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THE WISE CHOICE Maria Alvarez Roldan | Pankhuri Kanwar | Savani Mirashi | Suma Balaram 1


Preface New York City is an increasingly complex and difficult city to interpret. Multiple forces – latest tendencies, new technologies, and competition, amongst other factors – act on a given context that help shape the rules of what is possible and what is probable. Uncovering valuable opportunities is increasingly challenging for many industries, especially for nonprofit organizations because they are the ones that are still likely to be using traditional methods for brand strategy and growth. Innovation is needed not only to capture competitive advantage, but also to make a nonprofit organization stay relevant. This report presents a framework and a way of working that accommodates the dynamics and uncertainty surrounding decision making that most nonprofit organizations are facing today. We show a methodology on how to embed a new design thinking method into a nonprofit organization that will enable a new way of collaboration, insight, and learning to improve the quality of the decision making, the allocation of resources to create better opportunities, and the formation of a more consistent stream of value creation. We present potential solutions, how we think a nonprofit organization can adapt new tendencies and alternatives in order to attract more users, in this case parents, to use their services.

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To develop our process we decided to use the design thinking method. This method can tidy through the uncertainty of innovation on the fundamental drivers of customer’s behaviors, their interactions with the surroundings ecosystem, and their interactions with one another. 3


Overview

Based on the current state of affairs at this nonprofit organization, our proposal falls in line with not only the needs of the nonprofit organization but also with the reality of our target users.

Data synthesis and filtering is crucial in any decision making process. In order to make informed design and business decisions, the data collected from the discovery and research phase needs to be analyzed and synthesized into key observations and insights.

PAGE 58-69

THE BIG IDEA The North star of our process. The direction for our solution. This section includes the exploration, hypothesis building, development and testing of our proposed solutions. PAGE 06-17

INTRODUCTION A thorough understanding of the basic building blocks of an organization are important for chalking out a successful strategy. This section covers our study of the client profile, the stakeholders and the ecosystem of the organization which helped us in understanding the relationships, functioning and environmental contexts of the business we were designing for. PAGE 18-39

RESEARCH Each project begins with discovery. This includes learning about the problem as well as the larger context the problem lives in both within an organization and the connected community. This section covers our discovery goals and the process as well as the methodologies and tools used to achieve these. 4

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

This section covers the transition into synthesis, as well as various user mapping tools like personas and journey maps for keeping a human-centered design approach.

Our goal in addressing our challenge is to envision, implement an improved future state. Our design process is human centered and starts with the present, not with the future.

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A plethora of tools such as process charts, assumption testing, service design blueprints and wireframes have been used to test and validate the potential ideas and concepts. PAGE 70-87

BUSINESS PROPOSITION A good concept is seldom meaningful without a strong business feasibility. Thus, the logistics, facts and figures, projections and components of a business are key factors to make our proposal commercially viable. This section consists of tools such as the business model canvas, back of the napkin spreadsheets for clarity. It also discusses the marketing strategy, sustainability and scalability of the project. PAGE 88-117

APPENDIX For all the things important, yet left unsaid - a log of our references and research material. 5


Introduction 6

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Who we are Suma Balaram Suma is currently a graduate student in Strategic Design and Management at Parsons. She is a visual designer with experience in branding, illustration and advertising. She is also skilled at developing and planning brand strategies.

Pankhuri Kanwar

Savani Mirashi

Pankhuri is currently a graduate student in Strategic Design & Management at Parsons. Prior to arriving in New York, she completed her undergraduate degree in Fashion and Lifestyle Accessories at National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Bengaluru.

Savani is currently a graduate student in Strategic Design and Management at Parsons. She is a curious designer and strategist with an innate passion for discovering and observing new environments, cultures, user behaviours and their engagement. With a wide interest and experience in wearable technology, she is working towards being a leading innovative ideator and strategist.

Following her time at NIFT she has been an awarded and published innovator. Skilled strategist with professional experience in conceptualising and developing products, she lays great emphasis on designing to enhance the human experience.

Maria Alvarez Roldan

Pankhuri’s borderline obsessive-compulsive disorder has resulted in her being a perfectionist in professional as well as personal life.

Suma’s passion for the ocean and it’s wildlife is a huge part of who she is. This has resulted in her working closely with organizations that cater towards marine conservation. Her love for marine life is only equated by her love for empathy.

Savani’s undergraduate degree in Industrial Design and her work experience following that has prepared her to approach challenges holistically. She is passionate about world music and finding analogies, and even more passionate about solving problems through design thinking.

Maria is currently a Graduate student of Strategic Design and Management at Parsons. She is a design thinking strategist with an established history of brand enhancement, innovative practices, data analysis, and client relations. Maria has had a demonstrated success in building effective marketing campaigns that increase revenue and customer satisfaction. She loves soccer as much as she loves co-creation. 8

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Client Brief

ONE IN FIVE WOMEN IN THE U.S. HAVE VISITED THE NGO AT LEAST ONCE IN THEIR LIFE.

78% OF THE NGO’S PATIENTS FALL BELOW THE POVERTY LEVEL

For more than 90 years, the well known nonprofit organization has been a beacon of hope for the thousands of women, teens, and families who rely on it for essential reproductive health care, innovative educational programs, and effective advocacy. Believing that “Planning is Power,” the nonprofit organization promotes awareness about contraception as a part of its commitment to prevention and proactive education.

WHAT IS THEIR MISSION? “To empower individuals to make independent, informed decisions about their sexual and reproductive lives, we provide information and health care, and promote public policies that make those services available to all. Planning is power.” 10

Likewise, with its community and educational initiatives, the organization empowers teens and adults to make informed and healthy decisions. At the same time, the organization works towards protecting the right of every woman to decide for herself when and whether to become a parent. With the customer’s support, the organization will continue to provide critical information, skills, and care to all individuals, regardless of age, income, or immigration status.

WHAT THE NGO’S SERVICES OFFER 35%

CONTRACEPTION

34%

STD SCREENING/TESTING

17%

CANCER SCREENING

10%

OTHER WOMEN’S SERVICES

3%

ABORTION SERVICES

1%

OTHER SERVICES 11


Project Framing Each project begins with discovery. This includes learning about the problem as well as the larger context the problem lives in, both within an organization and the connected community. Keeping these points in mind, we redefined the brief based on the team’s goals. Individual desk research into the organization and the larger landscape surrounding the topic of sex and reproductive health for youth was conducted for a better understanding of the existing scenarios and needs. This also included gaining an understanding of the competitors, opposition and partners for the non-profit organization.

The team looked at all the services that the nonprofit organization has that serves youth. At this stage, the value of the service was examined and we further framed it into three major questions that we aim to address:

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How can a non-profit organization create a gender neutral communication platform catering to males, females and others alike? How can a non-profit organization be a pioneer in motivating the youth to seek knowledge about reproductive and sexual health services? How can the brand build better parental engagement/trust in order to encourage their children to visit a non-profit organization for sex education? 13


Design Premises When the objective of a business (any business), is to solve the customer’s problem, it is crucial to study and understand not only all the people involved, but also their relationships and activities with each other. The success of a product relies on each part adding to the delight of the experience and the sum of the parts being greater than the whole. This implies that the health center, doctors, logistics team, customer service, security, public relations, marketing and design all being on the same page and moving in the same direction. Through our exploration phases we learned about these stakeholders that we would be serving. We hoped to identify key participants, plot their issues, then target the most salient ones for design. These were further segregated based on their direct or indirect involvement with the organization. We also used affinity mapping techniques to group stakeholders and define the relationships. These relationships and activities between the stakeholders have been captured in the ecosystem map illustrated on the following pages. The ecosystem map gave us a better understanding of the functioning of not just the individual stakeholders, but the functioning of a system as a whole. 14

WHAT IS A STAKEHOLDER? A stakeholder can be defined as a person with an interest in a project or provides some level of approval in a process. Most stakeholders tend to be either the actual decision makers or key influencers in a process. 15


Ecosystem Map MATERIAL RESOURCES

PARTNERSHIPS

Donors

SIMILAR ORGANIZATIONS

EDUCATIONAL TRAININGS Workshop Trainigs

COLLABORATIONS

Tests & Treatments

HEALTH SERVICE PROVIDERS

MEETUPS + RALLYS

EDUCATIONAL CENTERS

WORKSHOPS

HEALTH CENTERS

MEDICAL CENTERS

SUPPORTERS

ADVERTISING AGENCIES

Activists Health Educators

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

RECRUITING AGENCIES MAINTAINANCE (ONLINE + ON SITE)

Teen Advocates

LOGISTICS

CALL CENTERS

INVESTORS

CUSTOMER CARE

SPONSORS

GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS

Taking Calls Appointments

ACTIVISTS

Internal Partners External Partners

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Policy Makers

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Research 18

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Discovery Goals Our goal in addressing our challenge is to envision, implement an improved future state. Our design process is human-centered and starts with the present, not with the future – it begins with what it is happening now in the non-profit organization. Our innovative ideas were generated from insights about the current reality for real users. We believe that the transformation of the non-profit organization is upon us. We need to serve to a generation of consumers who have grown up with the Internet and sharing information through social media. These users expect bigger and better things from their favorite brands, from the brands they use. Our design thinking process aims to help the non-profit organization think about wider systems, interdependencies, interconnectedness, and the patterns of behavior that are emerging in today’s world. These users will or will not eventually purchase their products or services based largely on those behaviors. The idea of competitive advantage needs to be reconsidered in today’s context. The most important way for future leaders to sustain performance is to adopt a human lens. Today and tomorrow are the first days in the age of empathy.

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We like. We share. We have friends. We link in. We invite. We endorse. We connect. The non-profit organization needed to learn to do the same. We believe that design thinking must be human centric. With this we mean it should be by humans for humans, to create value for the people whose needs ultimately shape the size of its profits. The challenges are monumental.

“While colloquially the word design is used to refer to the appearance of styling of a particular product or outcome, the proper meaning goes far beyond that. In particular, the approach of service design refers to the process of designing rather than its outcome.”

However, the transformations are critical. Now is the time to begin bridging the gaps between us and them that keeps us all from working together to release our imagination of a better future for the non-profit organization.

- Mark Stickdorn & Jacob Schneider 21


Discovery Process

Our user research interviews helped us determine whether we need to: Improve the nonprofit organization’s customer service Change the brand perception of the service Adjust price points Change the non profit’s delivery method Enter a new market Launch a new product or service

Framing the project and refining its scope was crucial for pursuing effective opportunities. We started thinking about our project in terms of the area of opportunity we wanted to explore.

Conducting a thorough research was critical for us to make sound business decisions.

This was followed by viewing the project from a broader to a narrower perspective where we asked ourselves:

We decided to proceed in the process with conducting primary research. We used the technique of interviewing the users, where we prepared a questionnaire that would guide us to gather relevant information.

“Is there a higher level challenge out there that might unlock more opportunities?”

This research method helped us understand our target audience better in terms of their needs, hopes, values and problems. This in turn would further help us in developing effective solutions and decision making.

“Is there a more specific barrier that needs to be addressed?”

Collecting insights on how the client’s service was perceived compared to their competitors helped us determine the direction we needed to take to improve and grow the client’s business.

Promote brand awareness Optimize the client’s marketing campaign and strategy The following pages illustrate the methodology that we put together for our primary research plan.

To dig deeper into the customer segment of the organization, we decided to analyze the youth as well as the parents to understand where the opportunity was. We conducted a research on how the non-profit organization can project themselves as a brand that focuses on providing their customers with knowledge that promotes pre-natal care, adoption or abortion in contrast to its currently perceived image of being pro-abortion. 22

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Field Work The primary research method that we incorporated was the personal interview method. For framing and preparing a plan for this, we ensured that we have:

A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF OUR CHALLENGE Before creating our interview structure, we understood what our need was.

“What issue do we want to address? What do we hope to achieve?” We decided to set a survey goal to keep our research focused on the information we were trying to uncover. As a consequence, we conducted a qualitative research study first to identify the most prominent issues. We conducted an exploratory user survey which included observations and interviews with the non-organization stakeholders (counselors), teenagers, youth, parents, doctors, and psychology students. Interviews were conducted in person as well via telephonic conversations. Also, we know that social media has become increasingly popular for gauging people’s interest and we 24

DISTRIBUTION OF OUR RESEARCH Prior to collecting data, we considered the sample size needed to draw a statistically sound conclusion as well as our distribution method.

MARKET SAMPLE SIZE

thought of it as an effective medium to engage them in the topic we would be addressing. We posted a short survey or a one-question poll to quickly test our hypothesis before conducting the full study. It was very important to have contact with the stakeholders of the non-profit organization in order to understand how their ecosystem works.

CRAFT OUR INTERVIEW QUESTIONS With our research goal in mind, we were ready to design and build our interview questions. We asked questions that were relevant to our objectives.

Realistically, to be able to study/interview the entire NYC teenage and youth population was not possible, but we knew that we needed an adequate percentage and validated representation of our target consumers. There were some factors that we considered crucial for us to determine the sample size that we needed: Level of confidence: How confident we want to be in the accuracy of the results. Margin of error: The range of accuracy for our results.

We developed a sample size checklist. We also constantly validated these questions to be sure that we were collecting the right number of responses for our surveys goals and budget. What type of data analysis will we be doing with this data? Will we want to compare subgroups? How much error can we tolerate (i.e. what is my confidence level)? How much precision do we really need? How confident do we need to be that the true population value falls within our confidence interval? How do we ensure it is the right slice of the target market? What’s our budget? Can we afford the sample we really want/ need? What’s the size of the population we are trying to reach? Large? Small? Finite?

Cost: The costs coming in with the level of accuracy (higher accuracy would result in a higher cost). Target audience size: Large populations are sometimes easier to reach, but they have higher variability.

Asking the wrong questions could have resulted in misleading answers that in turn will lead to poor business decisions. For us, knowing how to ask a question is just as important as what to ask. We ensured that our questions were open ended and uninfluential and we were aware of sensitive questions that some respondents may find too personal or offensive. We kept our questions easy to understand and subjective for optimum results. We developed a design methodology for each group of people that we would be interviewing.

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Primary Research Choosing the right distribution method to collect our data was important. Direct mail, phone and personal interview were the best options for reaching our audience. A part of our audience would be young and socially active; therefore, social media, email invitation, mobile, or an embedded survey was the way to go. We also used the A.E.I.O.U. framework as our observation method. Our process of conducting and documenting the interviews were as follows: We gathered materials via ethnographic methods using notes, photos, videos, interviews, field observation, etc. During our field observation, we used this framework as a lens to observe the surrounding environment. The observations were recorded under the appropriate headings. We then supplemented direct observations with photos or videos for a better retention and understanding of data. This further would help us in reviewing and clustering observations to disseminate higher-level themes and patterns. 26

WHAT IS A.E.I.O.U. RESEARCH? “A.E.I.O.U. stands for five elements to be coded: Activity, Environment, Interaction, Object, and User. It is a heuristic to help interpret observations gathered by ethnographic practice in industry. Its two primary functions are to code data, and to develop building blocks of models that will ultimately address the objectives and issues of a client. 27


Providence, Rhode Island 20th February, 2016

INTERVIEW #1

A

Interview type: Skype Video Call

She was very comfortable with sharing information about her life as a doctor and a parent. She has a welcoming nature and her children know that they can approach her regarding any kind of health realted problems

Time taken: 40 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

“It was a very scientific conversation, I took out a book on human anatomy and explained everything in detail. Touched upon sex briefly, but it was more about the reproductive system.”

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“If you’re asking me about how my parents approached the topic, they didn’t. They never spoke to me about it. The day before I got married, my mother took me aside and asked me if I knew what was expected of me. And this was after I attended several years at medical school!” “A funny story - well, not so funny when I think about it from how misinformed teens are. A girl walked in to the ER a few weeks ago with severe abdominal pain and I asked her if she was sexually active. Her response was that she is a lesbian so she can’t get pregnant. It turns out that she did have sex with a guy before and was in fact pregnant. She refused to accept it because she claimed to be a lesbian and she thought that that made it impossible for her to have a baby.”

Team Roles: Since the intervuew was conducted on the phone, Suma took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Lauren Gender: Female Age: 43 years About Lauren: Apart from being an ER physician and a mother of 3 girls, Gita is also a part-time lecturer at Brown University. She enjoys spending time with her husband and children when she is not at work. She is also an avid runner and participates in marathons regularly.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

2

3

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Even though Lauren is a working mother with a working husband, they both still manage to spend a lot of time with their children which is highly commendable and also rare. Having a medical background, her approach towards educating her children about sex and reproductive health care was very anatomical. She felt more at ease explaining the concept to them using actual facts and diagrams. Since Providence is a smaller locality, she has not heard of any major organizations that conduct sexual or reproductive health care workshops. She assumes that bigger cities would have such NGOs and if her children were not comfortable speaking to her directly about their queries, she would be more than happy to send them to a reputable institution that would help them understand it.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable were not that different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

She laughed while recalling her experiences of talking about this subject with her own parents and wanted to make sure that her children knew what to expect from the world once they got older.

E I

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was her living room at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and her door was open so she was not very conscious of who was listening into the conversation. The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is a very open and confident person. Being a doctor, she had a lot of insights from a medical point of view and is of the opinion that it is very important for people to get regular health check ups done. Since it was a video call, another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means. She responed to her husband and two of the girls who walked in at several moments during the conversation.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop for the video call and a voice recorder. Notes were also taken on the side while the interviewer sat at her desk. On her end, she used her phone to conduct the video call. She was sitting on her dining table with her dog while the interview was being conducted - which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a parent she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Lauren has 3 girls - a 15 year old, a 13 year old and a 9 year old. Her husband is also an on-call doctor so they split the responsibilities/chores at home between them. Despite having a very hectic schedule - she works at the ER 3 days and teaches from home 2 days, she manages her time well and spends a lot of hours with her children (homework/shopping/etc.) She was born and raised in Delware and moved to Rhode Island after she got married. Her parents were both born and raised in India, but she did not visit India that often as a child. She married an Italian-American and identifies herself as American. 29


Long Island, New York 20th February, 2016

INTERVIEW #2

A

Interview type: Telephonic

His wife and him have a good, open environment at home both children have been spoken to about reproductive health care and he feels strongly about how teenagers need to have a full knowledge of sex and STDs.

Time taken: 40 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

“The conversations I have with my kids is a lot more open compared to what I had with my parents. It could be a generation factor or it could also be a cultural factor.”

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“As a parent, you watch for whom your kids associate with and whom they spend their time with. And they’re the focus since that tells the kinds of information they’re getting. We’ve been through that age so I know there are a lot of different sources for information access. So there’s a requirement for providing an environment to teenagers to talk about these things. It’s not a taboo to talk about.” “I’ve heard of the NGO from a political perspective on factors like money, pro choice and abortion issues. I’ve always had an impression of it being a service provider in those, mainly for the underprivileged or uneducated people who do not have a good family set up, for their teen pregnancy issues etc.”

Team Roles: Since the intervuew was conducted on the phone, Savani took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Matthew Gender: Male Age: 50 years About Matthew: A successful business professional with more than 20 years of diverse operations and a father of 2, Sethu is a sporty and musically inclined individual. He plays the tabla, which is an Indian drum and is very fond of Hindustani classical music.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

2

3

Matthew feels that it is very important to talk about the dangers involved which include the diseases, unwanted pregnancy and the kind of change that these might cause on life. He has a very comfortable approach to this topic because his wife is a physician and made sure that their children were aware of reproductive health care. She gave them a details talk when they hit puberty. He was of the opinion that the NGO is largely a service promotong pro choice and is pro abortion. He was also under the impression that it is primarily for the under privilaged and lower income families who do not have a very open and secure environment at home.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how he responded to the questions. His behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable were not that different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

Since this was not a face to face or video call, it was harder to determine his true behaviour but from his voice he seemed to be comfortable talking to us about all the questions we asked him.

E I

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was at his house. We felt that he would be most comfortable in a surrounding that he was familiar with and we noticed that he was not particularly bothered by who was listening into the conversation (nobody else was present) The interaction we had with him led us to believe that he is confident of what he believes in and was open to talk about anything. Another factor we wanted to observe was whether he could be distracted by any other means like his phone, television, etc. However, while the interview took place he did not lose focus on the converation and we had 100% of his attention.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop to refer to the interview question quide, an iPhone for it’s voice recorder and a notebook to log important information. Since this was this interview was conducted over the telephone only 1 of us was present.

U

As a parent he is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Matthew has business development and marketing management experience in consumer electronics, security, automotive and industrial distribution. Both him and his wife were born and raised in India but have lived in USA for the past 30 years so they consider both India and America to be their home countries. Before he got into business management, he studied mechanical engineering. He has 2 children - a son who is 22 years old and a daughter who is 16 years old.

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Reviewing the Data Before we reported and shared our results, there were somes steps that we did to prepare our data. Filtering our data: We would identify and clear out responses that might taint our results. We would perform this based on results that we thought were influenced by biased factors. Analyze our data: We would analyze the data to determine if our questions were answered in the format we expected. We would also perform data segmentation based on the learning objective so that we could identify trends and patterns. Report our results: We would highlight and share our findings. We would consider data visualizations such as pie charts, bar graphs and infographics that would help us to visually compare data as well as convey our message effectively.

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Analysis & Synthesis 34

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What We Found We used our data to find themes and develop insights. By going back and reviewing data collected throughout the process, we ensured that we would capture all the data accurately and would not miss out on any important details.

This was followed by grouping them and regrouping them to see emerging themes and patterns. Conclusively, we shared our groupings and theme ideas with the rest of the team. Based on these groups of data, we created insights. We followed this up with reviewing the various models and insights.

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Observing is an essential part of the systematic data collection approach. Our observations helped us foster an in depth and rich understanding of the participants their mental models, and their behaviors. They provided the foundation for our theory and hypothesis development.

“I guess I trust my friends since they are people who are my age and are people who I know. They also know the same things I do, so we have been in similar situations and can relate to one another more.” - Youth, Female, 15 “I feel comfortable and I trust them (friends). I know they will give me good advice and I also like talking to them about anything. I approach them because I need answers for certain topics.” - Youth, Female, 15 “I guess I would speak to my parents about these issues. Not relationship stuff but I mean, I would talk to my mom if I had any health related problems since she is a doctor.” - Youth, Female, 16

By aggregating, editing and condensing what we learned in the exploration phase, synthesis enabled us to establish a new perspective and identify opportunities for innovation.

We individually created a mural with post-its for our data. In these, we mapped observations and pieces of data to post-its. Inclusion of the images from interviews and sharing stories with each other enabled to effectively understand each other’s perspectives.

OBSERVATIONS

“Generally as a parent, you watch for whom your kids associate with and whom they spend their time with. And they’re the focus since that tells the kinds of information they’re getting. - Parent, Male, 51

WHAT IS EMPATHY? Empathy is the capacity to gain an accurate and deep intuitive understanding of a person or thing. It can be an effective method to reflect and connect with a specific target audience.

“I took out a book on human anatomy and explained everything in detail. Touched upon sex briefly, but it was more about the reproductive system.” - Parent, Female, 43 “I’ve always had an impression of the non profit organization being a service provider in those, mainly for the underprivileged or uneducated people who do not have a good family set up, for their teen pregnancy issues etc.” - Parent, Male, 51 37


TRUST Trust is a major decision making factor amongst youth and teenagers

Kids with close relations with parents tend to trust them more

Teenagers are more likely to trust their friends with info more than anyone else

The most prefered and desirable person for advice is an elder sibling

MINDSET

Teens need first hand experience to relate to the information they receive

There is a lack of communication (sex related talk) between parents and their children

A majority of mothers speak to their daughters about periods before/ around puberty

Parents are aware that their kids access information related to sex from other sources

Parents need to know the importance of sexual health education for their kids Shy parents need sex health institutions to educate their kids on the subject

There are shy parents who do not talk to kids about sex education

Mothers are more likely to bring up the subject with their child than their husband

Parents with a conservative mindset make it hard for kids to approach them A lot of parents rely on schools to give sex ed to their kids

Females do not visit health clinics regularly because they do not trust the confidentiality

Teenagers are more llikely to trust information from educational institutes than other events

Boys need more support to understand why the topic is important and relatable

APPROACH Empathy is very important while speaking to people who require these services

How the human body works is a way to approach sex topics

Communication is key

Parents needs to provide information without being preachy to their kids

A lot of parents rely on schools to give sex ed to their kids

Youth’s sources differ with the subject they wish to seek information about

BRAND IMAGE There is a miscommunicated image of the brand

SOURCES Families want schools to take an active role in sexual health education

There is a need for other institutes for sexual health education

Snapchat and Instagram are the most used social media by teenagers

There is a need for the government to be involved in teaching sex ed

Television is a prominent source of information

Youth trust sports coaches for info related to sexual health

Media is a source of info for the youth when it comes to sex

Kids are maturing at a quicker rate because of the growth in media

Finding Patterns 38

Youth are tactical in their approach to various topics

The knowledge that people have about the organization is inaccurate

Some parents believe that the NGO caters only to the underpriveged population

MISCOMMUNICATION Teens need first hand experience to relate to information

Schools are delivering information in a non engaging manner

Boys are given the impression of the girl being the more responsible

Parents understand that they are not the only source of information for their kids

Youth need to understand the range of services available

The non profit organization is percieved as an abortion clinic

Parents should have support so they can be a source of information

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COCREATION WORKSHOP Besides the information we gathered in our surveys, we did a co-creation workshop with our stakeholders and peers. This workshop was conducted at The New School. 25 students, 2 Parsons lecturers, and 6 stakeholders from the non profit organization participated. This resulted in more creative ideas that helped us to narrow down the focus area.

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Insights We kept in mind that an insight is actionable. We followed the following to ensure optimum results:

MORE THAN

Slicing and grouping data in different ways to find meaning

50%

Looking for patterns and tensions for the way themes relate to each other

Parents did eventually have “the talk� with their children

The method the data would be linked, how it could be combined and aggregated to create an insight

30%

Parents said they have a hard time bringing it up in conversation

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WHY ARE WE TARGETING PARENTS? A parent is often one of the first reliable sources of information for a child. However, our research shows that a lack of communication exists when it comes to talking about sex amongst parents and their children.

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User Mapping In order to gain an even deeper understanding of the users and their pain points during a process, we did user mapping in the forms of journey map and persona development. A customer journey map provided us a vivid but structured visualization of the user’s experience. This helped us to understand their interactions and accompanying emotions in a highly accessible manner. We created personas (fictional profiles) representing a mixture of the qualities, characteristics and needs of the users we studied at earlier stages of the process.

WHAT IS AN PAIN POINT? A pain point is a problem, real or perceived. It creates opportunities for creating solutions to those areas. In some cases, the pain point being solved doesn’t solve a problem, but creates a new market entirely. 46

These allowed us to define and engage the different interest groups that existed in our target audience. Even though the personas were fictional, the motivations and reactions they exhibited were real representations of our potential users.

“Stories have defined our world. They have been with us since the dawn of communication, from cave walls to the tall tales recounted around fires. They have continued to evolve, with their purpose remaining the same: to entertain, to share common experiences, to teach and to pass on traditions.” - Francisco Ichauste 47


Carol Smith 40 YEARS OLD | NEW YORK CITY | BUSINESSWOMAN

INTROVERT

EXTROVERT

SENSING

INTUITION

JUDGING

PERCEPTIVE

PRACTICAL

EMOTIONAL

Carol is a mother of two teenage boys - aged 13 and 11. She spends her weekends with her family and is a health conscious woman. She loves travelling with her family.

“My kids are my utmost priority. Life without them is unimaginable.”

48

She firmly believes in balancing her professional life with her personal life. Carol has lived in New York City her entire life, resulting in a huge local friends circle. Her relationship with her children has always been very close. However, as they have just hit adolescence, they are starting to get a little rebellious now. She is having difficulty getting through to them more often than not which has lately been the cause of her worries. 49


Journey Map ACTIONS

CAROL DECIDES TO HAVE “THE TALK” WITH HER SON (13)

Is unsure how to bring the topic up

Decides to bring it up after picking him up from school

TOUCHPOINTS

Decides to talk to her son about sexual health

Reads about tips on how to’s online

LAPTOP

Ends up being even more confused than before

Picks up son from school

Brings up the topic after lunch

CAR

DINING TABLE

Ends up talking mechanically about the human body

Hopes to gain help for approaching the topic better in the future

BOOK

EMOTIONS Positive

50

Negative

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The Big Idea 52

53


Where We Are Headed With our research, we understood that parents play an important role in their children’s sexual education cycle. With such a crucial responsibility, they don’t always know how to handle different situations that their children present to them. We found that parents tend to look for different sources of information to refer to so that they can understand what they should do, how they should do it, and when they should do it. That was the eureka moment! Eureka moment more often than not is backed by research and a flow of thought and comes to life by constantly looking into the problem statement and reading the insights. We realized that parents often lack information of a trusted source to reach out to in times of crisis or even at times of doubts, when it comes to resolving topics around sexual health and education of their children. As a consequence, this became the north star, the big idea of our project: “To create a trusted and authentic source of information that will help bridge the communication gap between parents and their children.” For progression, we looked at bigger risks with our idea, analyzed assumptions, tested results for the risks, drew conclusions, defined a cause, and worked towards creating a service/product. 54

WHAT IS OUR NORTH STAR? “To create a trusted and authentic source of information that will help bridge the communication gap between parents and their children.” 55


Prototyping Process A service prototype is a simulation of a service experience. In order to understand and test the bigger risks in our idea we thought that it would be best to break it down into fragments and analyze it piece by piece.

WHAT IS A PROTOTYPE? A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. 56

to when presented with a situations similar to these. The options provided included a friend, a family member, spouse, internet, others as well as the option of not sharing and keeping it to oneself.

ASSUMPTION TESTING Our surveys showed that when it comes to dealing with extremely sensitive situations with their children, parents trust their spouses and/or doctors most. At the same time it also came to our notice that parents wanted to see what other parents would/ have thought and done when going through or have already been through a similar situation. With the survey statistics, we also learnt that 75% of the surveys were taken via a smartphone as a channel. While some of these results from the survey backed our assumptions and insights, the assumption of our desirable person for the target audience to reach out to contradicted the survey results.

‘To create a trusted and authentic source of information’ was a vaguely understood concept, and it required to be further defined, as a source of information can have numerous interpretations. To have a clearer vision ahead, we conducted prototype tests for the same.

Hence, we pivoted the service from one that would be serving as a communication platforms between parents and their friends to one that would also host health educators for consultation in times of crisis situations.

To dig deeper into the trust aspect of a source we conducted a prototype test which helped us to understand the other people or sources parents would go to when they are put in a sensitive situation related to their children.

Delving deeper into the platform essentials, we conducted another survey to know the preferred type of platform on a smartphone. Among options such as messenger, email, SMS, Whatsapp and calling, 80% people chose Whatsapp.

We conducted surveys with our existing cohort of parents of teenagers and also with parents whose children have just passed their teenage years. The survey had nineteen questions which touched upon topics such as teenage pregnancy, children being sexually active, precautionary and preventive pregnancy and STD measures, identity crisis and peer pressure among others. We wanted to understand who the parents would go 57


Results All the prototype testing was pointing towards a direction of having a service that provides people with a platform where they can connect with their friends and family, learn from other people’s stories as well as seek professional help whenever required and can be accessed through a smartphone.

MORE THAN

50% Responded that they trust their spouses the most

7 in 10 people responded saying they would not approach the internet for information if a doctor was available. 5 in 10 people responded saying they would approach a friend over a family member with sensitive information. 40% of them responded saying that they would approach doctors with sensitive information.

74%

Responded from their smartphones

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Scanned by CamScanner

The Wise Choice Our proposal ‘The Wise Choice,’ which will be supported by the non profit organisation’s health care educators. The aim is to create one of the largest networks for parents that will host discussion forums where users will share peer-to-peer advice and information on parenting, products and many others.

Scanned by CamScanner

In today’s shared economy, peer-to-peer interactions are highly valued and they pave the way for relevant data collection which is an asset for companies and organizations. A network like The Wise Choice is the perfect platform for getting people’s stories together and helping people learn from each other’s life’s events. Along with providing an effective communication platform for the primary users , it also provides the nonprofit organization with another channel to connect with their customers. The network will help build a community of people that are knowledgeable about parent- child relationships which in turn will elevate the overall quality of interactions and eventually will result in bridging the communication gap between them. 60

Scanned by CamScanner

This will in turn increase the awareness of the nonprofit organization and an overall understanding of the matter at hand.

WHY CREATE A NETWORK? The network will help build a community of people that are knowledgeable about parent- child relationships which is turn with elevate the overall quality of interactions and eventually will result in bridging the communication gap between them.

Scanned by CamScanner

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Key Features Status of active and inactive discussions

Choose between friends who are already there on the app. Could also send an invite to a friend

Search bar for relevant discussion

Other active members who are a part of the chat

Maintaining anonymity

Start another discussion under specified heads

Number of active discussions

All services explained

TUTORIALS Progress bar

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DISCUSSION BOARD Progress bar

START A CHAT Workshops currently available

Maintained confidentiality start a chat on the app, whoever is active will automatically be a part of it.

CHAT INTERFACE: BUILDING A COMMUNITY

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Health educators identity mentioned. Important for credibility.

REAL-TIME RESPONSE Emergency toll-free number

UPGRADE PLAN Channel to talk to a health educator directly

66

CHAT WITH A HEALTH EDUCATOR

EMERGENCY CALL Direct chat with health educator

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Storyboarding

Talking to children about sex particularly catches her attention. The discussion consists of people discussing about the topic since a while ago. She browses through the information, finds a few helpful pointers, but learns that most of the conversation have been addressed to parents whose children are in their late teens. Since she can contribute little in the conversation, she starts a new anonymous chat. She posts a question of how to address the topic of sexual education and is happy to see that there are people active on the chat and also actively responding to her query. While surfing through the tutorials, she also learns that when the need arises she can either upgrade her plan to directly talk to a health educator or she can call a toll-free number (the nonprofit organization’s health clinic) in case of emergency.

Carol Smith has been worried about talking to her son about sexual health. She doesn’t know if it is the right time to bring up a conversation like this and is also not too sure how to address her concerns without trying to sound too uncomfortable. She decides to talk to her son about sexual health today and is hoping to do it after she picks him up from school. At school she happens to look at the notice board which has an advertisement for an app, The Wise Choice.

A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. 68

The tutorials walk her through the services the app provides and opens into a discussions page which has listed topics of featured conversations, and within these discussions there are active conversations going on. The discussions are about helping children cope with peer pressure, addressing puberty, talking to children about sex and sexuality and other topics dealing with similar themes.

Scanned by CamScanner

WHAT IS A STORYBOARD?

She considers downloading it in order to understand how the app addresses her concerns. The app needs a username while assuring her confidentiality across various services on the app. It is not linked to any social media which is relieving for her because she doesn’t want to talk to too many people about it.

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Business Proposition 70

71


Network Development

Data integration: The cost would also depend on the amount of data we would be linking. It would also be directly proportional to the cost. Apart from this, we would also need to take into consideration third-party data, which would include Facebook, Twitter or any other website. This would require extra development cost. Level of security: This would also be directly proportional to the level of security because more work goes into making it. App Analytics: Tracking our application and analyzing the data would cost us an extra amount.

While developing the network, the biggest question was

If we think about these factors, we can get a rough estimate.

“How much would it cost?”

Platform: The number of platforms would be directly proportional to the cost. There are three major platforms the service would be implemented on- Android, iOS, and Windows. We studied that each place has a different price. iOS was the most expensive of the lot.

Although this question might sound simple, it was hard to predict the exact price of our service until the completion of our project. We provided an approximation for developing the network- which included developing an app platform. This approximation of costs could be hindered by a number of factors, including emergence of better technologies and more testing required than thought of initially. We provided an estimate of the cost based on the requirements that we thought the network should have. Some requirements we believe, could be developed in the first year of the network while the additional features could be implemented over a period of the next couple of years. The following are the requirements that we believed must be taken into account when developing an app/ website since they would be affecting the overall cost of development. 72

Scalability: Keeping in mind the improvement and the capability of the app in the future, we would generate more revenue and offer more features. Addressing an area for this improvement while necessary, would also affect the development cost.

Once we have the app built it on xCode for instance, (the program that apps are built in for Apple), our developer could help us get the app in the store (iTunes for this example). This would require setting up an iTunes Connect account ($99/year) and then filling out all the information necessary for the app – icons, descriptions, pricing, etc. The setup would be a one time investment, hence even nonprofit organization decides to develop another app later on, they would already have an account that they can build it upon. Once the app is up in the store, the nonprofit organization could monitor all the analytics on the backside of it through iTunes Connect. For instance - the number of downloads, the amount of money they are making, among others.

Number of screens: Every device has a different screen size. Development cost would depend on the number of platforms, screens and backend functionality linked to these screens. Data storage: The kind of data offered by the app stores would also affect cost. For instance-would it be text, audio, video or images? User management: We would either use email registration or social media registration for users. Creating databases to manage these registrations would have an impact on the cost. 73


Business Model

The basic version of the network is offered for free in the hope of eventually persuading customers to purchase the premium version. The free offering attracts the highest volume of customers possible for the nonprofit organization while the revenue is generated by the (generally smaller) volume of premium customers. This requires having a second version of the app that is going to be paid. If users want to upload its version, the free app will have a link that a user can click that drives them to the iTunes store on their phone. The premium version can have services like: “Call to a specific doctor” or it can also be a version without advertisements.

There are a lots of different ways that the nonprofit organization can drive revenue with an app or website, some of which include advertisements inside the product and being able to purchase additional information through the product (for example, in-app purchases).

AD BASED BUSINESS MODEL Although effective,this type requires a sizable amount of traffic to make it worth the cost. When the nonprofit organization starts getting traffic, it can be a promising (and consistent) revenue source.

In order to create value for customers and to capture value for the nonprofit organization, we have presented suitable types of business models that the nonprofit organization can adapt when implementing the network. As stretgic designers, we believe that the network should be done based on a freemium model.

FREEMIUM BUSINESS MODEL

The two biggest ad networks are iAds and Admob – the first being Apple and the second being Google

(developers agree that iAds pay out better). If the nonprofit organization is looking to make money, they can expect to make around $2 if they get 100 downloads. This can vary widely based on how many people click on the ad. So, it’s good to have ads in the game which is one way to gain money. However, it is important for the nonprofit organization to effectively market the product for this to be successful.

SPONSERSHIP BUSINESS MODEL Landing a sponsor is a great way to make money on a free app. The money is up front and the non profit organization gains brand credibility with their audience. The deals typically go like this: the non profit organization could approach a company and say “I have this product, I’ve got the plan, etc etc and I will white label it for $XXX.” Or “I built this network a few months ago and it has 50,000 downloads. I will update the graphics with your brand for $XXX” and so on. It can take a little while to get the right match and a company that is forward thinking enough to realize how powerful the mobile platform is, but it can work.

WHY ARE WE USING A BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS? A business model canvas is a useful tool for describing, analyzing, and designing business models. It represents the structure in a clean and concise manner. It was developed and popularized by Alexander Osterwalder.

74

75


Platform developers Non profit organization

Platform/network Problem/crisis solving Advisory Data center operation management Generating awareness Building trust Fundraising Service features: Networking, group chat, free chat, Emergency options

KEY ACTIVITIES Doctors Physicians Brand patents & copyrights Data Content managers Technology infrastructure Software Non profit organization

KEY PARTNERS

KEY RESOURCES

Research and Development Software development and maintainance General administrative costs Service promotion and advertising Marketing complaint management

COST STRUCTURE

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Trusted source for bridging the gap between parents and their children Reliable issue addressal on sensitive topics Anonymity and image protection Accessibility

VALUE PROPOSITION

Freemium Model

BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS FOR ‘THE WISE CHOICE’ Personal assistance Quick response time Image protection Trust Maintained confidentiality

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS Advertising at groceries, salons, etc. Peer reviews Mobile application store Download on the non profit organization’s website Service platform Brochures/pamphlets

CHANNELS

Parents Educators Physicians Multi-sided platform

CUSTOMER SEGMENTS

Premium charges for users Investors Advertising (spaces for pharmacies, suppliers, etc.) Charitable organizations

REVENUE STREAMS

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Implementation Devising a framework for nonprofit funding, for developing a network, presents challenges. We believe that the nonprofit organization can use their actual fundraising business model in order to get funds to develop the network. To be useful, the model cannot be too general or too specific. We needed to define the type of funding the nonprofit organization would get, and the decision makers controlling the funding. We settled on three parameters to define our funding model - the source of funds, the types of decision makers, and the motivations of the decision makers. To make this happen, we will develop a fundraising plan that will include:

Lowering costs Now that we have seen how much this product can cost, let’s see how we can lower the numbers. Firstly, hiring a freelancer can result in a decrease in cost and in an increase in risks. Risks may include inefficient work, differences in ethics and habits, miscommunications, and a lack of consistent efforts and availability.

One-time events These are different types of events during the year. We will define one major event (for example: a dinner named “Bridge the communication gap”).

Therefore, if this option is selected, the type of person being hired should be very well analyzed. Secondly, the nonprofit organization can also outsource the developer or programmer to another country.

We will sell the tables, and we will do auctions with relevant gifts from our major sponsors.

Countries like India, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Egypt, Russia, among others have quality developers at a competitive rate. If the nonprofit organization chooses a particular workforce, it is important that they get to know what they need, and make it a longterm operation to train and refine the resources. If things are done right, this strategy can be profitable.

Monthly giving The nonprofit organization will be leveraging the main initiatives that they have today with professionals that will be promoting the project. 78

For example; soon Marc Jacobs will be selling Marilyn Minter t-shirts were it sales will benefit the nonprofit organization’s patients. The idea is to have professionals inside the stores where they will explain the idea behind the t-shirt which can be followed by explaining the cause of the network, in order to get people to donate money.

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PERSONALIZATION + MEASUREMENT | CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT | BRAND AWARENESS 80

Trend Analysis

STORY RULES

Delivering brand imagery, stories and information to customers through traditional and digital channels.

Brand as publishers

Inverted search

Curation

CONTENT FINDS YOU

CONTEXT

CONTENT

Video fluidity

Offering personalized experiences at the precise time, place and format that they are most engaging to customers.

Interruption interrupted

Anamorphic ads

Transmedia storytelling

Apps everywhere

Location aware offers

CROWD POWER Quantified experience

Giving customers a greater voice and providing new ways for the critical content and ideas to come to the fore.

Augmented reality Real time brands

SOCIAL

THE BIG PICTURE

Data, media, automation and personalization combine to provide an immersive, qualified customer experience.

Smart spaces

Geo-social networks

PHYSICAL/ DIGITAL BLEND

Kinetic interfaces

STUFF GETS REAL

Social analytics

Technologies that allow us to physically interact with the digital world and vice-versa.

Gamification

Expertise on demand

Agents and proxies

Open- source brands

Location-based analytics

CONNECTED CUSTOMER

Personalized pricing

Consumerization of just-in-time manufacturing In depth CRM

Predictive analysis

Multi screen analytics

BIG DATA BY THE NUMBERS

Information from mobile devices, sensors, social media, public and third parties, combined with enterprise data.

All-media metrics

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Marketing Strategy This nonprofit organization is the nation’s leading provider and advocate of high-quality, affordable healthcare for women, men and young people, as well as the nation’s largest provider of sex education. With 5 health centers in New York, the nonprofit organization serves all patients with equal care and compassion, with respect and without judgment. They are also innovators in the healthcare industry, continually looking to find the best ways to expand access to quality, affordable care to everyone who needs it. The nonprofit organization should use this reputation for their marketing campaign to promote the new service. As we know marketing is in a state of transition, driven by changes in technology, demographics, and society. Social and technological megatrends are shaping the future of advertising. Apps and digital data are evolving and becoming embedded into every aspect of business and life, raising expectations and changing the customer experience. Next-generation consumers have grown up marinated in digital media and take connectivity, interactivity, and participation for granted. 82

The nonprofit organization needs to create new modes of engagement with their customers: vivid new ads and marketing campaigns that command attention and indicate participation; convenient customer experiences that remove transaction friction, locking in loyalty; and campaigns that use data to target and measure performance, leading to better outcomes and predictable costs. We believe that nowadays there are main drivers of social change (demographic change, globalization and fluidity of knowledge, fragmentation of mass culture, entrepreneurial innovation as a response to global changes) and technology change (big data, social collaboration, and the cloud). Because of this, the nonprofit organization campaign to market this product and any future product should be innovative, open, and global.

“It’s better to have 100 people [who] love you than finding a million who just sort of like you. Build your business one person at a time. Just focus on 100 people. If they love you, they will market the product for you and tell everyone else.”

- Brian Chesky 83


Impact

PROVIDE VALUE TO ENCOURAGE ENGAGEMENT Cultivate user engagement and retention by sending marketing messages with relevant, valuable content. Personalized recommendations, based on ‘last brand viewed’ or ‘most recent purchase’, provide value to users and warm them to the mobile app experience. The key is to target specific segments of users and to incorporate personalization. Generic push notifications are the junk mail of the mobile world, and do more harm than good. Team Suggestion: Use demographics combined with behavior to segment the audience.

App development is a science based on trial and error. The secret to eventual success involves tempered expectations. We, as strategic designers, have a big dream for the grand final product. But, we realize that to traverse a mile, we must take our first step. Nevertheless, convincing consumers to download the nonprofit organization’s mobile app is going to be difficult, but losing their engagement, once they download it, would be an even likelier event. Research from Flurry shows that after downloading any given app, 25% of people will use it only once, and over half of all users will stop using the app after three months. We want this mobile network to be part of the nonprofit organization’s marketing mix. We believe that it’s critical to establish a strong path to conversion, one that users will adopt within the first few weeks. The following are ways that can help the non profit organization generate power users, users that will be proud when talking about the benefits of the new service that the nonprofit organization is providing.

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BUILD TRUST New users need to understand the value of the mobile network - why is it a must-have? The nonprofit organization must make a great first impression with an informative splash page (an extra screen that pops up the first time a user opens your app). The nonprofit organization should use this prime location to guide the customer through the app’s top features, and to demonstrate the value of opting into push notifications. Team Suggestion: On iOS, you are only allowed to officially ask for push permissions once. Don’t waste your only shot by asking for push permissions in a splash page. Instead, start with an informal ask, and only prompt them to the official permission page if they answer “YES.”

For example, the nonprofit organization might send a push message to females who are between the ages of 28 and 44, live in Queens, and have recently viewed the ‘Q&A’ category on the website or on the mobile app: “Hey <first name>! It’s doctors conventions season in <user home neighbor>, check out these new questions from <last doctors updates>!”

OFFER SOCIAL PROOF TO CULTIVATE BRAND LOYALTY Encourage customers to share on social; this is a great way to transform customers into brand advocates, and to generate network effect organic user growth. Consider a VIP campaign or special promotion message to encourage top mobile customers to spread the word to their friends.

New users should also be motivated to create an account within the nonprofit organization’s app.

Team Suggestion: Send a push message to top users: “Did you find valuable the reply of the doctor <last topic>? Let your friends know on Facebook and get 10% off any of our services!” Not only does this expose the NGO to new business, but also it encourages repeat use of services from those top clients.

Send an informative notification that highlights the advantages of registering. For example: “Did you know that members have access to exclusive mobile deals? Create an account today!” Include a link to a ‘Sign Up / In with Facebook’ page within your app.

With a strong understanding of users’ preferences and browsing patterns, it is easy to encourage them to use additional services when browsing. In-app messages are a great ways to communicate with users when the brand is already on their mind. 85


FIND THE RIGHT RHYTHM TO RETAIN USERS As the nonprofit organization continues to engage with mobile customers, prevent over-messaging by tailoring a push strategy to accommodate each user’s unique time of day preference and message frequency tolerance. Team Suggestion: Track the number of app uninstalls as compared to the mobile revenue resulting from each message you send - so you can be sure your push messages are not annoying your users and you are comfortable with the complete ROI picture.

“Has there ever been another art so devoutly converted into a science as the art of parenting?”

Making sure your app delights and engages users is a high-stakes game. Today’s mobile users are solidifying their app preferences, and mobile communications must be strategic and personalized to win their allegiance. The reward is well worth it: making the cut brings with it a level of word-of-mouth marketing that will cause the organic app installs to skyrocket. Identify and optimize customer’s path to engagement, and ensure the app comes out on top in mobile networks.

- Freakonomics 86

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Appendix 88

89


Millburn, New Jersey 18th February, 2016

INTERVIEW #3

A

Interview type: Face-to-face

She was very confident but at the same time had an innocent approach to the topic. She agrees that most people her age would be going through changes that they would have a lot of questions about, but she doesn’t think that she is at that point yet.

Time taken: 25 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES: “Maybe through the school because I know on the first day of school we were given packets and they have special places and things you can call for specific problems. It is a good outlet because a lot of people can get the information through the school so everyone will get that information instead of having flyers because not everyone may take the flyers and stuff.” “I think if it as a concert (advertising about an NGO) I would be a little iffy but if it is more educational like through a college or school or maybe a business that would be more trustworthy. it would be based off of education and trust concert should be okay but less trustworthy.” “Um, I think I would be comfortable. I’m not in a relationship yet because I’m not allowed to but they are like my friends, I’d be fine with that.”

Location: At interviewee’s home Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

About Rachel: A swimmer and tennis player, Saachi is both athletic and loves cooking. She is really into music - especially jazz and country. She enjoys watching cooking shows on TV with her family.

E I

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and we noticed that she was not particularly bothered by who was listening into the conversation (nobody else was present) The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she has a more conservative approach to sex. She said that she is not allowed to be in a relationship and would only think about it once she is older and in College. She said that she is extemely close to her older brother (18) and that they talk to each other about everything. Another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means like her phone, television, etc. However, while the interview took place we had 100% of her attention.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

2

3

90

She sat in an upright position and answered all the questions without hesitating. She remained calm and did not seem overwhelmed.

Team Roles: Interviewer - Maria, note-taker and documentation - Savani, voice/video recording - Suma Name: Rachel Gender: Female Age: 15 years

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable was not different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

Rachel has a good relationshop with her parents and would be comfortable speaking to them if she has any questions about sex. However, she feels that she hasn’t reached that point in her life yet but when she does, she will talk to them. She was primarily educated about sex and health care from her school. Her mother spoke to her about her period and how to go about those changes. She isn’t that comfortable sharing personal experiences with friends. She feels that a good approach for the NGOs to gain recognition would be by promoting events that are more educational - at schools, universities, etc. which would be a more reputable way for them to publicize what work they do and it would reach out to the youth audience in a big way.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop to refer to the interview question quide, an iPhone for it’s voice recorder and camera and a notebook to log important information. 3 of us were present for the entire conversation. We sat at the dining table with her. She was sitting on the dining table while the interview was being conducted - which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a teenager, she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Rachel has a close relationship with her family. She spend weekends with her Dad and sometimes brother and Mom too, pretending like they are chefs in the kitchen by creating new recipes. Her parents were both born and raised in India so they are culturally attached to their heritage. She identifies herself as American but follows certain Indian customs at home. She was born and raised in California but has been in New Jersey all her life. She idolizes Carrie Underwood and Jennifer Lawrence (because she loves food too) and considers them to be alpha women . 91


Kings Park, New York 18th February, 2016

INTERVIEW #4

A

Interview type: Skype Video Call

She giggled through a lot of the “sex” and “relationship” questions but answered them confidently. She seemed to trust the interviewer but still had a shy approach which would be a personality factor.

Time taken: 25 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

“My parents would be my role models haha pretty cliché but with immigrating and building this life and being my best friends.. they are.”

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“Yes, we have a health class in the 5th grade and in the 7th grade where they separate the girls and boys and talk to us about it. In the first session its more about puberty and they walk us through the reproductive system. And in the second session its more about the precautionary measure we need to take, how to say “no”, STDs, contraceptives, who to talk to if we need help, that kind of stuff.”

Name: Mary Gender: Female Age: 16 years

“Not relationship stuff but I mean (to parents), I would talk to my Mom if I had any health related problems since she is a doctor. If I had friendship related issues, I would speak to my Dad about them. I’m quite comfortable speaking to them if anything goes really wrong or something. They are not my first choice though!” “I feel like I should have paid more attention to it though. Also for me to retain that information from when I was 14 years old is pretty hard, they should probably talk to us at an older age would be better. But we should know when we are younger too.”

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Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Suma took notes, documented and interviewed her

About Mary: A very academically inclined and athletic teen, Sunitha plays volleyball and is a part of a business club at her high school called DECA. She sppends her free time watching shows on Netflix and spending time with her friends.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

2

3

Mary is aware of the NGO’s approach towards economic empowerment for women but viewed the organization as a pro-abortion clinic more than anything else from the News. Her relationship with her group of friends is very strong - she is comfortable speaking to them about her more intimate problems and would go to them if something was wrong. She would approach her parents for health issues first and not her friends. She feels that if the sex education class could be given to students at an older age to be more impactful. At a younger age students don’t take the matter seriously enough, but as they get older they might be more responsive. However, she feels that knowing about the repercussions is important from a young age so maybe there could be a class on it every year.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable was very different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

She is comfortable approaching her parents when it comes to personal problems and health related issues but would not speak to them about her intimate or romantic relationships.

E I

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was from her bed room at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and her door was closed so she also knew that nobody could hear the conversation. The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is a reserved person and does not talk much. She has a good social circle who she is very close to and has known for several years which she considers her safety net. She did not hesitate when she was asked about personal questions and mentioned past relationships. Since it was a video call, another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means. She was attentive and not distracted by any other source.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop for the video call and a voice recorder. Notes were also taken on the side while the interviewer sat at her desk. On her end, she used her phone to conduct the video call. She was sitting on her bed and a pillow could be seen propped up behind her - which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a teenager, she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Mary has a close relationship with her parents: she would generally approach her mother for health related problems and speak to her father about friendship related issues. She is very fond of her older brother (21 years old) who is currently not at home since he is working. She speaks to him often and is comfortable talking to him about anything. She was born in Atlanta, Georgia and moved to New York when she was 6 years old. Her parents were both born and raised in India so they are culturally attached to their heritage. She identifies herself as American but follows certain Indian customs at home. 93


Short Hills, New Jersey 18th February, 2016

INTERVIEW #5

A

Interview type: Face-to-face

He was very open when it came to sharing information about his experiences and he felt strongly about how girls need to have a full knowledge of their reproductive system.

Time taken: 30 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES: “I think girls need to have a full knowledge of their reproductive system, how works the person during its growth stages, culminating into the adulthood, including menopause. And perhaps, not even in the adulthood but even beyond, how impacts into their health in general. To my mind the person should be well educated as to know what goes on with your body - I am more concerned for women, because men are less impacted by changes in their body, women go through a far more profound change” “Being a man it’s no matter what group society looks at, the issues are being held by the women, not only by getting pregnant, but the health issues and complexities in general. Maybe this is the reason why males do not care about it.” “They have a notion of it being only for fun and entertainment, which is unfortunately true. That is something that I hope they will try to change through education and awareness, I don’t know how they will do this, as it is a change of mindset.”

Location: At paticipant’s home

Team Roles: Interviewer - Pankhuri, Note-taker - Savani Voice Recording - Maria and Photography - Suma

About Jim: A successful businessman and father of 3, Jim is a very friendly and outgoing person. He spends his time with his children by watching quiz shows like Jeopardy on television.

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He wanted to make sure that his children were aware of the topic but was not comfortable communicating the matter to them himself, he felt that his wife handled the situation much more comprehnsively.

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

Name: Jim Gender: Male Age: 58 years

Jim is of the opinion that sex education is very important in schools in USA since girls tend to become sexually active even before they are “adults” really speaking. He thinks that a good age for them to recieve this information is at 10-11. He felt more comfortable having his wife speak to the children about sexual health and the precautionary measures that need to be taken, even with the boys. He has not spoken to his daughter about it at all. He has not heard of any organizations that offer sexual and reproductive health care. He knows that that the school does the entire job of informing the children and trusts that they do a good enough evaluation of the subject.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how he responded to the questions. His behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable were not that different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

E

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was at his house. We felt that he would be most comfortable in a surrounding that he was familiar with and we noticed that he was not particularly bothered by who was listening into the conversation (nobody else was present)

I

The interaction we had with him led us to believe that he is a stong willed and bold person. We say this by looking at his academic and business background, he was very determined to reach a certain position in life at a young age. Another factor we wanted to observe was whether he could be distracted by any other means like his phone, television, etc. However, while the interview took place he did not lose focus on the converation and we had 100% of his attention.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop to refer to the interview question quide, an iPhone for it’s voice recorder and camera and a notebook to log important information. Since this was the first interview we took, 3 of us were present throughout the conversation. He was sitting on the dining table eating breakfast while the interview was being conducted - which shows that he was in a comfortable position while he was being spoken to.

U

As a parent, he is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what he thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Both him and his wife were born and raised in India, so they have a very strong bond with their cultural heritage which clearly reflects on their children. He is a former Senior Vice President, Managing Director at an all-round Dutch bank that offers a full range of products and services to retail, private, corporate clients. Before he got into business management, he was a sailer in the merchant navy for several years. He has 3 children - 2 boys who are 28 years old and 24 years old, and 1 girl who is 15 years old.

95


Short Hills, New Jersey 18 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #6

A

Interview type: Face-to-face Time taken: 45 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Her answers were all short and sweet, very to the point and not as elaborate as we had hoped! She spoke to us about being in a relationship and it being alright with her parents which shows that she is comfortable sharing her personal life with her family.

Location: At participant’s home Materials used: Notebook, pen, iPhone

“Yes, because of my mom. (aware about her period) A girl in my class once said something about period, and then I asked my mom.” “I learned a lot through TV.” “I feel I would first ask my mom. Especially because in New Jersey there a lot of HIV issues and I always ask her first about information that it is being provided to me.”

She comes across as shy at first but slowly started opening up in the end. She sat cross-legged on the couch and bit her nails from time and again.

Team Roles: Interviewer - Maria, Note-taker - Savani, Voice Recording - Pankhuri and Photography - Suma Name: Sandra Gender: Female Age: 15 years About Sandra: A talented dancer, Sandra is a part of her school field hockey team. She is the youngest of 3 siblings and is very close to her mother. She spends her spare time on Instagram and Snapchat.

E

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and we noticed that she was not particularly bothered by who was listening into the conversation (nobody else was present)

I

The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is quiet but not hesitant to respond to any of the questions. She has a good relationship with her parents and is able to talk to them about any problems whether it is health related or personal. She prefers speaking to her mother about these matters. Another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means like her phone, television, etc. However, while the interview took place we had 100% of her attention.

“Boys pay less attention.” “We get health education from school. We have health classes I think in 6th grade (Reproductive system, puberty, etc.) We have them per quarter. 7th, 8th, and 9th are more concentrated in stuff (How to be safe, STDs, contraceptives, etc.)”

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The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable was not different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

Sandra is comfortable asking questions and talking to her parents about anything regarding sex and reproductive health care. They have provided her with an atmosphere of trust and she would rather speak to them than talk to her friends about it. She says that even though she can ask them about anything, it still is an awkward conversation. Her brothers never spoke to her about it (because of the age difference) and she says that she learnt a lot from watching television/movies. She feels that even though information is provided at health class in school people do not take it seriously. Boys pay less attention and make jokes about it.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop to refer to the interview question quide, an iPhone for it’s voice recorder and camera and a notebook to log important information. 2 of us were present, the interviewer sat on the floor and the note-taker on the couch. She was sitting on the couch while the interview was being conducted - which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a teenager, she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Sandra has a close relationship with her parents and has 2 older brothers who are 28 and 24 years old. Because of the big age difference she will always be the “baby of the house” Her parents were both born and raised in India so they are culturally attached to their heritage. She identifies herself as American but follows certain Indian customs at home. She was born and raised in New Jersey but visits India often with her parents. She loves watching TV shows like Scandal, Beyond & Hungry and New Girl.

97


Buenos Aires, Argentina 20 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #7

A

Interview type: Telephonic Time taken: 30 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

She was very comfortable with sharing information about her life as teenager. She laughed while recalling her experiences of talking about this subject with her sister.

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

Since this was not a face to face or video call, it was harder to determine her true behaviour but from her voice. She seemed to be relaxed while talking to us and responded to all the questions we asked her.

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“Maybe the basic things I learned them at school, but I was very young when I had health sex classes so I really did not understand what they were talking about. But you always have a friend that know more about so you start learning from them and you also start doing your own research about the topics you are interested in. For example, I have an older sister, so I asked her a lot of things to her.”

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Maria took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Vinny Gender: Female Age: 19 years About Vinny: A very active, young girl who is studying architecture in Argentina. She enjoys spending time with ther friends but has learnt to manage her time well because she also has a lot of homework.

“Well, if I didn’t have an older sister I think I would have asked my friends about it. However, I think that looking for professionals is the best way. Or if you have the guts, talk to your mom.” “Depends on the type of institution. It should be some institution that provides me trust, a good image, and the location of it it is very important.” “She (her older sister) explained me everything I wanted to know, but she ended the conversation telling me that I should get an appointment with my gynecologist and talk with her more profound topics.”

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Vinny is of the opinion that the reproductive health and sex classes that were conducted at her school were not valuable to her or her classmates because they were very young to actually comprehend the information they got. Vinny said that her sister was vital for her to learn the right things related to sex and health education. Her parents never approached her to talk about this. Her mother talked to her about puberty and the menstrual cycle. She talks to her friends about everything and values their opinion a lot. She has never gone to a NGO to talk about such topics and says that she wouldnt approach one unless she has a health related issue. However, it should be some institution that provides her trust, a good image, and the location of it is very important.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable were not that different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

E

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and we noticed that she was not particularly bothered by who was listening into the conversation (nobody else was present)

I

The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is a very open and confident person. Once again, since it was a phone call we couldn’t see her movements, but we could notice that her tone of her voice was relaxed and she did not seem stressed in any way. Another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means like her phone, television, etc. However, while the interview took place she did not lose focus on the converation and we had 100% of her attention.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop for the video call and a voice recorder. Notes were also taken on the side while the interviewer sat at her desk. Since this was this interview was conducted over the telephone only 1 of us was present.

U

As a teenager she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Vinny spends most of her free time with her friends - they go dancing, we go to bars, to restaurants and we like to hang out in our houses all together. She goes to the gym regularly, loves music and she always goes to concerts. She also loves travelling and buying new clothes. She doesnt like to cook, but she loves to eat. She currently lives with her parents and has one older sister who is 29 years old.

99


Providence, Rhode Island 20 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #8

A

Interview type: Skype Video Call Time taken: 20 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

She spoke about how she really enjoys going to school - to study, meet her friends, play soccer after school and other activities. She comes across as a very well-rounded teenage girl who is smart and dependable.

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

When it came to more intimate questions she laughed at the thought of having to answer, but still shared the information we asked. She

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“What I like most about school is that we have a really close community - so it’s from 2 year olds to 18 year olds, so it’s kind of cool that its a diverse community. And our teachers are always there to help us if we have any questions, which makes going to school more welcoming.” “I’d probably be more comfortable speaking to my friends about it, but yea I would definitely speak to my parents about it too.” “I guess I trust my friends since they are people who are my age are are people who I know. They also know the same things I do so we have been in similar situations and can relate to one another more.” “Not really actually, I wouldn’t say that inschool relationships are very common at my school. It’s kinda awkward because we’re such a small group of kids - and we’ve all known each other for so long so dating would be really weird. You hear more of people meeting guys who aren’t in our year like over the summer and stuff”

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Suma took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Malia Gender: Female Age: 14 years About Malia: The oldest of 3 sisters, Maya loves music and endlessly reading books all day. She plays musical instruments like the guitar and piano. She also practices taekwondo, a Korean martial art form, that she has been learning since the 6th grade.

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Malia was spoken to about puberty and the reproductive system by her mother who is an doctor. She had a very anatomical approach towards teaching it to her which she retained well. She doesn’t trust people easily but when she gets close to people she holds on to them. She is comfortable speaking to her friends about personal problems and is open to asking her parents anything relating to sex. She is not currently in a relationship and has never been before, but if she was she would tell her parents about it. She is close to her parents and they talk to each other a lot about school, homework, friends, etc. They always offer her advise on any kind of issues she may have.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable was very different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

E I

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was from her bed room at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and her door was closed so she also knew that nobody could hear the conversation. The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is a soft spoken but outgoing at the same time. She is a part of several extra-curricular activities and spends a lot of time with her family. She has a big group of friends who she has known for a long time since Providence is a small town, everyone knows eachother well. Since it was a video call, another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means. She was not distracted by any other source.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop for the video call and a voice recorder. Notes were also taken on the side while the interviewer sat at her desk. On her end, she used her phone to conduct the video call. She was sitting on her desk. She had just finished her homework and was taking a break - which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a teenager, she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Malia has a very close relationship with her parents; her father is Italian-American and her mother is Indian-American so she has grown up with a multi-cultured background. She spends a lot of time with her younger sisters who are 13 years old and 9 years old respectively. They tend to argue a lot but she still loves them. They watch TV shows together like Dr. Who and Girl Meets World. Her role models are Jennifer Lawrence and Sabrina Carpenter. She likes to write stories and poetry during her free time. Her favourite subject at school is science.

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Millburn, New Jersey 18 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #9

A

Interview type: Face-to-face Time taken: 15 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

The time she gets to spend with her children is when she drops them to school and after school for other extra curricular activities.

Location: At participant’s home

When we approached her regarding the topic at hand she was hesitant to answer and not at all comfortable speaking to her children about it. She knew that they were taught about it at school and did not feel the need to speak to them about it.

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“Until 9th grade everything was fine and we spent a lot of time together. We used to go out for movies, talk to each other and stuff. But once that passed, its only been in the car or whatever little time we find in between. But it’s really become difficult to talk to them because of their busy schedule.” “Yes, sometimes we sit together and I try explaining things to her regarding the changes taking place in her body. But here (referring to USA), they learn a lot from their friends and outside. They are more mature here I feel, and it also gets covered in her studies. But if she ever has a question about anything, I am open to answering it.” “To be honest, I really haven’t thought about this at this point (taking to her children about sexual health care) I’m not sure maybe we will discuss it.” “As an Indian family, it is a cultural difference.”

Team Roles: Interviewer - Savani, Note-taker - Maria, Voice Recording - Suma and Photography - Pankhuri Name: Sally Gender: Female Age: 45 years About Sally: A mother of 2, Sally currently works at a preschool and has been teaching for the past 12 years. She exercises regularly by going to the gym with the rest of her family.

E I

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and we noticed that she was not particularly bothered by who was listening into the conversation (nobody else was present) The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is a soft spoken and conservative person. She wants to spend more time with her adolescent children who have very busy schedules and do not see her as much as they used to when they were younger. Another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means like her phone, television, etc. Since her overall approach to the subject was uncomfortable we could see that she wanted to get up and finish the conversation as fast as possible.

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The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable were very different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

Sally has an extremely conservative approach towards the topic and is not comfortable speaking to her children about reproductive health care. She spoke to her daughter about the menstrual cycle but has never spoken to her son about it. Her mindset seems to affect her relationship with her children because they are more comfortable talking to their father about general day-to-day things than sharing them with her. She feels that as they have gotten older they are drifting away. She is of the opinion that children in USA grow up much faster than in India, they have more means of information regarding this topic. They discuss it with their friends and do not need to be told by their parents.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop to refer to the interview question quide, an iPhone for it’s voice recorder and camera and a notebook to log important information. 3 of us were present for the entire conversation. We sat at the dining table with her. She was sitting on the dining table while the interview was being conducted - which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a parent, she is an integral part of NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Her favourite way to pass time is by watching cooking shows with her family - they all enjoy cooking and spend time together creating new recipes. Both she and her husband were born and raised in India, so they have a very strong bond with their cultural heritage which clearly reflects on their children. She has 2 children - a boy who are 18 years old and a girl who is 15 years old. She and her husband are both athletic, which has rubbed off on their children who are also extremely into sports

103


Miami, Florida 20 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #10

A

Interview type: Skype Video Call Time taken: 30 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

She approached the topic in a very mature and positive manner. She was more than willing to share her experiences with us even if they were personal matters, which was kind of her.

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

From her mannerisms and detailed explanations we got the impression that she is self secured and comfortable around people.

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“I feel comfortable and I trust them. I know they will give me good advices and I also like talking to them about anything. I approach them because I need answers for certain topics. Also within the time, you learn how your friends are. As a consequence you know what reply they are going to give you. So I think that sometimes I approach a specific friend for a specific topic because I am looking for certain answer”.

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Maria took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Grace Gender: Female Age: 21 years About Grace: A flexible and business-minded person, Grace audits the merchandise of the boats for a well known cruise line. She loves animals and nature so often spends time at the zoo and aquarium. She trusts her family and friends a lot.

“I usually trust by instinct. Many times I have been disappointed. In those cases I just step aside from the relationship. Thankfully this not happen any more since I long time ago”. “It was quite easy. I don’t have any brothers or sisters so I think that my parents wanted me to know almost everything. One day, I think I was 13 years old, they told me everything about health and sex education. I remember they started with the period and then they started to talk about sex. I didn’t know what sex meant in that moment, but when my time arrived I appreciated their advice”.

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Grace has a close relationship with her friends and parents. She does not feel conscious of talking about the topic of sex and has a mature outlook on how people should respond to health care. She is of the opinion that her parents, extended family and school are the best source of information when it comes to health and sex education. She prefers to know about sex by her parents as they are the ones that she trusts the most. She thinks that sex issues should be approached in a very respectful way. If they are not done in a manner that is comforting to the individual being questioned or spoken to, the consequences can be bad - both physically and emotionally.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable was similar to the general conversation about life that we started off with.

E

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was from her bed room at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and her door was closed so she also knew that nobody could hear the conversation.

I

The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is a very open, intelligent and confident person. We observed that she used her hands a lot to explain situations and provide examples of her experiences which shows that she is expressive. Since it was a video call, another factor we wanted to observe was whether she could be distracted by any other means. She was not distracted by any other source.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop for the video call and a voice recorder. Notes were also taken on the side while the interviewer sat at her desk. On her end, she used her computer to conduct the video call. She was sitting in an upright position at her desk which shows that she was in a comfortable position while she was being spoken to.

U

As a young woman she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Grace does not have any siblings which could be a big factor as to why she has a very close relationship with her parents and is not afraid to talk to them about anything. She recalled having a health class in school that talked about the topic and said that she enjoyed it as she found the information valuable. She did not understand it just then, but it came in use later on. She never heard of any organization that provides information on reproductive health or sex education. She never beein in a romatic relationship before.

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Buenos Aires, Argentina 20 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #11

A

Interview type: Telephonic

Since this was not a face to face or video call, it was harder to determine her true behaviour but from her voice.

Time taken: 30 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

Her responses were as minimal as possible, which shows that she was not very comfortable being questioned about this topic.

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“It is very relevant (sex education) but very few educational institutions and/or parents pay enough attention. Governments should participate also actively.” “Professional institution and parents. (because) I believe that we should always get the information from the best and most precise source as possible.” “Mostly is based on the mutual and similar ways of understanding general topics, the reactions and actions of companionship, sympathy and confidence. If my trust is broken for some reason, a good way to handle it is to accept it as and continue.”

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Maria took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Ariel Gender: Female Age: 22 years About Ariel: An analytical thinker, Ariel works as a junior analyst and a bank. She currently lives with her boyfriend and has a close relationship with her group of friends whom she spends a lot time with.

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Ariel has a good relationship with her family and friends. She first recieved sex education at school and now that she is older she is more open speaking about it. She is of the opinion that we should always get the information from the best and most precise source as possible, which is why speaking to professional institutions or parents is the most reliable way of being sure what to do. She has not heard of any non profit organizations that promote awareness on reproductive health care or sex. She strongly believes that the local government should be a part of such initiatives so that youngsters are more aware of the repercussions of not being safe.

The main activity we observed while conducting the interview were how she responded to the questions. Her behaviour towards questions that were more intimate/uncomfortable was very different from the general conversation about life that we started off with.

E

The environment we chose to conduct the interview in was from her bed room at her house. We felt that she would be most comfortable in a surrounding that she was familiar with and her door was closed so she also knew that nobody could hear the conversation.

I

The interaction we had with her led us to believe that she is has a big group of friends who she is comfortable sharing her secrets with. She does not trust people easily and is more reserved when it comes to voicing her opinion assertively. However, she is sure of herself when it comes to her professional work and finds comfort amonst people she knows well.

O

The objects that were used to conduct the interview was a laptop to refer to the interview question quide, an iPhone for it’s voice recorder and a notebook to log important information. Since this was this interview was conducted over the telephone only one of us was present.

U

As a young woman she is an integral part of the NGO’s user audience. Gaining an understanding of what she thinks sex education should entail and how it needs to be taught at schools helped us analyze the situation better.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Ariel has an active social life which she mostly spends it with her boyfriend and their friends by going to restaurants, bars, each other’s homes and by watching movies. She has completed her undergraduate in business administration last year and is now a working frofessional. She does not live with her parents any more but still has a strong relationship with them. She enjoys staying fit and makes sure that she exercisies regularly.

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Manhattan, New York 21 February, 2016 st

INTERVIEW #12 Interview type: Telephonic

Long Island, New York 21st February, 2016

INTERVIEW #13 Interview type: Skype Video Call

Time taken: 35 minutes

Time taken: 25 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Location: Interviewer was at home and interviewee was at her university campus area

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

“I remember when I asked men (during a PTSD research assignment) about domestic violence and they happened to be the perpetrator, there was instances of them feeling ashamed. As my title was of a clinical research interviewer, we had to maintain this sense of neutrality so I found that remaining neutral no matter what they disclosed makes them more at ease.”

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“Our research was to better help post-traumatic stress disorders so they thought they were contributing something for the greater good by adding to out research, which is why I feel they felt comfortable sharing their experience.” “Some parents really care about their children a lot but that can come across as overbearing which might result in the teenager rebeling towards them. So I guess I would try to explain that to them based on what results we see and ask them to approach the topic differently.”

Team Roles: Since the intervuew was conducted on the phone, Suma took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Cathy Gender: Female Age: 24 years About Cathy: Having studied her undergraduate in Clinical Psychology from Cornell University, Cathy moved to New York last year to complete her Masters in the same subject. She is a very active member of her student dorm’s health and welfare assosiation.

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Cathy was comfortable speaking to her parents about sex and reproductive health when she was younger. Her mother is a doctor so she walked her through everthing before she reached puberty. Her approach towards speaking to parents about sexual health care would be by telling them how important the topic is for the children - retaining their innocence is one thing, but they should be aware of what to expect if anything goes wrong. She is of the opinion that while conducting the interview with either the youth or parents, it is important for them to know where the information we record is going. Knowing that it will benefit other people’s health care or health care service would be a good way of approaching the topic.

MEMORABLE QUOTES: “The boys, not really. (regular check ups) And as such, there isn’t a recommendation for a regular check up apart from testicular cancer screening, which they usually get during physicals. But the girls are recommended to have tests every year to make sure there are no infections and another test 3 years after they get active. But a lot of girls, I have to say, don’t do that, in the college population. “For one, they are afraid that even though the information is confidential it might reach the parents who might question them about what this service is for. Secondly, many of them don’t know of the recommendation. But if they come for an indirect condition like abdominal pain, urinary infection etc, we do ask them whether they are up to date with all these exams.” “We actually send students to the nearby NGO for check ups, STD screening, etc. We give them all the options we can. Since this NGO is also known to have an abortion clinic so if they need that service they can arrange it for them.”

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone Team Roles: Since the intervuew was conducted on the phone, Savani took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Natasha Gender: Female Age: 43 years About Natasha: A practicing physician, Natasha has been working at a heath service center in a University for the past 10 years. She is a mother of two - her son is 22 years old and her daughter is 16 years old. She loves art and does a lot of embroidery in her free time. She enjoys gardening and barbecuing.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

Natasha spends a lot of time around youth and has observed how regular check ups are not being done often enough when it comes to reproductive health care for both males and females.

2

She is of the opinion that females do not visit the health center regularly becayse they are afraid that even though the information is confidential it might reach the parents who might question them about what the service is for.

3

Brochures/pamphlets are given out when students visit the center. Other than that there is a health education office that is connected to it. They are the ones who go into the residence halls and talk about protection. It’s more of an outreach, where they go to all the likely places students hang out at and also arrange for HIV testing along with Long Island HIV Coalition. 109


Manhattan, New York 21 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #14 Interview type: Telephonic

Ranchi, India 22 February, 2016

Location: Interviewer was at home and interviewee was at her university campus but not in class

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Suma took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Gina Gender: Female Age: 24 years About Gina: Having studied her undergraduate in Clinical Psychology from Cornell University, Gina moved to New York last year to complete her Master in the same subject. She is an active member of her student dorm’s welfare association.

“Our research was to better help post-traumatic stress disorders so they thought they were contributing something for the greater good by adding to out research, which is why I feel they felt comfortable sharing their experience.” “Some parents really care about their children a lot but that can come across as overbearing which might result in the teenager rebeling towards them. So I guess I would try to explain that to them based on what results we see and ask them to approach the topic differently.”

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

2

3

110

Gina was comfortable speaking to her parents about sex and reproductive health when she was younger. Her mother is a doctor so she walked her through everthing before she reached puberty. Her approach towards speaking to parents about sexual health care would be by telling them how important the topic is for the children - retaining their innocence is one thing, but they should be aware of what to expect if anything goes wrong. She is of the opinion that while conducting the interview with either the youth or parents, it is important for them to know where the information we record is going. Knowing that it will benefit other people’s health care or health care service would be a good way of approaching the topic.

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“I remember when I asked men (during a PTSD research assignment) about domestic violence and they happened to be the perpetrator, there was instances of them feeling ashamed. As my title was of a clinical research interviewer, we had to maintain this sense of neutrality so I found that remaining neutral no matter what they disclosed makes them more at ease.”

Interview type: Skype Video Call Time taken: 25 minutes

Time taken: 35 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

INTERVIEW #15

“I usually talk about independence and how everybody had their own choices. About love and how there is nothing bad or wrong about it and that they shouldn’t hide it from their own parents.” “Well, I am really open with my kids and even now we talk about things and include them as jokes so there is no taboo in the house. While my kids were studying biology and the reproductive system I used to teach them and I just told them that it is a common thing and how you have a respiratory system there is a reproductive system in the body and that it is a necessary thing. There is nothing to laugh about to think different because it happens to everyone.” “I think the most important part is STDs and everyone should be aware of it. Then there are things like preventive measures such as condoms and contraceptive pills, teenage pregnancies and how to handle that problem.”

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Pankhuri took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Mika Gender: Female Age: 48 years About Mika: A practicing councillor at a public school, Mika spends a lot of time around youth. She is married with 2 children who are both studying medicine. She is approachable, kind and is a good listener.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

Mika is of the opinion that trust and a non judgemental attitude towards children helps in gaining their confidence thereby making them talk more freely and be less conscious of themselves.

2

She lays great importance on independence and the right to chose in her conselling sessions, regardless of what the situation may be.

3

She discussed a teenage pregnancy case handled by her which reflected the discomfort, non acceptance and lack of support from the parental side. She approached the matter by giving the parents reassurance and helping them realise their role in supporting their child especially under such circumstances. 111


Buenos Aires, Argentina 20 February, 2016

INTERVIEW #16 Interview type: Skype Video Call Time taken: 40 minutes

MEMORABLE QUOTES:

Location: Both interviewer and interviewee were at their respective homes

Financial Framework Revenue New users Total users People paying the App Total cost of the App (once)

Materials used: Notebook, pen, laptop, iPhone

“I work at an NGO in Argentina that treats women’s violence and a lot of teenage women come here”. “I would start talking to them about love and about how they take care of themselves as humans. Sex is a very strong word and sometimes teenagers get scared of it, this is most common when someone had a bad experience with it. So maybe talking about what love means for them, or if love is important to them, will help to give them confidence into the topic.” “I think parents are easier than teenagers. Parents know that this is a very important topic, therefore I would not waste that much time in thinking about this. I think that the word education is very important to have it presence along all the conversation with the parents”. “Teens need to understand how the body works and the changes they go through. Nobody should be ashamed of it, that is why the topic should be covered in a very delicate why by school and other institutions.”

Team Roles: Since the interview was conducted on the phone, Maria took notes, documented and interviewed her Name: Bella Gender: Female Age: 29 years About Bella: A person that likes to study a lot, Bella is currently pursuing her undergraduate degree in Anthropology. She is very passionate about how humans minds and their bodies work. She is open-minded and a good listener.

TOP 3 LEARNINGS: 1

2

Bella works with women that have suffered a great deal of violence, including teenage girls. She says that violence starts at home and that women are always afraid to talk about their relationships. She says that the best way to approach teenagers regarding health care and sex education is by commiunicating the message less harshly. If we approch the youth by asking “what love means” it might have a more comfortable/relatable feel

2019

1000 1000 100 $ 6.00 $ 600

5000 6000 600 $ 6.00 $ 3,600

7000 13000 1050 $ 6.00 $ 6,300

-

$ 9,200 $ 4,600 $ 9,200 $ 13,380 $ 13,380

$ 4,600 $ 7,000 $ 47,980

$ 22,580

$ 4,600

$ 15,000 $ 22,000 $ 10,000

17000 25000 $ 7,500 $ 10,000

19000 27000 $ 7,500 $ 10,000

TOTAL

$ 47,000

59500

63500

TOTAL COSTS

$ 94,980

$ 82,080

$ 68,100

$ 94,380

$ 78,480

$ 61,800

Operating Expenses Marketing Incentives Health Care Educators App/Web maintainance and hosting Administrative & Other

Net Assets

2018

$ 4,600 $ 9,200

TOTAL

3

112

App Development Costs* Email Login Social Media Login Rating System Camera/Photos User Profile Messaging Search Social media sharing User Privacy Settings

2017

-

Note: the costs have been calculated to create and App that will work on Apple, Google and Windows platforms + a website. *http://blog.projectionhub.com/projecting-startup-costs-for-a-mobile-app/

She feels that sex education should be a must in every city, in every country and that the government should have a very active role in promoting this.

113


References

Baum, Fran, McDougall, Colin and Smith, Danielle (2006) Participatory Action Research : J Epidemiol Community Health Parker-Pope, Tara (2016) “Design thinking for a better you” : The New York Times (2015) Design Research Ethics: IDEO Kumar, Vijay (2012) 101 Design Methods: John Wiley and Sons Gray, Dave, Brown, Sunni and Macanufo, James Gamestorming : O’Reilly AEIOU Framework ; EthnoHub (2016) All you need to know about your customer journey mapping : CMO Digital Forum

Stickdorn, Marc (2010) This is Service Design Thinking

Qualitative research guidelines project :RWJF

Stakeholder Interviews discussion guide. Fjord Sample interview guide. Bootcamp bootleg version 2 (2010). Hanson Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford. Interview Toolkit. Open IDEO Work differently. (2015): Gravity Tank Hackable Cities, a toolkit for revitalizing your neighbourhood. Parsons School of Design. Martin, Bella and Hanington, Bruce (2012) Universal Methods of Design : Rockport Allan, Dave Rudkin, Daz Murrin,Kris and Kingdom, Matt (2002) Sticky Wisdom: How to Start a Creative Revolution at Work: What if ! Blank, Steve (2014) Talking to humans Battarbee, Katja, Fulton Suri, Jane and Gibbs Howard Suzanne (2014) Empathy on the edge : IDEO 114

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The Wise Choice  

Through this project, we show a methodology on how to embed a new design thinking method into a nonprofit organization that will enable a ne...

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