposite to Chi Lang Market. These areas mainly consist of row houses which have 3 to 5 meters in width dimension. Other areas of the research site are primarily occupied by garden houses, which result in low density. However, many garden houses use plastic houses which covered up many open space. The natural element such as pine hill and water space account for the largest proportion of open space in the area.
Figure 5.4: Building ‘scondition
Figure 5.5: Building’s ﬂoor
Building condition Building condition in the research area is divided into three categories: Solid building; Semi-Solid building; Temporary building. Solid buildings and Semi-Solid buildings mainly occupy along main streets such as Ho Xuan Huong Street, Me Linh Street, Truong Van Hoan Street. These building are newly built or well preserved, they contribute to urban’s landscape. Temporary buildings, on the other hand, are located mainly near Me Linh lake and Tung Nguyen Hill. These buildings are mainly encroached buildings, which damage the natural landscape.
Building storey The most common building height in the research area is 1 storey. These houses usually have large garden for agriculture purpose and mainly locate along Me Linh Street and Ho Xuan Huong Street. 2 storeys houses and 3 storeys houses are mainly row houses. These houses locate primarily in the Me Linh residential area and Chi Lang Market residential area, in form of row houses and shop houses. Despite the low differentiation in building height, the topography feature in combine with the building height still create an undulating landscape.
Figure 5.6: Buildings with historical values Overall, the site inherited many different French architectural styles villas from different French regions. However, each style has low number of buildings, most of which are downgraded. Nevertheless, there are well preserved and repaired villas used as residential houses and public building (healthcare building). These building show great value in constructing urban landscape.
VISUAL IMAGE ANALYSIS USING KEVIN LYNCH’S IMAGE OF THE CITY THEORY IMAGEABILITY ANALYSIS Roads The road system is easy to identify because of the landmarks: the system of lakes and canals as well as the peaks, especially the peak of Langbian Mountain in the North. In addition, the spatial quality system is especially easy to identify due to the terrain and landscape environment create curve movement streets. Edges Edge system is formed by natural elements (Cam Ly Channel) and main road system. Nodes The system of important nodes is mainly the intersection of trafﬁc, where observers need to make decisions to go to different districts. Districts The research area can be divided into 5 districts with speciﬁc characteristics: Zone A is a residential area alternating with agriculture which has a high rate of agriculture concentrates, espicially along Ho Xuan Huong Street; Zone B is a residential area originating from 1952, 1963; Zone C: is a relatively new residential area; Zone D is a lakeside residential area; Zone E is an ecological area combined with tourism, including a complex of Than Tho lake and Tung Nguyen hill.
Figure 5.7: Kevin Lynch’s image analysis 61
Overall, the views from the bottom up is quite clear. On main streets like Ho Xuan Huong, Me Linh, Ngo Van So, observers can have a good view to Tung Nguyen Pine Hill, Hon Bo Hill and part of Langbian mountains. However, the view to Me Linh lake from Me Linh street is obscured by invaded buildings. On the other hand, the views from Tung Nguyen Hill to the site are obscured by invaded houses and plastic houses.
Figure 5.8: Diagram summary elements creating characteristics of
The main factors that create the image of the area: Lake canal system (acting as the edge and landmark) Mountain peaks covered by pine trees Interweaving between buildings and trees Productive agricultural landscape
VIEW AXIS AND VIEWPOINT ANALYSIS Valuable view The research area has a wide array of valuable views, which can be divided into 3 categories: View to prominent natural features; View to residential area with speciďŹ c characteristics; View to agriculture productive landscape. Valuable view to natural features include two main features: Pine Hill and Lake system. View to residential area include two main theme: Garden residential area layered with trees and vegetation, Historical area which consists of Chi Lang market and the old Catrinat hotel. View to agriculture productive landscape in the valleys where the canal ďŹ‚ows.
Blocking elements There are two main prominent view arc are mountain covered with forest view and lake view. These two main view are threatened by two main blocking features: Urbanization and Agriculturalization. Urbanization in horizontal and vertical axis poses a threat. Horizontal development creating dense residential area threaten the open view. Moreover, the tendency of buildings encroaching Tung Nguyen Hill causes the forest to shrink. While, unplanned vertical development obscures the view to mountain covered with forest. Agriculturalization threaten the view by invading natural feature such as pine hill (as being seen now at Hon Bo Hill) and lake (as seen before at Me Linh Lake in the past).
Figure 5.9: View Analysis - Valuable View and Blocking Element 63
VALUABLE VIEW POINT ANALYSIS Overall, the site has many valuable views from natural landscape to buildings interweaving with vegetation and productive landscape. Moreover, this site has great potential in creating urban â€œbalconyâ€? on Tung Nguyen Hill to have panorama view of the area. However, the current view quality is not good due to the invasion of buildings and plastic houses and the shrinking of Tung Nguyen pine hill. The research area belongs to a eco-tourism hub (Than Tho hub), therefore it is vital to protect and enhance valuable views as a base for tourism development which can bring income to the area.
Located at the Gateway of Da Lat and Nha Trang route Near Than Tho Lake and Ai An Hill tourism hub
Have Tung Nguyen Pine Hill
A famous residential area, a potential tourism area which is gradually loosing its landscape value.
Urban sprawl and unplanned agriculturalization - Me Linh lake used to be ďŹ lled for agriculture. - At the moment, pine hill is shinking
Water/ Lake system (Powerful Landscape value inherited from French period)
Forgotten landscape - Me Linh lake used does not reach its potential nor serve the residents in research area.
Cold Atmosphere Pine hill (Urban forest) Garden city (Interweaving between buildings and open garden) Argriculture landscape (Argriculture landscape in valley with canal passing throgh)
Kevin Lynch-The image of a city
Urban Village principles
Enhance landscape characteristics
Take advantage of urban forest
Create forest boundary
Exploit the panorama view of the area
Transplant pine tree
Design logic and Strategy Water Forest
“Valley town”’s landscape charateristic
Agricult ure Planning for development of “Valley town” viewscape and Image
Turning landscape advantage into economic value
Create “Urban Balcony” with viewpoints
Create water path sytem to enhance the iteraction between people and water
Protect green space Connect Green Space Allow low building density
Protect and enhance airy space between buildings
Promote Agriculture landscape
Create view point and linkage to agriculture valley with canal
Agriculture Path 66
Figure 5.10: Siteâ€™s location
Ngo Van So Street
Figure 5.11: Activity and Visual linkage planning
Figure 5.12: Green space planning 67
Figure 5.13: Landuse plan
1 2 3 4 5
Health Care Elementary School Kindergarten Parking Church
6 7 8 9 10
Cafe Shop Restaurant Tasting Area
Ngo Van So Street
Figure 5.14: Master plan The landscape characteristics as economic process 69
70 Mountainous View
Restaurant 14000 Me Linh Lake
49000 Landscape area
Wine Tasting Area
Villa reception hall
Figure 5.15: Section Me Linh road - Me Linh lake - Ngo Van So street
Ngo Van So Street
Pocket Park Chi Lang Street
Pocket Park Ly Thuong Kiet Street
Figure 5.17: Section Truong Van Hoan street
12000 Cam Ly Stream
Me Linh Street
7000 Scenic Street
Figure 5.16: Section Chi Lang street Ly Thuong Kiet street Me Linh street Me Linh lake
20000 Me Linh Lake
Truong Van Hoan Street
GENERAL IDEA: Landscape characteristics as an economic process
- The design area is located at the West of Tung Nguyen Hill which its prominent characteristic being a tourism area, a community space; a garden town area. Strength:
+ The natural landscape: Forest, Lake, Mountain and Topography + Viewpoints formed by the topography + Long historical Development resulted in diversity of valuable architecture buildings
+ Losing its characteristic + Shrinking pine hill + Wasted Water space + Unplanned urban development
+ Develop landscape-based tourism
+ Unplanned agriculturalization, urban sprawl
- Landscape Characteristic: 5 main characteristic elements: + Historical quarter of Chi Lang Market + Hilltop covered with pine forest + Open view created by topography, layers of houses and vegetation + “Fresh” view created by water surface (water space) + Views to agricultural landscape - Economic Value: 3 kinds of business + Private enterprise: Resort tourism and wine tasting service + State-owned enterprise: Water park landscape Source of fund: Tax from Tourism Enterprise Organizing Festival + Local business: local street food and café shop held in pocket park - Pathway: 4 system of Pathways Forest Path + A boundary against deforestation + Transplant pine tree + Urban Balcony + Promote tourism
- Main Strategy: + Develop Landscape as a base for tourism + Using tourism as a tool to maintain landscape characteristics
+ Exploit waterscape for community recreation + Create community open space
+ Protect and Connect Green Spaces: 2 kind of green space: Pocket Park (Empty, Vacant lot) and Household Garden (Low density houses) + Create Open View for “Urban Balcony” + Create View Axis to water surface from three main pocket park points. Together with organize food court and café shop with views
Agricultural Path + Utilize productive landscape
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WATER PATH al
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Viewpoint Cafe shop Hydrangea Garden
Figure 5.18: Open space system: Forest Path - Water Path - Agriculture Path 76
FOREST PATH - URBAN “BALCONY” Figure 5.19: Urban Balcony perspective
The concept of Urban “Balcony” is to form a panorama viewpoint for the whole area and promote tourism development. Furthermore, this “Balcony” is also served as a boundary against deforestation from agriculturalization and urbanization. Since the pine hill plays a large role in constructing the landscape characteristics of the area, it need to be preserved. The next step is to transplant the pine tree into the eco-tourism area in order to enlarge the forest area.
The value of pine
Concept diagram of protect and “produce”
Figure 5.20: Protect and “Produce”
In order to protect the pine forest from the shrinking stage as it is today due to the urbanization and agriculturalization. The concept here is to create a forest walkpath as a boundary against urban sprawl and unplanned agriculture. Moreover, the idea of transplant pine trees over the boundary to the tourism area as a way to create landscape and increse the pine forest size.
Concept of urban balcony
Pine tree is the famous tree of Da Lat City. They play a big role in maintaining the characteristics landscape of Da Lat in general. This is beacuse pine trees keep the fog in their leaves, therefore creating the image “City in the Mist” of Da Lat. The research area inherits a pine hill dated back to French period. It can be said that Tung Nguyen Hill in particular and pine forest in general is very important in constructing the site image.
FOREST STAIR CONCEPT
Beside from protecting pine forest, the forest path also plays a role of urban “bancony”, which creating a axis with many viewpoints, and create a panorama view of the site
Figure 5.21: Urban Balcony View
WATER PATH - WATER SQUARE Figure 5.22: Water square perspective
The waterscape, Me Linh Lake in particular, is not well concerned in the area despite the fact the its residents are desiderating for a open park so that they need not to travel to the Lam Vien Suare. The main concept of the water path is to connect abandoned waterscape in the area. Furthermore, the concept is also aiming to create a water square for holding festival celebration.
AGRICULTURE PATH - RESILIENT FARM Figure 5.23: Farm land perspective
URBAN AGRICULTURE - FLOODING CONCEPT DIAGRAM Source: ASLA 2013 Student Awards, Daniel (Zhicheng) Xu
This area is prone to ﬂooding which severely damage the agriculture production in the area. The concept is to turn this area into resilient farmland which can adapt to the ﬂooding condition by using the mechanic of wetland and short-term crops.
Figure 5.24: Eco-tourism perspective CONCEPT OF ECO-TOURISM AREA Da Lat Wine - Ladora Winery “Enjoying the know-how of making famous French wines accumulated and brought to Vietnam when laying the foundation by building the ﬁrst wine making factory in Dalat since the end of the 19th century, Lam Food Joint Stock Company Dong - Ladofoods has preserved and continues to grow.” _ Ladora Winery website The existing area has the traditional wine-making factory as well as many villa and homestay. However, they are not well arranged which result in poor landscape and inefﬁcient development. The concept is to create a eco-tourism wine village villas in combination with the transplanting pine trees concept.
Concept of winery tasting area
The factory of Ladora company, which have root from French period located in the tourism planned area. However, this place is not open for tourism. The concept is to create a tasting place to promote the company name.
Rearrange concept Horizontally, the villas are arranged alternatively in order to maximize the view axis of each villa. Vertical, the villas are arranged with different high base by using either natural topography or Taluy.
Figure 5.25: Villas arrangement concept
Villa design proposal
Villa design proposal
Tasting area design proposal
Viewpoint Cafe shop
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Figure 5.26: Pocket Park system - Garden path 83
Figure 5.27: Garden path concept diagram PROPOSAL
Preserved Green space
Reference Pocket Park
Pocket View Axis
Green spaces in residential areas play an important role in forming a typical image of the region's layers of green houses and trees instead of the condensation of urbanization. These those green spaces also create a clear view of the hills and mountains in the background for the Urban â€œBalconyâ€? and villa areas, contributing to promoting tourism in the region. Therefore, the concept is to preserve existing green spaces within the residential area and create a linkage path - garden path in order to connect them. Furthermore, from these pocket parks, three main view axis will be created to the water surface, using the difference in land height of natural topography of the area. The top of these axis will hold food courts and cafe shop so as to promote local business.
Figure 5.28: Water square perspective
86 Ageratum Conyzoides
Pennisetum purpureum Schumach
Wooden Cabin Cafe shop
Black eyed susan ï¬‚ower
A summary of my study years at Ho Chi Minh City University of Architecture