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FALL 2008

HOTELS Northeastern University School of Architecture ARCH G691 Graduate Degree Project Studio


FALL 2008

HOTELS Northeastern University School of Architecture ARCH G691 Graduate Degree Project Studio

HEATHER CARD

LAURA SEHN

NICK DEVEAU

JACK SHERMAN

BRITTANY GRANNAN

KATRINA SOUSA

SEAN GRUMMER

DAVE SWETZ

ALI KRICHMAN

JEN TAYLOR

DA THAO NGUYEN

AMY THERRIEN

CRAIG SCHMOHL

DIANA WAWRZASZEK


Published by

Bibliography

Northeastern University School of Architecture

Allen, Edward and Joseph Iano. The Architect’s

360 Huntington Ave

Studio Companion. New Jersey: John Wiley &

Boston, Massachusetts 02115

Sons, Inc., 2007. Ching, Francis D.K. and Steven R Winkel.

Copyright Š 2008 by Northeastern University School of Architecture

Building Codes Illustrated. New Jersey: John

All rights reserved

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.

First printing November 2008 De Chiara, Joseph, et al. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Studio Research Team

Ramsey, Charles George and Harold Reeve

Heather Card

Sequence Research and Package Development

Sleeper. Architectural Graphic Standards. New

Nick Deveau

Sequence Research and Package Development

Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.

Brittany Grannan

Amenities Research and Package Development

Sean Grummer

Back of House Research and Package Development

Rutes, Walter A., et al. Hotel Design Planning

Ali Krichman

Amenities Research and Package Development

and Development. China: W.W. Norton &

Da Thao Nguyen

Style Research and Package Development

Company, 2001.

Craig Schmohl

Configuration Research and Package Development

Laura Sehn

Back of House Research and Package Development

Jack Sherman

Guestroom Service and Amenities Development

Katrina Sousa

Style Research and Package Development

Dave Swetz

Guestroom Service and Amenities Development

Jen Taylor

Book organization/standardization/graphics

Amy Therrien

Book organization/standardization/matrices

Diana Wawrzaszek

Configuration Research and Package Development

Studio Lead Amanda Lawrence Joel Lamere


This publication has been prepared as part of a five week graduate thesis studio assignment in the Northeastern University School of Architecture for the Fall 2008 Architecture G691 course. Other publications in this series include urban retail, office and parking garage typologies, all produced by graduate students in the Northeastern University architecture program.


Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION

Hotel Categorization ..........................4 Definition of Package System ...........5

II. GUEST

AMENITIES Introduction ......................................7 Packages .........................................8 Lobby ..............................................10 Function Space ..............................16 Recreation .....................................26 Food and Beverage ......................32 Retail ..............................................38 Entertainment ...............................44 GUEST SEQUENCES Fundamental Sequences .............51 Levels of Service ..........................52 Overnight Visitor ...........................53 Business Visitor.............................59 Entertainment Visitor ....................62 Distances of a Sequence .............65 SG1: Jaunt ......................................70 SG2: Trip .........................................71 SG3: Tour ........................................72 SG 4: Excursion ..............................73


III. SERVICES

BACK OF HOUSE Introduction ....................................75 Back of House Packages ..............76 B1: Economizer ..............................78 B2: Baseline ...................................79 B3: Specialty ..................................80 B4: Everything ...............................81 Front Office ....................................82 Main Kitchen ..................................88 Service Facilities ...........................94 Mechanical .....................................98 Back of House Trends .................104 SERVICE SEQUENCES Fundamental Sequences ............109 Levels of Service ..........................110 Management .................................111 Housekeeping ..............................114 Room Service ...............................116 Housekeeping Vendor .................118 Restaurant Vendor .......................121 Distances of a Sequence ............123 SS1: Simple ...................................126 SS1: Complex ...............................127

IV. DESIGN

CONFIGURATION Building Configuration .................130 Room Aggregation .......................136 Core Arrangement .......................142 Parking Location ..........................146 Configuration Matrix ....................147

ROOMS Introduction to Rooms .................149 Icon Definitions ............................150 R1: Budget Room .........................152 R2: Standard Room .....................156 R3: Pleasant Room .....................160 R4: Refined Suite .........................164 R5: Royal Suite ............................168 STYLE Facade ..........................................174 Lobby ............................................184 Guestroom ...................................196 Conclusion ...................................206 Mini-Matrix ...................................207

V. PACKAGE MATRICES

Matrix Series ..................................208 Package Matrix 1 ...........................210 Package Matrix 2 ...........................212 Package Matrix 3 ...........................214 Package Matrix 4 ...........................216 Package Matrix 5 ...........................218 Package Matrix 6 ...........................220


Introduction What is a hotel?

With such a broad definition, how are hotels more

What makes this hotel pattern book different from

specifically categorized? Is there a standard?

other books for hotel design?

can be defined as an establishment that

Organizations exist, whose purpose it is to rate

Our book is divided into three main sections; guest,

provides lodging in exchange for pay;

hotels. Often, a system of diamonds or stars is

services, and design, each of which has subcate-

usually in the short-term. Simple.

used. The criteria for these rating systems is

gories. These subcategories include:

This definition, although vague, encom-

exhaustive and detailed. The benefit of the rigor

1. Amenities

passes a wide range of hotel categories

involved in these ratings is the consistency of one

2. Guest sequence

that will be further discussed and defined

hotel rating to another. Diamond ratings from AAA

3. Back of house

in the chapters of this book.

for example range from one to five diamonds, with

4. Service sequence

hotels being rated on a strictly factual quantified list

5. Configuration

of amenities and services provided.

6. Rooms and style.

For the purposes of the this book, a hotel

Each of these subcategories has been thoroughly researched and a series of “packages� or collections of commonly-paired hotel options are defined in each chapter. Each package is designated by a colored box such as this:

B1

. You will see these

symbols throughout the chapters where the packages are described. This makes it easy for a hotel designer to page through each chapter and see clearly which option would best fit the overall theme or design.

4


How do I know that I’m choosing the right package types to piece together?

Guest

While there is no ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ grouping of these package types, there is a matrix at the end of the book that illustrates common groupings of package types from each chapter. This will allow a designer to get an idea of what ‘type’ of hotel will be

Additionally, the real advantage of the book is that it breaks down the hotel into specific elements that are small enough to easily be understood. At the end of the book, the user is faced with the decision of choosing whether to use one of the pre-packaged “hotel types” from the list in the supermatrix, or whether to create a new ‘type’ of hotel entirely by picking a unique mixture of packages from each chapter.

A2

A3

A4

S1

S2

S3

S4

B1

B2

B3

B4

S1

S2

C1

C2

C3

R1

R2

ST1

ST2

G

Services

created as a result of choosing a certain combination of packages.

A1

S

Design

+ =

G

A5

A6

C4

C5

C6

R3

R4

R5

ST3

ST4

G

G

S

Hotel

The graphic at the right illustrates the packages that will be described in the book. The idea is that an architect or designer can choose a certain number of packages from each category to create a customized hotel that will be designed around exactly what is important for that hotel in particular.

5


guest

Amenities Introduction

7

Packages

8

Lobby

10

Function Space

16

Recreation

26

Food and Beverage

32

Retail

38

Entertainment

44


Amenities are one of the most memorable aspects of hotels. Guests remember details of the lobby or how good the food was, and use these memories to determine whether or not they will stay at the hotel again.

Retail

Recreation

tant. The lobby is usually the ďŹ rst and last impres-

guest

Out of all the amenities, the lobby is the most imporsion left on a hotel guest or visitor. From this central point guests can check into their room or proceed to the pool or casino. Most other public amenities have a direct connection to the lobby and may even be visible. In addition to a lobby, most hotels offer some type

Lobby

Entertainment

of function space for their guests that are on business. At the minimum, hotels provide a business center to check e-mail. Recreation is a growing trend in hotels and providing a pool is the standard. Spas and spacious ďŹ tness centers are amenities that draw people to a

Function

hotel.

Food & Beverage

Another essential amenity is food and beverage. Most hotels provide some type of food outlet to their guests. This can be proďŹ table to a hotel by bringing in outside visitors. In larger hotels or resorts, entertainment facilties can be found. Gift shops or convenience stores are also popular in this hotel type.

As seen in the diagram, the lobby remains central to the rest of the public amenities.

Lobby

Business Center

Pool

Breakfast Area

Gift Shop

Casino

Front Desk

Meeting Rooms

Fitness Center

Restaurant

Convenience Store

Night Club

Bellhop

Ballroom

Spa

Bar

Retail

Theater

7


A

Amenities Packages Bottom Line

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Lobby

Function Space

Recreational

Food and Beverage

Retail

Entertainment

8

A1

Basic

A2

Expanded

A3


Amenities Packages Enhanced

A4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A

A6 guest

9


Lobby Amenities The hotel lobby makes the greatest impact on the guest. As the most important public area, the lobby sets the tone for what to expect elsewhere. guest

While serving as the main entry, the lobby also serves other public functions. It serves as a point of security; the front desk attendants can keep an eye on all activity coming in and out. Also, the lobby can be an informal meeting place for hotel guests. The hotel lobby should meet the core needs of the guests and create a sense of community. When designing the lobby important aspects to

Lobby Lounge

consider are the scale, atmosphere, and the image

Concierge Desk

to be conveyed throughout the hotel. It is essential during the design process to balance function and visual impact. Key planning considerations include:

Bellhop Front Desk

• Access to public elevators • Access to parking • Visibility of entrances

Bag Storage

10


Lobby Lounge The lobby lounge should serve as an informal gathering place which allows guests to relax or work outside of their guest room.

35’

Small Lobby Lounge

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15’

The lounge should be located near the front desk as well as the main entrance. The area should include private seating groups to allow for private conversations.

A3

50’

Design elements often included in the lounge are multiple entrances and water elements.

30’

Medium Lobby Lounge

A4 A5

75’

Square Feet per Guestroom in Lobby

Minimum 6 sqft

Average 10 sqft

Spacious 10 sqft

40’

Large Lobby Lounge

A6 11


Front Desk The front desk is an essential part of the lobby. It is where guests check-in and check-out as well as ask general questions about the hotel. Another important feature is how it acts as security for the hotel. The front desk should have a view of all major entrances from outside as well as the guest elevators.

8’

10’

guest

Often a concierge desk is located next to the front desk. Usually there are a few lounge chairs in front of the desk for the comfort of the guest.

Minimum Front Desk

A1

Lobby Clerks per Number of Rooms 1-150

16’

150-250

10’

250-350 350-450 450-550

Average Front Desk

A2 A3 26’

16’

10’

10’

12

Front Desk with Concierge

A4 A5 A6

Front Desk Visibility


Bag Storage Bag storage or bellhop service is an optional amenity often included in large hotels or vacation locations.

Bag storage should be located near the front desk and if possible have access to the front entry. This room should be locked and have shelving for checked luggage.

guest

The bellhop station should be located near the front desk or main entry point. Usually a stand with telephone is provided to call for transportation. 10’ 10’

Small Bag Storage

10’

Bellhop Circulation Paths

A5

15’

Medium Bag Storage

A6

13


Prototypes

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A1

A2

• Front desk located immediately at main entrance

14

Prototypical Package Bottom Line & Basic


Prototypes

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A3

A4

• Medium front desk area • Medium sized lounge within view of front desk • Usually located near the main entrance

Prototypical Package Expanded & Enhanced

A5

A6

• Large lounge area with plenty of separate seating areas • Large front desk • Separate concierge desk • Lockable bag storage behind front desk

Prototypical Package Elaborate & Deluxe

15


Function Space Amenities

guest

Hotels contain function space of varying sizes that cater to many events such as conferences, conventions and weddings. The different function spaces include business centers, meeting rooms, banquet and reception halls and ballrooms. The design of these spaces primarily focus on the needs of business and personal events. The range of function spaces available are able to cater to every occasion due to the vast range in sizes of these spaces. They range from small meeting rooms of approximately 250 sq. ft. up to large ballrooms over 30,000 sq. ft. In general, a hotel should contain a variety of different sized function spaces. The mixture of these spaces are based on the hotel’s demand for different types of business and social uses. For example, Packages A and B, in the pages to follow, will contain much less function space then Packages E and F, based on the needs of the hotel guest. Also, a focus on the space’s interior and the extra amenities they include, such as A/V equipment is important to meet the expectations of the current market. Key planning considerations include:

16

• Group all the function areas together • The function spaces should be located in close proximity to the lobby for easy accessibility • Include adjacent public support areas such as restrooms and coatrooms

Ballroom

Reception Hall

Business Center

Pre-function Space

Meeting Room

Meeting Room Meeting Room


Business Center

Configuration A offers minimal options and is primarily used for quick reference by people on-the-go.

Finally, configuration C offers several computers and the full range of options and additionally contains a lounge with full hotel service.

8’-0”

10’-0”

Configuration B offers several computers along with the full range of options. It is typically used by guests travelling on business.

guest

Business centers provide hotel guests with convenient access to computers and other technology. They range in size and amenities.

Configuration A

2-6 Computers

Printer / Scanner

Fax Machine

Copy Machine

18’-0”

16’-0”

36’-0” 18’-0”

Configuration B

10’-0”

80 Sq. Ft.

A1 A2 A3 288 Sq. Ft. 24’-0”

24’-0”

16’-0”

8’-0”

36’-0”

A5 A6 864 Sq. Ft.

A5 A6 Size Range and Seating Capacity

Configuration C

17


Meeting Room Conference Scheme Meeting rooms can be categorized into either a

The conference scheme is a more appropriate

conference scheme or a classroom scheme.

setup for interactive discussions between guests

The main differences between the two is their

and allows for open conversation.

seating capacity and what type of function will be

guest

held in the space. The majority of meeting room

Three schemes for possible table and chair

spaces are equipped with projection screens and

layouts can be seen in the diagrams to the left.

audio/visual equipment along with whiteboards.

U-Shape Scheme

30’-0”

16’-0”

18’-0”

25’-0”

Hollow Square Scheme

288 Sq. Ft. 12 - 24 People

A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

750 Sq. Ft. 28 - 32 People A5 A6 18 Dividable Scheme

Size Range and Seating Capacity


Meeting Room Classroom Scheme The classroom scheme is a more appropriate setup for a lecture because the individuals are focused toward one side of the room. Therefore,

guest

this scheme can seat more people.

A/V Equipment

In the classroom scheme, tables are provided for note-taking purposes.

Whiteboard 30’-0”

25’-0”

16’-0”

18’-0”

288 Sq. Ft. 12 - 24 People Classroom Scheme

A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

750 Sq. Ft. 42 - 75 People A5 A6 Size Range and Seating Capacity

Theater-style Scheme

19


Reception Hall

guest

The reception hall is primarily used before and after an event taking place in the ballroom. It is appropriate for stand-up functions where beverages and appetizers are served. Food is presented at small buffet tables or passed around by servers.

Smaller reception halls are often the same width as a meeting room to ease the design of the plan. The designer can simply remove two walls to increase the span of the room and replace with moveable partitions for flexibility.

72’-0” 30’-0”

40’-0”

27’-0”

Flexible Scheme

810 Sq. Ft. 28 - 90 People 2880 Sq. Ft. 68 - 350 People

A4 A5 A6

A5 A6

20

General Layout

Size Range and Seating Capacity


Ballroom Design Criteria:

The benefit of these large spaces is the flexibility of subdividable space. The diagram to the right represents different options of how the ballroom can be divided to allow for additional meeting rooms. Therefore, two or more groups can use the space simultaneously.

• Subdividable • Proportion • Structure; no columns • High ceiling height • Direct access to areas of service

guest

Ballrooms are used for large events such as banquets, conventions and wedding receptions. Ballrooms can range in size from 4,000 sq. ft. to over 30,000 sq. ft.

4 : 3 Ratio

Basic Proportion

224’-0”

56’-0”

72’-0”

4032 Sq. Ft. 200 - 500 People

Flexible Scheme A

A4 A5 A6 136’-0”

30,460 Sq. Ft. 2800 - 4500 People

A5 A6 Size Range and Seating Capacity

Flexible Scheme B

21


Function Space Amenities Metrics x .3x .2x

.3y .2y

guest

The diagram to the right represents the average ratio in size of the meeting room and the reception hall to the ballroom. These ratios are determined from the average dimensions in the chart below.

y

The chart below represents general dimensions and areas of the meeting room, reception hall and the ballroom. The chart also lists the seating capacity of each room according to the seating and table arrangement.

Function Space Size Ratio Based on average dimensions

Function Space

Area

LxW

Sq. Feet

Meeting Room

18’ x 16’ 21’ x 20’ 26’ x 22’ 30’ x 25’

288 420 570 750

Reception

30’ x 27’ 45’ x 30’ 60’ x 34’ 72’ x 40’

810 1350 2040 2880

72’ x 56’ 96’ x 84’ 160’ x 75’ 212’ x 114’ 224’ x 136’

4032 8060 12,000 24,160 30,460

Ballroom

22

Dimensions

Seating Capacity by Scheme U-shape

Hollow

Classroom

Theater

Reception

Banquet

14 20 24 28

16 24 28 32

12 24 36 42

24 50 60 75

28 28 48 68

36 36 60 80

45 50 126 150

90 100 220 320

85 100 210 350

60 72 160 210

210 330 700

350 550 1300

500 840 1500 2700 4500

256 660 1000 1840 2800


Function Space Amenities Metrics

.2x

Theater-style & Banquet

Classroom

32 ft.²

Conference

Average space requirement per person

34’-0”

45’-0”

.3x

20 ft.²

12 ft.²

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20’-0”

22’-0”

5’-0”

160’-0”

6’-0”

Banquet tables seating capacity

6’-0”

2’-6”

1x

75’-0”

2’-0”

4’-0”

1’-4”

2’-6”

Prototypical Size Ratio

Based on average dimensions

Minimum dimensions for classroom and theater furniture layout

23


Prototypes A2

A3

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• Small business center with 1 computer & 1 printer • 1 or 2 small meeting rooms • Usually located on the ground floor level

Basic & Expanded Prototypical Packages

A4 • Between 3 & 6 small meeting rooms • 1 small ballroom/ reception hall • Usually located on 2nd floor and integrated among guestrooms

24

Enhanced Prototypical Package


Prototypes A5 guest

• Medium sized business center with 2-6 computers, a printer, scanner & fax machine • Several subdividable meeting rooms of varying sizes • 1 very large subdividable ballroom • Usually located on 2nd or 3rd floor

Elaborate Prototypical Package

A6 • Medium to large sized business center with 2-6 computers, a printer, scanner & fax machine • Several subdividable meeting rooms of varying sizes • 2 or more large ballrooms • Usually occupies more than one floor level

Deluxe Prototypical Package

25


Recreational Amenities At the minimum, hotels provide an outdoor swimming pool. However, the trend in hotels is to provide more recreational amenities for guests to relax. In guest

some cases, such as fitness centers and spas,these amenities can be offered to the public as well as the guests. Recreational amenities offered largely depend on the budget of the hotel developer. Low budget hotels tend to only include a small fitness center and an outdoor pool. High-end hotels provide a pool, fitness center and spa center. Resorts will

Fitness Center

include all of the above and usually have multiples, such as pools. Location is important for recreational amenities. The spa can be placed away from the lobby in order

Pool

to have a more peaceful atmosphere. Typically pools and hot tubs are located a few feet away from one another to allow better guest circulation. Fitness centers are generally located off the lobby and have a connection to the pool.

26

Hot Tub Spa


Swimming Pool There are different types of pools to serve the needs of various hotels. The recreational swimming pool is good for families or hotels looking to provide a relaxing swim for their guests. The lap pool often serves more of a fi tness than a recreational purpose. The Olympic size pool combines both purposes by adding or removing lane buoys.

60’ 40’

Key planning considerations: • locate the pool near guest elevators, and if possible without passing through the lobby • position the pool to receive natural sunlight preferrably from mid-morning to late afternoon • for indoor pools provide suffi cient ventilation either through an operable roof or glass walls •

DO NOT provide a diving board, it is too much of an insurance risk

Recreational Pool

guest

20’

40’

A1 A6

80’ 60’ 8’

Lap Pool

28’

A2 A3 A4

184’ 164’

Side View 3’

3’

3’

9’

3’

6’

82’

102’

Top View

Level

Traditional

Pool Depth Options

L-Shape

Olympic Swimming Pool

A5 A6

27


Fitness Center The fi tness center is becoming the central recreational amenity in hotels. The fi tness center should provide a variety of exercise equipment to satisfy the needs of all guests.

32’

guest

22’

Basic Fitness Center

Key planning considerations: • locate the center near guest elevators, and near main entry for outside visitors • provide a few mats for stretching near the weight machines • providing tvs near the cardio machines is a common amenity

A1 A2

42’

32’

Exercise Room : 600 Sq. Ft. Minimum Aerobic Classroom: 800 Sq. Ft.

Average Fitness Center A3 A4 Treadmill: 50 Sq. Ft./ Unit

83’ 21’

62’

Exercise Bicycle: 50 Sq. Ft./ Unit 42’

Nautilus Circuit: 400 Sq. Ft. Weight Machines: 50 Sq. Ft./ Unit

28

Fitness Center with Aerobic Room

A5 A6


Spa 40’

Key planning considerations: • locate the center near guest elevators, and near main entry for outside visitors • provide a reception area with clerk and chairs for guests while they wait • try to keep programs requiring quiet away from louder programs like whirlpools or the reception area

guest

Spas are the new recreational amenity to provide for guests. The facility should include programs depending on the type of market or user the hotel is trying to accommodate.

28’

Small Spa

A4

50’

Possible Spa Programs: 28’

Whirlpool / Hot Tub: 20 Sq. Ft. per person Sauna: 20 Sq. Ft. per person

A5

Medium Spa 50’

Manicure / Pedicure: 70 Sq. Ft. per person Massage: 70 Sq. Ft. per person

40’

Facial: 100 Sq. Ft. per person

Large Spa

A6

29


Prototypes

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A1 A2 A3 A1 A2 A3 • Medium recreational • pool Medium swimming or lap pool pool • Small fitness center for • A1 Medium fitness center • 5• Cardio Machines 5 cardio machines • Free Weights • 3 Nautilis machines • Stretching Area area • 1 free weights • 1 stretching area • Medium fitness center for A2 and A3 • 10 cardio machines • 1 Nautilis circuit • 1 free weights area • 2 stretching areas

Prototypical Package Bottom Line, Basic, Extended Prototypical Package Bottom Line, Basic, Extended

A5 A5 • Large Fitness Center • Large Center • 15+ Fitness cardio machines • 10 Machines • 2Cardio Nautilis circuit • Full Nautlis Circuit • 3 free weights areas • Free Weights • 3 stretching areas Medium Spa Spa •• Medium • 2• Manicure Rooms Medium sauna • 2• Massage Rooms 1 massage room

30

Prototypical Package Elaborate Prototypical Package Elaborate

• 1 facial room • 2 hot tubs / whirlpools • 3 manicure stations


Prototypes

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A4

A6

• Lap pool or olympic size pool • Medium size fitness center and spa for A4 • Large fitness center for A6 • Large Spa for A6 • Medium sauna • 5 massage rooms • 2 facial rooms • 2 hot tubs / whirlpools • 3 manicure stations

Prototypical Package Enhanced & Deluxe

31


Food and Beverage Amenities Hotels should include some type of food or beverage amenity for their guests. The most common types provided are breakfast areas, bars and resguest

taurants. In the past, chain restaurants were popular choices for hotels but this has decreased because it was found to give hotels a bad name in food service. More common today are privately owned restaurants that continue the theme or overall design aesthetic of the hotel.

Bar

Any food and beverage amenities should be located near the lobby and if possible have direct access to the exterior for outside visitors.

Restaurant

Most hotel guests wish to have food and beverage available not only during regular hours but after hours as well. The type of food and beverage amenities should be based on the market and user that the hotel is trying to attract. Typically, the longer the stay at a hotel the more food and beverage amenities should be provided except in the case of extended stay hotels. Key planning considerations: • market characteristics • concept (type of menu, service, entertainment to be provided) • the atmosphere that the hotel wants to create

32

Bar

Breakfast Area


Breakfast Area Breakfast areas are the minimum food amenity a hotel should provide. The breakfast area can range from a continental breakfast to hot counter service. Often food is available for on the go or quick service.

guest

If a hotel does not wish to provide a breakfast area, a common alternative is to outsource this amenity. The space should then include an exterior entrance as well as an entrance from the lobby which can be closed when the area is not open.

25’

20’

Small Breakfast Area

A1

35’

Key planning considerations: • locate the center near guest elevators, and near main entry for outside visitors • provide a reception area with clerk and chairs for guests while they wait •

keep program requiring quiet away from louder program such as whirlpools or the reception area

15’

Medium Breakfast Area

A2 A5

45’

Outsourced

45’

Breakfast Area Circulation

Large Breakfast Area

A3 A6

33


Restaurant Restaurants are the main food amenity found in hotels. They should start with a concept or idea of the food to be provided. Each establishment can vary in size depending on the type, and location of the hotel. In general, a restaurant should provide seats equal to 0.6 times the number of guest rooms.

60’

guest

30’

Small Restaurant

Key planning considerations: • provide direct access to the kitchen and other back of house services • locate the restaurant so that it is visible from public areas • try to pair restaurants with bars nearby for guests to lounge or wait

A2

50’

45’

Typical Sizes and Shapes for Dining Tables Square

Round

Rectangle

30”

36” 36”

Medium Restaurant

A3 A4

Table for 2

30”

80’ 36”

48” 48”

Table for 4

36”

50’

60” Table for 6

34

Large Restaurant

A5 A6

72”

42”


Bar Bar and lounge areas vary greatly from hotel to hotel because of the market. They can range from a sports bar to a dive bar and even a wine bar. If the bar is placed in the lobby, it can provide additional seating. Lounge seating should accomodate 0.3 times the number of guest rooms.

25’

guest

20’

Key planning considerations: • provide screens or level changes to create more intimate spaces between seating groups • organize seats around a focal point whether that is the bar or a type of entertainment • make the area visible to the lobby and guests • provide control to video and sound behind the bar to be adjusted when necessary • consider using different types of seating such

Small Lobby Bar

A2

35’

15’

as tables, lounge chairs, sofas, and seats at the bar

Medium Bar

Minimum Bar Design

A3 A4

45’

24”

30”

35’

10’-10”

28”

48” 24”

Large Bar / Restaurant

A5 A6

35


Prototypes

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A1 • Small breakfast area near the front desk • Provide a 3’ wide counter for appliances like toasters, etc. • Usually located near the main enterance

Prototypical Package Bottom Line

A2 • Small breakfast area of coffee shop for guests and public • Medium sized restaurant that serves both lunch and dinner

36

Prototypical Package Basic


Prototypes

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A4 • Small bar area located near the front desk • Small restaurant with possible carry out option

Prototypical Package Enhanced

A3

A5

A6

• Large separate lounge area with separate bar • Large restaurant • Small breakfast area for continental breakfast

Prototypical Package Expanded, Elaborate, Deluxe

37


Retail Amenities Some hotels contain retail space as a public amenity to its guests and visitors. These retail spaces vary from small convenience stores and gift shops, medium sized

guest

high end boutiques and larger malls with numerous stores. Hotel gift shops provide souvenirs such as magnets, t-shirts, hats and postcards for guests.

Retail

Convenience stores offer easy access to everyday goods for the hotel guests. General staple goods include milk, bread and snacks. Other convenience items are provided for guests who might have forgotten them such as cosmetics, hair products or umbrellas. Finally, impulse buys are also for sale such as magazines and candy. Finally, the last type of retail located in hotels are high end

Convenience

boutiques and other specialty stores. These retail shops are likely to appear in cities, hotels with entertainment amenities and hotels that appeal to more affluent guests. Two important aspects of good retail design are the storefront and the circulation throughout the store. Both are essential for the attraction of customers into the store. The storefront and window display should be inviting and include items appealing to the intended customers to draw their interest into the store. Once in the store, the circulation should be set up to expose the customer to the maximum number of goods and for easy traffic flow through the space. The arrangement of aisles, tables and clothing racks influences the customer’s direction and movement through the store.

38

Lobby Gift Shop


Retail Amenities General Layout Design The layout and design principles outlined here can be applied to each of the retail amenities appearing in hotels.

Cashier Location A

guest

The location of the cashier can improve the store’s security. The cashier should have an expansive range of surveillance of the store and its exit. In location A, the cashier is located at the perimeter and has a full view of the store. Location B on the other hand does not have full view and therefore should have two or more cashiers.

6’-0” MIN.

Cashier location B

Circulation Location of aisles and displays influences the customer’s movement and draws the customer through the store. Four basic layouts are: • Straight: use of the wall and aisles to maximize the amount of merchandise to sell results in an easy traffic pattern. • Diagonal: a slight variation of the straight layout; offers excellent visibility for cashiers. • Curved: the soft angles allow for easy traffic flow and visual appeal. This layout is best for high-end specialty stores. • Geometric: angled displays offer visual appeal. This layout works well for clothing shops.

Straight Layout

Diagonal Layout

Curved Layout

Geometric Layout

39


Gift Shop & Convenience Store

guest

The design of the hotel’s convenience store and gift shop are very similar due to their program. The key difference between the two is the goods that they sell. Many times, the two can be grouped together as one store. The convenience store and the gift shop should be located in close proximity to the lobby and should be in direct view from areas with the most guest circulation, such as the elevators. Therefore, it will frequently be seen and visited.

Convenience Store A3

A6

Gift Shop A5 A6

Staple Goods

Milk, bread, snacks

Convenience Items

Cosmetic, hair products, umbrellas

Luxury / Impulse Items Magazines, candy

Convenience Location of Goods: Scheme A

Lobby Gift Shop

40

Location of Goods: Scheme B


Specialty Store Specialty retail stores, such as high end boutiques, appear in hotels located in cities, hotels with entertainment amenities and hotels catering to more affluent guests. Hotel

Retail Location A

Hotel

Retail Location B

Planning & Design Considerations: As previously mentioned, the main focus of good retail design is the attraction of the customer into the store. Two ways of achieving this is through the design of the store’s exterior and the circulation within the store.

• Exterior • Storefront: The window display should be attractive and display the best merchandise. • Signage: The use of bold color, lighting and unique lettering to draw the customers attention. • Entrance: The entrance to the store should be located within the flow of pedestrian traffic to maximize the amount of customers.

• Interior • Circulation: Easy navigation will draw the customer through the store and the layout will influence the customer’s direction of travel. • Display layout: The layout of tables and displays should maximize the amount of merchandise visible to the customer upon entering the store. • Design: Innovative modern interior design appeals to the customer’s senses.

Visibility of storefront and window display

Display of merchandise 41

guest

There are two options for the location of specialty retail in a hotel. First, it can be located directly within the hotel, intended specifically for the hotel guests. Or the hotel can be located within a mixed-use development, allowing both the hotel guest and the general public to shop there.


Prototypes

A3

A5

guest

Because of their similar program, this prototypical floor plan can be interchangeable between the gift shop and the convenience store. • Located in close proximity to the lobby • Conveniently located within the main circulation path

Expanded & Elaborate Prototypical Package

42

Storage

Prototypical Floor Plan


Prototypes

A6 guest

• Gift shop and convenience store in close proximity to the hotel lobby and within the major traffic flow • Specialty retail shops are visible from the hotel lobby • Promenade for the specialty shops is accessed off the hotel lobby

Deluxe Prototypical Package

Storage Prototypical Specialty Shop Floor Plan

43


Entertainment Amenities

guest

Entertainment amenities are offered to hotel guests looking for a fun and exciting experience. Common types of entertainment found in hotels include casinos, theaters and nightclubs. They are more common in resorts and large urban hotels. By being located within the hotel, guests are offered the convenience of having a fun and exciting experience without having to leave the hotel. These hotels also attract other non-guest visitors. Therefore, the design of these amenities must cater to a variety of users. The designer’s responsibilities include creating a unique and exciting atmosphere. Although allowed more freedom in creativity and innnovation, the design of these amenities tend to be the most diffi cult due to its complex program.

Theater

Nightclub Casino

Lobby

44

Nightclub


Casino

Unlike other public amenities, casinos require integration among several other public spaces to be successful. Restaurants, bars and nightclubs are located along the outskirts and in the center of the gaming fl oor to enhance the lively atmosphere and also stimulate business from one to the other. It also creates an indirect circulation path throughout the gaming fl oor that is intentionally designed to have poor

navigation to increase the guest’s likelihood of playing more games and therefore spending more money. Gaming tables and slot machines should be grouped separately for an easy and effi cient gaming fl oor layout. Gaming tables require more space to allow for crowds to form, whereas slot machines are grouped in a tight linear or radial fashion.

guest

There is a lot involved in the design and layout of a casino’s gaming fl oor. The layout and placement of card tables and slot machines is designed to maximize the guest’s excitement and lure to play the games.

Roulette n

Craps n

Blackjack 5n

Slots 50n

Ratio of casino tables and slot machines on the gaming floor

In addition, casinos also include separate high-stakes rooms along the gaming fl oor perimeter and also separate areas for poker.

Gaming Tables 250 sq. ft. each

Slot Machines Linear: 10 sq. ft. each Radial: 20 sq. ft. each

Casino Layout Schematics

Diagrammatic Layout and Grouping of Games

45


Nightclub New trends in nightclub design focus on cutting

Nightclub design is similar to that of the restaurant

edge creativity and innovative ideas. The club is

and bar but does not require the additional service

designed to give the user an unforgettable

area of a kitchen.

Bar Area

experience catered specifi cally to the intended

guest

clientele through visual stimulation and an exciting

The plan should be divided into distinct zones for

atmosphere. Also, more emphasis is placed on

the bar, dancefl oor and lounge area.

the mood created by the nightclub’s interior. Two

should be visible from the entrance and also in

main aspects of the interior’s design and decor

close proximity to the dancefl oor.

that enhance the guest’s experience are lighting

areas are more intimate spaces and should be

and furnishings.

placed around the perimeter to provide privacy to

The bar

The lounge

Dancefloor

Lounge Area

guests. • Lighting • Dark ambiance

The bubble diagram below shows the common

• Colorful LED lighting • Furnishings

percentage ranges of square footage that each of these areas occupy. The diagrams to the right use

• Contemporary design

these percentages to represent different layout

• Innovation in materials

schemes.

20% - 30%

50% - 60%

46

10% - 25%

Square Footage Percentages of Nightclub Program

Diagrammatic Layouts


Theater

Backstage

Design considerations include: • Seating capacity and arrangement • Circulation: public traffic flow should be straightforward in case of an emergency • Visual criteria • Acoustical criteria • Architectural expression and goals

Dressing Rooms Crew Lounge Prop / Scenery Storage Administration Offices Restrooms Shipping & Receiving Area Stage Mechanics / Lighting A/V Equipment

Tickets guest

Hotels that include other entertainment amenities may have theaters that accommodate a variety of performances such as comedians, musicians and/or cabarets. The most common type of theater seen in hotels is the proscenium layout (shown below) that provides a direct relationship between the audience and the performer.

Concessions

Stage

Stage

Theater Program Layout

Proscenium Theater

47


Prototypes

A6 guest

• This package prototype tends to attract a young crowd and is most likely to appear in a city • The hotel guest and other visitors share this amenity. Therefore, the club must be easily accessible from the street.

Enhanced Prototypical Package

48


Prototypes

A6 guest

• Integration among several types of public amenities such as restaurants, bars and nightclubs, located along the perimeter and in the center of the gaming floor

Casino

Deluxe Prototypical Package

49


guest

Guest Sequence Fundamental Sequences

51

Levels of Service

52

Overnight Visitor

53

Business Visitor

59

Entertainment Visitor

62

Distances of a Sequence

65

SG1: Jaunt

70

SG2: Trip

71

SG3: Tour

72

SG4: Excursion

73


Fundamental Sequences The guest sequences analyze the experiential journey of the user as they travel through the program-

Overnight Visitor Sequence

matic elements of the hotel. The users outlined in tor, and entertainment visitor. The following chapter outlines the fundamental sequences for three dif-

guest

this chapter are the overnight visitor, business visi-

Business Visitor Sequence

ferent users. The guest sequences are defined through logically

Entertainment Visitor Sequence

ordered sets of programmatic elements related to each other by the progression of the user. The baseline sequences are identified for the users and are then related to a typical hotel floor plan to diagram how the floor plan is arranged in response to each sequence. The short, average, and long distances of a sequence are diagrammed to show the range of the total journey traveled by the users within each of the baseline sequences. It is necessary for every designer to understand the guest sequence in order to provide a successful experiential journey for each of the three users within their hotel. Four packages have been defined at the end of the chapter to provide the designer with a proper collection of sequences to accommodate any hotel design.

Key Arrival

Curbside Greeting

Entrance

Entrance Greeting

Lobby

Expanded Lobby

Expanded Lobby with Private Seating

Lounge

Check-in

Check-in with Luggage Carts

Check-in with Bellman Service

Business Center

Bar

Vending

Restaurant

Fine Dining

Elevator

Elevator with Bellman Service

Guest Room

51


Levels of Service Service increased from a standard arrival to a curbside greeting.

guest

Service increased from a standard entrance to an entrance greeting.

Service increased from a standard check-in to a check-in with luggage carts to a check-in with bellman service.

Service increased from a standard lobby to an expanded lobby to an expanded lobby with private seating.

Service increased from vending to a standard restaurant to fine dining.

Service increased from a standard elevator to an elevator with bellman service.

This diagram illustrates the relationship between programmatic elements and possible levels of service. The level of service does not disrupt the relationship between programmatic elements and the

52

user’s progression through the hotel.


Overnight Visitor Overnight Visitor Sequence

guest

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Direct

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Elevated Lobby

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

The arrival sequences of the overnight visitor are affected by the relationships between the entrance of the hotel, the location of the check-in desk, and the lobby’s position within the sequence of programmatic elements. The sequences of the overnight visitor’s progression from their guest room to a hotel amenity are affected by the type of amenity.

53


Overnight Visitor Arrival | Direct

ght Visitor al | Direct

guest The direct arrival sequence is defined by the overnight visitor entering the hotel and proceeding directly to the check-in desk before passing through

54

the lobby to get to the elevator.


Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

guest

The indirect arrival sequence is defined by the overnight visitor entering the hotel and passing through the lobby and lounge before approaching the checkin desk.

55


Overnight Visitor Arrival | Elevated Lobby

ght Visitor ed Lobby

guest

56


Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

guest

Left: The elevated lobby arrival sequence is defined by the overnight visitor entering the hotel and passing through the lobby before traveling up the elevator to get to the check-in desk. Right: The business amenity sequence is defined by the overnight visitor traveling down the elevator to the lobby and through the lounge before arriving at the meeting room.

57


Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

ght Visitor rtainment

guest The entertainment amenity sequence is defined by the overnight visitor traveling down the elevator to the lobby and passing through both the lounge and

58

bar before arriving at the restaurant.


Business Visitor Business Visitor Sequence

guest

Business Visitor Arrival | Direct

Business Visitor Arrival | Elevated

The arrival sequences of the business visitor are affected by the relative location of the meeting room to the vertical organization of the hotel.

59


Business Visitor Arrival | Direct

ss Visitor al | Direct

guest Left: The direct arrival sequence is defined by the business visitor entering the hotel and passing through the lobby and the lounge before arriving at the meeting room, located on the ground floor. Right: The elevated arrival sequence is defined by the business visitor entering the hotel, passing through the lobby and the lounge before traveling up the elevator to get to the meeting room, located

60

on a higher level.


Business Visitor Arrival | Elevated Business Visitor Arrival | Elevated

guest

61


Entertainment Visitor Entertainment Visitor Sequence

guest Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby

Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Restaurant

The arrival sequences of the entertainment visitor are affected by the relative location of the entrance of the restaurant within the progression of program-

62

matic elements of the hotel.


Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby

guest

The lobby arrival sequence is defined by the entertainment visitor entering the hotel and passing through the lobby, the lounge, and the bar before approaching the entrance of the restaurant.

63


Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Restaurant

Sequence estaurant

guest Left: The restaurant arrival sequence is defined by the entertainment visitor entering the restaurant directly rather than passing through the programmatic elements of the hotel. Right: The short, average, and long distances of a sequence are diagrammed to show the range of the total journey traveled by the users within each of

64

the baseline sequences.


Distances of a Sequence Overnight Visitor

guest

Arrival | Direct

Arrival | Indirect 65


Distances of a Sequence Overnight Visitor

guest

66

Arrival | Elevated Lobby


Distances of a Sequence Overnight Visitor

guest

Amenities | Business

Amenities | Entertainment 67


Distances of a Sequence Business Visitor

guest

Arrival | Direct 68

Arrival | Elevated


Distances of a Sequence Entertainment Visitor

guest

Arrival | Lobby

Arrival | Restaurant 69


Sg1

Jaunt

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Direct

guest

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

Business Visitor Arrival | Direct

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

Business Visitor Arrival | Direct

The Sg1, or Jaunt Package, represents the minimal Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Direct

collection of sequences required for a hotel. The sequences included are the most direct and simplistic in programmatic progression when compared to the other sequences. This package accommodates the overnight visitor and the overnight visitor who may have the intention of using the meeting room as well as the business visitor. This package

70

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

is stripped of any entertainment amenities.


Business Visitor Arrival | Direct

Trip

Sg 2

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

guest

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

Business Visitor Arrival | Direct

Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Direct

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

Overnight Visitor

| Business TheAmenities Sg 2, or Trip Package, represents the standard

collection of sequences available for a hotel. The sequences included are slightly above what is

Overnight Visitor required,| Entertainment but remain simplistic in the progression Amenities

through the programmatic elements of the hotel. This package accommodates the overnight visitor

Visitor and theBusiness overnight visitor who may have the intenArrival | Elevated

tion of using the meeting room and the restaurant. This package is also receptive to the business visiEntertainment Visitor visitor. tor and entertainment Arrival | Lobby

71


Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Direct

Sg3

Tour

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Indirect

guest

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

Business Visitor Arrival | Elevated

Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Elevated Lobby

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

The Sg3, or Tour Package, represents an extended collection of sequences for a hotel. The sequences

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

included become more complex in their experiential qualities by spanning the progression through the programmatic elements of the hotel on to multiple

Business Visitor Arrival | Elevated

levels. This package accommodates the overnight visitor and the overnight visitor who may have the intention of using the meeting room and the restaurant. This package is also receptive to the business

72

Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby

visitor and entertainment visitor.


Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby

Excursion

Sg 4

Overnight Visitor Arrival | Elevated Lobby

guest

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Business

Overnight Visitor Amenities | Entertainment

Business Visitor Arrival | Elevated

Entertainment Visitor Arrival | Lobby

The Sg 4, or Excursion Package, represents the allinclusive collection of sequences possible for a hotel. The sequences included represent the most complex in their experiential qualities by elevating the programmatic elements of the hotel, allowing for an elongated progression through the hotel. This package accommodates the overnight visitor and the overnight visitor who may have the intention of using the meeting room and the restaurant. This package is also receptive to the business visitor and entertainment visitor.

73


Back of House service

Introduction

75

Back of House Packages

76

B1: Economizer

78

B2: Baseline

79

B3: Specialty

80

B4: Everything

81

Front Office

82

Main Kitchen

88

Service Facilities

94

Mechanical

98

Back of House Trends

104


The service areas in a hotel are referred to as the back of house (BOH). Though rarely seen by a guest, the back of house is the most crucial part of the plan.

At no time should the hotel guest be

aware of everything that is taking place in the back of the house, however, the smooth operation of the front of house is completely dependent upon what is taking place behind the scenes. The two functions must be kept separate, yet interrelated so that they both function smoothly, efficiently and economically. The organization of the administration service

offices and service areas greatly influences the staff’s ability to meet overall administrative needs, and to provide efficient food and beverage, housekeeping, repair, and engineering services to the hotel. The following sections discuss the operational characteristics, and the planning and design criteria for each area.

75


Economizer

Baseline

Specialty

Everything

Back of House Packages

B1

B2

B3

B4 General administrative offices Office storage Laundry & housekeeping Linens & supplies storage Employee lockers & toilets General storage Food and beverage storage

service

Trash & recycling Loading & receiving Mechanical rooms Specific administrative offices Meeting room storage Kitchen Food preparation area Restaurant toilets Restaurant & kitchen storage Employee lounge & cafeteria

Package Breakdown Packages grow with each additional amenity. The chart to the right describes what each package contains.

Engineering department Function-specific offices Function-specific storage Function-specific toilets Additional amenities offices Additional amenities storage

76

Additional amenities toilets


Back of House & Amenities

A2

A5

A3

A1

A6

A4

service

or

B1

+

and

=

B2

=

+

B3

+

=

B4

or

Corresponding Packages This diagram shows the relation of amenities packages and their corresponding Back of House packages. Highlighted are the main differences between each package.

77


B1

Programmatic Diagrams Economizer

General administrative offices Office storage Laundry & housekeeping Linens & supplies storage Employee lockers & toilets General storage Food and beverage storage Trash & recycling Loading & receiving Mechanical rooms MEETING ROOM

service

LAUNDRY

EMPLOYEE

HOUSEKEEPING

LOBBY

RECEIVING STORAGE

MECHANICAL

Package 1 Diagram The BOH package 1 is made up of the most basic service areas needed for a hotel: administrative offices, laundry and housekeeping areas, small employee facilities, mechanical rooms, a receiving area, and storage areas.

78

RECREATION

FOOD & BEVERAGE

FRONT OFFICE


ge 2

Baseline

offices

General administrative offices Office storage

ng ge ets

Laundry & housekeeping Linens & supplies storage Employee lockers & toilets General storage

rage

Food and beverage storage Trash & recycling

FUNCTION SPACES

offices

RECREATION

Loading & receiving Mechanical rooms Specific administrative offices Meeting room storage

MAIN KITCHEN

Food preparation area FRONT OFFICE

EMPLOYEE

LAUNDRY

Kitchen

LOBBY

HOUSEKEEPING RECEIVING/ STORAGE

service

orage

B2

Kitchen storage

FOOD & BEVERAGE

MECHANICAL

Package 2 Diagram The BOH package 2 grows significantly because of the addition of a restaurant and bar to the hotel. This addition requires enough kitchen space to support the restaurant size, as well as additional food and beverage storage, and greater mechanical facilities. The overall size of this package is increased to support additional employees and a higher hotel occupancy.

79


B3

Back of House Package 3 Specialty Specialized

General administrative offices

service

Office administrative storage General offices Office storage Laundry & housekeeping Laundry Linens& & housekeeping supplies storage Linens & supplies storage Employee lockers & toilets Employee lockers & toilets General storage General storage Food and beverage storage Food and beverage storage Trash & recycling Trash & recycling Loading & receiving Loading & receiving Mechanical rooms Mechanical rooms Specific administrative offices Specific administrative offices Meeting room storage Meeting room storage Kitchen Kitchen Food preparation area area Food preparation Kitchen storage Restaurant toilets Employee & lounge & cafeteria Restaurant kitchen storage Engineering department Employee lounge & cafeteria Function-specific offices Engineering department Function-specific Function-specific offices storage Function-specific storage Function-specific toilets

FUNCTION SPACES RECREATION

MAIN KITCHEN

LOBBY FRONT OFFICE

EMPLOYEE HOUSEKEEPING LAUNDRY RECEIVING/ STORAGE

FOOD & BEVERAGE Package 3 Diagram The BOH package 3 is used in hotels with a specific function, whether it has a spa or a ballroom. These amenities have additional spatial requirements for the BOH areas that serve them, such as large storage areas and specific mechanical needs. The overall size of this package is increased to accommodate a higher level of service, larger restaurants and bars, and additional administrative offices.

80

MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING


Everything

B4

General administrative offices Office storage Laundry & housekeeping Linens & supplies storage Employee lockers & toilets General storage Food and beverage storage

FUNCTION SPACES

Trash & recycling Loading & receiving Mechanical rooms Specific administrative offices service

Meeting room storage Kitchen Food preparation area RECREATION

Kitchen storage Employee lounge & cafeteria Engineering department

MAIN KITCHEN

Function-specific offices

LOBBY EMPLOYEE

FRONT OFFICE

HOUSEKEEPING LAUNDRY

MECHANICAL

Additional amenities storage

Package 4 Diagram

RECEIVING/ STORAGE

FOOD & BEVERAGE

ENGINEERING

Function-specific storage Additional amenities offices

The BOH package 4 is used for a hotel that has everything: the highest level of service, high occupancy, multiple restaurants, bars and cocktail lounges, a spa, multiple ballrooms and meeting rooms, and in some cases, entertainment areas and retail outlets. The BOH space required to serve these increased amenities is larger than the previous three packages, and must support a high number of employees and administrative personnel.

81


B1

Front Office Spatial Relationship Diagrams

The front office area of a hotel is typically located in close proximity to the front desk. This allows for

front desk

the most efficient service to the front desk per-

general manager

sonnel, and groups all the administrative offices together. There are typically four main divisions in the front office: general administration, human

reservations manager

LOBBY

resources, accounting and sales. In package 1, these divisions may only accommodate a handful of personnel, and do not require much storage space.

human resources

FRONT OFFICE

storage toilets

assistant manager

sales

accounting

service

B2 The front office divisions increase in size as the

front desk

hotel increases in size to accommodate the need

general manager

for more specialized administrative personnel.

interview room

With the addition of a restaurant, there is also the need for a food and beverage manager to specifi-

LOBBY

training room

human resources

human resources director reservations manager

cally coordinate this area.

credit manager accounting

FRONT OFFICE assistant manager security

82

payroll manager controller

sales

director of sales

storage food & beverage manager toilets


B3 front desk general manager reservations manager assistant manager interview room training room human resources director

HR

LOBBY

FRONT OFFICE

SALES

number of specialized personnel in all four divi-

catering manager

sions. These additional positions help to coordi-

director of sales

nate the hotel staff and various departments.

credit manager payroll manager assistant controller controller

front desk general manager reservations manager assistant manager interview room training room human resources

human resources director catering manager director of sales

FRONT OFFICE

sales

accounting

convention services banquet manager sales representative public relations director credit manager payroll manager

service

count room storage food & beverage manager toilets security

safe deposit telephone operators

safe deposit telephone operators

to the front office area to accommodate a greater

sales representative director of public relations

ACCOUNTING

LOBBY

In package 3 there is even more space allocated

B4 The front office of a BOH package 4 has all the same requirements as a package 3 with the addition of a banquet manager and a convention services division. These additions are needed to coordinate the numerous events held at these large hotels.

assistant controller controller count room storage food & beverage manager toilets security

83


B1

Front Office Prototypical Plans toilets sales copy station accounting storage interview room reservations manager general manager human resources

Front Desk / Lobby

service

Package 1 Plan The front office space is located directly behind the hotel lobby and front desk, and the rooms are efficiently organized. This small hotel only requires offices and support rooms for a small number of personnel. This area is also located next to a back entrance so that the personnel do not enter into the main lobby with the hotel guests.

84


B2

B3

B4

HR director recruitment manager

HR manager copy station

training room

interview rooms

training room

General Front Office

personel reception

director of finance coffee storage accounting manager safe deposit boxes

security

women’s restroom

accounting reception storage/archives

men’s restroom

service

director of rooms

safe deposit boxes

reservations manager counting room

cashier

reservations

front desk manager work area

front office manager

sundry

counting room front office manager front office storage

Front Desk / Lobby

Package 4 Plan Although this plan is of a hotel that uses a BOH package 4, a similar layout would also be used in packages 2 and 3, except that it would be smaller and have less specific functions. A unique characteristic of these typically larger hotels is that the front office space is divided into departments, which, depending on the footprint of the hotel, may be located in different areas or on different floors (see following page).

85


B2

B3

B4

Front Office Prototypical Plan

service

director OPS SD accounts general manager executive & sales admin. storage

Package 4 Plan

event managers

This plan complements the front office layout on the previous page. Since the front office requirements for this large hotel are so numerous, the program is broken down into departments and separated onto two different floors, each with offices, reception areas, storage and copy rooms and facilities for the personnel.

reception catering manager

sales representatives copy station SD accounts director of sales director of food & beverage director of events

86


Office Metrics The front office is very tightly planned and organized to minimize unused space. Individual rooms Standard Office

are avoided in favor of an open office plan. Workstations occupy on average 60-80 sf each and allow for more flexibility in the office arrange100-120 sf

9’

ment. Offices are reserved for managers and are secure areas.

12’ service

Executive/Managerial Office

120-150 sf

12’

Office Metrics Overall Space Planning 10-15 sf per guestroom Open Office Layouts 50-80 sf / Cubicle Occupant Load 100 sf / Person

12’

87


B1

Main Kitchen Spatial Relationship Diagrams

The BOH package 1 does not have a kitchen since there is no restaurant in a hotel that would use this package. There is however a quick-ser-

RECEIVING & STORAGE

vice breakfast area or a small snack and drink

trash/recycling area

bar, which only require food and beverage stor-

locked storage

age rather than a full kitchen. In all packages, the

loading dock receiving area

receiving area of the hotel is connected to the

refrigerated beverage storage

food and beverage service area so that the goods

beverage storage

can efficiently be distributed without disrupting the rest of the hotel.

F&B STORAGE

dry food storage

FOOD & BEVERAGE

refrigerated food storage

service

B2 FUNCTION SPACE With the addition of a restaurant and bar to a hotel, there is a need for a kitchen and additional kitchen, food and beverage storage. The shipping

chef’s office food controller office restaurant pantry

and receiving areas, including the loading dock and trash and recycling areas increase in size to accommodate the larger facilities.

RECEIVING & STORAGE trash/recycling area shipping/receiving office locked storage receiving area loading dock

refrigerated beverage storage beverage storage dry food storage refrigerated food storage

88

MAIN KITCHEN

F&B STORAGE

FOOD & BEVERAGE


B3 FUNCTION SPACE restaurant pantry banquet pantry bake shop room service area chef’s office food controller office

With the addition of a ballroom there is a need for larger kitchen facilities, with an in-house bake shop, room service area, banquet pantry and additional food, beverage and tableware storage.

MAIN KITCHEN

RECEIVING & STORAGE trash/recycling area shipping office locked storage receiving office receiving area loading dock

F&B STORAGE

FOOD & BEVERAGE service

refrigerated beverage storage beverage storage dry food storage refrigerated food storage china/silver/glass storage

banquet pantry bake shop room service area chef’s office food controller office restaurant pantry

RECEIVING & STORAGE

The main kitchen for a BOH package 4 has the greatest space requirements, in order to best serve the high number of guests and to cater to

MAIN KITCHEN

the numerous events held at the hotel. There is often a secondary kitchen adjacent to the ball-

trash/recycling area shipping office locked storage receiving office receiving area loading dock

rooms, which would only be used during an event to reduce the travel time for the servers between the kitchen and the ballroom.

refrigerated beverage storage refrigerated food storage beverage storage

B4

FUNCTION SPACE

F&B STORAGE

FOOD & BEVERAGE

dry food storage china/silver/glass storage

89


B1

Main Kitchen Prototypical Plans

service

Quick Service Food & Beverage

Package 1 Plan With only a quick service snack and drink bar, rather than a full restaurant, there is only the need for food and beverage storage.

90

food & beverage storage


B2

B3

B4

shipping/receiving office loading dock trash/recycling holding trash compactor bay locked storage beverage storage

service

receiving garage

main kitchen janitor closet kitchen storage chef’s office kitchen prep. area dry storage restaurant manager kitchen entry

Package 4 Plan Whether it is for a package 2, 3 or 4, the kitchen area needs to be efficiently organized regardless of its size. There is an important relationship between the locations of the receiving area (where the food, beverages and supplies enter the hotel), the food and beverage storage areas, the cooking areas, the food preparation area, and the restaurant.

Restaurant

91


B3

B4

Main Kitchen Prototypical Plan

banquet kitchen

service

Ballroom

Package 4 Plan In larger hotels, specifically in a BOH package 3 or 4, the numerous events held in the hotel ballrooms require a secondary kitchen, in addition to the main kitchen described on the previous page, for more efficient service to the ballrooms. It is important, however, that if the two kitchens are on different floors of the hotels, they need to be linked with elevators and stairs.

92


3

1

3 5

6

7

2 4

2

7 4

4

Main Kitchen Metrics The kitchen layouts shown to the left are exam-

5 10

5 6

9

6 7

ples of efficiently laid out plans of kitchens serving their respective restaurant and ballroom/ banquet areas. Considerations should be taken

12

6

7

when deciding the overall size of the kitchen with

8

respect to the restaurant function. Smaller kitch-

Layout 1 - Small restaurant, Hotel size 100 - 200 guestrooms

2

7 6

2 3

6

6

5

3

7

5 9

4

10 4

4

8

Layout 2 - Restaurant, Hotel size 200 - 500 guestrooms

3 3

2

1 5

5

10

6

5

5

12

6

6

7

4

6 7

7

4

7

9

4

Layout 3 - Restaurant, Hotel size 500 - 1000 guestrooms

2

4

8

1. Waiter’s Passageway - meal and beverage counter - dish return 2. Dishwashing area (dishes, glasses, silver) 3. Beverages - preparation and serving 4. Pastry (cookies, cakes, ice cream, dessert) preparation and serving 5. Cold Kitchen (cold appetizers, salad, fish) preparation and serving 6. Warm kitchen (sauces, roasts, grill, fish) preparation including large apparatus area and serving 7. Warm kitchen (soups, vegetables, entrees) preparation including large apparatus area and serving 8. Pot and pan washing 9. Vegetable preparation 10. Meat preparation 11. Vegetable cold storage 12. Meat and cold storage

kitchens may handle all three with multiple turnovers. Kitchens are attached to the restaurant but should also be located as close as possible to the ballroom and banquet areas they serve as well. Large ballrooms should have a smaller kitchen

service

6

1 2

Key

7 7

ens may only handle one meal a day while larger

directly linked to the ballroom itself. These kitchens are designed as a staging area for the warming and storage of food for an event.

Main Kitchen Metrics Main Kitchen = 1/3 area of Restaurant Area + 2 sf / Ballroom and Banquet Seat + 1 sf / Lounge Seat + 1 sf / Hotel Guest Food and Beverage Storage 30-50% of Main Kitchen Area Receiving and Storage 8-10% of overall BOH area

93


B1

Service Facilities Spatial Relationship Diagrams

The service facilities of a hotel include the laundry, housekeeping and employee areas. In a BOH package 1, these areas are not very big and do not require as much staff as a hotel with a higher occupancy.

soiled linen room supplies storage laundry supervisor

LAUNDRY

laundry room men’s lockers/toilet women’s lockers/toilet

HOUSEEMPLO- KEEPING YEE

linen storage housekeeper supplies storage lost & found uniform issue/storage

LOBBY

service

B2 This package has the same requirements as the package 1 service facilities, however, the spaces are larger to accommodate more laundry equipment, storage and employees.

men’s lockers/toilet women’s lockers/toilet soiled linen room supplies storage laundry supervisor

MAIN KITCHEN EMPLOYEE LAUNDRY

laundry room linen storage housekeeper supplies storage lost & found uniform issue/storage

94

HOUSEKEEPING


B3 The BOH package 3 is often associated with

employee cafeteria

hotels with provide a higher level of service to

men’s lockers/toilet

MAIN KITCHEN

banquet staff lockers women’s lockers/toilet

since a greater number of employees require additional locker room space and a cafeteria and/

valet laundry soiled linen room supplies storage laundry supervisor laundry room

their guests. This affects the service facilities

LAUNDRY

or lounge. Also, there needs to be more space for

EMPLOYEE AREA

the laundry equipment and storage, offices, and an additional area for valet laundry, a special ser-

HOUSEKEEPING

vice offered to the hotel guests.

service

linen storage housekeeper assistant housekeeper supplies storage lost & found uniform issue/storage

B4 employee cafeteria men’s lockers/toilet banquet staff lockers women’s lockers/toilet

MAIN KITCHEN

The housekeeping department has a reception

valet laundry

EMPLOYEE AREA

supplies storage

LAUNDRY

area in addition to the housekeeper and assistant housekeeper to provide a higher level of management and organization.

laundry room linen storage secretary assistant housekeeper housekeeper supplies storage sewing room lost & found uniform issue/storage

largest area to accommodate the high hotel occupancy, level of service and number of employees.

soiled linen room laundry supervisor

The BOH package 4 service facilities requires the

HOUSEKEEPING

95


B1

Service Facilities Prototypical plans

service

Package 1 Plan In a small hotel, typically under 200 guestrooms, the laundry, housekeeping and employee areas do not require very much space. In this case, the employee locker rooms and toilets are located in a small area on a different floor of the hotel.

96

laundry equipment soiled linen linen storage housekeeping supplies


B2

B3

B4

employee lounge/cafeteria

soiled uniform drop-off women’s locker room/toilets

men’s locker room/toilets

soiled uniform drop-off housekeeping manager laundry equipment housekeeping director housekeeping glasswah housekeeping supplies laundry mechanical lost & found housekeeping bulk storage clean linen holding linen storage soiled linen holding

service

uniform storage/distribution

Package 4 Plan A large hotel requires a lot of space for the linen and supplies storage areas, and the laundry equipment. The employees are given their own cafeteria and lounge, and spacious locker rooms. These areas are located on an upper floor, not frequently travelled by hotel guests, and close to elevators for quick access to all the guestroom floors. There must also be convenient access to the receiving area in order to efficiently distribute the various goods and supplies.

Service Facilities Metrics Employee Areas 8-10% of overall BOH Laundry and Housekeeping 6-10% of overall BOH Occupant Load 100 sf / Person

97


B1

Mechanical & Engineering Spatial Relationship Diagrams

The mechanical needs for a hotel vary based on its size and specific requirements. If large repairs are needed, a hotel which uses a BOH package 1 would have to use an outside contractor and/or engineer to do the work, compared to a larger hotel which tends to have an in-house engineering and maintenance department.

RECEIVING

transformer room electrical switchboard emergency generator elevator machine room

MECHANICAL

telephone equipment room meter room mechanical plant

service

B2

MAIN KITCHEN

The BOH package 2 has greater spatial requirements for its mechanical facilities, with the addi-

transformer room

tion of a small carpentry shop, engineering

electrical switchboard

storeroom and often an energy management computer system.

emergency generator elevator machine room telephone equipment room meter room engineer mechanical plant energy management computer

carpentry shop engineering storeroom

98

RECEIVING

MECHANICAL


B3 MAIN KITCHEN The specific functions associated with a BOH

transformer room

package 3, either a ballroom or a spa, will likely

electrical switchboard emergency generator

have specific mechanical needs for these spaces.

RECEIVING

elevator machine room

Also, the overall size of the mechanical facilities is

telephone equipment room mechanical plant meter room fire pumps engineering storeroom engineer engineer assistant secretary electrical shop energy management computer

There is also an in-house engineering department

MECHANICAL

with

engineers

and

specific

maintenance

facilities.

ENGINEERING

service

carpentry shop paint shop plumbing shop

larger to accommodate a typically larger hotel.

MAIN KITCHEN transformer room

RECEIVING

electrical switchboard

B4 The BOH package 4 has all the same mechanical

emergency generator

and engineering requirements as package 3,

elevator machine room

except it is proportionally larger, as the hotel has more

telephone equipment room

guestrooms,

amenities,

and

service

facilities. mechanical plant meter room fire pumps engineering storeroom engineer engineer assistant secretary electrical shop energy management computer plumbing shop paint shop

MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING

carpentry shop

99


B1

Mechanical & Engineering Prototypical Plans

mechanical plant meter room emergency generator electrical room transformer room

service

Package 1 Plan The mechanical facilities in a BOH package 1 are quite small compared to other packages. They are grouped together in the back corner of the ground floor, with direct access to the outdoors, and adjacent to the stair core.

100


B2

B3

B4

transformer room gas service fuel oil storage electrical switchboard

service

Package 4 Plan In hotels that use a BOH package 2, 3 or 4, the large amount of space required to accommodate all the mechanical and engineering facilities often need to be distributed onto multiple floors. The facilities which need to be on the ground floor are located adjacent to a stair core and have access to the outdoors.

101


B2

B3

B4

Mechanical & Engineering Prototypical Plans electrical storage tool storage engineer assistant engineer director engineering reception carpentry shop mech. & elec. workshop transformer room electrical repair locked storage engineering reception tool storage

service

Package 4 Plan The engineering department, which includes the necessary offices and maintenance workshops, are located on a floor in the same corner, adjacent to the stair core, as the ground floor mechanical facilities. This provides efficient access for the maintenance staff and engineers to the mechanical facilities below. The plan on the opposite page shows the efficiency of locating the main mechanical plant adjacent to a primary function, such as the ballroom, which has very specific mechanical needs.

102


Mechanical & Engineering Metrics Hotels with over 100 guestrooms will require a transformer vault to handle large amounts of voltage distributed throughout the building. This area fan room mechanical plant elevator room

should be located at the base of the building and close to the shipping/receiving area to allow for easy maintenance and access to this key component of the mechanical area. Other mechanical areas may be distributed throughout the hotel but close attention should be paid to the larger components of the amenities, such as ballrooms and restaurants, placing adequate mechanical areas nearby.

service

Ballroom Below

Mechanical Metrics Mechanical Area 10-15% of BOH area Engineering 3% of BOH area Occupant Load 100 sf / Person

103


Front and Back of House Trends

service

Recreation

Function Areas

Front of House

Food and Beverage

Lobby

Front of House Distribution

200 Rooms 500 Rooms 1000 Rooms

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

80%

90%

100%

The graph above shows the relative distribution of

rooms or recreation facilities. The lobby space is

program within the front of house (FOH) as com-

a result of space left over after the functional pro-

pared with hotels of varying room counts. The

gram of the hotel is determined. Situated as an

overall FOH make-up is highly dependent on the

entry point of the hotel, the lobby must provide an

number of guestrooms within the hotel. Function

adequate amount of area to connect the func-

space in particular relies on an adequate number

tional spaces that make up the rest of the FOH.

of rooms to be available for ballrooms or larger

As a result its relative proportion to the FOH will

events. The overall goals of the hotel will influ-

vary.

ence the distribution by putting an emphasis on a

104

70%

variety of amenities such as restaurants, ball-


Engineering

Laundry and Housekeeping

Circulation

Food Preparation

Employee Areas

Mechanical Areas

service

Back of House

Administration

Receiving and Storage

Back of House Distribution

200 Rooms 500 Rooms 1000 Rooms

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

The graph above shows the relative distribution of

will also require a larger kitchen to adequately

program within the back of house. The back of

provide for room service and possible 24 hr.

house remains fairly consistent in any hotel

menus. Larger hotels may also incorporate more

regardless of the number of guestrooms.

The

specialty areas with an inhouse bakery and

largest variations are found in the main kitchen

butcher and need to provide for additional storage

and are a direct result of the front of house ameni-

space.

80%

90%

100%

ties available. Amenities such as ballrooms and banquet rooms require considerably more kitchen space as the guest capacities far exceed most restaurants. Hotels with a higher level of service

105


Front and Back of House Trends Back of House in relation to Front of House

100% 90%

service

Back of House as a % of Front of House

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0%

Number of Guestrooms The graph above show the relation between the overall area of the front of house to that of the back of house. As the number of guestrooms increases the proportion of back of house to the front of house decreases. Efficiencies are noticed in the relative uniformity of back of house needs regardless of the number of guestrooms.

106


Calculating Front & Back of House Areas

Guestroom Area =

X # of Guestrooms

30% 25%

40% 30%

50% 25%

service

100 - 250 Rooms

250 - 650 Rooms

The chart above can be used in the early phases of design to determine the square footages of both the front of house and back of house while only knowing the guestroom size and count. The square footages can be further broken down into

650 - 1000 Rooms

Guestroom Area* Front of House Gross Area* Back of House Gross Area*

their respective sub-categories to gain a better understanding of each components area requirements. In general the amount of FOH will increase with the number of additional guestrooms while the BOH remains relatively consistent.

*Guestroom area refers to guestroom only. Circulation and services not in the guestroom are not included. Gross area refers to the total floor area including: circulation, walls, partitions, columns, etc.

107


Service Sequences service

Fundamental Sequences

109

Levels of Service

110

Management

111

Housekeeping

114

Room Service

116

Housekeeping Vendor

118

Restaurant Vendor

121

Distances of a Sequence

123

SS1: Simple

126

SS2: Complex

127


Fundamental Sequences The service sequences analyze the functional journey of the user as they travel through the program-

Management Sequence

matic elements of the hotel. The users outlined in this chapter are members of management, housekeeping, and room service as well as the housekeeping vendor and the restaurant vendor. The following

chapter

outlines

the

Housekeeping Sequence

fundamental

sequences for each of the five users.

Room Service Sequence

The service sequences are defined through logically ordered sets of programmatic elements related baseline sequences are identified for the users and

Housekeeping Vendor Sequence

service

to each other by the progression of the user. The are then related to a typical hotel floor plan to diagram how the floor plan is arranged in response to each sequence. The short, average, and long dis-

Restaurant Vendor Sequence

tances of a sequence are diagrammed to show the range of the total journey traveled by the users within each of the baseline sequences. It is necessary for every designer to understand the service sequence in order to provide a functional journey for each of the five users within their hotel. Two packages have been defined at the end of the

Key Arrival

Curbside Greeting

Entrance

Entrance Greeting

Lobby

Expanded Lobby

Expanded Lobby with Private Seating

Manager’s Office

Check-in

Check-in with Luggage Carts

Check-in with Bellman Service

Employee Meeting Room

Bar

Vending

Restaurant

Fine Dining

Elevator

Elevator with Bellman Service

Service Elevator

Guest Room

Service Entrance

Employee Locker Rooms

Housekeeping

chapter to provide the designer with a proper collection of sequences to accommodate any hotel design.

109


Levels of Service Service increased from a standard arrival to a curbside greeting.

Service increased from a standard entrance to an entrance greeting.

Service increased from a standard check-in to a check-in with luggage carts to a check-in with bellman service.

service

Service increased from a standard lobby to an expanded lobby to an expanded lobby with private seating.

Service increased from vending to a standard restaurant to fine dining.

Service increased from a standard elevator to an elevator with bellman service.

This diagram illustrates the relationship between programmatic elements and possible levels of service. The level of service does not disrupt the relationship between programmatic elements and the

110

user’s progression through the hotel.


Management Management Sequence

Management Arrival | Behind Front Desk

service

Management Arrival | Elevated

The arrival sequences of the management team are affected by the relationship of the management office to the check in desk within the sequence of programmatic elements.

111


Management Arrival | Behind Front Desk

uence ement

service Left: The behind front desk arrival sequence is defined by the management team entering the hotel and passing through the lobby and the check in desk before approaching the management office. Locating the management office adjacent to the check in desk allows for an increased level of public interaction between the management team and visitors of the hotel. Right: The elevated arrival sequence is defined as the management team entering the hotel and passing through the lobby before travelling up the elevator to get to the management office. The consequence of removing the management office from the ground floor is a decrease in public interaction between the management team and the visi-

112

tors of the hotel.


Management Arrival | Elevated

service

113


Housekeeping Housekeeping Sequence

Housekeeping Arrival | Elevated

service Left: The arrival sequence of the housekeeping team is affected by the distinction between the private and public realms of service within the hotel. Right: The elevated arrival sequence is defined by the desire to limit interaction between the housekeeping team and the visitors of the hotel. The housekeeping team enters the hotel through a service entrance and proceeds to the employee locker room before meeting with the management team in the employee meeting room. The housekeeping team then travels up the service elevator to the

114

guest rooms.


Housekeeping Arrival | Elevated Service Sequence Housekeeping

service

115


Room Service Room Service Sequence

Room Service Arrival | Elevated

service Left: The arrival sequence of the room service team is affected by the distinction between the private and public realms of service within the hotel, similar to housekeeping. Right: The elevated arrival sequence is also defined by the desire to limit interaction between the room service team and the visitors of the hotel. The room service team enters the hotel through a service entrance, proceeds to the employee locker room before meeting with the management team in the employee meeting room. The room service team gets the food from the restaurant then travels up the

116

service elevator to the guest rooms.


Room Service Arrival | Elevated Service Sequence Room Service

service

117


Housekeeping Vendor Housekeeping Vendor Sequence

Housekeeping Vendor Arrival | Direct

service

Housekeeping Vendor Arrival | Elevated

The arrival sequences of the housekeeping vendor are affected by the distinction between the private and public realms of service within the hotel, similar

118

to housekeeping and room service.


Housekeeping Vendor Arrival | Direct Service Sequence Vendor 3

service

The direct arrival sequence is defined by the housekeeping vendor entering the hotel through a service entrance and proceeding directly to the storage for housekeeping supplies on the ground floor.

119


Housekeeping Vendor Arrival | Elevated

uence ndor 2

service

120


Restaurant Vendor Restaurant Vendor Sequence

Restaurant Vendor Arrival | Direct

service

Left: The elevated arrival sequence is defined by the housekeeping vendor entering the hotel through a service entrance and traveling up the service elevator to the storage for housekeeping supplies, located on a higher level. Right: The arrival sequence of the restaurant vendor is affected by the distinction between the private and public realms of service within the hotel, similar to housekeeping, room service, and the housekeeping vendor.

121


Restaurant Vendor Arrival | Direct

uence endor 1

service Left: The elevated arrival sequence is defined by the housekeeping vendor entering the hotel through a service entrance and proceeding directly to the restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Right: The short, average, and long distances of a sequence are diagrammed to show the range of the total journey travelled by the users within each of

122

the baseline sequences.


Distances of Sequence Management

service

Arrival | Behind Front Desk

Arrival | Elevated 123


Distances of a Sequence Housekeeping and Room Service

service

Arrival | Elevated 124

Arrival | Elevated


Distances of a Sequence Housekeeping Vendor and Restaurant Vendor

service

Arrival | Direct

Arrival | Elevated

Arrival | Direct 125


Ss1

Simple

Management Arrival | Behind Front Desk

Housekeeping Arrival | Elevated

Housekeeping Vendor Arrival | Direct

service Management Arrival | Elevated

Housekeeping Arrival | Elevated

Room Service Arrival | Elevated

The Ss1, or Simple Package, represents the miniHousekeeping Vendor Arrival | Elevated

mal collection of sequences required for a functional hotel. The sequences included are the most direct and simplistic in programmatic progression

Restaurant Vendor Arrival | Direct

when compared to the other sequences. This package accommodates members of management and housekeeping as well as the housekeeping vendor. This package is stripped of any entertainment

126

services.


Arrival | Direct

Complex

Ss2

Management Arrival | Elevated

Housekeeping Arrival | Elevated

Room Service Arrival | Elevated

service

Housekeeping Vendor Arrival | Elevated

Restaurant Vendor Arrival | Direct

The Ss2, or Complex Package, represents the allinclusive collection of sequences possible for a hotel. The sequences included represent the most complex in providing a functional journey, isolated from the public realm of the hotel, by elevating the programmatic elements of the hotel. This package accommodates members of management, housekeeping, and room service as well as the housekeeping and the restaurant vendors.

127


Configuration Building Configuration

130

Room Aggregation

136

Core Arrangement

142

Parking Location

146

Configuration Matrix

147

design


This chapter initiates ideas of how building conďŹ gurations,

room

aggregations,

core

arrangements and parking layouts begin to be arranged within hotels. The groupings presented in each topic have resulted from analyzing a wide range of hotels mostly situated in urban settings. These underlying principals support the overall design, plan, program and intention of a hotel. This chapter sets out to establish the relationships that exist within each of these typical building massings.

Such relationships have produced a

range of design possibilities that exist within each of the categories presented.

Although the site

generally dictates what is possible, this chapter aims to create a broad range of design ideas. Such ideas revolve around how the ďŹ nal massing may look from an exterior point of view as well as how the building works internally. This includes the more strict building requirements of egress and elevator layouts. Each category analyzed is placed design

within a matrix in order to create identiďŹ able packages that can then be compared with other

Lounge

design packages within other chapters of this pattern book.

A1

o .indd template

Public Elevator

Service Elevator

Stair Core

Additional Egress Stair

Public Amenities

129


Hybrid

Tower

Multiple Bars Double Bar

Single Bar

Guest/Podium Same

Guest over Podium

Courtyard

Atrium


Building Configuration Classification BAR

After

analyzing

various

hotels

the

typical

configurations can be classified as bar, tower, and atrium. Bar building configurations consist of the stacking of room bars, typically above a podium. The budget bar contains no distinct podium and contains rooms on the ground floor. The equal bar has a distinct podium but consists of the same Budget

Equal

Extended Podium

footprint of the guest floors above. The extended podium contains a much larger common space below the guest floors and allows for the possibility of exterior activity space to be located on top of the

TOWER

podium level. The tower generally has more floors than that of the bar buildings. The half tower is typically formed by a constrained site and does not have an extended podium.

The standard tower is very

basic in shape compared to the irregular tower that creates a distinct signature above its podium. The irregular tower holds more guest rooms per floor Standard

Irregular

than that which is found in a standard tower. The atrium configuration produces either enclosed conditioned spaces within the building itself or exterior courtyards.

ATRIUM

design

Half

The configuration of this

building type creates a large visual volume of common space set within its footprint.

Open Courtyard

Decentralized

Centralized

131


Building Configuration Bar Total Rooms

Rooms per Floor

Number of Floors

Podium Footprint

Guest Footprint

Typ. No. of Podium Levels

Building Size

82

30

3

14,000 S.F.

14,000 S.F.

0

42,400 S.F.

30 - 195

7 - 15

6 - 20

2,000 S.F. 14,000 S.F.

2,000 S.F. 14,000 S.F.

1-3

8,000 S.F. 40,000 S.F. (60’ x 240’)

50 - 1000

20 - 50

9 - 30

28,000 S.F. 150,000 S.F.

9,000 25,000 S.F.

2-6

56,000 S.F. 1,250,000 S.F. (160’ x 180’)

Budget Bar

Equal Bar

design Extended Podium

132


Building Configuration Tower Total Rooms

Rooms per Floor

Number of Floors

Podium Footprint

Guest Footprint

Typ. No. of Podium Levels

Building Size

64 - 110

4-6

21 - 26

7,000 S.F. 17,000 S.F.

2,000 S.F. 5,000 S.F.

1-2

70,000 S.F. 110,000 S.F. (48’ x 65’)

Half Tower

225 - 770

16 - 24

21 - 42

14,000 S.F. 22,000 S.F.

6,000 S.F. 9,000 S.F.

2-4

105,000 S.F. - 314,000 S.F. (120’ x 120’)

5-7

105,000 S.F. - 314,000 S.F. (120’ x 160’)

Standard Tower

24 - 32

21 - 42

22,000 S.F. 28,000 S.F.

8,000 11,000 S.F.

design

400 - 1000

Irregular Tower

133


Building Configuration Atrium Total Rooms

Rooms per Floor

Number of Floors

Podium Footprint

Guest Footprint

Typ. No. of Podium Levels

Building Size

300 - 1695

63 - 110

12 - 31

11,000 S.F. 16,000 S.F.

8,000 S.F. 14,000 S.F.

2-5

45,000 S.F. 475,000 S.F. (95’ x 140’)

280 - 1200

50 - 80

12 - 28

11,000 S.F.18,000 S.F.

5,000 S.F. 10,000 S.F. .

2-6

Open Courtyard

50,000 S.F. 390,000 S.F. (100’ x 130’)

Decentralized Atrium

design

530 - 1949

Centralized Atrium

134

40 - 56

21 - 54

24,000 S.F. 162,000 S.F.

20,000 32,000 S.F.

5-8

587,000 S.F. - 1,800,000 S.F. (150’ x 300’) Atrium Size. (5,000 S.F. 9,000 S.F.)


Building Configuration Hybrid Total Rooms

Rooms per Floor

Number of Floors

Podium Footprint

Guest Footprint

Typ. No. of Podium Levels

Building Size

200 - 404

18 - 20

17 - 22

33,500 S.F. 47,500 S.F.

6,800 S.F. 9,000 S.F.

4-5

265,000 S.F. - 302,000 S.F. (165’ x 220’)

381

17

40

8,150 S.F.

1,450 S.F.

3

680

82

11

27,000 S.F.

13,800 S.F.

3

Feature and Tower

295,000 (85’ x 95’)

Bar & Tower

design

177,500 (150’ x 215’)

Multiple Connected Bars

975

Atrium Tower

30

42

51,000 S.F..

11,250 S.F.

6

680,250 S.F. (185’ x 300’) Atrium Size (2050 S.F.)

135


Room Aggregation Analysis Patterns Typical Tower

Variations

Novotel Koshien Osaka Hotel

Lafayette Concorde Hotel | Paris

Hilton Hotel | Jersusalem

Hotel Fasano

Single Loaded

Reference

Hotel Remota

Reference

Royalton Hotel | New York

Charlesmark Hotel | Boston

Double Loaded

Royton Sapporo Hotel

Semiramis Hotel | Athens

Fountainbleu Hotel | Florida

Yokohama Isezakicho Hotel

Bulfinch Hotel | Boston

Core-Linked

Aloft | Lexington, MA

Hyatt Regency | Denver

Sheraton | Waikiki

Paramount Hotel

Multi-Connected

Hakata Excel Hotel

Hudson Hotel | New York

Statler Hilton Center | LA

Hayashida Kagoshima Hotel

Bar

design

Four Seasons | Vancouver

136

Yokohama Grand InterContinental

Central YMCA | London


Room Aggregation Tower Guest rooms arranged around a corridor and a

TOWER

cental core are aggregated in a Tower formation.

number of rooms

room GSF to total GSF

core GSF to total GSF

corridor NSF to total GSF

up to 32

70-77%

13-20%

8-9%

up to 24

77%

13%

9%

up to 20

75%

15%

8%

up to 32

70%

20%

9%

up to 25

74%

17%

9%

T

Towers are restrictive in their size and the number of rooms they contain because of the required size and area set by the central core and its adjacent T

corridor. Towers are typically formed in standard square and circular shapes, which result in similar shaped

Standard Tower

rooms around a core.

T

One variation of the Tower is the Half Tower, in which the rooms wrap halfway around the core. It

T y

is still considered a Tower because the core is compressed in one area surrounded by the rooms.

Half Tower

Irregular Shaped Towers are challenging to design,

x

since the core and rooms have to fit within the oddly shaped exterior of the Tower. In some instances, there are Irregular Shaped Towers that do not have the entire core located in the center;

x

the center, but another part is on the other side of

design

rather, the core is split. The main portion of it is in Irregular Shape

the corridor. It is still considered a Tower, because the rooms continue to wrap around the split cores. x

x

TOWER DIMENSIONS T - length of Tower on average: 90’-0” - 110’-0” y - divisible number for Half Tower approximately: 1.1 - 1.5 x - dimension varies on average: 80’-0” - 160’-0”

Irregular Shape & Core

137


Room Aggregation Single Loaded Bar SINGLE LOADED BAR

number of rooms

room GSF to total GSF

core GSF to total GSF

corridor NSF to total GSF

up to 18

65-76%

6-12%

10-14%

L w1 w3 w2

65%

11%

14%

and the corridor areas are higher. up to 18

67%

6%

12%

Single Loaded Bars are restrictive in their width, because of reliance on the guest room size and the required corridor widths.

Bent

A common variation of the Single Loaded Bar is

L

achieved simply by distortion. By bending or up to 16

72%

12%

14%

arching the overall bar, different shaped rooms and corridors are formed. However, overall ratios of rooms, cores, and corridors to the total area remain

Arched

similar.

L

A distinct variation of the Single Loaded Bar is by

design

up to 14

w

is desired for only one side of the hotel. Due to its the number and total area of guest rooms are lower

L

w

These are used on restrictive sites or when a view aggregation, their efficiency rates are low, since

Standard

w

with cores or the exterior wall on the other side of the corridor form a Single Loaded Bar formation.

up to 15

w

Guest rooms arranged on one side of the corridor,

76%

6%

10%

addition. By adding rooms to the end of the hotel, more guest room efficiency is created.

By Addition

SINGLE LOADED DIMENSIONS L - length of bar w - min. width of bar 1 up to 250’ 22’-0” w - width of bar w2 - average width of bar varies 28’-0” to 32’-0” w3 - max. width of bar 40’-0”

138


Room Aggregation Double Loaded Bar Guest rooms arranged on both sides of the corridor, with cores inserted within the room arrangement

DOUBLE LOADED BAR

number of rooms

room GSF to total GSF

core GSF to total GSF

corridor NSF to total GSF

up to 64

74-83%

8-13%

8-11%

up to 40

77%

12%

10%

up to 64

79%

9%

10%

up to 55

82%

8%

10%

up to 20

83%

9%

8%

up to 20

74%

13%

11%

L

form a Double Loaded Bar formation. These aggregations are the most efficient use of space, allowing up to 83% of the floor area for guest room

w3 w2 w1

occupancy. Similarly to Single Loaded Bars, standard Double

Standard

Loaded Bars are restrictive in their width, because

L

they rely on the rooms and corridors. Their length depends on the number of rooms, which ranges up to 64 rooms per floor.

w

A typical variation of Double Loaded Bars is

Bent

achieved by distortion. By bending or arching the

L

standard Double Loaded Bar, the resulting bar is unique causing different sized and shaped rooms with different views, and core configurations.

w

Another variation of the Double Loaded Bar is the

Arched

Unbalanced Bar. The rooms are generic on one

L

rooms are rotated or arranged in a different layout. Distinct identities among Double Loaded Bars are

w

created by the Irregular shapes. The Double

design

side of the corridor, but on the other side, the

Unbalanced

Loaded aggregation is incorporated within a unique footprint, which results in irregular locations and sizes of the rooms, cores, and corridors. DOUBLE LOADED DIMENSIONS L - length of bar w - min. width of bar 1 up to 350’ 35’-0” w - width of bar w2 - average width of bar varies 40’-0” to 50’-0” x - width/length w3 - max. width of bar varies, depends 75’-0” on design and site restrictions

x x

Irregular Shape

139


Room Aggregation Core-Linked Bars CORE-LINKED BAR

number of rooms

room GSF to total GSF

core GSF to total GSF

corridor NSF to total GSF

up to 64

64-82%

4-20%

8-14%

BL

A pair of single and/or double loaded bars that are linked by a core form a Core-Linked Bar aggregation. These aggregations are similar to the

Bw

up to 40

73%

15%

10%

can be separated and its analysis would be the same as its respective single or double loaded

Offset

BL

single and double loaded bars. Each individual bar

aggregation. There are several variations of Two-Connected

Bw

up to 42

82%

10%

8%

Bars. The most common is the Offset, which is a double-loaded bar that has been split apart allowing the elevator lobby to run through the

Bw

linkage. Other common variations include the

Parallel

BL

Parallel, L-Shape, and T-Shape. The Irregular variation of Two-Connected bars is the most

Bw

unique; it can be linked in any way resulting in

BL

82%

4%

14%

up to 64

67%

5%

11%

random core configurations.

L-Shape

Bw

design

up to 32

BL Bw

BL

T-Shape

Bw

CORE-LINKED BAR DIMENSIONS

BL Bw

up to 63 BL

140

Bw

Irregular

64%

20%

12%

B - length of bar L varies, see Single & Double Loaded pages for dimension range B - width of bar w varies, see Single & Double Loaded pages for dimension range


Room Aggregation Multi-Connected Bars When three or more single and/or double loaded

MULTI-CONNECTED BAR

bars are connected by a corridor, they form a MultiConnected

Bar.

The

quality

of

these

number of rooms

room GSF to total GSF

core GSF to total GSF

corridor NSF to total GSF

up to 89

65-76%

8-11%

12-18%

up to 56

65%

11%

18%

up to 68

75%

8%

14%

up to 89

76%

8%

12%

up to 82

73%

10%

16%

BL

are

Bw

aggregations similar to the single and double loaded bars. Each individual bar can be separated

BL

and its analysis would be the same as its respective single or double loaded configuration. There are many variations of Multi-Connected Bars. The most common are the U-Shaped and

Bw

Connected Bars. The U-Shaped consists of three

Connected

BL

bars that wrap around an open space, which tend

Bw

to be a usable courtyard. The Connected Bar includes three or more bars that fully connect,

BL

allowing the corridors to be linked. The interior linkages form an atrium. The Connected Bar lacks

Bw

guest room and corridor efficiency rates. the

Pinwheel

and

the

Multiple.

U-Shaped

Bw

Irregular variations of Multi-Connected Bars are

Bw

Pinwheel BL

BL

outward while a central core and corridor link the bars together. The Multiple aggregation consists of

Bw

separate bars that are linked by a corridor.

design

aggregation consists of multiple bars that stem

Bw BL BL

MULTI-CONNECTED BAR DIMENSIONS B - length of bar L varies, see Single & Double Loaded pages for dimension range B - width of bar w varies, see Single & Double Loaded pages for dimension range

Bw Bw

Bw

Bw

Pinwheel

BL BL

Multiple

141


Core Arrangement Analysis Patterns

Public Elevator

design

142

Service Elevator

Stair Core

Additional Egress Stair


Core Arrangement Analysis Patterns

design

143


Core Arrangement

6’-0” 5’-0” W

Stair Standards x+12 x 12” x+12 x

12”

Y

x+12 x

W

W

UP

6’-0” 5’-0” W

12” TYPICAL EGRESS*

Number of Occupants per Floor Exits 2 500 orDN fewer 3 501 to 1000 4 1000 orWgreater

Y

DN

W

W

W

W

Y

DN

W

6’-0” 5’-0” W

UP

A B

A

A B

Stair and CorridorUPWidth* (W) 44” min more than 49 occupants 36” min less than 49 occupants

Corridor Width Dimensions. Increases with Level of Service.

* Architectural Graphic Standards

12’-0” MAX

D

D

B d (d’) d (d’)

20’-0” maximum dead end corridor 250’-0” maximum from furthest point at least 1/2 of D (D’) if not sprinklered at least 1/3 of D (D’) if sprinklered

D

* Architectural Graphic Standards

VERTICAL RISE

6’-8” MIN HEADROOM

6’-8” MIN HEADROOM

A

VERTICAL RISE

12’-0” MAX

VERTICAL RISE

12’-0” MAX

6’-8” MIN HEADROOM

TYPICAL EGRESS TRAVEL DISTANCES*

d’ d’

design

There are few alternatives in the design of egress

d’

stairs or where such cores are placed. Similar to elevators, cores are designed to be embedded within the structural dimensional grid of each floor

d d

plate and must typically rise vertically in a room

floors

within

the

dimensional

parameters of bathrooms x+12 x and closets.

Distance 12”

between egress cores, dead end corridors, corridor W

Y

widths and maximum distance of travel are W

d

6’-0” 5’-0” W

D

guest

Cores are generally found on

D

continuous form.

* The Architect’s Studio Companion

DN

required to be integrated within the design of any hotel.

W UP

144

A B


Core Arrangement 25

elevator is required for the first 100 rooms plus another service elevator for each additional 200 rooms. Electric elevators service buildings larger than 60 C

C

C C C C buildings shaft. Hydraulic Elevators typically service under 60 feet tall and A AA A A require a machine room much smaller in size. A

25

Service elevators should always open to separate enclosed spaces from DD

common spaces. Bank arrangements typically do not exceed four elevators.

D D DCB B D B B BNo should be located in a single B more than three elevators C hoistway, unless A an additional fire partition is required. Banks with six elevators and under can A

25

Public Elevator Ratio

25

feet tall. These elevators generally require a machine room directly above the

25

25 25

COMMON COMMON COMMON

be alcoved. A bank of eight elevators must open and accessible on both

25 25

Base Service Elevator Ratio

Typically, hotels require one guest elevator for every 75 rooms. One service

25 25 25 25 25 25

Additional Service Elevator Ratio

Elevator Standards Elevators Per Room

E

EE E E E should sides. A guest not have to walk more than 150’ from a room to an

SERVICE SERVICE SERVICE

D Elevators should not be directly D B located next to bedrooms. elevator lobby. B They are typically stacked next to egress cores, bathrooms, closets, service

COMMON

spaces or additional spaces that create a barrier between where guests sleep and circulation occurs.

E

E

SERVICE C

A ELEVATOR DIMENSIONS* ELECTRIC

D

B

B

Rated Load (LB) 2000

A 6-0 7-0 7-0

2500 3000

Dimensions (Ft. In.) B C D 5-0 7-4 6-10 5-0 5-6

8-4 8-4

6-7 7-1

E 3-0

1.5B 1.75B 2B 1.5B 1.75B 2B2B 1.5B 1.75B 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” 10’-0” MIN MIN MIN B B B MIN MIN MIN B B MIN B B MIN B B MIN COMMON

3-6 3-6

* Architectural Graphic Standards

E

E

Elevator Bank Arrangements (Set within Waiting Lobbies)

8-4 5-9 COMMON 8-4 6-3

* Architectural Graphic Standards

E

E SERVICE

B

B

B

2B 10’-0” MIN

150’ MAX 150’ MAX 150’ MAX

B

3-6 3-6

5-0 5-6

B

1.75B 10’-0” MIN

145 150’ MAX

Elevator Bank Arrangements (Set within the Corridor) 12’-0” MIN

7-0 7-0

B

1.5B 10’-0” MIN

12’-0” MIN

2500 3000

B B

E 2-8 3-0

12’-0” 12’-0” MIN MIN

Dimensions (Ft. In.) A B C D 4-10 5-0 6-8 5-9 6-0 5-0 7-4 5-9

B

B

Rated Load (LB) 1500 2000

10’-0” MIN

D

HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR DIMENSIONS*

10’-0” MIN

A

10’-0” 10’-0” MIN MIN

C

A

B B

SERVICE

C

design

D

Separation of Service and Common Space

C

A

1.5B

1.75B

2B


O

On-Sit

Example 1

Example 2

Mandarin Oriental Hotel Singapore

Aloft Hotel

Analysis Patterns and Standards Hotel Parking - Analysis On Site Parking Diagram Aloft Hotel

Novotel Koshien Osaka Hotel

Urban 1:3

Restaurant Seats

1:10

Conference Seats

1:10

Resident Staff

1:1

On Grade

Off Example Site1 Highway Hotel

1:1

Central YMCA London

Thistle Tower Hotel

Many Urban Hotels have off-site parking, which is Example 2

Central YMCA London

Thistle Tower Hotel

convenient for the designer, but not for the guest. Ideally, the guest would prefer parking to be on site, either self-service or valet. On-Site Parking is defined as surface, below

Aloft Hotel Thistle Tower Hotel

Garage

grade, and above grade. Figuring out the number Novotel Koshien Osaka Hotel

of spaces required for parking can be facilitated by standard ratios and by a mathematical formula. Most urban hotels that have on-site parking have

Suburban

On-Site / Below

Guest Room

On-Site / Inside

Below Grade

Central YMCA London

located Mandarin Oriental Hotel Singapore

it

underground,

even

of two rooms’ width = three parking spaces’ width.

1:5

Central YMCA London

Thistle Tower Hotel

1:1

design

Structural Relationship of Parking Spaces and Guest Rooms

* Time-Saver Standards for Building Types

R

REQUIRED PARKING SPACE FORMULA*

(People per Car)

G

(400) x (.85) x (1.4) x (.40) = Number of Parking Spaces Required

146 * Time-Saver Standards for Building Types

the

determined by the guest room layout; the average

Non-Resident Staff 1:3 TYPICAL PARKING SPACE RATIO TO USE GROUP*

(Number of Rooms) x (% Occupancy) x (People per Room) x (% Arriving By Car)

though

constructionHighway of itHotelis very expensive. The structural module for parking column spacing is usually

1:5

Off-Site / Garage-Valet

Off-Site / Garage-Valet

On-Site / Below Off-Site / Garage-Valet

Above Grade

Highway Hotel

Off-Site / Garage-Valet

On-Site / Adjacent

On-Site / Below

On-Site / Inside

Mandarin Oriental Hotel Singapore

Mandarin Oriental Hotel Singapore

Highway Hotel

Novotel Koshien Osaka Hotel

On-Site / Below

Parking Location On-Site / Inside

On-Site / Adjacent

Parking Diagram

(1.5)

= 127

u

e

s

o

o

m

s

t

P

a

r

k

i

n

g


Configurations Matrix

BUILDING CONFIGURATIONS

Standard Package Label Size and Title Standard Package Label Size and Title

C1

Standard Package Label Size and Title

ROOM AGGREGATIONS A1 Public Amenities A1 Public Amenities A1 Public Amenities

Standard Font - Arial - use size according to .indd template BOX Standard Font - Arial - use size according to .indd template

C2

Tower

Stair Core Stair Core Stair Core Stair Core

Additional Egress Stair Additional Egress Stair Additional Egress Stair Additional Egress Stair

C4

Single Loaded

PARKING

CORE ARRANGEMENTS

Parking Diagram

Hotel Parking - Analysis

Parking Diagram

Man

Hotel Parking - Analysis

Double Loaded

VERTICAL

C5 SPIRE

Hotel Parking - Analysis

Core-Linked

C6 VOLUME Multi-Connected

Parking Diagram

design

Service Elevator Service Elevator Service Elevator Service Elevator

Egress Stair Additional Egress Stair

Mand

ARRAY

Public Elevator Public Elevator Public Elevator Public Elevator

Core Stair Core

Alternatives

Hotel Parking - Analysis

BLOCKas necessary Standard Leader - shape/scale

C3

Elevator Service Elevator

Additional Egress Stair Additional

Parking Diagram

Standard Font - Arial - use size according to .indd template Standard Leader - shape/scale as necessary Standard Leader - shape/scale as necessary

Elevator Public Elevator

Stair Core Stair

On-Site / Adjacent

Lounge

Service Elevator Service

On-Site/ /Adjacent Inside On-Site

Standard Icon Size

Packages Public Elevator Public

Off-Site / Garage-Valet On-Site Below On-Site / Below /Off-Site Inside //Below On-Site /On-Site Adjacent Garage-Valet On-Site / Below On-Site On-Site //Inside Off-Site / Garage-ValetOn-Site On-Site / Inside / Adjacent

Lounge Lounge

Off-Site / Garage-Valet

Standard Icon Size Standard Icon Size

Man

Mand

147


Rooms Introduction to Rooms

149

Icon Definitions

150

R1: Budget Room

152

R2: Standard Room

156

R3: Pleasant Room

160

R4: Refined Suite

164

R5: Royal Suite

168

design


Guest rooms are the most personal area found in a hotel. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes and possess an infinite number of possible amenities. Room sizes, amenities, and services are often designed based on budget and the overall story of each individual hotel. They are also tailored to suit certain demographics of users. Although the possibilities are endless, the majority of rooms tend to follow the same typical patterns. The following chapter defines models for five different types of hotel rooms, ranging from basic to the most luxurious. Each model is categorized by

91 SF/OCCUPANT

R1

155 SF/OCCUPANT

R2

square footage, living/bedroom space, bathroom space, and additional amenities. These models outline the necessary information needed to develop the appropriate guestroom for the hotel.

200 SF/OCCUPANT

R3

270 SF/OCCUPANT

R4 design

The diagram to the right depicts the square footage per occupant for the five types of hotel rooms.

700 SF/OCCUPANT

R5

149


Icon Definitions Living/Bedroom Icons

Bathroom Icons Additional Sink

Arm Chair

Separate Shower

Desk and Chair

Luxury Tub or Jacuzzi

Sofa

Bidet

Dining or Conference Table

Powder Station

design

Television

Pull-out Sofa

Luxury Television 150


Additional Amenity Icons Wireless Internet

Room Service

Safe

Washer and Dryer

Video Game Console or DVD Player

Mini-Bar

design

This chart provides a definition for all of the icons that are used in the Rooms chapter. The icons are broken down into three main categories, Bedroom/Living room area, Bathroom, and Additional Amenities. Each room type is broken down into the same three categories, making it easy to associate each icon.

Fire Place

Kitchen

Fax Machine 151


R1

Budget Room

The R1, or Budget Room, is a room that would be considered slightly below baseline. It is a stripped

Bed/Living Area

down hotel room with the most basic of amenities. It’s square footage per occupant range lies between 55 to 125 sq ft, typically, and appeals to those simply looking for a bed to sleep in for the night. The Bed/ Living packages range from L1 up until L3 but not beyond. An L1 includes zero added amenities, with only a bed, a dresser, and a TV. An L2 would include the L1 package with an added arm chair. Finally an L3, the most luxurious of the Budget Rooms would include an L2 package with a writing desk.

14’-0”

11’-8”

design

L1 55 SF 152

80 SF


12’-8”

17’-0”

20’-0”

12’-8”

design

L2

L3 105 SF

R1

125 SF 153


R1

Budget Room Bathroom Area

The bathroom in an R1 room type will always consist of just three fixtures, tub-shower, sink and toilet. It will have just enough square footage to navigate from fixture to fixture with no additional walking space. Just below the typical three fixture bathroom will be the two fixture room, which is a sublet of bathroom B1. The difference is that the sink is just outside the toilet/shower room. This type of room is even smaller than the typical B1 and is not a common package type.

6’-8”

6’-8”

design

6’-8”

8’-8”

B1

B1

20 SF

30 SF R1

154


Budget Room Amenity Packages

AMENITIES

BED/LIVING

R1

BATHROOM

R1

R2

R3 design

R4

R5

155


R2 R1

Standard Room

The R2, or Standard Room, is a room that would be considered a baseline room in most hotels.

Bed/Living Area

This room includes basic amenity packages that would be sufficient for a comfortable short stay for a variety of guests. Very similar in some respects to the R1, the R2 allows guests to stretch their legs over a larger square footage area of 125 to 180 sq ft per occupant. The R2 can include Living/ Bed packages L1, L2 and L3 as in the Budget Room, yet it also can include the L4 package. This package adds a sofa or love seat.

14’-8”

20’-0”

21’-0”

12’-8”

design

L1 125 SF 156

L2 145 SF


14’-8”

22’-0”

22’-0”

16’-8”

design

L3

L4 165 SF

180 SF

R2 157


R2

Standard Room Bathroom Area

The bathroom in an R2 room type will typically be a type B2 bathroom. However, it is common to find a type R2 room with a B1 bathroom. A B2 bathroom is similar to the B1 except that it has an additional sink. This extra sink will naturally demand a bit more square footage which makes the overall space slightly larger.

12’-0”

6’-8”

design

7’-8”

8’-8”

B1

B2

30 SF

45 SF R2

158


Standard Room Amenity Packages

AMENITIES

BED/LIVING

R2

BATHROOM

R1

R2

R3 design

R4

R5

159


R3

Pleasant Room Bed/Living Area

The R3, or Pleasant Room, is slightly above average in terms of square footage per occupant, ranging from 180 to 220 sq ft. This room contains the same basic furniture units as a high end R2, the difference being that these items can be spread out over a larger floor area resulting in a spacious room. This type of room would always include at least a L3 package (desk and arm chair), and more typically would include the L4 package of a love seat or sofa. The high end R3’s would normally include a pullout sofa for additional sleeping area. If climate permits, a balcony of up to 30 square feet per person may exist.

22’-0”

16’-8”

design

L3 180 SF 160

195 SF


16’-8”

24’-0”

25’-0”

16’-8”

design

L4

L4 205 SF

220 SF

R3 161


R3

Pleasant Room Bathroom Area

The bathroom in an R3 room will range from a type B1 to a type B3. A B3 bathroom, will have a bit more space to comfortably walk between fixtures. Additionally, there will be a separate shower stall so that two people can bathe simultaneously. It is also common to have the sinks be separated from the toilet and shower. This is a feature that is very common among the higher-scale rooms.

12’-0”

7’-8”

design

B1

8’-8”

12’-0”

7’-8”

12’-0”

B2

B3

45 SF

60 SF R3

162


Pleasant Room Amenity Packages

AMENITIES

BED/LIVING

R3

BATHROOM

R1 T1

T2 R2

R3 T3 design

R4 T4

R5 T5

163


R4

Refined Suite Bed/Living Area

The R4, or Refined Suite, has a large enough square footage per occupant to allow for multiple rooms. Typically an R4 will separate the living area from the bed area to allow separate activity to occur in these rooms. An R4 will have a distinctively better Bed/Living package than an R3, including a designated kitchen or kitchenette. Due to the addition of a separate living room it is not uncommon for this type of room to occupy two bays, where the prior rooms occupied only one bay. If the climate permits, the R4 also can include a balcony area averaging 60 sq ft per person.

19’-8”

25’-4”

design

L5 220 SF 164

255 SF


25’-4”

25’-0”

25’-0”

29’-4”

design

L6

L7 290 SF

325 SF

R4 165


R4

Refined Suite

The R4 room type will always have a more upscale bathroom. These bathrooms range from type B3 to

Bathroom Area

B5. The B4 bathroom is commonly more spacious than the B3. Similar to the B3, it will be a five fixture bathroom, however it will have a luxury tub or jacuzzi instead of a typical bathtub. The B5 type has all of the same features with the addition of a bidet, as well as more open space to circulate.

B4

120 SF

10’-4”

10’-4”

design

B3

B5 150 SF

R4 166

18’-0”

16’-0”

10’-4”

14’-4”


Refined Suite Amenity Packages

AMENITIES

BED/LIVING

R4

BATHROOM

R1

R2

R3 design

R4

R5

167


R5

Royal Suite Bed/Living Area 32’-0”

The R5, or Royal Suite, is the grandest of the room types. Its square footage per occupant ranges from 325 to 1000 sq ft, and even beyond in the most luxurious hotels. An R5 will have

many

rooms,

and

often

multiple

bedrooms and bathrooms. This type of room would be reserved for those on a long stay or with an enormous budget. These rooms have the highest level of service, and the guest is

31’-8”

treated to the utmost standard of luxury. Typically these rooms will have a large conference area separated from the living area. Ideally the conference area will include a fax machine and its own TV for video conferencing. The furniture package will include, at its minimum an L7, which only the highest of the R4 will have. The L8 is an design

exclusive living package that are exclusive to this room type. These rooms occupy the best in the hotel industry, and will nearly always include multiple balconies of varying square

L7

footages.

325 SF

550 SF R5

168


37’-0”

39’-0”

design

L8 775 SF

1000 SF 169


R5

Royal Suite

A Royal Suite will have the finest of bathroom amenities, ranging from types B4 up to the most luxurious

Bathroom Area

B6. A B6 bathroom possesses all of the same qualities as the B5, however there is significantly more square footage for an ease in navigation. The B6 also includes a powder station which is often desired by the most upscale clients. An R5 is also likely to have an additional full or half bath, which would be a typical three fixture facility.

14’-8”

20’-4”

15’-8”

12’-4”

15’-8”

14’-8”

design

B4

B5

B6

150 SF

250 SF R5

170


Royal Suite Amenity Packages

AMENITIES

BED/LIVING

R5

BATHROOM

R1

R2

R3 design

R4

R5

171


Style Guestroom

174

Lobby

184

Facade

196

Conclusion

206

Mini-Matrix

207

design


This chapter includes examples of different styles used in a variety of hotel types which were categorized into four distinct categories based on speciďŹ c design criteria established as a general guideline to describe Style and Experience. The design criteria was established by analyzing a compilation of guestroom, lobby and facade photos. A mini-matrix was thus created showing style design generalizations for these four distinct types.

Guestroom

Lobby

design

Facade

173


Design Criteria

Material:

Color:

Ornament:

Signage:

Fenestration:

Illumination:

stucco, pre-cast concrete panels

design

Large scale, visible from street/highway, prominent feature on facade

174

light colors, usually within white and yellow families

Simply framed, small scale windows in a repetitive pattern

limited, some facade enhancement, minimal detail

Spotlights illuminate entry area, further illumination from lights in individual rooms


Facade Type 1

F1

design

175


Design Criteria

Material:

Color:

Ornament:

Signage:

Fenestration:

Illumination:

brick, stone

design

mostly invisible from afar, usually located on front portico or awning

176

based on material color- usually red or within white family

small scale windows in a repetitive pattern due to existing masonry construction

emphasizes architectural style at time of original construction

light fixtures illuminate front entry and lower levels, further illumination from individual rooms


Facade Type 2

F2

design

177


Design Criteria

Material:

Color:

Ornament:

Signage:

Fenestration:

Illumination:

multiple types and sizes of brick and stone

design

mostly invisible from afar, usually located on front portico or awning

178

based on material color- usually red or within white family

multiple scale windows imtitating classical style

resembles classical style with emphasis on piano nobile and decorative cornice

light fixtures and spotlights illuminate front entry and parts of facade, further illumination from individual rooms


Facade Type 3

F3

design

179


Design Criteria

Material:

Color:

Ornament:

Signage:

Fenestration:

Illumination:

concrete, stucco, steel, glazing, aluminum, wood

design

top signage is visible from afar, smaller scale signage highlights front entry

180

multiple material and accent colors emphasize hotel identity

various scale of windows, repetitive on each floor, less rigor of spacing and sizing

minimal, hierarchy of spaces are emphasized with accent colors and materials, building has a creative form

signage at top illuminates night sky, lower level of building is brightly lit by interior spaces and exterior fixtures, further lighting from individual rooms and balconies


Facade Type 4

F4

design

181


Design Criteria

Material:

Color:

Ornament:

Signage:

Fenestration:

Illumination:

steel, concrete, curtain wall glazing

mostly invisible, usually located on top of building

design

182

opaque or clear glass effect respective to amount of direct sunlight on facade

usually curtain wall glazing system with operable windows located according to interior program

absent to minimal, the form of the building becomes the ornament

lower level brightly lit by interior spaces and exterior fixtures, accent lighting on certain features of facade for possible creative lighting displays, further lighting from individual rooms


Facade Type 5

F5

design

183


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Ceiling:

Casework:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Spaciousness:

Window & Treatment:

Accessories:

basic quality materials, usually consist of tile finish, simple pattern

design

simple material countertop, wood, occasional soffit, minimal pattern on front panel

wide clearance, limited lobby space

184

paint or wallpaper, minimal aesthetic, limited cracks or stain

minimal standard, fuctional, little maintenance, usually in corner

greater vertical span, simple drape for shading

simple, no decor with either recessed or flourescent light

well lit from natural lighting, artificial lighting highlights reception desk

artificial planting, simple artwork, newspaper and information pamphlets at counter


Lobby Type 1

L1

design

185


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Ceiling:

Casework:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Spaciousness:

Window & Treatment:

Accessories:

polished hardwood, intricate area rug

design

wood, handcrafted with intricate pattern from base to moulding

limited clearance space, overcrowded with furniture

186

paint or wallpaper, varies in color

multiple, varies in style, rich patterns

valance covered window, draped on both sides & sheer curtain

various treatments, wall and ceiling separated by wallpaper border or moulding, decorative chandelier

chandelier, desk lamp and sconce lights create good illumination

a great amount of artificial plantings, framed artwork and country style artifacts


Lobby Type 2

L2

design

187


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Ceiling:

Casework:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Spaciousness

Window & Treatment:

Accessories:

patterned tile or carpet, shiny terrazo finish

design

wood with pattern from base to moulding, decorated soffit, polished counter

wide clearance, spacious

188

paint finish with multiple color, occasional wood accent

limited seating, cushioned chairs

floor to ceiling height, simple color drapes

high ceiling tiles or cove with various lighting features

space well lit with multiple recessed lights

numerous plantings, information pamphlets


Lobby Type 3

L3

design

189


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Ceiling:

Casework:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Spaciousness:

Window & Treatment:

Accessories:

multiple materials, pattern carpet and shiny tiles, polished wood

design

typically wood with different countertop materials

wide clearance around gathering space

190

multiple colors and textures

high end sofa with extra accessories, extra cushion, reflects overall hotel style

floor to ceiling window with sheer fabric drapes

simple ceiling with decorative pendant lighting features

various forms of lighting fixtures which create a well balanced atmosphere

bouquets of flowers and plants, decorative sculptures


Lobby Type 4

L4

design

191


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Ceiling:

Casework:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Spaciousness:

Window & Treatment:

Accessories:

multiple shiny pattern tiles and carpet, polished wood

design

various finishes, decorative ornaments, embedded lighting, ceiling soffits with recessed lights

wide clearance, high ceiling, plenty of leisure space

192

range of simply painted and numerous accent feature walls

various styles, highly cushioned furniture with patterned fabric

floor to ceiling height, high end opaque patterned drape & sheer fabric sublayer

various ceiling patterns with exquisite chandelier

numerous lighting fixtures which produce a grandeur effect

numerous exotic plants, large scale sculptures, limited artwork


Lobby Type 5

L5

design

193


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Ceiling:

Casework:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Spaciousness:

Window & Treatment:

Accessories:

very shiny, multiple exquisite tile patterns, marble, patterned area rugs

design

extremely decorative, large scale which reflects classical style

enormous space, great ceiling height, highly decorated

194

enriched with artwork and moulding of classical art & architecture

highly stylish with extra cushioning, numerous seating arrangements

floor-to-ceiling high window, no drapes

highly expressive, intricate one-of-a-kind ceiling decor, exotic chandelier

extremely well lit with different lighting fixtures

grand scale sculpture artwork, exquisite floral bouquets


Lobby Type 6

L6

design

195


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Bedding:

Window & Treatment:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Ceiling:

Spaciousness:

Accessories:

dark, solid color basic quality carpeting, may include stains

design

dark, basic drape covering window’s length, heavy materials

adequate height, simple plaster, no decor

196

paint or wallpaper, limited cracks or stain

minimal, fuctional, prefabricated, inexpensive, low maintance, worn out appearance

adequate maneuvering space

multi-color design, lower quality sheets

typically at bed side with shade, dim to adequate incandescent illumination

minimal inexpensive framed artwork


Guestroom Type 1

G1

design

197


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Bedding:

Window & Treatment:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Ceiling:

Spaciousness:

Accessories:

limited pattern carpet, typically solid color

minimal to full length, dual material drapes

paint or wall paper finish

multiple pieces vary in style

design simple plaster with ceiling light, some wallpaper ornament

198

adequate maneuvering space

pattern print or solid color, standard quality sheets, includes 2+ pillows

incandescent table lamps at bedside, floor lamps located throughout room

inexpensive framed artwork, pamphlets and notepad on desk


Guestroom Type 2

G2

design

199


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Bedding:

Window & Treatment:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Ceiling:

Spaciousness:

Accessories:

good quality carpet with pattern

design

spacious view, stylish quality full length dual layer fabrics

simple plaster with limited moulding

200

broad range of color paint, light wallpaper print

multiple style, well cushioned seating

quite spacious for maneuvering

stylish print pattern or solid color, quality material blanket & pillows

more variety of light fixtures and shades to enhance illumination

nicely framed artistic artwork, pamphlets, notepad, and tissue box on desk


Guestroom Type 3

G3

design

201


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Bedding:

Window & Treatment:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Ceiling:

Spaciousness:

Accessories:

high quality hardwood or stain resistant carpet

large window, full length dual material drapes

design plaster finish with recessed lighting

202

multiple paint, fabric, or material finish

multiple well cushioned, stylish furniture emphasize character of room

adequate space for leisure and maneuvering

thick, solid color down comforter, multiple accent pillows, decorative headboard

multiple decorative lamps and wall sconces

live plants and fresh flowers in decorative vases, multiple dimensions of artwork


Guestroom Type 4

G4

design

203 03


Design Criteria

Floor Finish:

Wall:

Bedding:

Window & Treatment:

Furniture:

Lighting Quality:

Ceiling:

Spaciousness:

Accessories:

high quality, polished hardwood, carpet and area rugs

fantastic view, stylishly draped full length fabric

paint, sophisticated print wallpaper or fabric finish

multiple highly cushioned leisure furnishings

design ornate crown moulding and centrally located light feature

204

extremely spacious

plush mattress, cushioned headboard, decorative throw and accent pillows

multiple stylish fixtures add soothing ambient light to various areas of room

numerous vases with fresh flowers and large scale artwork


Guestroom Type 5

G5

design

205


Conclusion Although there are many aspects which represent style within a hotel, this chapter has focused on three primary spaces: facade, lobby, and guestroom. There are many possible combinations for these categories which would identify unique stylistic qualities; this chart and supporting mini-matrix provide general definitions for the style of spaces in various hotel typologies. This design criteria serves as a basic guideline to determine suitable levels of style for the three primary spaces mentioned. This criteria can be further elaborated to include the design of other spaces within the hotel.

ST1 ST2

ST3

design

ST4

206

Vanilla

The overall expression of the hotel includes minimal design aesthetic using low quality materials. Lobbies include minimum furnishing requirements and guestrooms typically consist of simple carpet patttern and multi-color bedding.

Sentimental

This category offers classy furnishings and decor to reflect a historical architectural style and create a friendly, cozy environment.

Contemporary

This category incorporates the use of modern, unique materials to create interesting formal spaces. The furnishings include simply but luxuriously designed, highly cushioned seating arrangements. Guestroom character reflects elegant style.

Innovative

This category incorporates a high end style of intricate ornament and decor to create grand spaces. The lobby emphasizes exquisite levels of detail and the guestroom offers an ultimate luxurious experience.


Mini-Matrix Facade

Lobby

Guestroom

ST1 F1

L1

G1

F2

L2

G2

ST3

F3

L3

G3

ST4

F4

L4

G4

F5

L5

G5

ST2

design

L6

207


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3 A5

B4

A6

1. Choose the driving element of your hotel from any of the following columns. The boxes refer to the package types outlines in each chapter. 2. After the driving element is chosen, the white lines will show you which packages are able to be grouped with that initial choice. 3. The result will be a complete collection of packages that outlines every element that should be taken into consideration in the design and development of the hotel.

208

Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

209


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

Hotel Type 1

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3 A5

B4

A6

210

Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

211


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

Hotel Type 2

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3 A5

B4

A6

212

Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

213


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

Hotel Type 3

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3 A5

B4

A6

214

Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

215


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

Hotel Type 4

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3 A5

B4

A6

216

Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

217


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3

Hotel Type 5

A5

B4

A6

218

Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

219


SEQUENCE

A1

S1

A2

S2

G

G

A3

S3

A4

S4

G

Services

Guest

AMENITIES

BACK of HOUSE

B1

B2

G

B3 A5

Hotel Type 6

220

B4

A6 Bottom Line

A1

Jaunt

S1

Economizer

B1

Basic

A2

Trip

S2

Baseline

B2

Expanded

A3

Tour

S3

Specialty

B3

Enhanced

A4

Excursion

S4

Everything

B4

Elaborate

A5

Deluxe

A6

G

G

G

G


S1 S

Design

SEQUENCE

CONFIGURATION

ROOMS

STYLE

C1

R1

ST1

C2

R2 ST2

C3 R3 C4 ST3

S2 S

R4

C5

R5

C6

ST4

Simple

S1

Box

C1

Budget Room

R1

Vanilla

ST1

Complex

S2

Block

C2

Standard Room

R2

Sentimental

ST2

Array

C3

Pleasant Room

R3

Contemporary

ST3

Vertical

C4

Refined Suite

R4

Innovative

ST4

Spire

C5

Royal Suite

R5

Volume

C6

S

S

221


HOTELS ARCH G691 GRADUATE DEGREE PROJECT STUDIO FALL 2008 This publication has been prepared as part of a five week graduate thesis studio assignment in the Northeastern University School of Architecture for the Fall 2008 Architecture G691 course. Other publications in this series include urban retail, office, and parking garage typologies, all produced by graduate students in the Northeastern University architecture program.

Hotels  

Hotels: A Pattern Book

Hotels  

Hotels: A Pattern Book

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