Smart Grid in Bangladesh using Renewable Energy

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Minimization of Power Shortage by Using Renewable (Solar) Energy through Smart Grid, Perspective: Bangladesh Conference Paper · September 2015 DOI: 10.1109/ICGET.2015.7315083

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Minimization of Power Shortage by Using Renewable (Solar) Energy through Smart Grid, Perspective: Bangladesh Muktadir Ahmed, Md. Salahuddin Parvez, Md. Mozammel Hossain, Arup Kumar Pal

H.M. Imran Hassan, Md. Shahid Iqbal Dept. of EEE, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET) Khulna, Bangladesh

Dept. of EEE, Mymensingh Engineering College (University of Dhaka) Mymensingh, Bangladesh. muktadir220@gmail.com

Abstract—A smart grid is an electricity network based on digital technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via two-way digital communication. This system allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to help improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost, and maximize the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The term “smart grid” is not familiar to Bangladesh. It will be good if it can be implemented in Bangladesh because of having load-shedding problem. The power system of Bangladesh is very complex and antique. If we want to reduce the complexity and eliminate loadshedding problem, there is no better way without smart grid. The regular grid system can easily be replaced by “smart grid”. The main theme of this paper is to implement smart grid in Bangladesh and to integrate renewable (mainly solar energy) energy with it to increase production of power and eliminate power shortage in Bangladesh. Keywords-smart grid, smart meter, load shedding.

I.

INTRODUCTION

At present the generation of power is less than our huge demand so load shedding occurs when the electricity falls short of its demand. It is high time for Bangladesh to introduce with smart grid for reducing load shedding problem. Smart grid may be the revolutionary solution of a century old centrally-controlled electrical grid, bearing the aspects of smart central generation, smart transmission, smart substation, smart distribution feeders and smart metering. Both theoretically and practically smart grid is more complex, larger and effective than its old counterpart. This paper addresses the Perspective of smart grid in Bangladesh using renewable energy (solar energy). The key target of this paper is to provide current condition of the electrical grid of Bangladesh as well as to discuss the possibilities of smart grid in this developing country. It is anticipated that this paper will provide a positive way to address the challenges of the energy sector of Bangladesh by implementing smart grid technology

978-1-5090-0169-9/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE

using solar energy. In this paper we only considered Dhaka city of Bangladesh. SMART GRID

II.

According to DOE smart grid book, “A smarter grid provides chances to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumer-interactive, by bringing the philosophies, concepts and technologies that enabled the internet to the utility and the electric grid. More importantly, it enables the industry’s best ideas for grid modernization to achieve their full potential”. According to European Regulators’ Group for Electricity and Gas, “A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can cost efficiently integrate the behavior and actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to ensure economically efficient, sustainable power system with low losses and high levels of quality and security of supply and safety is” [1]. A modern smart grid system has the following capabilities: •

It can repair itself.

It encourages operations.

It ensures a consistent and premium-quality power supply that resists power leakages.

It allows the electricity markets to grow and make business.

consumer

participation

in

grid

It can be operated more efficiently [2]. TABLE I. COMPARISION BETWEEN EXISTING GRID AND SMART GRID [3]

Existing Grid Electromechanical

Smart Grid Digital


Existing Grid One-way communication

Smart Grid Two-way communication

Centralized generation

Distributed Generation

Few sensors

Sensors throughout

Manual monitoring

Self-monitoring

Manual restoration

Self-healing

Failures and blackouts

Adaptive

III.

PRESENT POWER SYSTEM STATUS OF BANGLADESH

The total generation of power is 10264 MW (December 2013). Different types of power plants generate electricity and synchronize it with the national grid. There are some isolated diesel power stations at remote places and islands which are not connected with the National Grid. Terminal voltages of different generators are 11 KV, 11.5 KV and 15.75 KV [4]. In the Eastern Zone (eastern side of river Jamuna), electricity is generated from indigenous gas and a small percentage through hydro power. In the Western Zone, Coal and imported liquid fuel is used for generation of electricity. The fuel cost per unit generation in the Western Zone is much higher than that of the Eastern Zone. Therefore, as a policy, low cost electricity generated in the Eastern Zone is transferred to the Western Zone through the 230 kV East-West Inter connector transmission line. IV.

BENEFITS OF SMART GRID FOR BANGLADESH

1. Smart grid technology can recover the fault automatically. It can reduce additional transmission lines. 2. It is atomized and it process real-time information from sensors and meters for fault location, automatic configuration of feeders, voltage and reactive power Optimization [5]. 3. Smart grid can reduce the reactive power flow and maximize the amount of real power to minimize transmission losses. 4. Smart grid required digital radios to wirelessly control the distribution network. Under this system the area will be divided in two very small regions and if fault occurs then whole area will be not victimized. 5. Most of the meter is digital .It can detect non-working meters and bypassed meters. 6. It can integrate renewable energy and distributed sources. 7. It can eliminate billing error, detect nonpayment of bills, remotely disconnect for non-paying consumer and reconnect after payment. 8. Theft detection of transformer level is possible. 9. Communication system is present and it is two way and real time.

V.

SCOPE OF SMART GRID IN BANGLDESH

The initiative of smart grid will create a scope to make the present electricity market a deregulated market. Thus new competition, business and research areas will be created. Big cities are over populated with very less options available for establishing required facilities in due time in aright space. Application of GIS, one of the components of Smart Grid will ease the procedure of decision making for a network planner [6]. Steps to implement Smart Grid by the Govt. of Bangladesh will be a strong approach to make a “Digital Bangladesh”. The government has declared the “Vision 2021” which targets establishment of a resourceful and modern country by 2021 through effective use of information and communication technology. The customers want a reliable, cheap and quality power supply in an environment friendly manner. Considering all the technical, economical, geographical, environmental and social aspects, it can be stated that smart distribution system is an inevitable choice for Bangladesh. VI.

SMART METER

The smart meter is an advanced energy meter that obtains information from the end users’ load devices and measures the energy consumption of the consumers and then provides added information to the utility company and/or system operator for better monitoring and billing. With smart meter, electrical data such as voltage and frequency are measured and real-time energy consumption information is recorded. Smart meter supports bidirectional communications between the meter and the central system. Also, smart meter has the builtin ability to disconnect-reconnect certain loads remotely and can be used to monitor and control the users’ devices and appliances to manage demands and loads within the “smartbuildings” in the future. From the consumer’s perspective, smart meters are offering a number of potential benefits; for example consumers are able to estimate bills from the collected information and thus manage their energy consumptions to reduce their electric bills [3]. A. Feature of smartmeter A smart meter system employs several control devices, various sensors to identify parameters and devices to transfer the data and command signals. In future electricity distribution grids, smart meters would play an important role in monitoring the performance and the energy usage characteristics of the load on the grid. Collection of energy consumption data from all customers on a regular basis allows the utility companies to manage electricity demand more efficiently and also to advise the customers about the cost efficient ways to use their appliances. In light of this, smart meters can be used to control light, heat, air conditioning and other appliances [7].Smart meters can be programmed to maintain a schedule for operation of the home appliances and control operation of other devices accordingly. In addition, integration of smart meters helps utility companies in detecting unauthorized consumption and electricity theft in view of improving the distribution efficiency and power quality [8].


B. How Smart Meter Works Smart meters have a digital display and are similar in size to regular meters. Various types and models of smart meters are available, but all of them have the same basic functionality. Using a communications network, the internal antenna present in smart meters sends electricity consumption data to the utility. An external antenna may be required in some cases for improving signals over longer distances and ensuring reliable data transmission. This antenna can be attached on or near the meter box. Smart meters can also record the energy that feedback into the distribution network from co-generation sources, such as wind turbines and solar panels. Smart metering communication technology enables centralized meter reading, so meter readers don’t have to visiting individual premises for data collection [9]. However, your meter may need to be examined occasionally for testing and maintenance.

consumers area. This model proposed to install solar panels in sunny areas (area which get maximum sunlight).

Figure 2. Block Diagram of Proposed Model.

Figure 1. Line diagram of a conventional and smart meter system [7].

VII. LOAD SHEDDING PROBLEM IN BANGLADESH According to the official statistics, the country’s electricity shortage gone up 1000 megawatts (MW) to 1259 MW with the demand of 4806 MW on 2006. Authority said in year (2009) the country’s electricity shortage gone up 1400 MW to 1800 MW which was almost twice more than last year and the country need about 5000 MW. In Bangladesh electricity power is not generate as much as our demand. So every summer we face huge load shedding and people are suffering, but in winter there is almost not load shedding. In summer temperatures goes up to around 40° Celsius. So in this situation if there is load-shedding of electricity people face uncertain condition. VIII. PROPSED MODEL OF IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART GRID Since smart grid technology allows consumers to interact with grid that’s why we have proposed to install PV cell in residential (roof top), institutional, industrial and other

Figure 3. Proposed Model of implementation of smart grid using ETAP (v4.0).

The consumers will consume power from PV cell (as consumer want) and the rest power consumer will give to the smart grid. Consumer will also consume power from the


Smart Grid (because in winter and rainy season the sun is hardly be seen). By this way we can easily overcome our load shedding system and can improve our capacity. In this proposed model all consumers, generating stations, transmission and distribution substations and operators are connected through WAN and all are having processor to do the process easily.

Figure 6. Daily solar beam radiation in Dhaka (Y-axis: months; X-axis: kWh/m2/d).from the curve average solar radiation is 4.65 kWh/m2/d. TABLE II. AREA CALCULATION AREA CALCULATION OF ROOFTOP PV PANEL INSTALLATION IN DHAKA [10]

Area

Total area

Bright rooftop area

Dhanmondi Kakrail Kawranbazar New Ramna

3,346,008 m2 1,660,574.089 m2 2,539,521.258 m2 2,285,882.631 m2

232,721.62 m2 398,783.91 m2 406,852.51 m2 466,399.26 m2

Actual rooftop area for PV cell installation 116,360.81 m2 199,391.95 m2 203,426.25 m2 233,199.63 m2

Figure 4. Flow chart of proposed model.

As we consider only dhaka city so the figure 5 shows the climate data sheet of Dhaka city, figure 6 represents the daily solar beam radiation in Dhaka and figure 7 shows the Demand and Load-shed curve as on 17/04/2014 to 27/2014 (Dhaka). From table 2 we get the actual area of PV panel installation of some major areas of dhaka and from table 3 we get calculation of power.

Figure 7. Demand and Load-shed curve as on 17/04/2014 to 27/2014 (Dhaka).Total loadshedding of April is 742 MW in Dhaka city. TABLE III. OF DHAKA Area Dhanmondi Kakrail Kawranbazar New Ramna

ACTUAL SOLAR POWER GETTING FROM DIFFERENT AREAS Actual rooftop area for PV cell installation 116,360.81 m2 199,391.95 m2 203,426.25 m2 233,199.63 m2

Power from the rooftop area (116,360.81m2 (199,391.95m2 (203,426.25m2 (233,199.63m2

150W)= 17.454MW 150W)=29.909 MW 150W)= 30.51MW 150W)= 34.980MW

We know a typical "150 watt" solar module is about a square meter in size [11]. Total power from the areas = 103.703 MW.

Figure 5. Climate data sheet for Dhaka (software: RETScreen v 4.0).

A. Outcome of the proposed model Total power shortage in September’14 was 408 MW [4]. From some areas like Dhanmondi, Kakrail, Kawranbazar, New Ramna we can get 103.703 MW solar power. So it can be said that if we can implement this proposed model, it will easily be reduced the load shedding.


IX.

CONCLUSION

Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh is top listed among the polluted cities in the world. Smart grid technology is environment friendly. It can reduce carbon gas emission because smart grid system gives continuous feedback on electricity use. It can also reduce greenhouse gas emission. It is proven that Smart grid technology is beneficial from all respect of technical, economical &environmental point of view for Bangladesh. This technology can create a field of opportunities for Bangladeshi engineers, teachers, researchers and young professional’s .so government and high officials should be concerned about smart grid & should take action for training programs and workshops where consumers will be taught about the use of smart grid, associated benefits and the potential implementation issues. REFERENCES [1] [2]

F. Y. Xu, L. L. Lai, “Scope Design, Characteristics and Functionalities of Smart Grid”, IEEE Conference Publications 2011. Available online at: http://www.techopedia.com/definition/692/smartgrid.

[3]

J. Zheng, D. WenzhongGao, L. Lin, “Smart Meters in Smart Grid: An Overview”, Green Technologies Conference, April 2013. [4] Available online at: http://www.bpdb.gov.bd [5] T. Ali, A. A. Mansur, Z. B. Shams, S. M. Ferdous, M. A. Hoque- “An overview of smart grid technology in Bangladesh: Development and opportunities ”IEEE explore library, September 2011. [6] T. Jamal and W. Ongsakul “Smart Grid in Bangladesh Power Distribution System: Progress & Prospects”, IEEE explore library, March 2012. [7] S. S. S. R. Depuru, L. Wang, V. Devabhaktuni and N. Gudi, “Smart meters for power grid — Challenges, issues, advantages and status ”, Power Systems Conference and Exposition (PSCE), 2011. [8] S. S. S. R. Depuru, L. Wang and V. Devabhaktuni, “A Conceptual Design Using Harmonics to Reduce Pilfering of Electricity” Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2010. [9] Available online at: http://www.smartmeters.com/faqs/1246-how-smartmeters-work.html. [10] T. Jamal, W. Ongsakul, M. S. Hossain, M. S. Islam, “An Approach to Integrate Geographic Information Systems to the proposed Smart Grid for Dhaka, Bangladesh”, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 124-129, February 2014. [11] Available online at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaic_system


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