Page 1


Edited by

Bibliography

Jonathan A. Scelsa

Watson, Donald, and Michele Adams. Design for Flooding: Architecture, Landscape, and Urban

Published by

Design for Resilience to Flooding and Climate

Northeastern University School of Architecture

Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

360 Huntington Ave. Boston, Massachusetts 02115

Nordenson, Guy, Catherine Seavitt, and Adam Yarinsky. On the Water: Palisade Bay. Ostifidern:

Copyright (C) 2011 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved First printing November 2011 Studio Research Team

Alison Baggen

Zach Briggs

Bryan Brown

Alex Brownell

Chris Freda

Dennis Greenwood

Joe Helferty

Ashley Hopwood

Geri-Ann, Quinlivan

Dan Ricardelli

Matthew, Rider

Jonathan Sampson

Yukai Sun

Adjunct Professor

Jonathan A. Scelsa

Hatje Cantz, 2010.


Flood Plain Urbanism A Pattern Book

This publication has been prepared as a part of a ten week graduate thesis studio assignment in the Northeastern University School of Architecture for the Fall 2011 Architecture G691 course. Other publications in this series include urban retail, office and parking garage typologies, all produced by graduate students in the Northeastern University architecture program. The team would like to extend thanks to the following people for their support in this research: Dan Adams, Tim Love, George Thrush + Kevin Hively.

FPU


Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION

Upcoming Design Challenges................. 004 Statistics.................................................. 005 Timeline + Map of World Floods.............. 006 Insurance Procedure............................... 008 History of FEMA...................................... 009 Coastal Brownfields.................................012 Working Waterfronts............................... 014

FPU FPU

II. THE POST-INDUSTRIAL CORRIDOR

Chapter icons

THE NORTHEAST CORRIDOR

Northeast The NortheastUrban CooridorDeltas.......................... 020

NH

Corridor Biodiversity................................ 022 Public/Private Waterfront........................ 024 New Haven, CT Mega-Regional Transit............................ 026

FPU

Chapter icons

Providence, RI

PR NEW HAVEN

The Cooridor NHNortheast Flood Plain........................................ 028 Natural Prevention Systems

NH Port Statistics.................................... 030

NH PR

NH Development Potential...................... 034

Chapter icons

Providence, RI Floodplain MasterMorphology..........................035 Plans NH Housing

NH Transit Configuration......................... 036

The Northeast Cooridor Natural Prevention Systems Floodplain Housing

NH

New Haven, CT NH Coastal Brownfields...........................032 Synthetic Prevention Systems

PR

PROVIDENCE

New Haven, CT Synthetic Prevention Systems Floodplain Industry PR Flood Plain........................................ 038

PR Port Statistics.................................... 040

Providence, RI Floodplain Master Plans Energy Infrastructure PR Coastal Brownfields...........................042

PR Development Potential...................... 044

Natural Prevention Floodplain HousingSystems Water Removal Systems PR Housing Morphology..........................045

PR Transit Configuration......................... 046

Synthetic FloodplainPrevention Industry Systems Coastal Interface Floodplain Master Plans Energy Infrastructure Floodplain Housing Water Removal Systems

02

Floodplain Industry Coastal Interface


FPU FPU

The Northeast Cooridor

FPU

Chapter icons The Northeast Cooridor

Chapter icons Chapter icons

NH PR

New Haven, CT

NH PR

Natural Prevention Systems New Haven, CT Barrier Islands..........................................050 Natural Prevention Systems

Urban Wetlands....................................... 056 Synthetic Prevention Systems Providence, RIand Dykes...................................062 Polders Synthetic Prevention Systems Jetties and Groins....................................068 Floodplain Master Systems Plans Natural Prevention Floodplain Master Plans

SYNTHETIC SYSTEMS

Floodplain Housing Systems Seawalls.................................................. 074 Synthetic Prevention Floodplain Housing

Floodgates...............................................082 Floodplain Industry Floodplain Master Plans Levees..................................................... 088

Floodplain Industry

EnergyREMOVAL Infrastructure WATER SYSTEMS Floodplain Housing Energy Infrastructure

Absorption materials................................094 Water Removal Systems Floodplain Industry Channel design........................................096 Water Removal Systems Water Treatment......................................098 CoastalInfrastructure Interface Energy Coastal Interface

Water Removal Systems Coastal Interface

New Haven, CT New Haven, CT Providence, RI Providence, RI Natural Prevention Systems Natural Prevention Systems Synthetic Prevention Systems

The Northeast Cooridor The Northeast Cooridor

Chapter Haven, CT icons NH New NH III. PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE Providence, RICooridor The Northeast Providence, RI PR PRNATURAL SYSTEMS

NH NH PR PR

New Haven, CT

FPU

IV. COASTAL URBAN FABRIC

NH PR

MASTERPLANS New Haven, CT Synthetic Prevention Systems

Minnesota Riverfront Competition........... 104 Longgang Competition............106 Providence, RI Riverfront Floodplain Master Plans Lower Don icons Lands Competition................ 108 Chapter TokyoPrevention Bay Proposal.................................110 Natural Floodplain HousingSystems The Cooridor TooNortheast Perfect: Seven New Denmarks.........112

Synthetic FloodplainPrevention Industry Systems

NH PR

Floodplain Master Plans

Chapter icons

Providence, RI

The Northeast Cooridor Natural Prevention Systems

Synthetic Prevention Systems

New Haven, CT

HOUSING TYPES Floodplain Master Plans Energy Infrastructure Providence, RI

New Orleans Ninth Ward......................... 116

Housing Morphology Guidelines............. 118 Floodplain Housing Water Removal Systems Natural Prevention Systems

Floodplain Master Plans Floodplain Housing FloodplainSYSTEMS Housing V. COASTAL Floodplain Industry

COASTAL ENERGY Floodplain Industry

Off Shore Wind........................................ 203 Tidal Barrages. ....................................... 206 Energy Infrastructure Wave Power.... ....................................... 210 Water Removal Systems Energy Infrastructure

Water Removal Systems

COASTAL INTERFACE Coastal Interface

Piers + Slips............................................ 214 Constructed Islands ................................ 220 Urban Coastal Parkland.......................... 226 Ferry Systems......................................... 236 Coastal Interface

FP Housing Typologies............................120

FP Housing Case Studies....................... 128 Floodplain Industry Coastal Interface Synthetic Prevention Systems

FP Housing Infrastructure........................154

FP Housing Landform Manipulations.......160 Energy Infrastructure Floodplain Master Plans

INDUSTRIAL TYPES Water Removal Systems Floodplain Housing

FP Industrial Glossary............................. 162 FP Industrial Coastal Interface Zones................................. 164 Floodplain Industry FP Industrial Type Catalog...................... 170 FP Adaption Challenges.......................... 188 Energy Infrastructure FP Landform Manipulations.................... 190 FP Adaptive Reuse................................. 196 Water Removal Systems Coastal Interface

03


A Rising Challenge

Global climate change is environmental reaction to increase CO2 levels as a by-product of human action. Increased temperatures, rising sea levels, and intensified natural disasters are all side effects of global climate change. Coastal cities are especially vulnerable, as they contain the majority of the world’s population. The need for archietctural intervention to accommodate environmental changes has become a global priority, as cities struggle to update aging infrastructure. 04

Interventions to protect our cities are of new architectural significance, and are a pivotal factor in imagining the future of the city. For the scope of this research Northeastern University’s School of Architecture has focused on America’s Northeast corridor that lies within FEMA’s designated 100 year flood plain. This lens of the research was further specified by examining cities that are smaller than New York and Boston and will need to envision ways that these cities can effectively pay for better urban space along the waterfront that simultane-

ously activates and protects the city via new infrastructure. Flooding is not merely a U.S. problem but a global one. This research envisions different ways that architects and designers can intervene in this global crisis in order to empower our discipline to effectively engage the social issues of our time. The studio projects that by looking at smaller cities such as providence and new haven along the coast effectively make for better case studies on intervention in smaller cities throughout the world.


70% 13k 3.6 $115b 11% 20% +3ft

141m

of sea level rise expected by year 2100.

american citizens live within the 100 year FEMA fp.

of the world’s population lives within the 100 year flood plain.

square miles of U.S. land would flood after 2100.

expected increase in hurricanes by the year 2100.

o

celsius projected increase in global temperature.

in global spending on flood relief between the years 1960-2005

more 100 year floods expected by the year 2100. 05


Global Flood Relief Funding

06


US Flood Relief Funding

07


Do I Need Flood Insurance? Hurricane Katrina 2005

Do I need flood insurance?

Do you live in a flood plain?

Yes

No

Yes. FEMA mandates all structures within the flood plain to be insured. The premiums are set by FEMA, however a private insurer will issue the policy. Contact FEMA to find out which insurers offer policies in your area.

Are you within a storm surge risk area?

Yes

No

08

State Farm, Allstate Farmers, Travelers. Many small, local agencies also offer policies.

No, but it is recommended. Contact one of these providers for a quote.

No


FEMA Spending: 1962-2011

History of FEMA 2003 Department of Homeland Security

Hurricane Andrew 1992 Hurricane Hugo 1990

1979 FEMA 1973 DHUD In 1973 the Department of Housing and Urban Development took control of all disaster relief. In 1979 Jimmy Carter issued and executive order to form FEMA as we know it today, consolidating all disparate elements into one organization.

FLOOD INSURANCE PREMIUMS $12000 $10000 $8000

1930 Reconstruction Finance Corporation Reconstruction Finance Corporation established. Its primary goal was to distribute stimulus money to failing banks in the midst of the Great Depression, but they also dispersed money to areas affected by natural disasters.

$6000 $4000 $2000 0

1803 Ad Hoc >3’

2’

1’

BFE’

HEIGHT OF FIRST FLOOR

-1’

-2’

Before FEMA, the primary method of dealing with disasters was Ad Hoc. large number of businesses in New Hampshire, Congress passed a law granting a temporary easement of tariffs on imports in order to help the merchants recover. This system of individual legislation carried on until 1930.

09


10

What is Coastal Zone Management?

What is a Flood Plain?

Storm surge an abnormal rise of water due to a storm. It acts like a large, fast moving high tide that floods the surrounding area. The damage from storm surge occurs due to the speed and height of the water moving into an area. One major factor of the height of a storm surge is the angle of the continental shelf along the coast. A shallow shelf will help produce a high storm surge, where as a steep shelf will keep the surge low.

The Coastal Zone Management Act was passed in 1972 to encourage states to be responsible for their own coastal land. The Act allows states to voluntarily develop plans for the maintenance, restoration, and redevelopment of their waterfront. Each plan must include specific provisions relating to protecting natural resources, managing coastal development to minimize damage and loss of life in flood and storm surge zones, increase public access, redeveloping urban waterfronts, and the preservation of coastal features. The specific areas along the waterfront that these programs relate to are also determined by the state.

A flood plain refers to the flat land surrounding a river or waterway that experiences flooding at high water levels. Rather than completely flat the land slopes gently towards the water. The flood plain extends until a physical barrier – natural or man-made – stops it’s progression, such as a hill slope or a sea wall.

100 Year Flood Plain

What is a Storm Surge?

Coastal Zone

Storm Surge Plain

Defining the Flood Plain

What is a 100 Year Flood? A 100 year flood is not a flood that happens once every 100 years, but rather is the level of water expected to be equaled or exceeded every 100 years on average. Based on the expected level of water a predictive flood plain can be mapped out. This flood plain map is then used to inform decisions on building permits, insurance, and zoning.


Storm Surge Height

Category 5 (>155 MPH): >18’ Category 4 (131-155 MPH): 13-18’ 100 Year Flood Elevation

Category 3 (111-130 MPH): 9-12’ Category 2 (96-110 MPH): 6-8’

Base Ocean Elevation

Category 1 (74-95 MPH): 4-5’

11


Coastal Brownfields A brownfield , as defined by the EPA, is a former commercial or industrial site, the future of which is affected by real or perceived contamination. The term is often used to describe under used or abandoned facilities, however it can refer to any real property currently in use. Investing in brownfield reclamation and remediation protects the environment, reduces blight, and saves green spaces and working lands from development.

Heavy Metals Pollutants caused by heavy industry and transportation centers. Includes zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, chromium, and aluminum. Dry Brownfield - A brownfield site that is not located adjacent to a water source or in a flood zone.

Brownfields are often found in a city’s industrial and commercial sectors. They include buildings such as abandoned factories, refineries, dry cleaning facilities, and gas stations. The contamination found on these sites can include hydrocarbons (oils and fuels), pesticides, heavy metals (lead, nickel, etc.), and asbestos. In the past brownfields were not reclaimed because the cost of cleaning the land was more than the land was worth. There is also the fear of liability for both past and future owners that cause a property to be “moth-balled.” However new liability laws, better remedial strategies, and lack of developable land in urban centers have tipped the scales toward brownfield reclamation despite the costs.

12

At-Risk Coastal Brownfield - A brownfield site that is located in the FEMA 100 Year Flood Zone.

Coastal Brownfield - A brownfield site that is located in the coastal zone – within 200 feet of a mean, high-tide line. Hydrocarbons Pollutants caused by oil and fuel spills. Includes propane, butane, hexane, heptaine, octane, nonane, and dectane.

1 2 3 Pesticides Pollutants caused by food transportation and coolants.


Remediation Matrix

Violet (Viola) Heavy Metals

Vetch (Victa) Heavy Metals

Poplars (Populus) Pesticides

Brake Fern (Pteris Vittata) Pesticides

Violet (Viola) Heavy Metals

Mushrooms All Contaminants

European White Birch (Bertula Pendula) Hydrocarbons

Red Maple (Acer Rubrum) Pesticides

Brake Fern (Pteris Vittata) Pesticides

Sunflower (Hellanthus Annuus) Hydrocarbons

Soil Removal All Contaminants

Soil Vapor Extraction All Contaminants

Weeping Willow (Salix) Heavy Metals

Mulberry (Morus Rubra) Hydrocarbons

Mushrooms All Contaminants

European White Birch (Bertula Pendula) Hydrocarbons

Soil Removal All Contaminants

Western Wheatgrass (Agropyron Smithil) Hydrocarbons

Sunflower (Hellanthus Annuus) Hydrocarbons

Red Maple (Acer Rubrum) Pesticides

Soil Vapor Extraction All Contaminants

Poplars (Populus) Pesticides

Soil Vapor Extraction All Contaminants

13


100 Tons

500 Tons

14

1950

939 World War II

924 Hurricane

914 World War I

1900

896 Hurricane

861 Civil War

861 Hurricane

1850

841 Blizzard

815 Hurricane

812 War of 1812

1800 804 Blizzard

1776 Revolutionary War

761 Hurricane

1750

1700

693 Tropical Storm

1650

1800

1750

1700

1650

Working Waterfronts


2010

2000

1950

1900

1850

Quantity of US Trade

Due to the valuable nature of coastal real estate, waterfronts are often endangered by developers who want to replace the industrial zones with high priced condos and mixed-use development. Due to this demand, the United States government passed the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. The act allows states to establish a Coastal Management Zone (CMZ) in order to preserve, establish, and develop working waterfronts within coastal cities.

2010

15

2000

976 Hurricane

960 Vietnam War

A working waterfront refers to an industrial area located along the coast and dependant on maritime traffic. A working waterfront can handle national and international trade as well as area waste management and oil refinery. This area often includes ports, commercial buildings, interior and exterior storage, and links to transportation.

954 Hurricane

950 Hurricane 950 Korean War

What is a Working Waterfront?


Cha NE CORRIDOR

FPU

Chapter icons

The No

Chapter icons

The Northeast Cooridor New H

New Haven, CT The Northeast Cooridor

Provide

Providence, RI Natura New Haven, Case 1: NewCT Haven Case 2: Providence

North East Corridor Research

Providence, RI

Natural PreventionSynthe Syste


NE CORRIDOR

Northeast Corridor

Northeast Urban Deltas 19 Corridor Bio-Diversity 22 Urban Waterfront Types 24 Mega-Regional Transit 26

18


Northeast Urban Deltas

The Northeast Corridor is a transportation route stretches from Washington DC to Boston, Massachusetts. New York City to Boston is a crucial portion that includes major industrial ports and transportation routes that are in extreme risk flood plains in New England. This section identifies this corridor, the pertinent cities at risk, and the type of waterfront conditions that exist in these areas.

NE CORRIDOR

Northeast Corridor

19


post-industrial coast NE CORRIDOR

BRIDGEPORT CONNECTICUT

20

NEW HAVEN CONNECTICUT

NEW LONDON CONNECTICUT


Northeast Deltas StateUrban Regulations

post-industrial coast NE CORRIDOR

Northeast Corridor

PROVIDENCE RHODE ISLAND

NEW BEDFORD MASSACHUSETTS

BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS

21


22

NE CORRIDOR


Corridor Biodiversity

NE CORRIDOR

Northeast Corridor

23


42˚22̍ N 71˚03 W

TYPE 2B

PRIVATELy OWNED; PUBLICLy ACCESSED: PIER

PRIVATELy OWNED; PUBLICLy ACCESSED: SHORE 24

8

42˚21̍ N 71˚01̍ W

NEW BEDFORD MASSACHUSETTS NEW LONDON CONNECTICUT

41˚21̍ N 72˚05̍ W

TYPE 2A

PRIVATELy OWNED; PRIVATELy ACCESSED: SHORE

BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS

TyPE 1B

41˚38̍ N 70˚55̍ W

BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS

TyPE 1A

post-industrial coast NE CORRIDOR

PRIVATELy OWNED; PRIVATELy ACCESSED: PIER


Public Private Waterfronts Northeast Types Corridor Urban Waterfront

41˚17̍ N 72˚54̍ W

TYPE 2B

PUBLICLy OWNED; PRIVATELy ACCESSED: PIER

PUBLICLy OWNED; PRIVATELy ACCESSED: SHORE

41˚17̍ N 72˚54̍ W

post-industrial coast NE CORRIDOR

PROVIDENCE RHODE ISLAND BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS

42˚21̍ N 71˚04̍ W

TYPE 2A

PUBLICLy OWNED; PUBLICLy ACCESSED: SHORE

NEW HAVEN CONNECTICUT

41˚49̍ N 71˚24̍ W

TyPE 1B

PUBLICLy OWNED; PUBLICLy ACCESSED: PIER

NEW HAVEN CONNECTICUT

TyPE 1A

Northeast Corridor

25


Grand Central Station

0 mi

26

20 mi 40 mi Union Station New Haven

Bridgeport

Stamford

New Rochelle

60 mi

Waterbury

Danbury

New Canaan

post-industrial coast NE CORRIDOR orth - New Haven (83 Millio n) Metro N

Amtrak (8 million)

80 mi 100 mi 120 mi 140 mi


post-industrial coast

Regional serv Mega-Regional Rail InfrastructureNorth commute The Northeast Corridor Central Station Providence-Sto The Northeast rail corridor between serviceNewvia Sou York and Boston includes Amtrak’s rail lineAcemostly e la Express and Regional service, MTA’s 95 along the Metro North commuter service via Grand there are 14 s Central Station, and the MBTA’s ProviBoston dence-Stoughton commuter to service via on A vice, and South Station. The main rail line mostly ex- these ists along Interstate 95 along of the coastline. the post-ind Currently there are 14 stops from New York

to Boston on Amtrak’s Regional service, Providence Station

South Station

Metro North-New Haven

Regional/Regional Express

160 mi

180 mi

200 mi

Back Bay Station

Route 128

T.F. Green

Acela Express

220 mi

Providence/Stoughton Communter Rail

The basic infra along the No post-industrial coastal cities. future develop cities under The basic infrastructure is in place along the Northeast Corridor for future include development. acces Criteria for cities under consideration would wate working include access to a port or working waterpassenger and front, access to passenger and freight rail, as interstate as well as interstate highway access for intermodal t intermodal transportation. Areas identified and these stations exist in many of the

in this corridor are Bridgeport, New Haven,

are Old Saybrook, and New London.

Bridgeport Saybrook, an

240 mi 27


NEW HAVEN

New Haven Flood Plain Port of New Haven Coastal Brownfields Development Potentials Housing Morphology Station Configuration

28

28 30 32 34 35 36


NH Flood Plain Rise

New Haven, Connecticut

Category 2+ Hurricane

Category 1 Hurricane

Large Tropical Storm

120,000

Tropical Storm

140,000

the 100 Year Flood Plain. Because of flooding hazards New Haven’s building codes mandate that the first occupiable floor must be one foot above the base flood elevation.

NEW HAVEN

The Port of New Haven sits entirely within

180,000 160,000

NH

This renders the coastal area difficult to

100,000

build in - both from a code standpoint and because of the industrial nature of the area.

80,000 60,000

New Haven began to grow significantly af+1”

40,000

ter the War of 1812. Between 1800 and and 1925 the population grew form under 5,000

20,000 10,000

0”

to over 160,000. After 1950 the port begin a steep population decline, which has only subsided since the late 1990s.

5,000

tion Popula el Rise v e L a Se

1,000

100 Year Flood Line

2025

2000

1975

1950

1925

1900

1875

1850

1825

1800

1775

1750

1725

1700

1675

1650

1625

1’

-1”

100’

First Occupiable Floor Base Flood Elevation

1’

CZM

15’

Flood Plain

29


05

uth

nds Fr an ce

erla

Ne th

Belg ium

m

So

United Kingdo

wa y

NEW HAVEN

No r

da na Ca

employees

50k

n

ai

Sp

Ko

rea

tar

ral

Gib

cranes

forklifts

acres of storage

26 56

am

n Viet

Tur Exp key orts

ia

30

Port Import/Export Statistics

Venezuela

ate

ma

la

ico ex M

Gu

200

as m ts ha por Ba Im

trucks

zil Bra

berths

08

Ind


Port of New Haven New Haven, Connecticut

NH

ports in the Northeast Corridor. The port has existed as it does today since 1930, growing consistently since 1740. Its ability to adapt and grow based on economic

NEW HAVEN

The Port of New Haven is one the larger

need has allowed the port to maintain its size.

1740 1880 1930

As well as existing international trade in various machinery and metals, the port also has 8 berths with extensive resources, including cranes, forklifts, and transportation such as trucks and rail. Due to its recent decline in population, the port has large areas of exterior storage that

Geomorphology over Time

are under utalized as well as several abanodoned facilieies. These open spots in the port are available for future development.

Nuclear Machinery Iron and Steel Scrap Metal 20

100

Amount in 100 Tons

200 31


Current Use: Exterior Storage

Current Use: Commercial Building

37

5’

0’

’ 530

NEW HAVEN

67

89

0’ 0’

37 0’

29

21

5’

32

31

8’

0’

25


Coastal Brownfields

Current Use: Interior Storage and Parking

NH

26

0’

Current Use: Small Commercial Buildings and Parking

NEW HAVEN

0’

12

New Haven, Connecticut

33

5’

’ 630

630

23

0’

Current Use: Abandoned Electric Plant

34

0’

5 47

’ 175

0’

60

23

0’

The Port of New Haven has five brownfield identified by the city according the the EPA standards. These sites exist primarily along the Mill River waterfront and are located either on the coast or in the 100 Yeear Flood Plain. Most of the contaminants in the soil are heavy metals from industries or hydrocarbons from local oil refineries. 33


post-industrial coast

After judging different aspects of the site as good or bad, it is possible to overlay the individual maps of desirable areas. A sort of heat map emerges, with the darker areas representing places which are ideal for development. Conversely, areas with a light shade or no color at all are areas with a multitude of problems to be addressed. It is possible to choose whether to attempt perhaps a synthesis of typologies where, for example, rail and area which has very little in the way of opportunity such as cleaning up a brown 22 34


Block Typologies: NewMorphology Haven, CT NH Existing Housing

FAR

Plain Housing New Flood Haven, Connecticut

NH

.90

Fo ur - s ided bloc k s c ont ain m ult i & s i n g l e famil y hous es . Eac h hous e has a s m a l l fron t y ar d s pac e and s har es a c om m u n a l ba cky ar d.

.50

Uniq ue, s ingle hous e- deep bloc k ty p e . Sing le or ient at ion along s t r eet edg e . L o n g ba cky ar d per hous e. Hous e is pus h e d ba ck f r om s t r eet edge.

.35

L ea s t dens ely populat ed bloc k t y pe . Ya r d spa c e c r eat ed on all f our s ides . M o s t l y sing le- f am ily hous e t y pes . Siz e v a r i e s fro m s m all t o lar ge.

coastal building types

NEW HAVEN

Floor Area Ratio

21 35


36

NEW HAVEN


NH NEW HAVEN

New Haven, Connecticut

37


PROVIDENCE

Providence Providence Flood Plain Port of Providence Coastal Brownfields Development Potentials Housing Morphology Station Configuration

38

38 40 42 44 45 46


Flood Plain

Providence, Rhode Island

PR

of Providence sits within the 100 Year Flood

Category 2+ Hurricane

180,000

Category 1 Hurricane

200,000

Large Tropical Storm

220,000

Tropical Storm

240,000

Plain. Also like New Haven, Providence’s building codes mandate that the first occupiable floor must be two feet above the

PROVIDENCE

Similar to the Port of New Haven, the Port 260,000

base flood elevation.

160,000

Providence grew slowly but steadily un-

140,000

til the mid 1800s. By 1960 the population

120,000

had grown to 270,000. However 1960 the

100,000

population began to decrease dramatically +1”

80,000 60,000

until it dropped to almosy 160,000 by the id 2000s.

0”

40,000 20,000

-1”

10,000

100 Year Flood Line

2025

2000

1975

1950

1925

1900

1875

1850

1825

1800

1775

10’

1750

1725

1700

1675

1650

1625

2’

100’

First Occupiable Floor

2’

CMZ

Base Flood Elevation

Flood Plain

39


ce Fran

Ne th er lan ds

28

m

da na Ca

Kingdo

PROVIDENCE

United

employees

12k

y an rm rts Ge mpo I

Jap

an

Italy e reec

cranes

ria

lG

uin

ea

ge

to eria

Benin

Alg

t

yp

ia

Port Import/Export Statistics

Eg

ria

Ni

ab Ar

40

300

Tur Exp key orts

i ud

trucks

06

Mexico

Sa

berths

20

Malaysia

ua

acres of storage

10

China

Eq

forklifts

G


Port of Providence Providence, Rhode Island

PR

ports in the Northeast Corridor. The port has existed as it does today since 1937, growing consistently since 1664. Its ability to adapt and grow based on economic

PROVIDENCE

The Port of Providence is one the larger

need has allowed the port to maintain its

1664 1895 1937

size. Unlike New Haven, the Port of Providence handles a large number of trade material, from coal and chemicals to cars and ships. The port also has 6 berths with extensive resources, including cranes, forklifts, and

Geomorphology over Time

transportation such as trucks and rail. Due to its recent decline in population, the port has large areas of exterior storage that are under utalized as well as several abanodoned facilieies. These open spots in the port are available for future development.

20

100

Amount in 100 Tons

200

Automobiles

Coal

Scrap Metal Nuclear Machinery

Salt Cement

Iron and Steel

Propane

Ships

Chemicals 41


Current Use: Abandoned Site.

42

0’

700’

30

31

5’

650’

0’

615’

50

PROVIDENCE

Current Use: Small Industrial Buildings.

47

0’

570’


Coastal Brownfields Current Use: Small Commercial Buildings and Parking.

Providence, Rhode Island

PR

80

PROVIDENCE

98

0’

0’

1,200’

Current Use: Oil Refinery and Parking.

450

57

5’

67

0’

500

Current Use: Abandoned Land

425

550’

180

1,100’

580’

The Port of Providence has five brownfield identified by the city according the the EPA standards. These sites exist along working waterfront and are located either on the coast or in the 100 Yeear Flood Plain. Most of the contaminants in the soil are heavy metals from industries, hydrocarbons from local oil refineries, or pesticides and asbestos from food transportation and old buildings. 43


post-industrial coast PROVIDENCE

After judging different aspects of the site as good or bad, it is possible to overlay the individual maps of desirable areas. A sort of heat map emerges, with the darker areas representing places which are ideal for development. Conversely, areas with a light shade or no color at all are areas with a multitude of problems to be addressed. It is possible to choose whether to attempt perhaps a synthesis of typologies where, for example, rail and area which has very little in the way of opportunity such as cleaning up a brown

30 44


FAR

Flood Plain Housing Providence, Rhode Island

Floor Area Ratio

.75

F o u r -s i d e d b l o c k wi t h m u l t i & s i n g l e f a m ily h o u s e s s i t u a t e d o n n a rro w l o t s . Ba ckya r d s p a c e s a re p ri v a t e a n d c o m m u n a l . M a n y l o t s h a v e a d d i t i o n a l o u t b u i l d i n g s o n sit e .

.60

L a r g e l y s i n g l e -f a m i l y h o u s e s o n l ar g e r l o t s w i t h y a rd s p a c e i n a l l d i re c t i o ns. H o u se s s i t u a t e d c l o s e r t o t h e e d g e o f t h e b l o c k.

.50

L a r ge r m u l t i & s i n g l e -f a m i l y h o u s es, l o w - r i s i n g wi t h y a rd s p a c e i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s. L e a s t d e n s e b l o c k t y p e .

coastal building types

1.0

M u l t i & s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e s s i t u a te d o n n a r r o w l o t s wi t h s m a l l f ro n t y a rd sp a ce a n d p ri v a t e / c o m m u n a l b a c k y a rd s p a ce

PR PROVIDENCE

Block Typologies: Providence, RI PR Existing Housing Morphology

19 45


46


47


Chapter icons New Haven, CT The Northeast Cooridor

Flood

Flood

Providence, RI

Providence, RI

Energ Natural Prevention System

PREVENTION INFR.

New Haven, CT

Wate Synthetic Prevention Syste Natural Prevention Systems

Coas Floodplain Master Plans Synthetic Systems Water Removal Systems SyntheticPrevention Prevention Systems

Natural Prevention Systems

Floodplain Housing Floodplain Master Plans


PREVENTION INFR.

Natural Prevention

Wave Intensity

Barrier Islands

Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

Barrier islands are sand based islands that form parallel to the coast. They are primarily located along the East Coast of the United States and the Gulf of Mexico, where gently sloping coastlines are prevalent. They are useful as a strategy to extend the coastline as well as

Durability

Accessibility

provide effective storm surge protection. Barrier islands are naturally occurring, but are deteriorating due to more frequent storms of greater intensity. The construction of new barrier islands is considered one strategy to prepare for rising sea levels and more severe storms which compromise our coasts. 50

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Barrier Islands


PR Barrier Islands

Natu

Natural Prevention Systems

Synt Dunes Creek/ Lagoon

Tidal Lagoon

Back Dunes

Beach

Inshore surf zone

Offshore

Fore Dunes Berm Crest

Bar

Floo

Trough

Bog

High Tide

Floo PREVENTION INFR.

Low Tide

Floo Landward Lagoon mud deposits, tidal delta sand, peat

Barrier Island Dune and beach sand deposits

Continental Shelf Mud, sand, and gravel deposits

Ener

Barrier islands may be constructed based Barier Islands would prevent storm surges, promote marsh and tidal growth, and prevent further erosion

on the detail above. The construction of barrier islands involves moving large

Wate

amounts of existing sand to create a new land mass. Once this berm form is created, erosion control and planting are required

Coas

to withstand natural forces. Maintenance of these constructed barrier islands is necessary to ensure that erosion is controlled. Mississippi River Delta

Proposed barrier islands have become more common in recent years as a reaction to global climate change. The diagram provided shows one proposed plan for the addition of barrier islands around New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. It

51


PREVENTION INFR. 52 52

79º 48’ / 87º 38’

29º 18’ / 97º 28’

34º 29’ / 77º 78’

32º 10’ / 80º 44’

29º 13’ / 90º 00’

40º 37’ / 73º 16’


PR Barrier Islands

Natu

Natural Prevention Systems

Synt 1855

1922

1996

2004

2005

Floo

PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Floo

Ener Barrier islands are useful as a strategy to Deteriorating Barrier Islands, North Carolina

extend the coastline as well as provide

Wate

effective storm surge protection. Barrier islands are naturally occuring, but are deteriorating due to more frequent storms

Coas

of greater intensity. Barrier islands may be constructed as detailed above. As barrier islands are suseptable to erosion, they must be maintained. Proposed barrier islands have become more common in recent years as a reaction to global climate change. The diagram provided shows one proposed plan for the addition of barrier islands around New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. 53


ship

pin

g la

ne

PREVENTION INFR.

Barrier Island Implementation 54


PR Barrier Islands

Natu

Natural Prevention Systems

Synt 10

10

Floo Environmental Synthesis

Flood Preventio Effectiveness

PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Floo 0

0 0

Relative Cost

10

Barrier islands may be implemented around Existing Land

Constructed Barrier Island 25’ +

Ener

Wate

the New Haven harbor as a strategy to prevent storm surge and create a barrier for waves inside the port. The creation of

Coas

barrier islands should occur parraell to the shore, and occur in no less than 6’ of water,

6’ +

to verify they will prevent storm surge as necessary. The minimum width of barrier islands is considered to be 25’, to ensure they will not was away with the tide. Barrier islands are typically no higher than 15’ in height, and can be vegetated. Special caution should be taken in this case to prevent the shipping lane for the port. 55


PREVENTION INFR.

Wave Intensity

Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

Wetlands Wetlands are naturally occuring vegetated zones which are most common along shallow sloping shores of lakes and oceans. Wetlands offer a buffer zone to existing shore lines, preventing erosion and accomo-

Durability

Accessibility

dating tidal changes. Wetlands have their own ecosystem, and foster diverse species of plants and animals. Wetlands may be useful as recreational zones or as storm surge and flooding protection. Wetlands may also be useful as a mediator of grade change between upland infrastructure and bodies of water. 56

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Wetlands


PR Wetlands

Natu

Natural Prevention Systems

Synt Upland Transitional

Floo

Emergent

Upland

Transitional

Emergent

PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Floo

Aquatic

Topsoil Moderately decompressed organic soil

Ener

Silicate clays

Wate

Fine/coarse sand, Gravel

Coas Bedrock

Existing Industrial Zone

50m Terrestrial Buffer

100m Core Habitat Zone

30m Aquatic Buffer

Open Water 57


58

PREVENTION INFR.


PR Wetlands

Natu

Natural Prevention Systems

Synt

Floo

Floo Salt Ponds Introduced

Sediment gathered is seeded

Wetland expands

Exisiting Urban Waterfront: -Not flexible with changing environmental conditions -Not easily accessible -Vulnerable to storm surge and flooding -Ecologically unfriendly

PREVENTION INFR.

Existing Waterfront

Floo

Ener

Wate

-Expensive to maintain and repair Existing New York Waterfront

Coas

Existing Urban Section

Proposed Urban Waterfront: -Flexible based on tidal conditions and environmental factors -Easily accessed, recreational Proposed New York Waterfront

Proposed Urban Section

-Storm surge and flooding deterent -Provides an urban habitat for a wetland 59


PREVENTION INFR.

Wetlands Implementation 60


PR Wetland Implimentation

Natu

Natural Prevention Systems

Synt 10

10

Floo Environmental Synthesis

Flood Preventio Effectiveness

PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Floo 0

0 0

Relative Cost

10

Ener

Wate Highway

New Path

Infill

New wetland plantings

Wetlands are an effective storm surge strategy when used in an urban context. They promote a more accesible waterfront by mitigating grade change, and may be used in combination with recreational space which may be readily flooded in case of a disaster. Wetlands offer environmental benefits through the creation of a new ecosystem while filtering water and preventing erosion. Most importantly, wetlands provide a dynamic buffer zone for flooding diasters, one which may be used in combination with existing infrastructure and proposed program.

Coas

61


PREVENTION INFR.

Wave Intensity

Breakwaters

Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

Breakwaters are structures designed to force waves to break offshore and reduce the impact of wave energy on protected portions of coastline. Breakwater systems are often used to create harbors sheltered from wave energy. Certain break water systems can also be used to

Durability

Accessibility

expand beach area by reducing wave energy and causing suspended sediment to settle. Breakwater system design varies in both plan and section, depending on the intended outcome of their implementation. They Range from simple rubble mound structures to caissons and combinations of the two. 62

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Breakwaters


PRIMARY TITLE

Breakwaters

Synt

FLOOD PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE Synthetic Prevention Systems

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo Rubble Mound

Floo Berm Building / Parking Footprint

PREVENTION INFR. prevention infrastructure

Floo

Ener Submerged

Wate Caisson on Foundation

Transportation Infrastructure

Hrizontal Composite

A Vactu es fac intela conesse notiquam opopul ta iam patia menatqu idemum P. Vastis An verracciam tes contrum pon vis. Grae con design tantienvaries amdit? Breakwater system in both Ximius nos At iam hos, caes essum plan and section, depending on the intended outcome of their implementation. nequam acii senatuam occhum im They range from simple mound nis coer hostium me etrubble re inam mante structures to caissons and combinations convoc, nimilic averis consultore fore

Coas

of the two.

Vertical Composite

B que ips, pro utem rem nemus nequam quistab endacit. Etra murbit. Maio, se consus; nos vat. Habere iniaesima, patus sessedi cipioc, nonsultum consceri catquamdit efacipi ocrimmorume ips, consus signati lientemus. 13 63 7


SECOND TITLE IF NECESSARY

Existing Shore

Fill

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Breakwater

14 64 64

6

Protected Harbor

Fill Breakwater

River Channel

Existing Shore


Breakwaters

PRIMARY TITLE

Synt

FLOOD PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE Synthetic Prevention Systems

10

10

Rubble Mound Breakwater

Floo

Floo Flood Prevention Effectiveness

Floo prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Environmental Building / Parking Footprint Synthesis

Ener 0

0 0

Proposed Breakwater Location

Transportation Infrastructure

Relative Cost

10

Wate Implementing a rubble mound breakwater system at the entry to Providence Harbor es facthe intela A Vactu could benefit city conesse in several notiquam ways. The opopul patia menatqu creation ta of iam a protected harbor at idemum the edge of an industrial/commercial sitecontrum would P. Vastis An verracciam tes facilitate transfer of goodsamdit? in and out of pon vis. the Grae con tantien the port. Infill areas behind the breakwaters Ximius nos At iam hos, caes essum would allow for future development to nequam aciithe senatuam occhum expand onto newly created landim nis coer hostium me et re inam mante masses, opening a variety of options for use. The breakwater system would convoc, nimilic averis consultorealso fore serve the residential zones to the west of the structure by creating space for new infill ips, pro utem rem nemus nequam B que inside of the breakwater. This infill zone quistab Etra murbit. could be endacit. used to develop park space that Maio, se consus; nos between vat. Habere would serve as a buffer the industrial and residential zones. A third iniaesima, patus sessedi cipioc, benefit of a breakwater system in this nonsultum consceri catquamdit efacipi location is the protection against damage ocrimmorume ips, consus signati from storm-driven waves, preventing lientemus. large-scale erosion at the site.

Coas

15 65 65 7


16

66

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.


Breakwaters

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo 10

10

Floo

Floo

Flood Prevention Effectiveness

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Environmental Synthesis

Ener 0

0 0

Relative Cost

Wate

10

Proposed Breakwater Location

The New Haven city planning assesment has denoted several sites within the city that are suffering from erosion and other problems related to coastal processes. One such site on the eastern bank of the harbor could benefit from the construction of a submerged breakwater. The breakwater would serve to define a sheltered port for commercial use while also dissipating destructive hydraulic forces acting on the shore. A submerged structure would prevent erosion by forcing waves to break offshore without acting as an impermeable barrier to the movement of water and sediment through the harbor channel.

Coas

17 67


PREVENTION INFR.

Wave Intensity

Groins + Jetties

Hydraulic Performance

Visual Impact

Groins are structures built to nourish eroding beaches by gradually capturing sand suspended in currents flowing parallel to shore. They are situated roughly perpendicular to the shore and are most commonly constructed as rubble mound structures, with an outer armored layer and a compacted inner core. While groins are effective in nour-

Durability Durability

Accessibility

ishing small potions of a beach, they also disturb the longshore deposition of sand, causing erosion further land-building potential of groins, they are frequently built as a series of multiple groins distributed over a specific length of beach. Series of groins, called groin fields, are either gradually tapered in length until they merge naturally with the existing 68

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Sloping Seawalls Vertical Seawalls Breakwaters Porous Seawalls


Groins + Groins Jetties

PRIMARY TITLE

Synt

FLOOD PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo Straight

Inclined

L-Shape

T-Shape

Fishtail

Dogleg

Tuned T-Shape

Floo

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Building / Parking Footprint

Ener Offshore Dredging Diagram

Transportation Infrastructure

Groin Accretion Pattern

Groins are structures built to nourish eroding beaches by gradually capturing sand suspended in currents flowing parallel to the shore. They are situated roughly perpendicular to the shore and are most commonly constructed es mound fac intela conesse notiquam A Vactu as rubble structures, with an opopul ta iamlayer patiaand menatqu idemum outer armored a compacted inner core.An While groins aretes effective P. Vastis verracciam contrum in nourishing small potions of a beach, pon vis. Grae con tantien amdit? they also disturb the longshore deposiXimius nos At iam hos, caes essum tion of sand, causing erosion further nequam aciiInsenatuam occhumthe im down shore. order to maximize nis coer hostium me of etgroins, re inam mante land-building potential they are frequently built as a series of multiple convoc, nimilic averis consultore fore groins distributed over a specific length of beach. Series of groins, called groin utem rem nemus B que fields,ips, arepro either gradually taperednequam in quistab endacit. Etra murbit. length until they merge naturally with the existingse beach face nos or end at Habere a terminal Maio, consus; vat. groin that extends seaward iniaesima, patus further sessedi cipioc,than the others. Groin fieldscatquamdit are most effecnonsultum consceri efacipi tive when nourished with dredged sand ocrimmorume ips, consus signati after construction, discouraging erosion lientemus. further down the shore.

Wate

Coas

19 69 7


20

70

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.


Groins + Groins Jetties

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo

Floo

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Ener

Wate

Rubble Mound Groin Section

Rubble Armor Revetment

Concrete Toe Compacted Core

The groin field on Long Beach, NY is an example of the most common form of groin type and use. The groins are evenly dispersed and perpendicular to the shore, capturing sediment from the longshore current to enlarge the useable area of the beach face. Large beaches, whether natural or artificial, are beneficial to the local seaside economy. “Amenity beaches� attract tourists and businesses to the waterfront and can build the local economy. Groins are a relatively inexpensive method of maintaining coastal properties over time. Supplementing construction of a groin field by filling the groins with dredged sand will help prevent excessive erosion downshore.

Coas

21 71


prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

SECOND TITLE IF NECESSARY

72 22

6


Groins + Groins Jetties

PRIMARY TITLE

Synt

FLOOD PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo 10

10

Floo

Floo

Building / Parking Footprint Environmental Synthesis

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Flood Prevention Effectiveness

Ener

0

Wate

0 0

Relative Cost

Transportation Infrastructure Section through Proposed Groin Field

10

A Vactu es fac intela conesse notiquam opopul ta iam patia menatqu idemum P. Vastis An verracciam tes contrum pon vis. Grae con tantien amdit? Ximius nos At iam hos, caes essum The satellite image of the New Haven nequam acii senatuam im clearly illustrates portions occhum of the shore nis coer meheavy et reerosion inam mante that have hostium undergone from tidalnimilic and deltaic currents. Thesefore convoc, averis consultore

Coas

lobes of eroded land could benefit from the implementation of a groin field to ips,sediment pro utem rem nemus nequam B que capture suspended in the curquistab endacit. Etra murbit. rents. The terminal groin has a fishtail shape to sediment is often Maio, secapture consus; nos vat.that Habere eroded in eddy currents at the terminus iniaesima, patus sessedi cipioc, of the field. consceri catquamdit efacipi nonsultum

ocrimmorume ips, consus signati lientemus.

23 73 7


PREVENTION INFR.

Synthetic Prevention

Wave Intensity

Seawalls

Hydraulic Performance

Visual Impact

Seawalls are designed to prevent coastal erosion by absorbing and reflecting the constant wave energy acting on the shore. They are generally designed to withstand abuse from strong storm-driven waves

Durability

Accessibility

and built tall enough to withstand the combination of storm surges and high tides. Many different types of seawalls can be found on coastlines around the world, but it is generally localized wave and tidal conditions that determine which type of seawall will perform best at any specific site. 74

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Sloping Seawalls Vertical Seawalls Porous Seawalls


Seawalls

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

There is a large variety in seawall forms.

Floo

Each is built to suit the local conditions at a given site. Two Primarily sea wall categories relate to the slope of the seawall body.

Seawall Components Transportation Infrastructure Crest

Vertical seawalls are considered to have a slope of greater than 100% grade. These

Floo

Floo

walls are considered non-energy absorb-

Revetment

The second type is a sloping seawall, with a slope of less than 100% grade. Sloping seawalls absorb wave energy by allowing

Ener PREVENTION INFR.

ing, directly reflecting wave energy.

Wate

the wave to run up the face of the wall. These by their definition take up more horizontal space of the coast then the vertical

Coas

wall.

Body Toe

75


Vertical Seawalls

FLOOD PREVENTION Synthetic Preven FLOOD PREVENTION Synthetic Preven

PREVENTION INFR.

TLE TLE

print print

ents 76 ucture ents

Sloping Seawalls

A Vactu es fac inte A Vactu opopules tafac iaminte pa opopul iam pa P. VastistaAn verra P. Vastis An verra pon vis. co There is aGrae large va


Seawalls

Seawalls Synthetic Prevention Systems Synthetic Prevention Systems

PRIMARY TITLE

Synt

FLOOD PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE

Floo Vertical Seawalls

Sloping Seawalls

Porous Seawalls Wave Intensity

Wave Intensity

Wave Intensity

Floo Visual Impact

Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

Hydraulic Performance

Building / Parking Footprint

Durability

Accessibility

Durability

Accessibility

Durability

Accessibility

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Floo

Ener

Wate Permeability

Transportation Infrastructure Smooth Concrete

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Concrete Gravity Wall

Stepped Concrete

Prefab Conc. Wall

Interlocking Blockwork

Concrete Cantilever

Ease of Maintenence

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

A Vactu es fac intela conesse notiquam opopul ta iam patia menatqu idemum P. Vastis An verracciam tes contrum pon Rock vis. Grae con tantien amdit? Armor Ximius nos At iam hos, caes essum Rip nequam Rap acii senatuam occhum im Concrete nis coer hostium me et re inam mante Blocks convoc, nimilic averis consultore fore

Coas

B que ips, pro utem rem nemus nequam quistab endacit. Etra murbit. Maio, se consus; nos vat. Habere iniaesima, patus sessedi cipioc, nonsultum Gabions consceri catquamdit efacipi ocrimmorume ips, consus signati lientemus. 07 777


prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

SECOND TITLE IF NECESSARY

08

78

6


Seawalls

PRIMARY TITLE

Synt

FLOOD PREVENTION INFRASTRUCTURE

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo Section through Seawall and Jetties

Floo

Floo

Footdee Section

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Interlocked Blockwork Seawall Building / Parking Footprint

Ener

Wate The harbor protection effort in Aberdeen,

Footdee Curved Vertical Seawall Transportation Infrastructure

UK is example of multiplenotiquam infrastructural esanfac intela conesse A Vactu The harbor protection effort in Aberdeen, systems working to protect inland opopul ta iam patiatogether menatqu idemum UK is an example of multiple infrastructural residences and industry from erosion while P. Vastis An verracciam tes contrum systems working together to protect inland pon vis. Grae con tantien residences andan industry fromamdit? erosion while maintaining open shipping channel. maintaining shipping channel. Ximius nosan At open iam hos, caes essumThis system utilizes two seawallocchum types, groins, nequam acii senatuam im types, system utilizes seawall andThis jetties to maintain thetwo working nis coer hostium me et re inam mante groins and jetties to maintain the working waterfront.The large seawall is a sloping convoc, nimilic averis consultore fore brickwork seawall and the smaller waterfront. The large seawall isseawall, a sloping

Coas

protecting the small villiage of Footdee, is brickwork seawall and the smaller seawall,

a curved queexample ips, proofutem remvertical nemusseawall. nequam B an protecting the small of footdee, is an The jetties flanking the village harbor quistab endacit. Etra murbit.are two rubble mound with a single groin example of structures a curved vertical seawall. The Maio, se consus; nostovat. Habere located between them deny excess jetties flanking the harbor are two rubble iniaesima, patus sessedi cipioc, sediment from entering the harbor channel. mound structures with a single locatnonsultum consceri catquamditgroin efacipi ed between them to deny excess ocrimmorume ips, consus signatisediment from entering the harbor channel. lientemus. 09 79 7


10

80

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.


Seawalls

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo 10

10

Smooth Concrete Seawall

Floo

Floo

Flood Prevention Effectiveness

prevention infrastructure PREVENTION INFR.

Environmental Synthesis

Ener 0

0 0

Relative Cost

Section through Proposed Seawall

Wate

10

The New Haven city planning assesment has denoted several sites within the city that are suffering from erosion and other problems related to coastal processes. One such site on the eastern bank of the harbor could benefit from the construction of a submerged breakwater. The breakwater would serve to define a sheltered port for commercial use while also dissipating destructive hydraulic forces acting on the shore. A submerged structure would prevent erosion by forcing waves to break offshore without acting as an impermeable barrier to the movement of water and sediment through the harbor channel.

Coas

11 81


PREVENTION INFR.

Levees Levees in the United States are generally used to direct flood waters away from land, preventing flood water from penetrating into inhabited land. Therefore, they are most commonly found in the Midwest and along the Mississippi River, where fast moving, tall floodwaters cause disasters multiple times per year. As a surge deterrent, levees can be used to buffer coastal cities from storms. However, due to the immense vertical scale needed to prevent a 15-20 foot surge in a 100 year storm, levees as surge protection are expensive to build and maintain. In their current engineered state, they would also cause drastic urban conditions, creating walls, both visual and physical. 82


Levees

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

US Army Corps of Engineers Typical Flood Levee

Floo

10 ft

Floo 2:1

20 ft

Floo PREVENTION INFR.

Ener

Wate

Access Road

Coas

Land Beyond

Lower Access Road

Typical Levee Axon

83


Urban Fabric

Levee Access Path

PREVENTION INFR.

15’ levee face

Mississippi River New Orleans Condition

Urban Fabric

25’ levee face Access Road/Walkway

Tiber River Rome Condition

Levee Access 20’ Vertical Face/Border Wall Access Road USA/Mexico Border

Proposed Rio Grande River Condition 84


Levees

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

In Providence, the best location for levee implementation would be at the mouth of the harbor.

Floo

To get the most value, a super levee could be introduced, allowing for development to occur on the flood infrastructure, adding valuable real estate to the waterfront while solving flood plain issues of downtown Providence.

Floo

Floo

New Channel Opening

Ener

New Super Levee (200’-300’ Wide)

New Levee Storm Surge Protection

New Haven has a chance to re-arrange it’s existing highway infrastructure to include major

PREVENTION INFR.

New Urban Conditions on Super Levee

Wate

Coas

storm surge protection. By re-routing I-95 away from downtown across the harbor via a new levee, New Haven would have a new blockade against storms and an opportunity to relieve congestion and gain back valuable land. Existing I-95 Corridor New Storm Surge Levee

Bridge over Hew Haven Harbor Proposed I-95 Corridor

85


PREVENTION INFR.

Afsluitdijk, Netherlands Energy Dike Competition Entry, Pierre Belanger, 2009

Rendering of Energy Dike as Public Resource

saltwater intake from wadden sea

public access and program

osmotic process and transformer facility sends energy to the mainland

freshwater intake from ijsselmeer and holding tank

Dikes as new Netherlands Energy Source 86


Energy Dike Case Study

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo The

future

of

the

Netherlands

is

inseparable from the future of energy. With more than 70% of its GDP generated

Floo

below sea level, the reliance on resources and technologies for the durable and sustainable management of its water is

indisputable.

This

essential

codependency between land and energy however is largely invisible. From the early wind pumping systems in the 15th century to the sophisticated tidal sluice systems in the late 20th century, the transformation

Ener PREVENTION INFR.

levels

Floo

Wate

of the technological apparatus associated with the stainability of the Netherlands during the past six centuries, remains

Coas

largely unappreciated and undervalued. Part

planning,

part

engineering,

part

design, this project addresses the double challenge of sea level rise and energy depletion with one single strategy. In response to the current call for rearmouring coastal defenses across the Netherlands, the strategy tackles these two Afsluitdijk II (11m tall) Afsluitdijk I (7m tall)

osmotic energy production

Project Care of Opsys, Pierre Belanger

distinct challenges with the construction of a double dike - that creates a 32-kilometre long landmass for energy generation and a series of other public uses. 87


PREVENTION INFR.

Floodgates Floodgates are most commonly used as a diversion of floodwater within the United States. They are mostly found on rivers and lakes, and on rare occasions are found in cities. Due to the amount of flooding annually in the Midwest, floodgates are deployed strategically along the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri Rivers, among others. Typically they are built above urban areas to control the flow of water in the event of a flood. Internationally, floodgates are being used as storm surge barriers in coastal applications. The best use for floodgates are at channels and areas where an ocean meets a bay, harbor or lagoon. There needs to be allowance for ship traffic in these locations, especially high traffic ports such as in the Northeast. Types to use are flap gates and locks. 88


Floodgates

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

Floo

Floo Locks

Spillway

Easement

Floo

Vertical Bulkhead Door Channeled Water Condition Embankment (Typ. Levee)

Ener PREVENTION INFR.

Minneapolis Urban Floodgate Section

Wate

Coas Typical Bulkhead Floodgate

Embankment (Typ. Levee) Rolling Bulkhead Door

Thruway (Highway or Rail)

Typical Rolling Floodgate

89


PREVENTION INFR.

Urban Fabric

Bulkhead Floodgates

Pumping Station

New Orleans Floodgate Condition

Downtown Davenport

Locks

Spillway

Davenport Floodgate Condition

Flaps Rise Venice Floodgate Condition 90

Air Replaces Water

Flaps Fully Raised


Floodgates

Synt

Synthetic Prevention Systems

In Providence, the best solution for flood protection is again a flap gate, providing full use of the existing

Floo

channel. Used in conjunction with a super levee, this flood barrier will protect the Providence Harbor from storms, while maintaining a proper open channel for its functional port and working waterfront.

Floo

Floo

New Flapgate Barrier

The best option to use a floodgate in New Haven is with a flap gate. This is the only option that provides

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New Harbor Channel Entrance

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full surge protection while not restricting shipping and marine traffic. Locks are not necessary, elevation change does not to be negotiated and it would severely disrupt the flow of shipping traffic.

New Levee Storm Surge Protection New Bridge Flapgate Flood Barrier

91


ater Removal Systems Water Removal Systems Canal Systems 094 Absorption Surfaces 096 Water Treatment 098

s on Strategies eatment

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Water Removal Systems Summary

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Water Removal Systems

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ABSORBTION systems are an excellent passive strategy to natural remove flood waters from an urban area. The following chapter describes different styles of abosorbtion systems and how they can be effectively built into an existing urban fabric.

PREVENTION INFR.

management system. While they are more expensive, they often are some of the most effective water removal strategies. The following chapter will describe how these subsurface canals are a benefcial infrastrucutre strategy and how they can be implemented into an existing network of infrastructure systems.

WATER TREATMENT systems are an integral part of any infrastructural network designed to remove and treat flood waters. The chapter will describe how the system is an effective strategy and how to implement the system within a specific environment. 93


Channel System

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Channel Design Analysis Canal Systems

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Sloped landscaping strategies ensure water movement and containment away from the major circulation routes.

Sloped landscaping should move water to either a collection zone or a wetland. Water moving through a wetland will be naturally cleaned.

PREVENTION INFR.

System Aerial Plan

Trees are an excellnt strategy to first absorb flood waters, but also to disperse the water through transpirtation back into the atmosphere.

Transverse Section

Underground storage tanks can be designed to any size. Previous weather data should be analyzed when determinig the tanks size.

Collection tanks are placed beneath the wetland in order to provide additional water storage for more severe storms or floods.

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Absorption Strategies

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2


Absorption Strategies Detail Systems Analysis Absorption

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Water Removal Systems

Dimension in between green patches should take into account the type of traffic that will be traveling on top.

Paver Design

Green Surface PREVENTION INFR.

Moving the soft infrastructure system to the outside edges of the road make for a smoother and more structurally sound road.

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Square pavers will allow for a more dispersed absorbtion throughout, unlike the edge scheme which could cause some minor pooling. Top Soil

Absorbtion strategies are a very efficient strategy for managing small flood and storm waters. However, for larger storms and floods, the absorbtion system should be coupled with other displacement strategies incase the green system becomes too saturated to be effective.

Earth

Bedrock

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Modular Wetland System

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Filtration Systems Modular WetlandWater Detail Analysis Removal Systems

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2 Objects

1

4

Storm Drain

Biological (Root) Fileter

Collection Chamber

Screen

Transfer Tube Media Filter Stage 1: Storm Water Collection

Stage 2: Object Screening

Stage 3: Biological / Media Filtration

Stage 4: Re-Introduction Into Water System

PREVENTION INFR.

Screen

Regional Vegetation

Storm Drain

1

4

Object Screen

2

Biological Filtration Chamber Media Filter

Collection Chamber

3 Transfer Tube

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Synthetic Prevention Systems MasterFloodplain Floodplain Plans

Floodplain Master Plans Floodplain Housing Floodplain

Floodplain HousingFloodplain Industry Energy Inf FP Housing FP Industry URBAN FABRIC

FP Masterplans

Floodplain IndustryEnergy Infrastructure Water Rem

Energy Infrastructure Water Removal Systems Coastal Int Water Removal Systems Coastal Interface


FP Masterplans Streamlines Deep Ground River+City+Life Tokyo Bay Plan Superharbour

102

Minnesota Riverfront Competition Longgang Riverfront Competition Lower Don Lands Competition Tokyo Redevelopment Proposal Too Perfect: Seven New Denmarks

104 106 108 110 112


Masterplan Strategies

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Masterplan Prototypes

NEW GROUNDS

INDUSTRIAL RELOCATION

FEATURED IN: STREAMLINES DEEP GROUND RIVER+CITY+LIFE TOKYO BAY PLAN SUPERHARBOUR

Introducing new ecologies along a flood plain can provide aesthetic benefits, reinvigorate local animal populations, and help cleanse the waterfront. Many organisms can be used as a filtering devise to remove toxins from soils and water run-off. Furthermore, most plantings can provide an absorption base and root foundation that will reduce erosion.

STREAMLINES DEEP GROUND RIVER+CITY+LIFE TOKYO BAY PLAN SUPERHARBOUR

Designing and utilizing a building prototype within the scale of a masterplan can be helpful in creating a new dynamic within the site. Within the flood plain, said prototypes may feature flood resistant qualities or may reimagine the future of the post-industrial waterfront.

STREAMLINES DEEP GROUND RIVER+CITY+LIFE TOKYO BAY PLAN SUPERHARBOUR

Manipulating the ground plane can have immediate benefits along the waterfront. The layering of spaces and activities provides dense development and can be used as a heirarchy in terms flood protection. In addition, the technique can be used to redirect waterflow or introduce new riverlet conditions.

STREAMLINES DEEP GROUND RIVER+CITY+LIFE TOKYO BAY PLAN SUPERHARBOUR

Many of the waterfronts in urban conditions are occupied by industrial sites, most of which are currently under utilized. The land along the working waterfront is prime real estate that could be reclaimed for more public uses. Most industry along the shoreline creates a barrier between the city and the waterfront.

STREAMLINES DEEP GROUND RIVER+CITY+LIFE TOKYO BAY PLAN SUPERHARBOUR

With the majority of the world’s surface covered by water, there is a vast amount of open space that could potentially be built upon. New construction on the water features the benefits of starting completely from scratch. Furthermore, new construction on the water has the potential to gain a key role in shipping infrastructure.

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URBAN FABRIC

GROUND PLANE MANIPULATION

IMPLEMEN z z T NEW PROTOTYPES

INTRODUCE ECOSYSTEMS

STRATEGY:

103 103


MISSISSIPPI R.

ST. CROIX R.

2 MINNEAPOLIS ST. PAUL

MINNESOTA R.

MISSISSIPPI R.

STREAMLINES, 2011 Minneapolis Riverfront Comp. Stoss Landscape Urbanism Minneapolis, MN Approx. 5 sq mi Mississippi River Minneapolis held a competition to foster ideas to reactivate the shoreline along the Mississippi River. Currently there is a strong disconnect between the city and the riverfront.

104 104

1

Stoss’ entry seeks to remediate some of the issues created by the existing industry while enhancing the existing infrastructure. The water systems are seen as morphing entity, slowly eating away at the surrounding earth to create new riverlets. This concept is carried through to the “stormwater boulevards” that become a system for treating contaminated soils and preventing further pollution of the river. Furthermore, the extension of these streamlines actually brings the river into the city, creating both physical and conceptual connections.

1

1 1


LIVE / WORK UNITS

Minneapolis Riverfront

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Masterplan Prototypes

LIGHT INDUSTRIAL / RETAIL

STORMWATER COLLECTION

Light Industry/ Retail LIGHT INDUSTRIAL / RETAIL

STORMWATER COLLECTION

LIGHT INDUSTRIAL / RETAIL

209’-9” 174’-0”

209’-9”

Proposed Water Systems

Prototypes are developed as a means to reimagine the industrial areas within the site. Rather than a distinct separation of the two functions, the competition seeks to establish a mixed use district that encourages connections between the established city and the riverfront. Rainwater collection is then absorbed with green roofs and surrounding plantings. These absorption areas become recreation zones for residents, and the excess stormwater run-off is routed in a system of “stormwater boulevards.”

“Stormwater Boulevards” and riverlet expansions extend the watershed into the urban fabric. The system also enables the remediation of contaminated soils.

2 EXCESS HEAT USE

1 STORMWATER RUNOFF 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E

Live/Work Prototype

STORMWATER ORIGINS BIOTOPES (PURIFICATION) BIVALVES (PURIFICATION) ABSORPTION FIELDS CLEAN WATER 174’-0”

2A 2B 2C 2D 2E

ENERGY PRODUCTION (EXCESS HEAT) HOT BATHS HEATED POOLS SNOW MELT COOL WATER ENTRY

2B 1A

Greenspace is extended to connect existing parks to the new recreation space along the river.

Railroad Lines The extensive existing railroad infrastructure helps dictate where industry will remain heavy. Reclaiming underutilized lines for recreation can create a green “spine” between parks.

Existing Industry vs Greenspace 2D

1B 1D 1C

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2A

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Housing Units LIVE / WORK UNITS

The existing industry alond the river acts as a barrier between the city and the waterfront. The industrial areas also represent potentially contaminated soil sites.

1D 1E

MISSISSIPPI RIVER

Street Grid The existing city fabric is regularized and does not significantly respond to the river. 105 105


LONGGANG

LONGGANG R.

DEEP GROUND, 2009 Groundlab Competitors Longgang, China 11.8 km2 (4.6 mi2) Longgang River Deep Ground is GroundLab’s winning entry for the international design competition for Longgang Centre and Longcheng Square. The project involves the regeneration of the urban fabric in the centre of Longgang, north east of ShenZhen in the Pearl River Delta, with an estimated population of 350,000 and 9,000,000 m2 of new development. Ground Lab proposes the revitalization of Longgang river to generate city fabric and create connections with the river. Deep ground becomes the name of the project as it predominantly uses ground and landscape manipulation to create a sectionally rich riverfront. The civic center becomes a focal point of the design, utilizing these strategies to form layers of programmable space. 106 106

1

2


Longgang Riverfront

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Masterplan Prototypes

The thickened ground plane is used as a design technique to address many of the needs presented within the site. The unique organization of spaces and volumes allows for a dense mixed-use development. Users have the opportunity to interact with the riverfront on different scales as they move both horizontally and vertically through the site.

Block Morphology Matrix

Proposed Water Systems Cleansing corridors will serve as a means to remedy pollution concerns along the river. Furthermore, the visual and physical connections that the riverlets create will help revitalize the riverfront.

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Proposed Greenspace Greenspaces branch off from the river into the city fabric. This begins to create recreational spaces and formulate a new relationship between the city and the river. Integrated Landscapes

Instance 1- Elevated

Multiple Occupiable Levels

Underground Malls

2 Instance 2- Financial Center

Sub-terranean parking

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City Fabric The street layout is shaped by the topography creating a dynamic city fabric that varies with relation to the river.

URBAN FABRIC

1

EXISTING SECTION RESIDENTIAL GREENSPACE SEAWALL WASTE WATER FACTORY PROPOSED SECTION

Instance 3- Industrial Waterfront

GREENSPACE PARKING RETAIL GREENSPACE BUSINESS AREA 107 107


DON R. TORONTO LAKE ONTARIO

RIVER+CITY+LIFE, 2007 Lower Don Lands Competition Stoss Landscape Urbanism Toronto, Canada 308 acres Don River As part of the redevelopment of the Don River Lands and Toronto waterfront, the City of Toronto sponsored the competition for the design of the lower Don Lands that focused on reassessing hydrology, ecology, community, and real estate development in the industrial and inaccesible area. The goal of the design project, from the office of STOSS Landscape Urbanism, was to implement a series of systems that each have their own task and allow for a more dynamic interaction between the systems. This is a major improvement over the current, static, system that does not allow for the growth and reproduction needs of certain types of local organisms.

108

RIVERWAY BERM DEWATERING CELLS FLOODWAY ACTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE WIND MARSH INDUSTRY/COMMERCE MARSHLAND RESIDENTIAL


Lower Don Lands

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Masterplan Prototypes

STRUCTURED UPLANDS

Marshlands

Primary level, inhabitable space, physically bolstered above the flood level.

The marshlands serve to filter and absorb exccess water during times of flooding. While not inhabitable, they reintroduce ecosystems to the site.

Bike and foot paths surround the Lower Don Lands; both supported on land projecting above the water. FLOOD PLAINS Secondary Level, inhabitable and typically recreational space.

MARSHLANDS Tertiary level, lowest and non-inhabitable plain. DIVIDED STREAMS After years of pollution and sedimentation, the Don River floods consistently every Spring. Dividing and deepening rivulets foster certain ecological processes, such as local fish reproduction and plant growth.

Pathways/ Flood Plains The second tier of ground plane creates a flood buffer between the built zones and the riverfront. This becomes an inhabitable park space that can host a variety of programmatic functions.

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Ecological Syatems The compilation of ecological systems creates an extensive network within the site. Figure Ground The figure ground digram reveals the large gaps that are left between districts, creating plenty of space foe th integrated systems.

URBAN FABRIC

SUPPORTED PATHWAYS

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Street Grid The street infrastructure caters to the presence of water within the site. Districts are broken up by larger streets while pedestrian traffic is ensured along the water, including underneath the commerical buildings. 109 109


ARAKAWA R.

TOKYO

PACIFIC OCEAN

TOKYO BAY PLAN, 1960 Kenzo Tange Tokyo, Japan The rapid population growth of Tokyo made it increasingly evident that the current infrastructure was insufficient to satisfy the rising demands. As Tokyo approached a population of ten million, the axial layout of the city created a bottleneck condition downdown. The Tokyo Bay Plan would have likely been home to 5 million people had it been realized. Kenzo Tange approached the plan in terms of transportation infrastructure, envisioning a cyclical chord from which the new city would branch out. The figure-eight-like loops could be built one at a time starting at Tokyo and working across the bay to completion. Offices and government buildings were to be located within the spine while residences were extended into the bay. Industry was imagined occupying the existing shoreline. 110 110

2

2

1

2

TOKYO ROAD/SUBWAY TUNNEL DOCKS MUNICIPAL OFFICE/ADMIN INDUSTRY

*AQUALINE

2


Tokyo Bay Plan

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Masterplan Prototypes

OFFICE DISTRICT Office, Administrative and Municipal buildings are located within the center of the transportation chord. They rise above the infilled ground by 40 meters and vary from 100 to 200 meters in height. Each block is 200 meters by 200 meters. Parking is located near sea level, as is additional greenspace. The municipal blocks have a more organic building composition that points in towards a central park.

Built Environment The figure ground diagram of the built environment shows how industry surrounds the bay while the remaining structures branch out from the central chord.

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT Similar to several of his other conceptual projects, Tange employs two sloping arches as one of the primary building compositions. This creates a staggered layer of spaces. With varying scale, the design could incorporate a dynamic rhythm to the residential structure. The central space created by the arches serves as a public squares, playgrounds, etc. Access to theses residential outcrops is provided directly off of the main chord and includes monorail service.

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Greenspace / Infill In this particular instance the system of greenspace also represents the areas within the project that require infill. Some structures were to be built on piers while others constructed upon infilled plinths.

Primary Transportation 2

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The “figure 8� planing method creates cyclical loops that are able to handle large quantities of commuters daily. Layers of transportation allow each mode to run independently and meet at specific junctions along the chord.

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1

Existing Transit/ Light Rail Since Tokyo is an established city and has an extensive transportation city, it is important that all planned transportation infrastructure for the Bay be connected to that of Tokyo. 111 111


COPENHAGEN

FEHMARN

TUNNEL

CONTAINER PORT

OIL

INDUSTRY

BALTIC SEA

HAMBURG

SUPERHARBOUR, 2007 Too Perfect: Seven New Denmarks PLOT Architects Approx. 2.5 sq mi The Copenhagen-Malmo Region represents a rapidly expanding region of Denmark; the region surrounding Hamburg is experiencing similar population growth in Germany. Linking the two regions would facilitate a healthy boost to local economies and is slated to be realized by 2020 with the construction of the Fermarn Bridge. As part of the Seven New Denmarks Exhibition, PLOT Architects propose utilizing abridge-tunnel hybrid that incorporated a new industrial port, the Superharbour. By creating a massive and efficient island port, Denmark would be able to free up the industrial waterfront of the coutries twelve largest cities.

112

RESIDENTIAL

ROLL ON/

STORAGE

BRIDGE/OPEN


Superharbour

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Masterplan Prototypes AREA TO PERIMETER DIAGRAM

POTENTIAL NODES

By creating an entirely new port it is possible to pursue various arrangements and pier layouts. The most efficient in terms of maximizing waterfront consist of multipe protrusions or piers. The objects below all have an area of 1 square unit.

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The bridge structure consists of massive piers piled into the existing seafloor. Cables span the distance between the piers to support the highway and rail lines.

Stone/Concrete retaining walls are employed at the perimeter of the Superharbour to ensure adequate depth for large cargo ships.

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3

ALL SYSTEMS

4

The Northern half of the infrastructural link is a tunnel that runs beneath the Baltic Sea.

The soils bored/excavated for the construction of the tunnel can be used as the infill for the island’s construction.

BRIDGE

1

URBAN FABRIC

6.8

8.7

MANUFACTURED ISLAND

2

3

TUNNEL

4 113 113


FP Housing Lower Ninth Ward 108 Morphology Recommendations 110 FP Housing Typologies 114 FP Housing Case Studies 122 FP Housing Infrastructure 146 Landform Manipulations 152

Recently there has been a drastic increase in the public’s interest in housing that is able to withstand substantial increase in water level. Whether . this water level change be swift, as it was in New Orleans during the disastrous Hurricane Katrina, or much more gradual, as it is in Amsterdam, the effects on a city are always extreme. The future of coastal residential architecture lies in its ability to flex with the changing water levels. 114


World Flood Map

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Flood Plain Housing

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There are many contemporary architects that have revolutionized the field of flood plain architecture but they were not the first ones to consider these design ideas. There are numerous third world countries that have been dealing with impending floods for hundreds of years. It is from these vernacular examples that contemporary architecture has learned to deal with the inevitable consequences of living near or on the water. 115


collapsed levees level 3 (worst) flooding level 2 flooding 100 year floodline level 1 flooding

Lower Ninth Ward 29.968271, -90.013991 116


Lower Ninth Ward Case Study

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Flood Plain Housing

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Coas The Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans, Louisiana was greatly affected by Hurricane Katrina. The levees that lined ter inundated the neighborhood. Some

new house

level. Over one hundred houses were

houses were situated six feet below sea completely wiped out and almost all oth-

Make is Right is a non-profit foundation

CHARTRES

ST. CLAUDE

CLAIBORNE

GALVEZ

FLORIDA

ers were seriously damaged.

URBAN FABRIC

the ward on three sides failed and waempty lot/ house damaged beyond repair

that focuses on rebuilding the Lower Ninth Ward in their Architecture in Times 20’

of Need initiative. Twenty-six low-income houses were designed and are currently

12’

being built on sites all over the ward. As

4’ 0’

of September 19, 2011 there were sev-

-8’

enty-three homes completed or under construction. 117


Wave height >3’

Wave height <3’

<1.5’

limit of moderate wave action

Base Flood Elevation (BFE) including wave effects 100-yr stillwater Elevation

Limit of 100-yr flooding and waves

coastal building types

HOUSES CONSTRUCTED BEFORE NFIP PROVISIONS

dislodged construction major/total loss flotsom/jetsom damage

2

FE MA , through the Nat ional Fl ood Insurance Pr ogr am provi des bui l di n g guidelines and requi rements f or resi dental const r uct ion in a fl ood zone. The requi rements assess el evati ons from t he shorel i ne to the 100- year fl ood l i ne and se t height s f or el evated housi n g based on damage proj ections.

flooded basement undermined and dislodged construction

POSSIBLE FLOOD IMPACTS

Shoreline

118

Reduced risk

FEMA NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM COASTAL BUILDING PROVISIONS

Beach

Buildings

ELEVATED CONSTRUCTION PER NFIP

Buildings

Source: Watson, D onal d and A dams , Mi chel e: D esi gn for Fl oodi ng: A rchi tecture, Landscape, and U rban D es i gn for R esi l i ence to C l i mate C hange, 2010.


Block Morpholgy Housing Lot Layout Recommendations

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Flood Plain Housing

SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSING DEVELOPMENT LOT RECOMMENDATIONS

COLLECTIVE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT LOT RECOMMENDATIONS

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In ter i or lot s e x p o s e d t o d a ma g e fr o m fr ont lot bui l d i n g d e b r i s . In ter i or ro a d s i n c r e a s e d eb r is a n d sco ur pat hs . B eachfr ont l o t s e x p o s e d to h ig h veloc it y s t o r m s u r g e s . N o beac h er o s i o n c o n t r o l s .

NOT RECOMMENDED In t e rio r lo ts e xp o sed to damage fr o m fr o n t lo t b u ild in g debri s. Be a c h f ro n t lo ts e xposed to hi gh ve lo city sto r m su r g e s. No b e a ch e r o sio n co ntrol s.

NOT RECOMMENDED N o vegetati on buffers to absorb stormw ater and storm i mpacts. Interior l ots and uti l i ti es exposed to scour and debri s damage. Shore roads exposed to fl ood erosi on and debri s. B eachfront l ots i n hi gh vel oci ty fl ood hazard zone.

Co mp a c t i nfrastructure; d e e p , n a rrow l ots No in fr a structure or b u ild in g w i thi n hi gh ve lo city z one Du n e p r o tecti on and m a in te n a nce

RECOMMENDED

RECOMMENDED

NOT RECOMMENDED IMPROVED B elow-grad e uti l i ti es w i th s hut-off val ves on water and s ew er l i nes . Limited-access dri v ew ay s for servi ce and emergenc y redundant exi tw ays. B eachfront l ots s et bac k behi nd dunes and hi gh harz ard z one. D efined du ne/v egetati v e buffer. R e duce road w i th traffi c cal mi ng w i th park i ng, combi ned w i th w ater retenti on pl anti ng. Sm aller l ots w i th near equal seaw ard v i ew s and ac c es s . Mor e than 50% of s i te i s l an ds c ape, i nc l udi ng natural area pl anti ng. A d ditional buffer z one as l on g term prec auti on for shorel i ne rec es s i on. Entir e s hore ex pos ed to hi gh ha z ard fl oodi ng managed as protec ted dune and l an ds c ape.

coastal building types URBAN FABRIC

NOT RECOMMENDED

3 119


120


Flood Plain Housing Typologies

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122


Stilt Type

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Flood Plain Housing

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Float Type

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Flood Plain Housing

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Solid Typology

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29° 96’, -90° 01’

MAKE IT RIGHT DESIGN NEW ORLEANS, LA FAR: .39 MVRDV This is MVRDV’s design for the Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans. The neighborhood was greatly affected by Hurricane Katrina and there is a high likelihood that it will suffer floods again in the future. MVRDV takes the concept of the traditional shotgun house and bends it in half, elevating the living spaces at least six feet off the ground. The point of the house that touches the ground is structural up to six feet where the living platforms begin. The structure is composed of three upside-down trusses and four columns.

128 128


Stilt House

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Flood Plain Housing

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12 ft

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Touches the ground at only one seam

20 ft

Each side has a private deck

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URBAN FABRIC

40 ft

30 ft

20 ft

10 ft 10 ft

129


29° 96’, -90° 01’

MAKE IT RIGHT DESIGN NEW ORLEANS, LA FAR: .43 HITOSHI ABE ATELIER This is Atelier Hitoshi Abe’s design for the Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans. The neighborhood was greatly affected by Hurricane Katrina and there is a high likelihood that it will suffer floods again in the future. Hitoshi Abe use the traditional and common method of elevation: stilts. However, they increase the mechanical and structural efficiency of this method by elevating two units on one slab. Beneath the slab are parking and a garden. This concept recalls the East Asian vernacular of multiple families on one platform.

130 130


Stilt House

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Floo 11 ft

11 ft

10 ft

11.75 ft

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15.75 ft

parking space 9.75 ft

front garden/play space

5 ft

URBAN FABRIC

concrete piers

11 ft

20 ft

10 ft

131


15° 52’, 100° 59’

STILT HOUSE THAILAND FAR: .05 This is one version of a Thai Stilt House. There are several small, enclosed rooms, elevated on a single platform, elevated by numerous round stilts. The platform has two levels: one for each building, all at the same height, and one for circulation and open-air common spaces. The common spaces often contain holes through which trees grow to provide shade. The qualities of this vernacular provide space for expanding families. As a nuclear family grows, they expand the platform to house the extended family.

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Stilt House

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Flood Plain Housing

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5 ft

Coas 20 ft

ground level: clotheslines agriculture clotheslines URBAN FABRIC

lowered common space enclosed rooms

14 ft

1 ft 7 ft

133


5° 24’, 100° 20’

PIER HOUSES MALAYSIA FAR: .95 This is a Malaysian Water House. There are six piers in Penang, Malaysia that show the best examples of these houses. The private houses are sited on a public pier comprised entirely of houses. Each house has an enclosed interior space, outdoor private porch, and public circulation space. The piers are always situated in the water and the stilts raise each pier about ten feet above the water level. These designs are used solely on the ocean rather than riverfront.

134 134


Stilt House

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Flood Plain Housing

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Private enclosed house with private porch and public circulation space

Coas

7 ft

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Several houses per pier, separated by common circulation walkways

20 ft

15 ft 15 ft

5 ft

5 ft

10 ft above water

135


52° 23’, 4° 89’

SILODAM AMSTERDAM FAR: 8.00 MVRDV Silodam is a multi-use residential and commercial development. The building mass is comprised of shipping box-like units creating a uniquely varied facade on all four sides of the extruded rectangular form. The building is comprised of 157 apartment and commercial units within ten stories. The units are situated within the building in “neighborhoods” to allow communal lifestyles and greater flexibility with interior partitions. The building sits along a peninsula of artificial land projected out from the city. It sits atop a concrete platform supported by massive pillars extending beneath the water and into the ground below. 136 136


Stilt House

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Coas 446 ft

URBAN FABRIC

type 5

type 4

type 3

type 2

type 1

65 ft

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48° 33’, -120° 20’

ROLLING HUTS MAZAMA, WA FAR: .05 OLSON KUNDIG ARCHITECTS The Rolling Huts were designed for a flood plain in Mazama, Washington. They function as cabins for a people visiting the area. The individual huts are very small and simple with large outdoor deck areas. They are then clustered in a group of seven along the edge of the river. Rather than stilts dug deep into the earth, these units are elevated on wheels. If the huts need to be moved in case of a flood, they can be moved back on the property with a simple manpower.

138 138


Stilt House

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Floo

5 ft

Small interior space with copious patio decking 15 ft

10 ft

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30 ft URBAN FABRIC

Stilts on wheels for removability

7 ft

8 to11 ft

15 ft

5 ft

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41° 38’, -88° 32’

FARNSWORTH HOUSE PLANO, IL FAR: .03 MIES VAN DE ROHE The Farnsworth House was built between 1945 and 1951 in a flood plain in Plano, Illinois. Mies van de Rohe designed the house using a simple structure of steel I-beams, concrete piers, and a one-way concrete slab. The main program is located four feet off the ground to anticipate the 100-year flood level of the nearby Fox River. Unfortunately, the flood level has risen above that six times in five decades.

140 140


Stilt House

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7

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21 f

URBAN FABRIC

t

15 ft

5 ft

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52° 21’, -4° 58’

WATERWONINGEN WATERBUURT WEST AMSTERDAM FAR: 2.00 ARCHITECTENBUREAU IES ROHMER

MARL-

The floating houses design project conceptualizes entire neighborhoods and city districts built on water. The houses rely on airtight vessels under the water to keep the house afloat and stabilized. The advantage provided by a floating house is evident, as it is flood proof---rising and falling with tides and storm surges. The community is linked together with a network of barges that act as sidewalks and streets. The network can take on any number of shapes and sizes and can be positioned along any coast. At the end of the barges are a series of docks to allow parking for the residents’ boats. 142 142


Floating House

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo 8 ft

1

Ener prefabricated housing

Wate

Coas

airtight metal vessels network of linked walkways

ft

URBAN FABRIC

20

11 ft

9 ft

11 ft

143


51° 49’, 5° 32’

AMPHIBIOUS HOUSES NETHERLANDS FAR: 1.00 DURAVERMEER Amphibious housing, unlike floating housing strategies, uses existing seaside land. The houses sit on plot like traditional buildings, but in the case of a flood, the house separates from its removable foundation to become a floating building. The house will rise and fall with the floodwater. The houses are small in size and can also be moved on truck beds. The floating mechanism works because of the exceedingly simple design of the house. The design shown here uses a shipping container as the body of the house, a reinforced platform, and metal airtight vessels for floating and balance when the land is flooded. 144 144


Floating House

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo boxcar house airtight vessels flooding

Ener

concrete foundation earth

Wate

URBAN FABRIC

Coas

40 ft 15 ft

15 ft

20 ft

10 ft

145


52° 22, 4° 56’

BORNEO SPORENBURG AMSTERDAM FAR: 3.00 WEST 8 The Borneo Sporenburg project positions 2500 low-rise dwellings on two peninsulas jutting out from docks in Amsterdam’s eastern end. The houses have access to solid land on a double-loaded street running down the center of each peninsula, and most of the houses have access to the water on the other end, where boats can be parked. The project team invited architects from all over the world to design unique singlefamily houses, creating a dynamic sea-wall along the water. The design parameters included a double-height space inside, an outside area that provides access to the water and a connection to the street in front. 146 146


Floating House

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo

Ener double height space

Wate

street frontage carport

first floor

water frontage

Coas

second floor

8’

URBAN FABRIC

private exterior space

8’

8’

7’ 3’

147


23° 41, 90° 21’

PLINTH HOUSE BANGLADESH FAR: .13 The plinth style is a common vernacular flood prevention mechanism for civilizations living on a seacoast or riverbed. The Bangladesh plinth method serves a singlefamily house, raising the foundation of the building by only a few feet. The house is accessible by a simple staircase adjacent to the plinth. In this example, the plinth is constructed using pounded earth and a claylike shell around the exterior. Other examples use stone, cement-like mixtures and stacked wood to support the structure of the house.

148 148


Plinth House

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo

Ener

Wate

thatched roof tied bamboo walls with timber supports

Coas

URBAN FABRIC

pounded earth plinth 6”-7” on sides 2”-3” cap

15 ft

3 ft

149


30° 24’, -88° 52’

PORCHDOG HOUSE BILOXI, MS FAR: .80 MARLON BLACKWELL ARCHITECTS The Porchdog House is located in Biloxi, Mississippi, where there is a large incidence of floods and other natural disasters. The concept of elevation is a modern interpretation of the stilt house. The living spaces are raised about fifteen feet off the ground and connect by an enclosed set of stairs. There is also a room on the ground floor that contains storage and other program that would not be affected by water. The stairs and storage room are raised one foot off the ground for cases of heavy rain.

150 150


Stilt/Plinth House

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo

20 ft

7 ft

Ener

Wate

Coas

70 ft

URBAN FABRIC

Living space is raised on a small plinth and four columns

7 to 11 ft

10 ft

10 ft

151


NEAL CREEK HOUSE HOOD RIVER, OR FAR: .14 PAUL MCKEAN The Neal Creek Residence is a modern example of traditional flood plain response systems. It utilized both a plinth-like concrete structural core and stilts to support all the living space of the home on the upper floor. The lower floor can be used for storage of summertime apparatus and things that are not in danger from floodwater. Below the houseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s raised floor is also an outdoor living space providing shade and a wooden deck.

152


Stilt/Plinth House

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo wood

Ener

concrete storage plinth concrete base metal columns FIRST FLOOR

Wate

Coas

URBAN FABRIC

SECOND FLOOR

14’

9’

153 153


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Electrical Electrical Electrical Electrical Generators Generators Generators Generators

coastal building types coastal building types

ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY

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WATER WATER WATER WATER

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4 154

WASTE WASTE WASTE WASTE


Housing Infrastructure: Power

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

FEMA TIPS Po we r lin e s a n d tr a n sformer uni ts are to be e le va te d a n d h a ve wa te r proofi ng and storm equi p m e n t in sta lle d .

Ener

F O R B U ILDING IN Wate A F L OOD ZONE P roperty ow ners are advi sed t o elevat e elect r ical and heati ng systems 12 i nches above t he height the w ater w oul d reach during a 100- year f lood event or the hi ghest know n f lood levels f or t he area. E l evati on w i l l l ow e r t he possibilit y of damage to these i mportant syst em s. E l evate al l outl ets, sw i tches, light socket s and j uncti on boxes, as w el l as the m ain br eaker or f use box and el ectri c motors. Junct ions should be l ocated i n approved j uncti on boxes. R un w i res overhead. If the y m ust be in ar eas w here they coul d get w et, use a wir e r at ed f or underground use. W i res s hould not end in a possi bl e fl ood zone.

Coas

coastal building types URBAN FABRIC

I n f r a s t r u c t u r e Pr o to co l: Ce llu la r Gr o wth , Dim itr is Gourdouki s. E xampl e of flo a tin g h o u sin g uni ts and bui l t-i n pow er.

Floo

E l evate el ectri c baseboard heat er syst em s. For the w al l area bel ow the baseboar d unit s, use w aterproof constructi on mater ials and t echniques. E l evate or rel ocate the el ect r ic panel wit h t he 100-year rul e i n mi nd. The maxim um panel height i s regul ated by code. E l evate your ai r condi ti oner or heat pum p at least 12 i nches above the fl ood saf et y m ar gin on a masonry, concrete or pre ssur e- t r eat ed lum ber base.

5 155


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ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY

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Deta Deta Dech tacha ch abab leble le I nfI nf rI as nfr as rtas r uc t rtuc rtuc urt ur et uree

F l o aFtilF onlag otiantihgno guhsoehuosu dese e tachabl detachabl detachabl e from e efrom from foundati foundati foundati on on and onand and ci tyci ty ci ty

coastal building types coastal building types

s e rvsiecsrv ee rv iicne ifra c ei nsifra n tru fra sctructures. tu s t ructures. res.

6

6 156

cl asped cl asped cl asped andand el and evated el el eva evat t eded servi servi ce servi uni cece ts u nit unit s s

WATER WATER WATER

WASTE WASTE WASTE

pl i nth pl pl i nth to i nth be toto ra bebe ised r aised r aised above above above fl ood flood f line loodline line


Housing FEMA Infrastructure: Plumbing Water Tips

Floo

Flood Plain Housing

Floo

FEMA TIPS

Ener

F OR B U IL DING IN Wate A F LOOD ZONE Coas In order to connect to stan dar d in- gr ound wat er and sew er servi ces, pl umbing pipes t hat ar e encl osed w i thi n w aterproo f ing casing can be si tuated bel ow the fl ood l i ne . P l umbi ng control s, tanks, shut - off s and vent s must be l ocated above the f lood line and should be easi l y accessi bl e for emer gency access dur ing fl oods and storm surges.

struc t ur al plat f or m s u p p o rti n g h o u s e fl o tat ion c om par t m e n ts tel e s c oping guide p o s ts di sco nnec t v alv es fo r s e rv i c e s cl osi ng junc t ion t o w a te rp ro o f s e rv i c e p o i n ts co nnec t ion t o netw o rk

coastal building types URBAN FABRIC

Tradi ti onal pl umbi ng system s and equim pent m ust be protected by means of elevat ion.

B ackfl ow preventi on must be t aken int o account in the case of a fl ood to prevent cont am inat ion of pri mary w ater sources and int er ior spaces f r om w astew ater.

POTENTIAL PROBLE M S TO WAT ER SUPPLY SYSTEM FR OM FLOODWATERS

â&#x20AC;˘ D amage to pi pes and on-sit e well- head r esult ing from vel oci ty fl ow, w aves, and debr is im pact â&#x20AC;˘ Water suppl y contami nati on

7 157


S USMP USMP UPUM MP PUM PUM PSPSPS

ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY

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s plas s plas hs plas pad h pad hdrain pad drain drain t o st o wale st o wale sor wale rain or rain or rain garden garden garden

water water water level level sensor level sensor sensor clean clean clean out out out

drain drain hos drain hos e hos e e (flood (flood emergenc (flood emergenc emergenc y) y) y)

sump sump pump sump pump pump

backflow backflow backflow valve valve valve

coastal building types

coastal building types

roofroof drain roof drain drain

WATER WATER WATER

footing footing footing drain drain drain

optional optional optional weep weep to weep to to s ump s ump pit s ump pit pit 8 158

WASTE WASTE WASTE

sewer sewer sewer c onnec c onnec c tion onnec tiontion


Backf l o w val ves a r e d e s ig n e d to b lo c k p ipes and should be i n st al l ed o n a ll p ip e s th a t le a v e th e b uilding or ar e con n ect ed t o eq u ip m e n t o r s a n ita r y s y s tem s located belo w t h e f l o o d p r o te c tio n le v e l.

OPEN HOUSE TO SEWER The sewage system of a flood-zoned house can be controlled by a flow box, allowi ng full flow under normal conditions.

Flood Plain Housing

Floo

FEMA TIPS

Ener

R E Q U I R E M E N T SWate F O R FLOOD ZONE Coas HOUS ING D E S IGN B ui l di ng and i ts foundat ion m ust be desi gned, constructed, and anchor ed t o pr event fl otati on, col l apse, and l ater al m ovem ent due t o si mul taneous w i nd and w ate r loads. MA TE R IA LS S tructural and nonst r uct ur al bui l di ng materi al s at or bel ow BFE m ust be fl ood-resi stant. S ITIN G A l l new constructi on shall be landwar d of mean hi gh ti de; al terati on o f sand dune and mangrove stands that i ncreases pot ent ial f lood damage i s prohi bi ted.

CLOSED HOUSE TO SEWER When the service areas of a flood zone located house become flooded, the sewage flow box can be closed to prevent overflow into the house

Floo

coastal building types URBAN FABRIC

BACKF L O W VALVE & SUMP P UMP

Housing FEMA Infrastructure: FEMA Plumbing Waste Waste Tips

U TILITIE S Must be desi gne d, locat ed and el evated to prevent fl oodw a t er s f r om ent er ing and accumul ati ng i n compon ent s dur ing f looding. U S E OF S P A C E B E LOW B FE Allowed only f or parki ng, bui l di ng access, an d st or age. E N C LOS U R E B E LOW TH E BFE Pr ohibit ed except for breakaw ay w al l s, open lat t ice, and screeni ng.

9 159


post-industrial coast

EXISTING CONDITION

160

PROPOSED CHANGE

CHANGE WITH FLOODING


Geomorphology Manipulations Flood Plain Housing

PROPOSED SECTION

Density: LOW, Providence

one side of grade raised 5â&#x20AC;&#x2122; and retained by wall at sidewalk

Floo

plinth/stilt combination allows more houses per block one side of grade flush with sidewalk

Floo

The homes in this neighborhood are fairly widely spaced. A good alteration to the terrain here would be to raise one side

Ener

of the block, creating a retaining wall on one side an a gradual slope on the other. This method could be used various den-

Wate

sities of housing as is shown in the â&#x20AC;&#x153;pro-

Coas alley with retaining walls and parking spaces both sidewalks flush with grade

houses set back on block and supported by ground and plinth

Density: MEDIUM, New Haven When there is space between blocks but not between houses, this method of creates visual continuity from pedestrian walkways and a useful alleyway for cars for resident parking.

URBAN FABRIC

alteration is a good option. This design

Density: HIGH,New Haven entire block raised on a plinth retaining walls at all sidewalks

stairs connect the block to sidewalk between each house

When houses are packed tightly into each block, the most efficient use of space for a storm surge area is to raised the entire block on a plinth. While is creates a barrier from the pedestrian walkway, it allows a huge number of houses to be safe from flood. 161 161


URBAN FABRIC

FP Industry

162 162

Industry Types Glossary 162 Industrial Zones 164 Industrial Type Catalog 170 FP Adaption Challenges 188 FP Landform Manipulations 190 FP Adaptive Reuse 196


FP Industry Types

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

The floodplain of the northeast corridor

Ener

is replete with a diverse range of industrial uses and building types. Across the Northeast corridor many cities developed

Wate

ove rtime due to the advantages of being in and around the major waterways for their ability to transport goods. Now we

Coas

are left with much of this residue of the

Seaport

Commercial/Industrial

Mixed Industrial Use

once heavily industrialized corridor not all

The seaport is by far the most crucial component of the working waterfront. These facilities allow for the shipping and receiving of goods from across the world.

Mixed commercial and industrial space often acts as a buffer between heavy industry and residential zones. There is often overlap in zoning for commercial and industrial building types.

Industrial buildings in the waterfront tend to most commonly be large terminal storage buildings, manufacturing facilities,

of which is still active but even so these areas are still primed for their ability to take on new types of industry due to their adjacencies and mobility infrastructure.

of the waterfront was zoned for industrial use. This resulted in the majority of these cities lying in the flood plain, now we are faced with the questions of how do we re-

URBAN FABRIC

As industry developed, more and more

capture this coastal resource for the use of public space.

Distribution

Refinery

Food/Fish Terminal

Distribution centers and warehouses are a crucial part in the logistics and shipping network of consumer goods. These facilities tend to be located on the waterfront to have easy access to seaports, rail service and highway infrastructure.

Refineries are a very common building type on the working waterfront. They take advantage of ease of loading materials from large barges in waterways, but do take up a large percentage of waterfront space.

Food and fish terminals line the waterfront of New England. Many towns along the NE Corridor, such as New Bedford, still have an economy heavily based on fishing. Food terminal markets are responsible for the import and export of foods across the globe as well as local goods. 163 163


NEW HAVEN, CT

I-95

I-95

Interstate

Airport

RailFerry

Industrial Seaport Rail

I-95

Residential Interstate Commercial Airport Downtown Seaport Interstate Airport Ferry Industrial Ferry

Park Industrial Residential

Residential Commercial Commercial Downtown

I-95 Seaport

Interstate

URBAN FABRIC

Ferry Industrial Airport Ferry

Industrial Ferry

Residential Industrial

Rail

Airport

164

Residential Industrial

Ferry

Industrial

Residential

Commercial Downtown Residential Commercial

Commercial

Downtown

Park

Park Downtown

Park

I-9 1

Ferry

port

Airport

Ferry

Commercial

Downtown

I-95Commercial

Residential Seaport

Interstate

Industrial

Residential

Park

Downtown

Rail Airport

Seaport Ferry

Commercial

Downtown

I-95

Park

Interstate Industrial

Airport Residential

Park

Ferry Commercial Industrial DowntownResiden


Northeast Analysis

PROVIDENCE, RI

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener

I-95

ort Seaport

ential

Wate

Ferry Industrial Residential Interstate Airport Ferry

Commercial

Industrial

Downtown

Residential

I-195 Park

Commercial Downtown Industrial Residential

Commercial

Downtown

Park

Coas

Park

Commercial

Downtown

Park

erstate

Residential Industrial

Seaport

Airport

Ferry

Commercial Residential

I-95 Interstate

Industrial

Downtown Commercial

Rail

Airport

Residential

I-95

Downtown

Seaport

Ferry

Commercial

Park

Interstate

Downtown

URBAN FABRIC

-95 Park

Park

I-95 Airport

Rail

Seaport

Industrial

Residential

Ferry

Industrial

Interstate Commercial

Airport Downtown

Residential

Commercial

Ferry

Industrial

Downtown

Residenti

Park

165


NEW BEDFORD, MA

I-95 Rail

Seaport

Interstate

I-195 Airport

Ferry

Industrial

Residential

Commercial

I-95 Airport

Ferry

Industrial

Residential

URBAN FABRIC

nterstate

Commercial

Downtown

Park

I-95 Rail

Seaport

Interstate

Airport

Ferry

Industrial

Residential

Commercial

Downtown

Commercial

Downtown

Industrial

Residential

I-95

aport

Interstate

port

Ferry

166

Airport

Industrial

Ferry

Residential

Park

Park

Commerci


Northeast Analysis

NEW LONDON, CT

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener

I-95 Seaport

Wate

Interstate

Airport

Ferry

Industrial

Residential

Commercial

Downtown

Park

Coas

I-95

Ferry

Airport

Industrial

Ferry

Industrial Rail

Residential

Residential Seaport

Commercial

Commercial Interstate

Downtown

Downtown Airport

Ferry

Industrial Park

Residential

Commer

Park URBAN FABRIC

nterstate

I-95

I-95 I-95 Seaport

Rail

port

Interstate

Interstate Airport

Airport Ferry

Ferry Industrial

Industrial Residential

Residential Commercial

Commercial

Downtown

Downtown

Park Park

I-95 Ferry

Industrial Rail

Residential Seaport

Commercial Interstate

Downtown Airport

Ferry

Park Industrial

Residential

Commercial

Downtown

167


BD

RM

BA

RM

BA

IL

RM

RH

BE

IL

RM

IH IH

P

BC

IH RM

URBAN FABRIC

IM

Zoning Map Districts Residence Districts

Business Districts

RS-1 RS-2 RM-1 RM-2 RH-1 RH-2 RO

BA BA-1 BB BC BD BD-1 BD-2 BE

Special Single-Family General Single-Family Low-Middle Density High-Middle Density Special High Density General High Density Residence-Office

Industrial Districts IL Light Industry IM Light Industry - Marine IH Heavy Industry

IH

General Business Neighborhood Center Mixed Use Automobile Sales Marine Central Business Central Business/Residential Central Business/Medical Wholesale and Distribution

BC RM BA

Public Space P

Park

IH

P RM

168


New Haven Industrial Zoning

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Floor Area Ratio

Floor Area Ratio Zoning District BA, BA-1, BB, BC and IM IL IH BD, BD-1, BD-2* and BE

Maximum FAR. 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0

Parking Regulations Motel or Hotel, tourist home Retail sales and services: 600—5,000 sq.ft. Over 5,000 sq.ft. Office Place of assembly, eating or drinking place Amusement Vocational, trade or business school Industrial, commercial, transportation, marine use Marina

1 per unit 1 per 200 sq. ft. of total area 1 per 100 sq.ft. of area 1 per 600 sq. ft. of net floor area 1 per 4 seats at maximum capacity 1 per 4 persons at maximum capacity 1 per 2 students present at one time 1 per 2 employees on the largest shift 1 per slip

Quantity of Loading Docks General Description of Uses Use which is primarily concerned with the handling of goods

Use which is not primarily concerned with handling goods

Gross floor Area (in sq. ft.) 2,400-20,000 20,001-50,000 50,001-80,000 each add’l. 45,000 2,400—75,000 75,001—200,000 200,001-333,000 each add’l. 150,000

Quantity of Loading Docks 1 2 3 1 additional 1 2 3 1 additional

Ener

When business or industrial district abuts a residence district:

* * * * * * * *

Front, side, and rear yards: Where any lot in an industrial district abuts a residence district across a street or alley, all of the regulations of such residence district for front yards shall apply to such lot along that portion of such street or alley across which such lot abuts such residence district. The size of the yard will depend on the zoning requirements of the adjacent district and range 15 to 25 feet.

Wate

Parking and loading areas shall be arranged and screened. No goods, materials or equipment shall be stored out of doors on any lot in a business or industrial district within five feet of any lot line. Any goods, materials or equipment stored out of doors on such lot shall be effectively screened from view from such residence district by means of a suitable fence, wall or evergreen planting at least five feet in height.

Coas

Junk yards, automobile recycling facilities, and scrap metal processing facilities. Junk yards, automobile recycling facilities and scrap metal processing facilities may be allowed in the IH District by special permit for a maximum of five years. All materials and activities not within fully enclosed buildings shall be surrounded (except along a wharf used by the facility) by an opaque fence of uniform color, at least eight feet in height, surfaced so as to be resistant to damage from the elements, and maintained in good condition. Any gate in such fence shall be similarly constructed and maintained (except that a view hole may be left in each such gate) and shall be kept locked at all times when the facility is not in operation. There shall be a buffer strip of land at least five feet in width within such business or industrial district, between the parking or loading area and such residence district. There shall be a suitable fence, wall or evergreen planting at least five feet in height, designed to screen noise, odors, visibility and headlight glare, between the parking or loading area and such residence district. Such artificial lighting as is used for the parking or loading area shall be so arranged that no direct rays fall within such residence district.

URBAN FABRIC

The ratio of the gross floor area to the principal building or principal buildings on a lot to the total lot area.

169


coastal building types

URBAN FABRIC

Truck Circulation

10 170

Product Circulation


Goods Distribution Goods Distribution

Floo

Industry FloodFlood PlainPlain Industry TypesTypes Minor Truck Circulation

Ener

Parking / Security Temp. Truck Parking

Wate

Car Parking Major Truck Circulation

Primary Distribution Buildings Support Buildings

Building / Parking Footprint

Coas

26

26

121

114

635

Transportation Infrastructure

Amazon Retail Distribution: Irving, Texas

114

Goods Distribution facilities rely heavily upon the transportation infrastructure around them. Mass amounts of products are received and shipped on a daily basis, creating a dense network of truck circulation. This makes location, in respect to the flood plain, very important. When products are recieved they are unloaded and stored until that product is required to be shipped. This results in the interior of the buildings to also be very sensitive to the flood plain. Since the majority of storgae occurs on the ground floor, products are at a high risk when these facilities are located in the flood plain

URBAN FABRIC

121

171


URBAN FABRIC

Retail Location Distribution Center

172


Goods Distribution

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener

The Fulfillment of Goods

International Manufacturers

Corporate retail offices request product from manufacturers in bulk quantities. These products are then shipped to distribution facilities across the country.

Coas

In addition to product fulfilment of retail locations, distribution centers are often responsible for the shipping of product directly to customers for orders made online or over the phone. Retail corporate offices monitor inventory levels of retail locations and request fulfillment of product be sent from distribution centers. In some cases products will be shipped directly to customers from the manufacturing facility via a third party air delivery service. This is typical if the company owns the manufacturing facility.

Target Corporation Retail Distribution Network

Intermodal Container Port

Headquartered in Minneapolis, MN, Target is the second largest discount retailer in the US. The target retail network is composed of over 355,000 employees, 1750 retail locations, 26 distribution centers, a dedicated internet order fulfillment center, and 4 import warehouses located in Rialto, CA; Savannah, GA; Lacey, WA; and Suffolk, VA.

Rail Terminal

Distribution Centers

Retail Stores

Online Purchases

Third Party Shipping

Freight Rail Truck

URBAN FABRIC

Large quantities of product are stored on containers with other goods and sent via a shipping container vessel to international ports.

Product intended for inland distribution centers across the country are often sent via freight rail.

Wate

Domestic Manufacturers

Most Target retail locations are between 95,000 - 135,000 square feet. Some flagship stores can be as large as 175,000 square feet and contain fresh foods, pharmacies, bank branches, concessions and other amenities. 173


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To Main Entrance

174

To Farmer’s Market Stalls / Car Parking (above) Farmer’s Market Overflow Parking West Exit

Truck Parking

Product Circulation


Terminal Market Distribution

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Parking / Security Minor Truck Circulation

Ener

Temp. Truck Parking Farmers Market Parking Rooftop Car Parking

Major Truck Circulation

Wate

Security Fence

Program / Dimensions Building / Parking Footprint

Coas

Cold Storage Wholesale Storage

500’

Transportation Infrastructure 100’ 200’

Ontario Food Terminal: Toronto, Canada

URBAN FABRIC

Offices Ripening Facility

Since food product cannot be stored for a long time, the turnover rate is a lot quicker in terminal markets. This results in a very high quantity of trucks that circulate in and out of the facilities. A lot of the product is also temperature sensitive so there is a wider range of storage areas (i.e. cold, frozen, dry etc.) 175


New Haven Food Terminal New Haven, CT

Atlantic Tropical Market Hoboken, NJ

Bristol

Hoboken Yonkers Newark Elizabeth Staten Island

URBAN FABRIC

Huntâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Point Terminal Market Bronx, NY

176

The 329 acres site contains 800 industrial businesses, employing over 25,000 workers. Produce from 49 states and 55 foreign countries can be found in the 1.8 Million square feet of storage space including cold storage, and a dedicated fish market. This market handles over 2.7 billion pounds of produce and generates over $1.5 billion in revenue.

Waterbury

New Br

Fairfield Bridgeport Manhattan

Hamden

Bronx New Haven

Brooklyn

Brooklyn Terminal Market Brooklyn, NY Over 30 vendors occupy the 15.5 acre site in Canarsie, Brooklyn. These facilities include over 221,000 square feet of storage. In addition to wholesale food sales this facility also contains 100 storefronts from the sale of smaller quantities to the community.


Terminal Market Distribution

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener Boston Market Terminal Boston, MA

Worcester

Wate

Hartford

Coas

Gloucester

ritian

Providence

Connecticut Regional Warwick Market Hartford, CT

This facility is the largest food distribution terminal between New York & Boston. This 33 acre facility handles about 1000 trucks per day and consists of 19 wholesale businesses. In addition to creating over 450 jobs, the market also contributes $165 million annually to the CT economy. In addition to wholesale food sales the facility also contains a 144 stall open air farmers market.

New Bedford

Chelsea Produce Market Chelsea, MA This is the 2nd largest Produce Market in the US. It supplies much of New Englandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wholesale produce. Each year 730,000 trucks pass through the market, 37,000 of these vehicles are refrigerated.

URBAN FABRIC

Boston

177


A

178

URBAN FABRIC


Manufacturing

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener Admin.

Manufacturing

Wate A 18,000 sq. ft.

Building / Parking Footprint

50,000 sq. ft.

Finishing

Shipping + Receiving+ Storage

16,000 sq. ft.

25,000 sq. ft.

Coas

Transportation Infrastructure

A

The manufacturing zone is the largest space in the building, taking up nearly half of the buildings floor area. This space is an open plan divided up by half height partitions. The facility is equipped with work centers including, Laser Cutting, Punch, Forming, Sheet Metal Rolling, and Welding. Bridge Cranes make moving large products possible through out the building.

B

The storage area is located in the center of the facility to allow for adjacencies to both the finishing areas as well as the shipping and receiving areas. The storage area also has direct access to the truck loading docks. Shipping and Receiving areas are located adjacent to a service road that runs down the site. This road allows for private access of trucks to and from the facility.

URBAN FABRIC

B

Port of New Bedford: New Bedford, MA 179


Industrial Business Park The Industrial business park is a building type intended to house multiple businesses that require a small amount of manufacturing or warehouse space. It offers businesses the opportunity to take advantage of shared ammenities such as conference rooms, CAD workstations, reception, and training areas in addi-

URBAN FABRIC

tion to offices and warehouse/ manufacturing space. This facility is 54,000 sq/ft containing 38,000 sq/ft of office space. Over 16,000 sq/ft of this building are used for shared spaces among tenants.

180


Manufacturing

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener Rear Truck Loading Dock

Wate

Coas

URBAN FABRIC

Parking Adjacent to Street

Industrial Space

Office Space

Large Industrial Space: 4,100 sq/ft

Office Suite: 500 sq/ft

Training Room: 400 sq/ft

Small Industrial Space: 1,900 sq/ft

Individual Offices: 150-300 sq/ft

Kitchen: 200 sq/ft

Light Manufacuring Space: 700 sq/ft

Small Office (in suite): 100 sq/ft

Workrooms: 100-200 sq/ft

Shared Space Conference Room: 200-300 sq/ft

9’x10’ Loading Door

CAD Room: 150 sq/ft

15’-20’ Ceiling heights

Reception/Waiting: 350 sq/ft

181


Port Newark/ Elizabeth Marine Terminal 2,230 acres of maritime property 92 on-site businesses 41,000 linear feet of berthing space 1 million sq/ft of warehouse space 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122;-45â&#x20AC;&#x2122; berth depths 40 Container Cranes

URBAN FABRIC

Port Newark/Elizabeth Marine Terminal is the 22nd busiest port in the world, handling over $100 billion in goods. It services approximately 3,700 vessels annually, and sends and receives over 2.5 million containers each year.

Imports/Exports Top Import Commodities Furniture Apparel Beer & Ale Top Export Commodities Paper, Carbon, Crepe Automobiles Mixed Metal Scrap Top Bulk Commodities Scrap Metal/Steel Petroleum Salt Cement Edible Liquid Oils

182


Container Port

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener

Wate Building Footprint

Coas Ship Berths allow for ships to dock along side cranes for loading and unloading.

Site Circulation

These

berths are between 30-40 feet deep and can have multiple cranes. Freight Rail service runs through the port facated on 2 piers making for easier transferring of containers.

Transportation Infrastructure

Interstate I-95 is a major highway on the East Coast spanning the entire length of the coun-

URBAN FABRIC

cilities. Additionally several rail lines are lo-

try. This adjacency to the Newark Container Port allows for distribution centers to service the entire East Coast. Newark International Airport services both freight and passenger airlines. Many of the distribution facilities located in the port rely on this for the delivery of goods to consumers. Port Newark-Elizabeth: Newark, NJ 183


URBAN FABRIC

Shipping + Stor.

Processing

+12’ +8’ Sea Level -35’

25,000 sq. ft.

184

50,000 sq. ft.

Liq. Stor.

Ship Berth


Refinery

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types A

Ener

Wate

Building Footprint

Coas Exterior liquid storage tanks are used to store rendered liquids during the heating and cooling process. The tanks are waterproof and require frequent maintenance to prevent rust and corrosion. The tanks are connected by a series of catwalks for circulation, and pipes for movement of liquids.

B

URBAN FABRIC

Transportation Infrastructure

The facility has its own dock, equipped with pumps, for the loading and unloading of liquids from the refinery to the ships. The ship berth must be deep enough,typically around 30+ feet, to accommodate large shipping vesDarling International Refinery: Newark, NJ

sels, 185


A

Iroquis

M&N

Algonquin

Millennium Tennessee URBAN FABRIC

Everett MA Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal This terminal handles 1/3 of US natural gas imports from abroad. Only 11% of the countries natural gas is imported through LNG Terminals.

Texas Eastern

The remaining 89% come through the pipeline from Canada and Mexico Interconnect Switch

186


Refinery

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener Imports

LNG

Trucked

Pipeline Imports 89%

Wate Pipeline Company

Residential

Coas

Storage

Storage

Commercial Producers

Gas Plant

Hubs + Interconnects

Local Distribution Company Industrial

Canada 88% Mexico 1% Unidirectional Transfer

LNG Terminal Imports 11%

Thicker lines indicate large diameter pipes

Trinidad & Tobago 4.6%

Pipeline Company

Electric Power Generators

URBAN FABRIC

Bidirectional Transfer

The Algonquin Pipeline is the primary artery In addition to servicing coastal refineries of Liquefied Natural Gas along the North- and businesses, the Algonquin Pipeline has

Egypt 1.8%

east Corridor. Several hubs and storage several hubs that connect it to 5 other major centers run additional lines to the coast. pipelines which service all inland and north-

Qatar 1.2%

This has resulted in a heavy presence of ern locations.

Nigeria 1.2%

refineries along the Northeast working wa- east cities serve as the starting point for the

Yemen 1%

terfront.

The Algonquin and North-

movement of LNG across the country.

Norway .7% Peru .5% 187


There are many strategies to adapt to the rising flood plain. The basic strategies for adapting to the flood plain for industrial waterfront-type buildings can be separated into two categories; Alterations made when the buidling is in the flood plain and alterations made when the transportation infratructure is in the flood plain

coastal building types URBAN FABRIC

Ground

30 188

Existing Condition: Single story warehouse bulding in the flood plain

Action: Lofted Structure

Effected Areas: Loading docks, ground floor storage areas, ground floor machinery

Problem Areas: Connection between the loading dock and ground, connection between the building and the loading dock

Ground Basement

Existing Condition: Single or multi-story warehouse bulding, with basement, in the flood plain

Action: Lofted Structure

Action: Loft portion of buildign in the flood plain

Effected Areas: Loading docks, ground floor storage areas, ground floor machinery, basement storage areas, basement machinery

Problem Areas: Loading docks, connection between floors for goods

Problem Areas: Connection between lofted structure and ground structure, loading dock reorganization


Flood Plain Adaption Flood PlainChallenges Adaptation

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ener

Wate

Problem Area Flood Plain

Coas 95

9595

Existing Condition: Single story warehouse bulding with main transportation infrastructure in the flood plain Effected Areas: Loading dock, site circulation

Action: Lofted transportation infrastructure Problem Areas: Connection between raised transportation routes and loading dock

95

Existing Condition: Single story warehouse bulding with main transportation infrastructure in the flood plain Effected Areas: Loading dock, site circulation

95

coastal building types URBAN FABRIC

Area Effected by Flood Plain

Action: Infrastrucrure addition Problem Areas: Site obstruction

31 189


URBAN FABRIC

Existing Conditions

190

Existing Conditions


Coastal Edge Manipulations

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ground Manipulation

Added Program

Added Public Space

Ener

Wate

Ground is raised to create a plinth for the industrial zone, separating the major transportation infrastructure , as well as the building itself from the flood plain.

Mixed use residential/ commercial program is added on stilts

The dock is expanded to activate a public zone on the waterfront, separated from the active industrial zone.

Ground Manipulation

Added Public Space

Added Program

The transportation infrastructure is raised to create a physical barrier between the industrial zone and the flood plain.

A pedestrian circulation zone is added to the raised transportation infrastructure above the flood plain.

Commercial program is added above the existing industrial building with access to the pedestrian walkway

URBAN FABRIC

Coas

191


URBAN FABRIC

Existing Conditions

192

Existing Conditions


Coastal Edge Manipulations

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ground Manipulation

Added Public Space

Added Program

Ener

Wate

Hard infrastructure is added to create a physical barrier between the industrial zone and the flood plain.

The area that has been raised can act as a secondary source for vehicular circulation with a walkway for pedestrian use

The space under the pedestrian walkway can be used for commercial use such as an open air market, as to be easily cleared in the event of flooding. Additional commercial program can also be added on top of the existing industrial building

Ground Manipulation

Added Public Space

Added Program

Levee controlled channels are added between the existing industrial buildings.

Occupiable pedestrian zones are added on top, and in front of the existing industrial buildings.

Commercial program is added on top of the existing industrial buildings. The existing industrial buildings can also be reprogrammed to create an active public zone at the flood plain level as well as above.

URBAN FABRIC

Coas

193


URBAN FABRIC

Existing Conditions

194

Existing Conditions


Coastal Edge Manipulations

Floo

Flood Plain Industry Types

Ground Manipulation

Added Public Space

Added Program

Ener

Wate

The slope of the existing wharf is increased. Also hard infrastructure is added as a physical barrier between the industrial building and the flood plain

A boardwalk is added to create a pedestrian zone above the flood plain.

Commercial program is added above the flood plain and behind the added barrier to create an active commercial waterfront around the working industrial zone

Ground Manipulation

Added Public Space

Added Program

Hard infrastructure is added in front of the area for mineral storage. The existing dock is extended for more usable space.

The transportation infrastructure is raised to create a connection between the waterfront and the working industrial zone.

Public seating area is added to occupy the added infrastructure and use the expanded dock for public use.

URBAN FABRIC

Coas

195


Manufacturing Facilty, New Haven Ct.

When a manufactuiring facility is no longer active, the open floor plan lends itself to be reprogrammed in a variet of ways.

coastal building types

URBAN FABRIC

Added Circulation Cores

38 196

Building Additions

A A


Adaptive Reuse Adaptive Reuse Strategies: Manufacturing

Flood Plain Industry Types Flood Plain Industry Types

Floo

Ener

Wate

Coas Restroom Small Store

URBAN FABRIC

Escalators

Food Court Garage Parking Department Store

197


coastal building types

URBAN FABRIC

A

Added Circulation Cores A

B 38 198

Building Additions

B


Adaptive Reuse Adaptive Reuse Strategies: Food Terminal

Flood Plain Industry Types Flood Plain Industry Types

Floo

Ener Recreation Center

Wate Locker Rooms

Parking

Coas

URBAN FABRIC

Residential Rooms

Food Court

Department Store Department Store

199


Floodplain Housing

Water Removal Sy Floodplain Industry Coastal Interface Energy Infrastructure Water Coastal Removal Systems Interfaces Coastal Interface URBAN FABRIC

Coastal Energy


Coastal Energy Off shore wind 203 Tidal Barrages 206 Wave Power 210

202


Coastal Detail Wind Turbines Wind Turbine Analysis FloodEnergy Plain Industry Types Infrastructure

Ener

Wate Windmill Network Layout Site Plan

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Coas

Main rotor and shaft and electrical generator are found at the top of the tower. Windmill must be oriented towards the wind in order to be an effective strategy. Turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor.

Body of Water

100 Year Flood Line

Tower will produce turbulence behind it, therefore the turbine should be positioned upwind of the supporting tower. Blades are strategically placed well in front of the tower and sometimes have a tilt built into them.

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Windmills Location should be placed behind the 100 year flood line in order to prevent flood damage on the turbine systems

Specific windmilll site design should place the windmills in close proximity to one another, but not overlapping to allow for the maximum amount of wind energy to be collected

The generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground which makes maintenance on the system easier than the horizontal axis system.

Windmill heights can be built to accomodate any height, but the higher the windmill, the greater amount of wind it will receive from less obstruction from objects on the ground

Disadvantages of the this strategy are the low rotational speed with coupled with higher torque and a higher cost of the drive train, and an inherently lower power coefficient.

250â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Smallest distance between windmills in order to have the most effective collection strategy / quantity

WATER SYSTEMS

Main rotor and shaft are arranged vertically. Unlike the horinzontal axis, the vertical axis design does not need to be oritented into the wind in order to be effective. This is advantageouse on sites where the wind direction is highly variable.

Windmill System Section

203


Wind Turbines

2 204

55° 40′ 34″ N, 12° 34′ 6″ E

Copenhagen, Denmark

53° 32′ 15″ N, 1° 41′ 18″ W

South Yorkshire, England

43° 36′ 0″ N, 65° 45′ 59″ W

Low. E. Pubnico, Nova Scotia

55° 31′ 0″ N, 12° 47′ 0″ E

52° 45′ 22″ N, 9° 23′ 35″ E

32° 56′ 59.6″ N, 101° 8′ 48.88″ W

Oresund, Sweden

Lower Saxony, Germany

Fluvanna, Texas


Coastal Wind Turbines

Flood Study Plain Industry Types Wind Turbine Case Analysis Energy Infrastructure

A

The Hywind is able to be produce more usable power because on the ocean here are no topographic obstacles than can block wind from reaching the turbine

Ener

Wate

Coas

B Strategically located on the ocean will ensure the maximum amount of wind within that specific region. Wind intensity is far greater out on the water as opposed to inland.

C

Two major critiques of wind turbines are they are visually distracting and noisy. Situating the turbine on the water will make sure that they are not only out of sight, but also far enough away from the inland that their audio level will not be notceable.

The Hywind uses a single floating cylindrical spar buoy moored by catenary cables

The Hywind uses a ballasted catenary llayout that adds 60 ton weights hanging from the midpoint of each anchor cable to provide additional tension

WATER SYSTEMS

Hywind Stavanger, Norway

205


vehicle/ pedestrian bridge

barrage

t

flood plain systems

high water heigh

36 206

sluice gates (open)

e

turbin


Tidal Barrages

Flood Flood Plain Plain Industry Industry Types Types

Rance, Brittany, France 24 Turbines 240 MegaWatt output built 1966

inactive dike power plant: turbines

gate

lock: boat passage

substation

The tidal barrage is the coastal version of

Wate

The tidal barrage is the coastal vera river sion of a dam. river dam.

AllAllcoastal areasexperience experience coastal areas two two high and high two low tides of in 24 a hours. periodIn ortwoand low tides in a period of der 24 hours. In order to harness thisof the to harness this power, the range power, the range of the tide must be tide must be at least fi fteen feet. There are at least fifteen feet. There are very few coasts the world that experience fewvery coasts in thein world that experithis magnitude of tidal change. There are ence this magnitude of tidal change. There are currently tidalplants power currently zero tidalzero power in the plants in States the United States but United but conditions forcondisuch plants tions such plants are available arefor available for harnessing in thefor Pacific harnessing in the Pacific Northwest Northwest and Atlantic Northeast regions of and Atlantic Northeast regions of the the country. country. A barrage is typically typicallyused used A barrageor or dam dam is to conto vert convert energy into electrictidal tidal energy into electricity by forcing ity the by forcing the water through turwater through turbines, activating a bines, activating a generator. When generator. When the tides produce an adethe tides produce an adequate difquate difference in the of the water ference in the level of level the water on on opposite sides of the dam, the gates opposite sides of the dam, the gates are areopened. opened. then through flows the TheThe waterwater then flows through the turbines. turbines.

Coas

flWATER ood plainSYSTEMS systems

Rance Tidal Power Station

Ener

administration buildings

37 207


New HavenTidal TidalBarrage Barrage New Haven Implementation Implementation

GOOD

BETTER BEST

There are several existing bridges There are several existing bridges that that could be adapted to accommocould be adapted to accommodate turbines date turbines and sluice gates, creatsluice gates, creating a tidal barrage. ingand a tidal barrage. Although Althoughthetheexisting existingbridges bridgeswould would be be altered alteredbeyond beyond recognition, is their recognition, it is itnot notstructure their structure that is important, that is important, its their location. its their location. There are at least There are at least three bridges located three bridges located close to the close to the main waterfront but farinto enough main waterfront but far enough thedelta river that deltathe that the distance theinto river distance they they span is is optimal span optimalfor foraatidal tidal barrage. barrage. The fact that there are already roads there is just

The fact that there are already roads another positive because barrages act as there is just another positive because excellent vehicle and pedestrian crossings. barrages act as excellent vehicle and pedestrian crossings.

flood plain systems

The best opportunity for a barrage, of the

38 208

The bestI have opportunity for aisbarrage, three shown here, the southern of the three I have shown here, is thespace most because it has ample industrial southern most because it has ample for administration and energy conversion industrial space for administration buildings. and energy conversion buildings.


Tidal Barrages

Flood Plain Industry Types

ProvidenceTidal TidalBarrage Barrage Providence Implementation Implementation GOOD

Wate

Coas

The western fork The western forkofofthe thesplit splitbecomes becomes very very narrow very quickly and has narrow very quickly and has much less much less water flowing in and out water fl owing in and out with the tide and with the tide and waves. The eastern waves. The eastern forkhydroenergy is better suited for fork is better suited for hydroenergy production. production. AsAswith barragescan can withNew New Haven, Haven, barrages double double as bridges so they are often as bridges so they are often placed where placed where there is an existing there is an existing bridge. In the case bridge. In the case of Providence, of Providence, are across so few the bridges there are so few there bridges across delta that rush hour traffi c condelta thatthe rush hour traffi c congestion ongestion I-195 may be alleviated by the inon I-195 may be alleviated by the troduction of another bridge. introduction of another bridge. WATER SYSTEMS flood plain systems

BETTER

There are two main areas in the There are two main areas in the ProviProvidence waterfront that are nardence waterfront that are narrow enough to row enough to accommodate a tidal accommodate tidaloccur barrage. These barrage. These aboth after the both occur after the river delta splits. river delta splits.

Ener

39 209


pendulor device

oscillating water column

20 to 300 KW

50 to 100 KW per turbine

100 to 500 KW

medium

high

low

water depth: 6 to 12 feet

structure depth: 20 feet

cliff height: 9 to 15 feet tidal change: up to 3 feet

generator

pump

flood plain systems

wave flap

40 210

tapered channel

turbine

storage pool water column

generator pump tapered channel


Wave Power

Flood Plain Industry Types

Mutriku Oscillating Wave Power Station Mutriku, Spain 16 Turbines 300 kilowatt peak output built 2010

power station water column turbines

access road admin buildings

There are offshore systems which require the depth of water to be at least 140 feet. New ideas for offshore devices are quickly being developed and one, the offshore wind turbine is explained earlier in the book on page ?? The three main types of onshore systems are:

Wate

Coas

The oscillating water column consists of a partially submerged structure that has an opening to the sea below the waterline. As waves enter the air column, they cause the water column to rise and fall. As the wave retreats, the air is drawn back through the turbine. The tapchan consists of a tapered channel that feeds into a reservoir constructed on cliffs above sea level. The narrowing of the channel causes the waves to increase in height. They spill over the walls of the channel into the reservoir and the stored water is then fed through a turbine. The pendulor wave-power device consists of a box, which is open to the sea at one end. A flap is hinged over the opening the waves cause the flap to swing. The motion powers a hydraulic pump and a generator.

WATER SYSTEMS flood plain systems

Wave power comes from the rise and fall of the waves or the fluctuation of pressure beneath the surface of the water. Analysts believe that ocean waves can produce up to 2 terawatts watts of electricity. Wave-power rich areas of the world include the western coasts of Scotland, northern Canada, southern Africa, Australia, and the northeastern and northwestern coasts of the United States.

Ener

41 211


Coastal Interface Pier Interface Systems 214 Slips and Inverse Piers 220 Artificial Islands 226 Ferry Systems 236

212


Coastal Interface ChapterSummary Overview Chapter Overview Coastal CoastalInterface InterfaceSystems Systems Chapter Overview Coastal Interface Systems Chapter Overview PIERS are a very effective piece of programming Coastal Interface Systems Chapter Overview PIERS are a very effective piece of programming used more extensively for recreational purposes than Coastal Interface Systems Coastal Interface Systems Chapter Overview Coastal Interface Systems used more for purposes than for PIERS infrastructural Therecreational following chapter are extensively aprotection. very effective piece of programming formore infrastructural protection. chapter willused describe the spcifics that go intoThe an following effective pier Coastal PIERS are a effective piece of programming extensively for recreational purposes than Interface Systems PIERS a very very effective piece of programming Overview PIERS will describe areare a the very spcifics effective that piece go into ofpiers programming anChapter effective design while providing built examples of that havepier more for purposes than for used infrastructural protection. The following chapter used more extensively extensively for recreational recreational purposes than

FERRY SYSTEMS are arguably the popular FERRY SYSTEMS are arguably the popular form of transportation within the floodplain. Ferries form of transportation within the floodplain. offer the most convenient form of transportation forFerries both FERRY SYSTEMS are arguably the popular offer thebut most convenient form of transportation for both pedestrians, also vehicles. The following chapter FERRY SYSTEMS are arguably the popular form of transportation within the floodplain. Ferries FERRY SYSTEMS arguably the popular FERRY pedestrians, SYSTEMS but also vehicles. areare arguably The following theferry popular chapter willoffer explain the extensive network of ferry and form of transportation within the floodplain. Ferries the most convenient form of transportation for both form of transportation within the floodplain. Ferries form willof explain transportation theand extensive within network the floodplain. ofeffectively ferryFerries and ferry terminal typologies how they can be offer the most convenient form of transportation for both pedestrians, but also vehicles. The following chapter FERRY SYSTEMS are arguably the popular offer the most convenient form of transportation for both offer terminal the most typologies and form how of they transportation can be effectively for both included within a convenient network ofvehicles. infrastructure solutions. but also The following chapter willpedestrians, explain the extensive network ferry and ferry form of transportation within theof floodplain. Ferries pedestrians, but also vehicles. The following chapter pedestrians, included within but also a network vehicles. of infrastructure The following solutions. chapter will explain the extensive network of ferry and ferry terminal typologies and howare they can effectively offer the most convenient form of transportation for both FERRY SYSTEMS arguably the popular will explain the extensive network ofbeferry and ferry will explain the extensive network of can ferry and ferry terminal typologies and they be effectively included within abut network ofhow infrastructure solutions. pedestrians, also vehicles. The following chapter form of transportation within the floodplain. Ferries terminal typologies and how they can be effectively terminal typologies and how they can be effectively included within a of infrastructure solutions. will explain the extensive network of ferry and ferry offer the most convenient form transportation for both included within a network network of of infrastructure solutions. included within a network of infrastructure solutions. terminal typologies and how The they following can be effectively pedestrians, but also vehicles. chapter within a network of infrastructure willincluded explain the extensive network of ferry andsolutions. ferry

Systems

WATER SYSTEMS

used more extensively forthat recreational purposes than design providing built of piers that have been intowhile coastal sites. for infrastructural protection. The following chapter willbuilt describe the goexamples into an effective pier Coastal Interface PIERS are spcifics a very effective piece of programming for infrastructural protection. The following chapter for been infrastructural built into protection. coastal sites. The chapter will describe the spcifics that gofollowing intoofan an effective pier design while built piers that have used moreproviding extensively forexamples recreational purposes than will describe the spcifics that go into effective pier will describe the spcifics that go into an effective pier design while providing built piece examples of piers piers that have have been built into acoastal sites. for infrastructural Theof following chapter PIERS are very protection. effective programming design while providing built examples of that design while providing built examples of piers that have been built into coastal sites. will describe the spcifics that go intopurposes an effective pier used more extensively forsites. recreational than been built into coastal been built into coastal sites. while providing builtThe examples of chapter piers that have for design infrastructural protection. following built the intospcifics coastalthat sites. willbeen describe go into an effective pier design while providing built examples of piers that have been built into coastal sites. BUILT ISLANDS are an excellent system that ISLANDS are an excellent system that can beBUILT effectively used to accomodate both recreational can beISLANDS effectively used accomodate recreational andBUILT infrastructural needs. Built can be built system toboth conform aretoan excellent that Built canThe be built to conform to any type of program orneeds. site condition. following BUILT ISLANDS are an excellent system that canand be infrastructural effectively used to accomodate both recreational BUILT ISLANDS are an excellent system BUILT toinfrastructural any type ISLANDS of program are or an site excellent condition. system The following thatthat chapter will describe the different construction and design can be effectively used to accomodate both recreational and needs. Built can be built to conform can be effectively used to accomodate both recreational can betype effectively used to accomodate both recreational chapter will describe the different construction and design techniques used extensively with built islands, while also and infrastructural needs. can be built to to any ofISLANDS program or site condition. The following BUILT areBuilt an excellent system that and infrastructural needs. Built can be built to conform conform and techniques used needs. extensively Built can with be built built islands, to today. conform while also showing examples built in architecture toinfrastructural any type ofofprogram program or site condition. The following chapter will describe theislands different construction and design can be effectively used to site accomodate both recreational to any type of or condition. The following to any showing typewill of examples program ofor built site islands condition. inislands, architecture The following today. chapter describe the different construction and design techniques used extensively with built also and infrastructural needs. Built can besystem built while tothat conform BUILT ISLANDS are an excellent chapter will describe the different construction and design chapter will describe the different construction and design techniques used extensively with built islands, while also showing examples ofextensively built islands in built architecture today. to any type used of program or sitewith condition. The following can be effectively used to accomodate both recreational techniques islands, while also techniques used extensively with built islands, while also showing examples of built islands in architecture today. chapter will describe the different construction and design and infrastructural needs. Built can be built to conform showing examples of built islands in architecture today. showing examples of built islands in architecture today. techniques used extensively with built The islands, while also to any type of program or site condition. following showing of built islands in architecture today. chapter will examples describe the different construction and design techniques used extensively with built islands, while also showing examples of most built islands informs architecture today. SLIPS are one of the effective of SLIPSthat arecan onebeofused the most forms of infrastructure in theeffective floodplain. infrastructure canmost be used in theforms floodplain. While beig anare effective of infrastructure, they SLIPS onethat of form the effective of While beigare anone effective form ofeffective infrastructure, they areinfrastructure also heavily used forofrecreational activities. Theof SLIPS the most forms that can be used in the floodplain. SLIPS are one of the most effective forms of The SLIPS are also are heavily one of used the most for recreational effective forms activities. of following chapter willthat describe how toineffectively infrastructure can be used the floodplain. While beig an effective form of infrastructure, they infrastructure that can be used in the infrastructure chapter that can will bedescribe used in how the floodplain. to floodplain. effectively implement system into an existing urban fabric.The While beig an effective form of infrastructure, they arefollowing also this heavily used recreational activities. SLIPS are one offorthe most forms of While beig an effective form ofeffective infrastructure, they While implement beig an this effective system form into ofan infrastructure, existing urban they fabric. are also heavily used for recreational activities. The following chapter will describe how to effectively infrastructure that canfor be recreational used in the floodplain. are also heavily used activities. The are also heavily used for recreational activities. The following chapter will describe how to effectively implement this system into an effective existing urban fabric. While beig an effective form of how infrastructure, they SLIPS are one of the most forms of following chapter will describe to effectively following chapter will describe how to effectively implement this system into an existing urban fabric. are also heavily used for recreational activities. The infrastructure can be in existing the floodplain. implement this system into urban fabric. implement thisthat system intoused an an existing urban fabric. following chapter willform describe how to effectively While beig an effective of infrastructure, they this system into an existing urban fabric. areimplement also heavily used for recreational activities. The following chapter will describe how to effectively implement this system into an existing urban fabric.

Coas

213


Pier System

Pier Systems A pier is a raised walkway over water, supported by widely spread piles or pillars. This light structure allows tides and currents to flow almost unhindered below the pier. The solid foundations of a quay and closely spaced piles of a wharf create the effect of a breakwater. Finger piers extending perpendicular to the shoreline essentially maximize the available length of shoreline for ships to berth, allowing ships to dock and unload perpendicular to the shore. Source: On the water | Palisade Bay, Guy Nordenson 214


Pier Design Analysis

Coas

Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Retaining Sea Wall Beneath the Pier Risk of flooding is much higher then in the other schemes because of the higher water level Boardwalks are typically the base from which piers are built off of. Piers are an extension of the program and activities found on the boardwalk

Space beneath the pier is often an extension of an adjacent beach, and should be considered to be designable and useable space Habitable Space Beneath the Pier

Typical Plan Pier System Boardwalk/Pier street connection needs to be designed to incorporate pedestrian circulation, and vehicular traffic if the site permits it Piers can be designed into any shape or form depending upon design criteria Look-out points should be incorporated into the design in order to utilize the impressive panoramic views Pier width is determined by program: Circulation - 10â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Recreation - 30â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

ARCADE

FAST FOOD RESTAURANT

CARNIVAL GAME

WATER SYSTEMS

The majority of program found on a pier is almost entirely recreational. From a commercial point of view, it would not makes sense to have a business located on a pier because of the location and the high risk of storm and flood damage.

AMUSEMENT RIDE

Infill / Sand Dune Pier 215


2 216

40° 42′ 11″ N, 74° 0′ 22″ W

New York, New York

40° 43′ 14″ N, 74° 0′ 51″ W

New York, New York

40° 43′ 59″ N, 74° 0′ 45″ W

New York, New York

40° 45′ 51″ N, 74° 0′ 4″ W

New York, New York

40° 46′ 3″ N, 73° 59′ 56″ W

New York, New York

40° 51′ 21″ N, 73° 55′ 18″ W

New York, New York


Pier Case Study Analysis

Coas

Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Connection to major road which provides access for walkers and provides parking for vehicular traffic

Program sections increasingly get larger until the the user reaches the final platform with the major program

Pier width is based off of programatic use

Connecting sections act as look-out points

Elevated pier platform to provide an unobstructed circulation path beneath the pier for beach users

Wood pillar construction with steel wire cross connections for additional strength and stability

Majority of program found on the pier is recreational

Large portion of the program is centrally focused on the pier in order to allow for the users to take advantage of the panoramic views. Entire outer edge of the pier can be used as a look out point.

WATER SYSTEMS

Brighton Pier Brighton, England

217


W HAVEN FLOOD PLAIN MAP

Pier Implementation Location

218


Pier Implementation Study Pier Implementation Study Coastal Interface Systems

Coas

Coastal Interface Systems

Wave Intensity

Hydraulic Performance

Visual Impact

Recreation Area Durability

Circulation Paths

Accessibility

Relative Performance Analysis Wood Construction Metal Construction

PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION SITE

Concrete Construction

Site Construction Strategy

The pier system was implemented at the chosen location in order to maximize both the infrstructural capabilities of pier in combination with the recreational possibilities. The pier was strategically placed near a local park and multiple sets of pedestrian and vehicular infrastructure. The location ensures a high volume of traffic in and around the site. The pier is also located behind a connecting bridge which will act as a storm barrier that will break up any storm surges. The bridge will make sure that the lifespan of the pier will be lengtheir than a typical pier. As a result, the pier will need less maintenance and repairs.

WATER SYSTEMS

Ease of Maintenence

Permeability

Retaining Sea Wall Beneath the Pier

219


Slip System

Slip Systems A slip, sometimes called a slipway is the conceptual invese of a pier. It is an extraction into the land, a ramped sectional channel, ratrher than an extension outward from it. Slips are used to move ships or boats from the land to the water. Historically slips would be used as the location for building and repairing boats as well as launching newly constructed ships. Similar to finger pier systems slips break up the wavefront. Source: On the water | Palisade Bay, Guy Nordenson 220


Slip System Design Analysis Anlaysis Slip Design

Coas

Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Existing Fill Construction Slip System

Transverse Section Slip System

Angle of slip is dependant upon how deep the slip will travel into the land The deeper the slip travels into the land, the more sustainable benefits it will provide

The existing fill construction method should be used exclusively with the slip system. The existing fill construction method takes the removed earth from the slip excavation and re-uses the earth to create the infrastructural islands found off the coast. The construction method saves materials and money by not importing infill materials. Program should be chosen keeping in mind the risk of flood and storm damage Acceptable slip program includes warehouses, storage facilities, and residences if they are above the 100 year flood level

Slip width is an important factor during design. Most slips should be able to accomodate both incoming and outgoing boat traffic

Slips need to be attached to access roads if they are being used for recreational purposes, however if it is strictly for infrastucture, road access is not required

WATER SYSTEMS

Typical Plan Slip System

Average width of a recreational boat is 10â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Slips serve a dual purpose by channeling and cleaning the storm water runoff besfore its get back to the main water source, but also creating new areas for waterborne activities 221


42′ 2″ N, 74° 0′ 44″ W

40° 42′ 2″ N, 74° 0′ 44″ W

49′ 18″ N, 73° 55′ 53″ W 40° 49′ 18″ N, 73° 55′ 53″ W

52° 22′ 60″ N, 4° 55′ 13″ E

22′ 60″ N, 4° 55′ 13″ E 222

New York, New York

40° 42′ 17″ N, 74° 1′ 4″ W

New York, New York

New York, New York

40° 42′ 17″ N, 74° 1′ 4″ W

52° 22′ 18″ N, 4° 56′ 45″ E

New York, New York

52° 22′ 18″ N, 4° 56′ 45″ E

Amsterdam, Holland

52° 24′ 6″ N, 4° 49′ 53″ E

Amsterdam, Holland

52° 24′ 6″ N, 4° 49′ 53″ E

New York, New York

New York, New York

Amsterdam, Holland Amsterdam, Holland

Amsterdam, Holland

Amsterdam, Holland


System Case Study Slip Case Slip Study Analysis

Coas

Coastal Interface Systems Coastal Interface Systems

Program on slip/piers is mostly devoted to shipping and cargo needs due to the inaccessibility to easily access the area

Slip width and depth is determined by programatic use and criteria

Deeper slips provide more efficient stormwater runoff and drainage

Westpoort Slips Amsterdam, Holland

WATER SYSTEMS

Majority of slips provide recreational boat access at the base of the slip

223


HAVEN FLOOD PLAIN MAP

Slip Implementation Location

224


SlipImplementation System Case Study Slip Study

Visual Impact

Coas

Coastal CoastalInterface InterfaceSystems Systems

Wave Intensity

Hydraulic Performance

Wave Intensity

Slip Implementation Study Coastal Interface Systems

Hydraulic Performance

Visual Impact

ROAD ACCESS Durability

STORAGE

Accessibility ROAD ACCESS Relative Performance Analysis Accessibility

Durability

Wood Construction

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Ease of Maintenence

PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION SITE

Metal Construction

Relative Performance Analysis Concrete Construction Wood Construction

Permeability

STORAGE

PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION SITE

Metal Construction Concrete Construction

Slip Construction and Surrounding Context Program

Storage Facilitiy

Storage Facilitiy

The slip implementation site was strategically chosen keeping in The context program conssits mostly mindsurrounding the surrounding program context, as of well as thewarelocation of houses, and shipping sotrage facilities, which are ideal for slip the nearest vehicular circulation routes. development. These programs are ideal because they can with stand flood waters, and if program flooding conssits does cause damage, they are The surrounding context of mostly wareeasily fixed or replaced. houses, and shipping sotrage facilities, which are ideal for slip development. These programs are ideal because they can with Vehicular circulation routes are alsodoes important because slips stand flood waters, and if flooding cause damage, they are are also used for recreational purposes. Road access is necessary for easily fixed or replaced. pedestrians to enter the harbor with their boats and watercrafts. Vehicular circulation routes are also important because slips are also used for recreational purposes. Road access is necessary for pedestrians to enter the harbor with their boats and watercrafts.

WATER SYSTEMS

Slip Construction and Surrounding Context Program

The slip implementation site was strategically chosen keeping in mind the surrounding program context, as well as the location of the nearest vehicular circulation routes.

225


Built Island System

Artificial Islands Artificial Islands are formed by humans rather than through natural means. They have a long history, historically wooden or stone structures found in still waters. Islands can serve as porous land infill within the watery void of the harbor. Such constructed land in the harbor would help to diminish the force and impcat of storm surge and protect the established neighborhoods and business districts further inland. Source: On the water | Palisade Bay, Guy Nordenson 226

D a g flo


IslandsAnalysis Design Built Artificial Island Design

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Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Construction Methods Island System

Pillar construction is a very effective construction medthod for deep water island development. Pillar construction allows for island to bebuilt in closer proximately to one another. Pillar construction also allowsfor island to be built in deeper water as opposed to the infill method which needs to be built in shallower water.

Infill construction has a stronger foundation than the pillar method. A negative aspect of the infill methodis that water travel between the islands is limited due to the angle slope required to build theislands. That means the islands must be placed further away from each other, which then forces there to be a longer circulation routes, and more materials incorporated.

Individual island width is determinedby program usage and requirements

Program Organization Island System

Infrastructure - >5’ Green Space - >15’ Recreation - >25’ Inhabitable - >40’

Distance between water level and island deck should be greater than the 100 year flood line

Program needs to be consideredcarefully on the ground floor due to a much higher flood risk At-Risk Space

Typical Plan Island System

WATER SYSTEMS

Habitable Space

227


Fishery System

Fishery Buffer Zone Fisheries are specific types of artificial islands used as buffer zone between other larger program. An effective means of flexible type that further can act as a main-land buffer zone. These can be constructucted form artificial reef structures or from more sophisticated trabiated construction techniques as shown here. 228


FisheryAnalysis Design Fishery Design

Coas

Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Platform width is dependant upon usage: - Circulation width: 6’ - Fishery width: 10’

Island configuration can be independent of fishery design and fish breed

Pillar construction is recommended becaue it allows for the greatest variety in species options, as well as providing easier access to the holding tanks Island configuration can be independent of fishery design and fish breed

Wood is the best material choice due to its ability to handle weather and water abuse, but also for the easy maintencance of replacing the damaged boards

Fishery Design Analysis Coastal Interface Systems

Platform width is dependant upon usage: - Circulation width: 6’ - Fishery width: 10’

Typical Plan Fishery System

Wood is the best material choice due to its ability to handle weather and water abuse, but also for the easy maintencance of replacing the damaged boards

Pillar construction is recommended becaue it allows for the greatest variety in species options, as well as providing easier access to the holding tanks

Fishery depth depends upon the site conditions and the species of fish being raised

Fishery depth depends upon the site conditions and the species of fish being raised

WATER SYSTEMS

Typical Plan Fishery System

Transverse Section Fishery System 229

Transverse Section


Built Island System

2 230

40° 45′ 53″ N, 73° 56′ 51″ W

New York, New York

40° 48′ 12″ N, 73° 53′ 55″ W

New York, New York

52° 22′ 40″ N, 4° 55′ 58″ E

Amsterdam, Holland

52° 21′ 15″ N, 5° 0′ 4″ E

Amsterdam, Holland

52° 22′ 26″ N, 4° 57′ 60″ E

Amsterdam, Holland

48° 12′ 46″ N, 16° 25′ 58″ E

Vienna, Austria


Two island access points to allow fora continuous circulation path Two island access points to allow fora continuous circulation path

Built Island Case Study Analysis Artificial Islands CaseSystems Study Coastal Interface Coastal Interface Systems Built IslandCirculation Caseroutes Study Analysis on the outside

Coas

Interface Systems rim of Coastal the island, while the housing developments are located on the interior of the island Circulation routes on the outside rim of the island, while the housing developments are located on the interior of the island

Body of water acts as a physical buffer seperating the major ciculation routes from the private island Body of water acts as a physical buffer seperating the major ciculation routes the private island and commerce Program is divided byfrom keeping the industries on the mainland, and placing the housing on the island Program is divided by keeping the industries and commerce on the mainland, and placing the housing on the island Zeeburg, Island Amsterdam, Holland

WATER SYSTEMS

Zeeburg, Island Amsterdam, Holland

Island is narrow enough that allows for all housing units to be next to the water. Allowing for views and boat travel. Island is narrow enough that allows for all housing units to be next to the water. Allowing for views and boat travel.

Canals cut through the island allowing for boat circulation paths. Canals cut through the island allowing for boat circulation paths.

High income housing is found on the island due to the relative size of the island and quality of the real estate. High income housing is found on the island due to the relative size of the island and quality of the real estate.

Density on the island is high due to the relatively limited amount of land Density on the island is high due to the relatively limited amount of land

231


HAVEN FLOOD PLAIN MAP

Artificial Island Implementation Location

232


Built IslandIslands Implementation Study Artificial Implementation Coastal Interface Systems Coastal Interface Systems Built Island Implementation Study

Wave Intensity

Coas

Coastal Interface Systems

Wave Intensity Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

Visual Impact

Hydraulic Performance

ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Durability

Accessibility

Durability

Accessibility Relative Performance Analysis Wood Construction

Relative Performance Analysis

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

Metal Construction Wood Construction

PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION SITE

Concrete Construction Metal Construction Concrete Construction

The artificial island implimentation location was strategically chosen for infrastructural purposes, while also leaving the flexibility to have the island eventually beimplimentation inhabitable. location was strategically chosen for The artificial island infrastructural purposes, while also leaving the flexibility to have the The islands will bebe placed towards the opening to the harbor, in between island eventually inhabitable. the bridge and the ocean. The island will act as a first line of defense in the event storm occurs in the The willinensure The islandsa will besurge placed towards theharbor. opening to location the harbor, between thatbridge the island of act theas impact, while bridge the andwill the receive ocean. the Themajority island will a first line ofthe defense in will event receivea little By doing so, harbor. the roadThe infrastructure stay the stormimpact. surge occurs in the location willwill ensure intact, circulation routes wil beofopen. that theensuring island will receive the majority the impact, while the bridge will receive little impact. By doing so, the road infrastructure will stay intact, ensuring circulation routes wil be open.

Site Construction Method Site Construction Method

WATER SYSTEMS

Permeability

Ease of Maintenence

PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION SITE

Pillar Construction Pillar Construction

233


Waterfront Parks

Waterfront Parks Waterfront parks can provide a layer of shore-line armoring against storm and in the event they are coupled with a dike or levee or wetland strategy are in fact flood plain protection. Natural saltwater wetlands were once extensive along the waterfronts of the northeast. AS well as supporting the diverse habitat of the stuarine ecosystem these wetlands also acted as a biofilters removing sediments from the water. 234


Waterfront Parks Case Study Waterfront Parks Case Study Analysis

Coas

Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Residential blocks have views of both the park and the river

Protected channel provides calm waters for water activities

Trees act as a noise blocker but also a view blocker for pedestrians

Artificial island used as a surge protector but also a secondary recreational space

Open park space venue that can host concerts and other major social gatherings

Trees are used as both noise and view blockers for pedestrians. The trees block the views back towards the major roadways, and also act as a noise blockers for the vehicular noise coming from the major roadways.

Biking and running paths are incorporated into the park design in order to provide an alternative recreational activity. Paths are often located closer to the body of water in order to seperate the user from the noise pollution of the roads and city.

Open park space is incorporated in order to provide citizens of the city an outdoor venue for concerts and social gatherings. Open space is surrounded by vegetations in order to create physical barriers while also performing acoustic functions.

Artificial island is used as a surge protection, but is mainly used as another recreation area for pedestrians. Create an excellent atmosphere by further seperating the pedestrian away from the noise pollution of the city and surrounding them only with pristine views and water.

WATER SYSTEMS

Charles River Esplanade Waterfront Parks

3 235


Small Ferry Terminal

Small Ferry Terminal Small Ferry terminals are used as a part of day to day commerce and transport in bustling cities around the world that are immersed within deltaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. As an production of a pier system they have a either to allow for pedestrian loading or in the event of a larger regional context small vehicular loading. 236


SmallFerry FerryTerminal Terminal Design Deisgn Analysis Small

Coas

Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

Typical Plan Small Ferry System 3 Ferry Terminal Circulation Route 1 Traveler begins by parking the car in the designated parking area 2 In a short distance, the traveler moves from their car to the ticket booth 3 Upon purchasing the ticket, the traveler then moves up the pier to the ferry entry

The small ferry terminal is layed out efficiently in order to have the shortest circulation routes form the travelers car to the ferry. The distance between the parking lot, the ticket booth, and the ferry access point are often very short distances. The purpose of the ferry terminal is to get get the traveler onto the ferry in the shortest amount of time. Ferry terminals that need to accomodate multiple ferry ships can either have an extended pier so the ferrys can dock on one side, or a shorter, but wider ferry that accomodates ferrys on both sides of the pier. Terminals need to incorporate the pilar method of construction because the terminals are going to be built in deeper waters to accomodate the ferrys.

2

Typical Section Small Ferry System

WATER SYSTEMS

1

237 3


Vehicular Ferry Terminal

Vehicular Ferry Terminal 238


Coas

Vehicular Ferry Terminal Vehicular Ferry Terminal Design Analysis Coastal Interface Interface Systems Systems Coastal

1 1

2

Ferry Terminal Pedestrian Circulation Route

The terminals need to accomodate the vehicles as much as the pedestrians. The terminal needs to be located near an existing road system for an efficient car access point.

1 Traveler begins by parking the car in the designated parking area

1 Vehicles enter the site from a direct connection to the existing roads

2 In a short distance, the traveler moves from their car to the ticket booth

2 Vehicles then wait on the dock for the ferry to dock, and then proceed to drive on 3

3 Upon purchasing the ticket, the traveler then moves up the pier to the ferry entry

2

Typical Plan Drive- On Ferry System

Typical Section Drive-On Ferry System

WATER SYSTEMS

Drive-on ferry terminals are designed in order to effiectively accomodate both pedestrians and vehicles.

Ferry Terminal Vehicle Circulation Route

239 3


240


Ferry Terminal Case Study

Coas

WATER SYSTEMS

Coastal Interface Systems

241


242


Ferry Types

Coas

WATER SYSTEMS

Coastal Interface Systems

243


244


Urban/ Regional Ferry Systems

Coas

WATER SYSTEMS

Coastal Interface Systems

245


Flood_Plain_Urbanism  

Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Ave. Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Adjunct Professor Jonathan A. Sc...

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