Page 1

TALL BUILDINGS IN

HISTORIC CENTERS


TALL BUILDINGS IN HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS FOR HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS WITH HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AROUND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AT HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BEFORE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AFTER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS ABOVE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BEYOND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OVER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS INTO HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UNDER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BELOW HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AMONG HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BEHIND HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BESIDES HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BETWEEN HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BUT HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS AMID HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS DESPITE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS FOLLOWING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS FROM HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS INSIDE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OUTSIDE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS LIKE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OFF HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS ONTO HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS OPPOSITE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS PAST HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS NEAR HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS SINCE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS REGARDING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS PLUS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS BY HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS EXCLUDING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS CONSIDERING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS TOWARDS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS DURING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS PER HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS VERSUS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS ACROSS HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UNLIKE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS REGARDING HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS SINCE HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UNTIL HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS UPON HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS THROUGH HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS VIA HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS WITHIN HISTORIC CENTERS TALL BUILDINGS WITHOUT HISTORIC CENTERS


TALL BUILDINGS IN

HISTORIC CENTERS


This publication has been prepared as part of the thirteen week graduate thesis research program in the Northeastern University School of Architecture in the Fall 2012 as part of the ARCH7130 course. All research and content in this publication was produced by the Tall Buildings in Historic Centers studio research team.

Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Copyright © 2012 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved

Thank You to Our Critics and Contributors: Garrett Brignoli Abraham Aluicio Igor Ekštajn George Thrush Greg Russell Kevin Berry Bruner/Cott & Associates Bryan Norwood Deborah Buelow John Martin


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers Research Team

Paul DiMiceli Christine Greene Dan Joyce Reem Kanoo Hao Li Jeanette Lin Tim Loranger Melissa Murphy Evan Parkinson

Led by

David Turturo


We define the following to be used throughout this book. Tall Building noun any realized building of at least 240 feet in height, determined as the necessary minimum for the accurate comparison of global urban centers Historic Center noun an historic urban moment that builds upon itself over time


PREFACE Welcome to Tall Buildings in Historic Centers. This book is the visual impulse of our shared search into the subject. Though slim in volume, the content is rich with information specific to the disparate stratospheres of landmarks-organizations and tall buildings - because often the two collide. What interests us about this study is not just the finite practice of the collision – with its metrics, legislations, and countless built examples – but also the broader disciplinary problem (or promise) that the collision poses for architecture. The possibility that the surging capital motives of private real-estate development and the weight of social value can exist side-by-side – or bound – reassures the role of the architect in the future shaping of cities. More profoundly, this alludes to the responsibility an architect can hold in shaping history and capitalism. For example, the extent to which our history remains in the public domain is not set in stone. Neither are the limitations that civic groups determine for our signature skylines. But we strive to determine what regulatory forces, if any, exist between historic centers and tall buildings. There are two traits that distinguish this volume amongst analyses in architecture today. The book pursues “urbanity” as opposed to context and “axonometry” rather than experience. This research strives to illustrate the conditions of collectivity: the intersections of memory, space, regulation, and ambition on the one hand; and articulates these in three measurable dimensions. It is in this vain that we study constraints and precedents. For example, civic groups like the Boston Redevelopment Authority play an important role in shaping Boston’s skyline.


Historic Organizations Zoning Code Economic

Paris New York Milan London Dubai Chicago Hong Kong Bejing Boston

CONSTRAINTS 25

CITY CENTERS 01

8 Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Precedents

Scraping Infrastructure 33 Arch Street Old State House One Penn Plaza PanAm Building Prudential Tower The Standard Hotel

Scraping Neighbor 500 Park Ave Atlantic Wharf Bank of America Tower Citicorp Center Customs House Tower Exchange Place Hearst Tower Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Penn Mutual Tower

Scraping Neighborhoodt John Hancock Tower One Boston Place Seagram Building Seven World Trade Center

PROJECTIONS 173

TALL BUILDINGS 133


CITY CENTERS A variety of relationships exist between tall buildings and history in urban centers across the globe. In this section we studied the broad spatial relationships between tall buildings and historic districts in nine prominent cities. An analysis of the urban fabric within these cities reveals dimensional patterns that shape the footprint and form of tall buildings.


2

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Paris

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

New York City

0 mi

City Centers


4

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Milan

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

London

0 mi

City Centers


6

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Dubai

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

0 mi

Dubai (continued)

City Centers


8

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Chicago

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

Hong Kong

0 mi

City Centers


10

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

5

5

1

1

0 mi

Beijing

0 mi


5

5

1

1

0 mi

Boston

0 mi

City Centers


12

One of the more significant factors that inform the design of tall buildings between different cities is the scale and patterning of the urban fabric they reside in. Many cities exhibit multiple scales and patterns of urban fabric as a result of the ways in which the programming of different areas of the city evolved overtime. Shown here are neighborhoods of urban fabric surrounding tall buildings, as well as examples of urban fabric in more historic districts for each city below. (from top, left to right): China World Trade Center, Beijing; Hancock Tower, Boston; Willis Tower, Chicago; Burj Khalifa, Dubai; Central Plaza, Hong Kong

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


City Centers


14

(from top, left to right): One Canada Square, London; Pirelli Tower, Milan; Empire State Building, New York; One Place des Saisons, Paris

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


City Centers


16

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers 150 ft

150 ft

1625

ft

875 ft

500

315 ft

ft

725 ft

The dimensions of city blocks and parcels in large part determine both the footprint and the height of the tall buildings located there. Here, a prototypical tower plan is compared to the dimensioned blocks in which prominent towers are located in these cities.

1125 ft

375 ft

250 ft

t

0f

14

300 ft

65

0

56 0

1000 ft

ft

ft

150 ft

440 ft 150 ft

250 ft 180 ft


11

25

25

0f

ft

87

5f

625 ft

750 ft

230 ft

375 ft

0

25 ft

430 ft

180 ft

t

875 ft

625 ft

510 ft

t

190 ft

37

12

5

5f

t

ft

125 ft 270 ft

180 ft

250 ft

City Centers


18

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

560’

45’ 140’

30’ 52’ 25’

!

!

20’

There are several measurements pertaining to historic and tall buildings that are dictated by the urban fabrics they reside in. Here, prototypical dimensions relating to a Boston rowhouse and a residential tower are compared. !

100’

!

!

30’


140’ avg 153’

60’

20’

90’

50’

City Centers


20

The urban fabric of city districts typically determines the form of its buildings at the street scale. Because of their significant height, tall buildings have the ability to both conform to the street grid at the ground level as well as make a more expressionistic statement above. An analysis of Noli maps taken at various heights for these prominent tall buildings exposes the freedoms possible with tall building form above street level. (from left to right): China World Trade Center, Beijing; Hancock Tower, Boston; Willis Tower, Chicago; Burj Khalifa, Dubai; Central Plaza, Hong Kong

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


City Centers


22

(from left to right): One Canada Square, London; Pirelli Tower, Milan; Empire State Building, New York; One Place des Saisons, Paris

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


City Centers


3’

1’

10’

2’

34’ <30’ or <1/4 MAX. DIAGONAL DIM.

10 0’

0’

0

1

D C B

>2.5W 6’

250’ MAX. 44” MIN. 50’ MAX.

≥44”

FAR =

A 15’

20’

L1

20’

15’

H 15 ft min

15’

10’

5’

s ie

5

or st

s ie

4

1

4

1

7

7

2

B

0

B

00

15 ft min

00

25’

0

295’ 465’ (max H)

or st

L 1

155’

SB 3

295’

S

155’ 400’ (max H)

5

S

70’ (street wall)

125’ (street wall)


CONSTRAINTS There are numerous constraints that influence the design of tall buildings and their relationship with historical contexts. These constraints are often the creations of specified groups aiming to govern the physical form of our cities. Although many constraints are established to restrain the growth of tall buildings, minimizing their impact on the existing city, some are less restrictive and contain opportunity for exploitation. MBTA railway people tree canopy MBTA railway stop flight lines

1000’

1,000’ 700’

’ 12

Maximum height

Maximum height

and setbacks as

and setbacks as

determined in

determined in

design review

design review

50’

35’

200’

$100 / SF = $1,000 ft yr

total lot area (TLA)

100’ 50’ 0’

15’ 15’

40’

35’ 350’ (max H) 235’

35’

400’ (max H)

115’

90’ (street wall)

4

39

2

ie or

st

s

ie or st

23

1

or st

ie

s

10

o st

rie

s

5

0’ 10

0’

42

48 s ie 400’ (max H) or 300’ st

125’ (street wall)

42

ie or

st

s

s

s

00

1

7

00

00

ie or st

50

40

o st

s rie

7

13

o st

s rie

7

or st

s ie 5

0’

o st

s rie

5

40

13

s

25

8

1

st

125’ (street wall)

s

4

ie or st

st

s

21

ie or

2

3

10

ie or

35’

0

4

33

48

total building area (TBA)

$ / SF = lease value yr

100’

100’

40’

36

400’

o st

r ie

s

ie or st

s

13

ie or st

s


26

In history-laden Boston there are many sites protected by the Boston Landmarks Commission (BLC) and the National Trust of Historic Places (NTHP). The BLC controls the process in which a Boston building can become a landmark. Buildings are nominated for landmark designation by individuals or groups that feel they merit such recognition. Elements including fenestration, building texture, and street presence are primarily responsible for determining those buildings considered for landmark designation. Despite the existence of several organizations to protect and preserve Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic buildings, there are no regulations set in place that prevent the realization of tall buildings in close proximity to landmarks.

Historic Commissions

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

facade reacts to landmark modern column grid modern texture/facade sensitivity to landmark historic facade historical elements preserved historical street presence remains


PROCESS TO BECOME A BOSTON LANDMARK

PUBLIC

TESTIMONIAL

PRIVATE

HEARING

WRITTEN PETITION SUBMITTED

CITY HALL HEARING

Testimonial submitted to Boston Landmarks Commission

Initial meeting open to the public Report ямБled after hearing

VOTE VOTE BY THE COMMISSION Proposal must be approved by 2/3 of the Commission

MOTION PASSED STRUCTURE NOW A LANDMARK Signed into law by the mayor of Boston

PROCESS TO BECOME A NATIONAL LANDMARK

PUBLIC

REGISTRATION BUILDING IS EVALUATED Building must be 50 years old Structure is then placed on the Federal Register

PRIVATE

REPORT

REPORT PREPARED BY CONGRESS Advisory board makes comments on report in preparation for the testimony

VOTE ADVISORY BOARD VOTES Board has 30 days to approve or deny landmark request

MOTION PASSED LANDMARK IS ESTABLISHED Property is placed on the National Register 6-8 weeks after Advisory Board Vote

Constraints


28

Landmarks in Boston are mainly dictated by the regulations of the BRA and the Landmarks Commission. (from left): Individual buildings can be designated as landmarks also districts can be declared landmarks. Zones of preservation are also another common way to control development around a protected site. Building heights adjacent to, or on top of landmarks are controlled by groups such as the BRA and the BCDC.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


PROCESS TO CHANGE A BOSTON LANDMARK

PUBLIC

PRIVATE

APPLICATION

REVIEW

APPLY BUILDING PERMIT

LANDMARKS HEARING

Application for building permit submitted to Landmarks Commission

Building characteristics such as texture, facade work, and architectural elements are considered

VOTE VOTE BY THE COMMISSION Proposal must be approved by 2/3 of the Commission

MOTION PASSED WORK MAY BEGIN Building permit granted and work may begin


30

Article 28 of the Boston Zoning Code defines the Boston Civic Design Commission as a forum for the public and professional design communities to participate in shaping the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s physical form. BCDC approval is required for tall building proposals over 100,000 square feet. The BCDC reviews tall building proposals to ensure that new projects have a positive effect on the city. Because every project is subject to its unique context, however, there are no prescribed tall building design requirements that will grant BCDC approval.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

context in scale align to street wall humanely-scaled street wall height restriction (refer to zoning)

setback (refer to zoning) easily maintained public space through-block pedestrian way small-scale block

Boston Civic Design Commission


BRA REVIEW

MASSING

HEIGHT

SITE DESIGN

BUILDINGS

PUBLIC SPACE

STREETS AND WALKWAYS

CITY CHARACTER

context in scale organization of mass ground level treatment type of materials

physical definition visability accessibility sunlight special features

well-defined streets shaped by continuous, humanely scaled street walls small-scaled blocks active ground floor uses

unique shoreline topgraphic features

“...contemporary architectural expression would make a more progressive statement regarding Boston’s entry into the twentyfirst century, while still reinforcing the city’s more traditional attributes.”

“...how a project allows important open spaces to be connected...”

“...continues to encourage buildings that define the streetwall and offer through-block pedestrian passageways.“

”...how a project recognizes traits distinctive to the city, such as an accomodation for the view of a distant landmark or the use the the city’s historic street pattern and scale.”

“...transitions to or extentions from an existing open space.” “...how the physical design of open spaces - particularly the edge condition and location affect the usability of a proposed space.”

...the negative impacts that removing inter-building pedetrian traffic has on the street life.”

BCDC CONCLUSION: APPROVAL, REJECTION, OR MODIFICATION REQUIRED

BCDC REVIEW (60-90 DAY PERIOD)

USE

Constraints


32

(from top left): The BCDC seeks to maintain a lively street presence, maintain the urban wall of the city, as well as keeping the streetscapeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s character. The Commission also seeks to keep the historic street presence of the neighborhood, while providing views through the buildings to pedestrians. By doing so, the BCDC perpetuates active storefronts, the visibility of the project, and ensures that history is mirrored within said projects.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


34

(clockwise from top left): Tall buildings employ several gestures to create public space at the ground level, including setbacks, canopies, winter gardens, deviations from the urban fabric, stilts and atriums.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


36

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

1,000 ft


1775

2012

1826

Constraints


38

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


Flour and Grain Exchange Building Stock Exchange Building

Ames Building

Old South Church

Trinity Church

Church of the Covenant

Bunker Hill Monument

Park Street Church

Old North Church

Faneuil Hall

Old South Meeting House

Old State House

1900

1800

1700

40 Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

1000’

700’

400’

200’

100’ 50’ 0’


Constraints

One Hundred Eleven Huntington

International Place

Exchange Place

John Hancock Tower Federal Reserve Bank Building

One Boston Place

Prudential Tower

Christian Science Center Tower

John Hancock Berkeley Building New England Telephone Building

Citco Sign New England Mutual Life Insurance Building

United Shoe Machinery Company Building

Custom House Tower

2000

1900


46

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Growing Medium Filter Membrane Drainage WaterprooďŹ ng Support Panel Different Environmental Aspects can be taken advantage of to create a more environmentally conscious building. Some of these aspects are: Rain, sun and Wind. Rain can be collected through green roofs, (right) sun and wind energy can be collected through solar panels and wind turbines.

Thermal Insulation Vapor Control Structure


Constraints


48

Different Shading strategies can be used to avoid solar gain. Horizontal strategies are best for the southern exposure, and vertical strategies can be used for east and west.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


50

Different environmental aspects can be taken advantage of to create a more environmentally conscious building. Some of these aspects are: rain, sun and wind. Rain can be collected through green roofs. Sun and wind energy can be collected through solar panels and wind turbines. Different Shading strategies can be used to avoid solar gain. Horizontal strategies are best for the southern exposure, and vertical strategies can be used for east and west.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

wind turbine green roof grey water collection tank spandrel panel (can insert PV panels)


SUN

RAIN

WIND

Solar PV panels and Passive shading techiniques

Grey water collection and Green Roofs

Horizontal vs vertical wind turbines

Growing Medium Filter Membrane Drainage WaterprooďŹ ng Support Panel

Thermal Insulation Vapor Control Structure Constraints


52

Wind turbines, courtyards, dense neighborhoods, and rammed earth are all strategies implemented throughout history as ways to make the living environment more manageable without the use of technology.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


54

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

General District Zoning Laws Exceptions IMS

121A

URD

PDA / EDA

Pre-review Planning Meeting Applicant Initiating the Reivew Putblic Notice (within 45 days) BRA Review and Approval (within 60 days) Certificate of Consistency Zoning Commision Approval Issurance of Permit The Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) dictates zoning restrictions in Boston. Zoning tells developers where they can build, how tall they can build, and how some qualities of shared spaces can be preserved. While general district codes apply to most of the city, there are exceptions in some districts that grant developers the opportunity to build taller. This section will focus on the potentials of these Planned Development Areas (PDAs) and latent opportunities to reinvent Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic skyline. (clockwise starting top left): Institutional Master Plan Urban Renewal Development 121A Designation Planned Development Area

Zoning


PRIVATE

PUBLIC

INSTITUTION

ECONOMIC

GOVERNMENT

COMMUNITY

IMS

121A

URD

PDA

INSTITUTIONAL MASTER PLAN

121A DESIGNATION

URBAN RENEWAL DESIGNATION

PLANNED DEVELOPMENT AREA

Zoning exceptions for institutions over 100,000 sf

Gives BRA power to create zoning for specific sites

Clear parcels for development

Public Process

Needs to relate to institution’s overall plan

Allows re-negotiation of pre-established property tax (15 years max.)

Parcels owned by BRA

Have to prove how it fits into context of environment

Requires approval by zoning commission

$$

Constraints


56

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

L1

H

L

(opposite): A: Street Wall B: Height 1 C: Height 2 D: Maximum Height SB: Setbacks (top): L: Length of wall parallel (or within 45o of parallel) to lot line, measured parallel to lot line. L1: Length of wall parallel (or within 45o of parallel) to lot line, measured parallel to lot line at greatest length above the height below which no setback is required. H: Height of building above the height below which no setback is required.

25â&#x20AC;&#x2122;


D C B A

15 ft min

less than 90 ft

Boylston St

1

2

3

SB

SB

15 ft min

less than 65 ft

SB

Boylston St

Constraints


58

FAR =

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

total building area (TBA) total lot area (TLA)

FAR is the measurement that determines the volumetric coverage of the built area within its plot. The higher the allowable FAR of a district, the more dense it becomes with built fabric. (left): The city is scaled in height according to each districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s maximum allowable FAR. (right): The zoning of the city allows opportunities to add density through Planned Development Areas (rendered in blue).


Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

24 ’

district zoning height limit

60

s

21

100 ft

13

77% 156 ft 13 100,000 sf 10,000 sf 10

Government Center lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

70% 120 ft 5 70,000 sf 10,000 sf 7

10

0’ 10

0’

Fixed Story Height: 12 ft

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

24% 396 ft 33 80,000 sf 10,000 sf 8

Fort Point lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

23% 156 ft 13 30,000 sf 10,000 sf 3

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

23% 156 ft 13 30,000 sf 10,000 sf 3

Bulfinch Triangle lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

ri

o st

88 ’

23 ’

70

40

s

88% 96 ft 8 70,000 sf 10,000 sf 7

es

10

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

PDA

Fixed Site: 10,000 sf

ie or st

0’ 10

North End Business

12

13

s

s

8

North End Waterfront lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

ie or st

0’ 10

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

10

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

st

s

s

0’ 10

North End Local Business

0’ 10

5

ie or

77

st

s

40

5

ie or

ie or st

ie or st

50 ’

23

33

ie or st

Cambridge St. North lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

50% 120 ft 10 50,000 sf 10,000 sf 5

ie or st

s


36 ’

lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

40% 300 ft 25 100,000 sf 10,000 sf 10

42

ie or st

Leather District / South Station lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

86% 84 ft 7 60,000 sf 10,000 sf 6

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

36% 468 ft 39 140,000 sf 10,000 sf 14

4

Dorchester Bay lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

s 5

4

0

5

rie

o st

Neponset River lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

rie

o st

ie or st

s

s

13

s

7

Midtown Cultural lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

70% 156 ft 13 90,000 sf 10,000 sf 9

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

48% 504 ft 42 200,000 sf 10,000 sf 20

7

7

8

ri

o st

0

86 ’

PDA

4

0’ 10

86% 84 ft 7 60,000 sf 10,000 sf 6

7

es

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

13

s

0’ 10

40% 60 ft 5 20,000 sf 10,000 sf 2

ie or

0’ 10

lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

Chinatown

st

s

s

s

0’ 10

Charlestown

7

s

0’ 10

0’ 10

40 ’

5

rie

o st

ie or st

42

s

0’

25

6

40 ’

39

ie or st

rie to

8

8

4

Huntington Ave / Prudential lot coverage: height: stories: TBA: TLA: district FAR:

77% 156 ft 13 100,000 sf 10,000 sf 10

PDA lot coverage: height: stories: total area: lot area: district FAR:

48% 504 ft 42 200,000 sf 10,000 sf 20

ie or st

s


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

ing

ton

St.

62

Wa sh

1 5

Milk St.

St

.

Boston Common

hi ng

to

n

2 W as

35’

2 15’ 35’

15’

350’ (max H)

4

H

235’

35’

115’

y Pl

t.

.

an

kli

n

St

to

.

hi ng

1

5

15’

400’ (max. H) 155’ 90’ (street wall)

15’

10’

275’ (max. H) Es 155’ se xS 90’ (street wall) t.

15’

.

15’

25’

Tr em

Tr em

on

tS

on

t.

tS

t.

W as

hi

ng

to n

St

.

Midtown District

Fr

St

.

15’ 10’

n

St

300’ (max. H) 235’ 155’ 90’ (street wall)

u St ar

W as

hi

ng

to

n

W as

hi

St

.

ng

to n

St

15’

t. tS

2

4

3

.

St

625’ (max. H) 155’ 90’ (street wall)

W as

in

yS

kl

10’

wle

an

ton

Hawle

Ha

St.

Fr

Wa sh ing

3

15’

90’ (street wall)

35’

y

le

aw


ston

Boly

1

St.

ston

Boly

St.

4

2 .

tin

un

H

3

e Av

.

setbacks as 465’ (max. H) 155’ 80 (street wall)

setbacks as determined in ere St.design review

Huntington Ave. District

ston

80’

determined in design review Dar

setbacks as

. Av e on

St.

y 40

in gt

uth

design review

lle Al

2

4

tmo

determined in 80’ 155’ 242’ (max. H)

lic

ere St.

H

St.

and setbacks as 10’

b Pu

Belvid

un

tin

e Av

Hu nt

design review

311’ (max. H) 155’ 80 (street wall)

t. rt S Stua Maximum height

.

n

o gt

ere St.

e Av

St.

ston

setbacks as

Belvid

ti

un

H

on

t ng

1

Boly

determined in

design review

32’

1

Boly

determined in

125’ (entry facade)

Belvid

1

n

o gt

Constraints


64

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

20’

20’

15’

10’

an Atl

2

t. 15’

dS

lan

ee

Kn

tic

5’

e. Av

co

Lin t.

ln S

1

125’ (street wall)

70’ (street wall)

155’

155’

1

South Station EDA

295’

295’

400’ (max H)

2

465’ (max H)

50’

3 40’ 2

40’

1

North Station EDA

1

400’ (max H) 125’ (street wall)

ay

w

e us

.

St

Nashua St.

Nashua St.

35’ 400’ (max H) 300’ 125’ (street wall)

a

C

2

ay

w

C

a

e us

.

St


Maximum height and setbacks as

1

determined in design review

Downtown District

1

Maximum height and setbacks as

1

determined in design review

Boston Proper District_Backbay

1

Constraints


66

South Station District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


North Station District


68

Downtown District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Boston Proper District


70

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Kne

elan

dS

t.

2

Marg

inal

1

5’

Rd.

Kn

ee

la

nd

St .

300’ (max. H) 90’ (street wall)

1

Chinatown District

2

1

d

lan

ee

Kn

.

St

50’ (from the end dock)

2

12’ (from the side of the dock)

250’ (max. H) 250’ (max. H)

Fort Point Harbor Water Front District

1

2

125’ (max. H) 90’ (street wall)


Midtown District


Huntington Avenue District


74

Chinatown District

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Fort Point Harbor Water Front District

Constraints


80

(top) Typically, tall buildings touch in the ground in three different ways. There is either a standard lobby (left), a base one story element with commercial activity (middle), or a larger plinth that contains more retail and commercial space (right). (opposite) For the ground floor space to be successful, the space typically needs to meet the guidelines diagramed. There are guidelines for bay size (top, middle), sidewalk width (top, right), signage size (bottom, right), and height (bottom, middle).

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


15

’ 50 14 - 18’ SIG

NS

2.5 SF/LF Constraints


82

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

PRIVATELY OWNED PUBLIC SPACES IN BOSTON

PDA

CH. 91

PUBLIC INTEREST

PRIVATE INVESTMENT

BENEFITS

PRESERVATION

AGREEMENT

POTENTIAL

PROVIDE AMENTITIES TO TALL BUILDINGS

SHORELINE MUST BE ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC

PUBLIC LAND USED BY PRIVATE DEVELOPER

MORE PUBLIC SPACE ELIMINATES “EYE-SORES”

EASE NEIGHBORHOOD CONCERNS

HARBOR WALKWAY MUST BE PRIVILEGED

REQUIRED TO PROVIDE PUBLIC SPACE

ECONOMIC BENEFIT TO PUBLIC SPACE


5

5

1

1

0 mi

0 mi

Privately Owned Public Spaces in Boston

Constraints


84

In a 1961 zoning resolution, the City of New York established incentive zoning. The city made concessions to developers to increase the amount of public space in tall buildings. If developers included plazas, arcades, atriums, and other outdoor and indoor spaces in their designs, more floor space could be built beyond the standard allowances as a bonus. Later a resolution was passed to that specified these spaces must include certain amenities. These amenities are then governed by design standards articulated by the administration. On the opposite page, the specific dimensions for outdoor plazas are included. A similar set of guidelines could increase the public space in Boston. The following pages then articulate the types of amenities incorporated in plazas and the other spaces included in the zoning resolution.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


w + d ≥ 15’ 2

%

w

d

w

25

%

75

17

5’

d

w + d ≥ 40’ 2

4 - 6”

8’

≥1

7”

≤ 2’

Constraints


86

Besides conforming to the larger metrics established on the previous pages, certain amenities must be included in these privately owned plazas in New York. These include items such as seating, lighting, water features, and landscaping. For plazas between five and ten thousand square feet, additional amenities must be provided such as artwork. These plazas can be placed in any number of positions within a site, as seen on the this page.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


artwork (optional) water feature landscaping seating lighting

Constraints


88

Interior amenities range from large scale programs such as recreation (top, left), retail (top, right), residential (bottom, right), or office space (bottom, left) to lobby features (opposite top, left) (also important in the classification of leasable office space as seen in a later economics spread), food services (top, right) winter gardens (bottom, right) and loading options (bottom, left).

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


90

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

BOSTON GREEN BUILDING CREDITS

MODERN GRID

HSITORIC PRESERVATION

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

MODER MOBILITY

useful “congestion relief”

include the historic renovation of an existing structure complying with historic preservation regulations

capture a volume of rainwater on the lot equivalent to no less than one inch across that portion of the surface area of the lot

In addition to TDM, Prerequisites:

must be located in a historic district or listed on a Historic lists

or provide measures that otherwise result in on-site infiltration of rainwater

on-site combined electrical power and heat generation system

areas subject to Article 32, provide (50%) greater recharge than required under Article 32-6

On-Site Transportation Coordinator Post information about public transportation & car-sharing, transit, bike and pedestrian access information on building website; on-site bicycle racks and storage Comply with Boston Transportation Department district parking ratios; join a Transportation Management Association

MODERN MOBIBILTY: TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM) REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICE AND RETAIL PROJECTS

HIGH-VALUE (MEET AT LEAST ONE)

BASIC (MEET AT LEAST 4)

shuttle service to public transit stations

garage occupancy information monitors

parking cash out program for employees using publuc transit

Pre-tax payroll deduction and distribution for T passes for all on-site employees.

fifty percent transit pass subsidy for all on-site employees

covered secure bicycle storage with shower facilities on-site ATM and direct deposit of paychecks. preferential parking spaces for carpools and vanpools preferential parking for alternative fuel or high efficiency vehicles On-site electric charging plug-in stations


US GREEN COUNCIL CATEGORIES

SUSTAINABLE SITE

WATER EFFICIENCT

Erosion & Sedimentation Control

Water Efficient Landscaping

Development Density

Innovative Wastewater Technologies

Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation Light Pollution Reduction

ENERGY AND ATMOSPHERE

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES

INDOOR ENVIRONMENT QUALITY

INNOVATIVATION & DESIGN PROCESS

Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning

Storage & Collection of Recyclables

Minimum IAQ Performance

Innovation in Design

Building Reuse

Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control

Minimum Energy Performance

Water Use Reduction CFC Reduction in HVAC&R Equipment

Construction Waste Management

LEED™ Accredited Professional

Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Monitoring

Resource Reuse Ventilation Effectiveness

Optimize Energy Performance

Recycled Content Local/Regional Materials

Construction IAQ Management Plan

Renewable Energy Landscape & Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Islands

Additional Commissioning

Rapidly Renewable Materials Certified Wood

Reduced Site Disturbance, Protect or Restore Open Space Stormwater Management

Low-Emitting Material Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control

Ozone Depletion

Controllability of Systems

Green Power

Thermal Comfort Daylight & Views

Constraints


92

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Code dictates a number of dimensions that affect the design of tall buildings. These include building height and width, corridor dimensions, elevator cab sizes, and the distances that govern core and egress stair locations. Life safety guidelines prevent the spread of flames and other potential dangers for tall building occupants; standards for light sharing and air access are also set to address quality of space issues. This section outlines the code requirements that inform tall building design, with a focus on standard practice of core placement in tall buildings. diagonal distance (dashed, top) building height spandrel panel core ďŹ&#x201A;oor to ďŹ&#x201A;oor height

Code

building length building width


UNDER 75 FEET

OVER 75 FEET

OVER 120 FEET

OVER 420 FEET

LOW RISE

HIGH RISE

HIGH RISE

SUPER HIGH RISE

IBC & LOCAL CODE APPLIES

HIGH RISE CODE CHANGES APPLIES

ADDITIONAL FIRE SERVICE ACCESS ELEVATOR

ADDITIONAL EGRESS & HIGHER RATING

Must be constructed of noncombustible material

No fewer than two fire service elevators required

Additional exit stairway or fire elevator required

Shafts and vertical penetrations must be enclosed to prevent the spread of smoke and fire Stair enclosures are to be seperated by at least 30 feet or not less than 1/4 the length of the max. diagonal dimension, whichever is less

Hardened exit and elevator shafts, concrete or masonry accepted (risk categories III and IV also) Min. bond strength for sprayed fire-resistant materials increases

Constraints


94

(bottom (top): These right): two Allowable plans illustrate building the constraints height, number of exit access of stories (IBC and1016.1), proportional corridor floorwidth area (1018.2), may be limited dead ends by occupancy (1018.4), and group stair and enclosures construction (403.5.1). type. Fully sprinklered buildings may be allowed reductions in (opposite, fire rating. top left): To prevent the spread of fire, exterior (top right): openings As building that areheight withinincreases 5 feet horizontally from 75’ must be (left) to separated 120’ (middle) with the an below additional story fire-service by at least 3 feet. This access elevator is typically is required. done with At 420’ a spandrel (right)panel. egress requirements change as well as fire ratings. (opposite, top topleft): right): Exterior Minimum openings ceiling that are height within is typically 5 feet horizontally 7’-6”, butmust it may be separated be reduced withtothe 6’-8” below in some by story instances. at least 3 feet. This is typically done with a spandrel panel or with punched openings. (opposite, top right): right): As building IBC constraints height increases of exit access from 75’ (left) tocorridor (1016.1), 120’ (middle) width an(1018.2), additionaldead fire-service ends access elevator (1018.4) and stair is enclosures required. At (403.5.1). 420’ (right) egress requirements (opposite, bottom): change The as typical well core as fire houses resistance several ratings. functions, mainly vertical circulation, building restrooms and mechanical systems.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

High Rise <420’

High Rise Other than F-1, M, S-1

Column ratings may not be reduced

55/3/19,000 sf

65/5/37,500 sf

II - Type B

II - Type A

UL/UL/UL

I - Type B

I - Type A


50’ max.

3’

3’

3’

3’

<30’ or <1/4 max. diagonal dim.

44” min. >2.5W

250’ max.

Egress Stair Janitorial Closet Electrical Room Restrooms Elevator Lobby Service Elevator

Exhaust Air Supply Air Egress Stair Mechanical Room Storage

≥44”


96

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

3’ 1’

10’ 2’

34’

6’

15’

(left): Minimum ceiling height is 7’-6”, but it may be reduced to 6’-8” in some instances. (right): Exterior openings are to open to the outdoors to yards and court. Yard and court sizes are set to provide minimum dimensions for light wells and backyards of multistory buildings so that these areas provide real light and air to the spaces they serve. (opposite, right): If an interior room is shared with the main room it must have the minimum of 10% of the interior square footage opening in order to allow natural light from the main room.


10% of 25sf

7’ - 6” min. ceiling height. 6’ - 8” no more than 50% of egress path may be reduced to

Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

ZONE 3

98

total trip time per elevator

(middle): A transfer slab is needed at every floor where there is a transfer between elevator banks. (right): In super tall buildings, those taller than 1,000 feet, banking of elevators is needed to maximize the shafts in the core. At every 15 floors a shift of elevators and at every 36 floors a skylobby is used. In addition to the banking of elevators there are shuttles which lead directly to the upper floors. (opposite, top left): A buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s elevator capacity is typically designed to meet the peak demand that occurs within the 5 minutes prior to the start of day. Additional peaks correspond with mid and end of day traffic. (opposite, bottom): Elevator cars are grouped to minimize the distance from the call button to each door and reduce the time a car must wait at each floor. (opposite, top right): While most groupings are linear or parallel, there are a few notable exceptions.

ZONE 2

number of elevators per bank

ZONE 1

median wait time = range of wait time =


Outgoing

InterямВoor

Incoming

POPULATION OF BUILDING INHABITANTS

11%

Alcove Layout 10%

5%

Angled Layout

7AM

8AM

9AM

10AM

11AM

12PM

1PM

2PM

3PM

4PM

5PM

6PM

7PM

8PM

Circular Layout

2 Car Layout

3 Car Layout

4 Car Layout

6 Car Layout

8 Car Layout

Constraints


100

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Center Core

(bottom): Typical core orientations include center, split, end and atrium. (top): The orientation of the core and the number of tenants per floor determine access and the placement of circulation paths. Lease span is the distance from core to exterior wall and determines the usable floor area. (opposite): The shape and orientation of a core is often determined by building form and program; each configuration is unique.

Split Core

End Core

Atrium Core


Constraints


102

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


1775 2012

1826

Constraints


104

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


106

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

building height

plan size

building articulation

While tall buildings do not necessarily correspond to historic centers, the two possess an amount of physical interaction. Design components, construction methods, and lease and land values are the primary financial factors that determine the viability of tall buildings. The clustering of landmarks indicates the center of historic cities, often the focus of economic activity. Tall buildings are built in these areas to leverage high lease rates and rationalize the economies inherent in building tall in expensive areas, causing tall buildings and landmarks to exist in close proximity.

lift strategy building facade

building proportion

building structure

building uses site constraints

Economic


$$$$

STRUCTURE

SITE WORK

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

ADDITIONAL PROCESSES & COSTS

$$

$$$$

UTILITY

WATER

$$

EROSION

TABLES

UNION

FACADE CONTRACTORS’ PRELIMINARIES

STEEL CONSTRUCTION

INFRASTRUCTURE

CRANES

$$

$$

LANDMARKS

$$

BCDC

$$

SOILS

ENGINEER

SOILS

ENGINEER

$

$

$

$

$$

PERMIT

DESIGN

$$$ Constraints


108

Different methods of construction affect the cost of tall buildings. Here, typical processes for poured-inplace concrete and steel construction are shown, common construction methods for tall buildings in Boston.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


110

(above): Class A buildings represent the highest quality of leasable commercial space and are often commercial buildings constructed after 1970. They provide leased spaces by suite and consequently house many different tenants. Typical vacancy is 5.5%. (center): Class B buildings are the second highest quality of commercial building leases available. These buildings were commonly built from 18001925 and have undergone significant renovations to incorporate features such as elevators, lobbies, heating systems, and replacement windows. They also offer property leased by suite. Typical vacancy rate is 18.9%. (right): Class C buildings are characterized as suboptimal commercial property for leasing conditions, and represent the lowest rating for commercial space. They typically are buildings built from 1800-1925 that have not undertaken appropriate levels of renovation.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


112

Desired features and amenities may raise the consumer value of a tall building and enable higher lease rates to offset the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s initial construction costs. These amenities include street frontage, retail, parking, proximity to services and public transit; corner offices, security, elevators, and an inviting lobby.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


114

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

1,000’

100’

100’

$ / SF

= lease value

yr $100 / SF yr

= $1,000 ft

A comparison of the heights of current and potential future tall buildings with the relative lease values of these buildings presents a more dense Boston skyline. Historic landmarks provide scale and logic for tall building clustering.


Constraints


116

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


118

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

$380/sf

The land values of Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s many districts are determined by a number of factors, such as availability of unoccupied parcels. A mapping of historical landmarks across the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual districts reveals correlations between the presence of history, tall buildings, and high land value. (clockwise starting top left): Central Boston, $380/sf; Back Bay, $302/sf; South End, $174/sf; Charleston, $118/sf; Fenway/Kenmore, $109/sf; South Boston, $44/sf; East Boston, $40/sf; Jamaica Plain, $32/ sf; Allston/Brighton, $30/sf; West Roxbury, $27/sf; Mattapan, $23/sf; Hyde Park/Roslindale, $22/sf; Dorchester, $18/sf; Roxbury, $16/sf.

$95/sf

$0/sf


Constraints


120

$380/sf

$95/sf

$0/sf

Among Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fourteen districts, two of them contain several prominent historic neighborhoods. These districts, the Back Bay and the South End, have the second and third highest land values in the city. The areas exhibit many qualities characteristic of historic neighborhoods, including small parcel and block sizes, narrow streets and alleys, and restricted building height.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


!

!

!

!

!

! !

!

!

!

!

!

!

! ! ! !

!

! !

! ! !

!

! !

!

!

!

! !

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

! !

!

!

! !

!

!

!

Constraints


124

GROSS AREA

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

NET AREA

GROSS AREA = (total length) ft X (total width) ft

NET TO GROSS =

150 ft

(gross area) sf (area of core) sf

Shown here are the typical dimensions of high-rise towers. Planning of the typical core drastically affects the building’s floor plan. When considering the design of a tall building, overall footprint defines the building’s gross area. The net to gross ratio defines how much usable space is left after the core has been factored into the building’s plan. The closer the net to gross ratio is to one, the more efficient a tall building is. This allows for the building to have as much rentable space as possible. Shown to the right are the effects of the floor-to-floor height has on the amount of rentable space in a tall building.

45 ft

60 ft

150 ft

60 ft

GROSS AREA =

NET TO GROSS RATIO =

150 ft x 150 ft = 22,500 sf

22,500 sf (60 ft x 60 ft)

= 0.84


500 ft 35 stories

26 stories

20 stories

17 stories

floor to floor height: stories in 240ft: gross sf: net to gross: net sf:

12 ft

14 ft

41 stories

9 ft

240 ft

55 stories

9 feet 26 585,000 0.84 491,400

floor to floor height: stories in 240ft: gross sf: net to gross: net sf:

12 feet 20 450,000 0.84 378,000

floor to floor height: stories in 240ft: gross sf: net to gross: net sf:

14 feet 17 382,500 0.84 321,000

Constraints


126

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Soil Removal

Within urbanized areas contaminated sites, or brownfields, have developed around former industrial sites. These plots, usually located near central business districts, are underutilized as well as underdeveloped. In order to increase density within cities, and create greener sites, brownfields can be developed by utilizing the typology of the high rise. By using tall buildings, the developments would prove to be more economically feasible, as well as be more successful in bringing large amounts of people back into urban cores.

Contamination Cover

Site Injection


Constraints


128

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

INDUSTRIAL SITE REMEDIATION

INDUSTRIAL SITE

BROWNFIELD

LIGHT REMEDIATION

MILD REMEDIATION

Cost Estimate: 500,000 per acre Time Estimate: 0.5 -1 years Tax Benefits: ~$135,000

Cost Estimate:1,000,000 per acre Time Estimate: 1 year Tax Benefits: ~$300,000 INDUSTRIAL SITE REMEDIATION

INDUSTRIAL SITE

BROWNFIELD

LIGHT REMEDIATION

MILD REMEDIATION

Cost Estimate: 500,000 per acre Time Estimate: 0.5 -1 years Tax Benefits: ~$135,000

Cost Estimate:1,000,000 per acre Time Estimate: 1 year Tax Benefits: ~$300,000

GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION PRIVATE HEAVY REMEDIATION VOTE Cost Estimate: 3,000,000 per acre Time Estimate: 2 years Tax Benefits: ~ $990,000

GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION PRIVATE HEAVY REMEDIATION VOTE Cost Estimate: 3,000,000 per acre Time Estimate: 2 years Tax Benefits: ~ $990,000


s r ie

36

to +s

s r ie

36

to +s

s r ie

o st 24

240 ft

3

4

seaport: groundwater/industrial max height: FAA price per sq. ft: $492.00

s r ie

o st

s r ie

o st

somerville: industrial/brownďŹ eld max height: BRA Code price per sq. ft: $288.00

everett: industrial/brownďŹ eld max height: BRA Code price per sq. ft: $148.00

Constraints


130

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

$

contaminated topsoil existing sand alluvial materials bedrock

$

An issue with building near the water, as well as remediating this site, is that many are alluvial shores. Alluvial shores are areas of heavy soil and silt content which separates the top soil from the bedrock beneath. Due to their tendency to hold much water, these areas are prone to water contamination, and are thus much more expensive to clean than that of an interior site.

contaminated topsoil dense clay bedrock


Constraints


TALL BUILDINGS Each of the precedents shown exhibits a particular interaction with history. We have grouped precedentsinto three categories in order to better examine these relationships. The Scraping Neighborhood category encompasses tall buildings that address their larger surrounding context in some way, including proximity to history as well as fenestration and structural expression. Scraping Neighbor includes tall buildings that exhibit a direct relationship with their context and may physically interact with an existing building. Tall buildings categorized as Scraping Infrastructure interact with transportation systems or other historic urban infrastructural conditions. These precedents exemplify built examples of diverse reactions to historical conditions while still addressing the realities of modernity.


134

The John Hancock Tower is obliquely placed at the southeast corner of Copley Square in Boston’s Back Bay, adjacent to H.H. Richardson’s Trinity Church and the John Hancock Berkeley Building. Its singular, monolithic form and trapezoidal floor plan accentuated the sharpness of this angle and minimize its presence within the square. A highly reflective glass façade mirrors the historic architecture surrounding a triangular entry plaza at the tower’s base. At upper levels, the tower disappears into the afternoon sky reflected in the facade. The placement, shape and reflectivity of the tower combine to honor the historic architecture and reduce the impact of a sixty-story building on the neighborhood.

Scraping Neighborhoods

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

0 20

One Boston Place is situated at the intersection of State and Washington Streets in Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic financial district. The corner is home to the Old State House and the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first skyscraper, the thirteenstory, masonry structure Ames Building. The dark and structurally expressive 600 foot tower is among the tallest in the city and commands a sense of permanence amid the skyline while diminishing its presence at the ground level, meeting it at only the core and each corner. The sides of the base are open and do not compete with the historic architecture opposite each street.

ft

600 ft

136


Constraints


138

The Seagram Building steps back from Park Avenue in midtown Manhattan and surrenders space to an urban plaza in response to the neo-classical Racquet Club of McKim, Mead and White directly opposite. The plaza creates habitable public space in the dense urban environment and reflects the architecture of the historic club through materiality, symmetry and the classical proportioning of the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural bays. An abstract representation of a neo-classical column can further be found in the composition of the tower and expressed in the vertical fluting of the mullion applique.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Seven World Trade Center is located within the dense urban fabric of lower Manhattan in close proximity to the World Trade Center Memorial. The oblique plan and reflective façade of the building clouds its profile so that is seamlessly vanishes into the sky. This effect respects the adjacency of the memorial and produces a minimal impact on the sensitive site. It also creates an airiness not found in the surrounding buildings and a welcome contrast to the neighborhoodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s density.

0

25

ft

75 ft

668 ft

140


Constraints


142

500 Park Avenue shares a narrow site in midtown Manhattan with the former Pepsi Cola building, originally designed by SOM. The towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s façade is a combination of masonry, which maintains the character of the historic avenue, and curtain wall, which absorbs the horizontal banding of the existing building to create a cohesive block. A glass volume on the side of the tower cantilevers the existing building to maximize space on the limited site.

Scraping Neighbor

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


144

Atlantic Wharf is located along Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic Fort Point Channel and incorporates three existing mercantile buildings. The Russia Building which fronts Atlantic Avenue is preserved in its entirety while the brick facades of the other two buildings are renovated and form the base of the thirty-twostory tower. The restorations of the old warehouses preserve the texture of the historic site and recall its once maritime industrial function, a theme that is expressed throughout the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s details. The primary entry is located between the Russia Building and the base of the tower, creating a ninety-foot atrium that highlights the brick façade at the rear of the Russia Building.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


146

The Bank of America Tower is sited at the northwest corner of historic Bryant Park in midtown Manhattan and preserves the existing façade of the Henry Miller Theater on Forty-Third Street. Landmark policy allows the theater interior to be reconstructed while restoring the exterior as an element in the tower’s façade and retaining an important piece of Broadway history. The canopy height in the park and the massing of the surrounding buildings influence the form of the tower at its base near the park.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


25’-0”

Constraints


148

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Citicorp Center is located on Lexington Avenue in midtown Manhattan on the site of St. Peterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s church, originally built in 1905. To accommodate the historic structure, the building is set on four nine-story stilts positioned at the center of each façade that allow its corners to cantilever seventy two feet above the church and a public plaza below. This cantilevering is possible because of a structural system consisting of six eight-story inverted chevron trusses that transfer their load onto the four centered piers. 9 stories


Constraints


150

The Custom House Tower that features prominently amid Boston’s waterfront skyline was an early twentieth century addition to the original, midnineteenth century Greek revival building which forms the tower’s base. At the time of its construction, the tower was allowed to exceed the city’s 125 foot height limit because it was federally owned, making it the tallest building in the city for half a century. The structure of the tower uses the original building as a foundation, preserving the historic dome at the center of the old building and creates an expansive public space within it.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

140’

75’


Constraints


152

Boston Exchange Place is located at the intersection of State and Congress Streets in Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic financial district, steps from the Boston Massacre site. The 500 foot glass tower steps back from its State Street front and retains the twelve-story, rusticated stone façade on the nineteenth century Boston Stock Exchange. The primary entrance, on Congress Street, is placed between the rear of old building and the base of the tower, creating a six-story atrium that highlights the connection to the historic building and contrasts the architectural styles.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


154

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

40 ft module spans 4 floors

The Hearst Tower utilizes the cast stone façade of the original, 1928 headquarters building as the sixstory base of a 600 foot glass tower. The initial plan of the old building proposed the future construction of a skyscraper; it was delayed by the great depression and realized nearly seventy years later. The new tower projects upwards from the original building envelope, highlighting the contrast between the historic façade and the tower’s steel structure is displayed in the open atrium space a level above the public entry. This structure forms a diagonal grid on the tower’s façade and stands out amid its surroundings near Columbus Circle in midtown Manhattan.


Constraints


156

The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary consists of the original 1824 building and an addition that expands the space within the boundaries of the existing site while maintaining as much of the old building as possible. The tower accommodates both constraints by adding vertical space that stays within the tight limits and slipping over the shell of the original building. It utilizes three large piers to receive the forces of the tower above without obstructing the faรงade of the historic building.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

3 stories


Constraints


158

The Penn Mutual Tower is delicately placed among its historic neighbors in downtown Philadelphia. On the site of the old Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company, the tower fronts Independence Park, adjacent to one of the most historic buildings in the country, Independence Hall. The four-story, Egyptian revival façade of the old insurance building is preserved to create a free standing screen at the towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entry which visitors must pass around. The historic façade provides not only a contrast to the glass tower but a scale that respects Independence Hall. The fenestration structure of the tower mimics the proportions of the preserved facade.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


160

33 Arch Street rests upon a small footprint in the dense and irregular fabric of Downtown Boston. To maximize floor space the building utilizes a wing shaped plan and cantilevers twenty floors over and into an adjacent garage and retail structure. The existing garage connects to parking on the first six levels of the building. An existing street at the center of the block passes through the building at ground level to maintain established street patterns while providing access to the parking levels.

Scraping Infrastructure

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


162

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

65 ft

The Old State House was at one time the tallest building in Boston and now serves as a colonial history museum and entrance to the MBTA orange and blue line transfer station directly beneath it. The underground addition of the railway provides added strength for the original masonry structure and guarantees public interaction with the building outside of museum hours. Since the eighteenth century, Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s downtown building typology shifted to that of the highrise thus dwarfing the structure on all sides.


Constraints


164

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

40 0â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 90

One Penn Plaza is located a block north of Madison Square Garden and Pennsylvania Station in midtown Manhattan. The building sits atop multiple levels of underground retail and parking infrastructure which provide direct connections to the Long Island Rail Road concourse in Pennsylvania Station. The ground level is raised several feet and populated by public plazas and retail space, including the top level of a three-story box store. The narrow building is positioned perpendicular to the major avenues and creates an adjacency with the Pennsylvania Plaza complex along the entire block.


Constraints


166

The PanAm Building is positioned at the center of Park Avenue in midtown Manhattan, between Grand Central Terminal to the south and the Helmsley Building to the north. Several lanes of traffic are accommodated to pass around and through the three buildings to maintain a continuation of the major avenue. The double-height entry level is raised one floor to accommodate the elevated railway that formerly occupied Park Avenue, resulting in a tripleheight ground floor condition that retains lost history. The 800 foot tower sits atop the Metro North Railroad platforms and serves as the modern backdrop in Park Avenue perspectives of the two historic buildings.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


168

The Prudential Tower is a piece of the twenty three acre complex that was formerly home to the Boston and Albany Railroad yard. The complex was originally commissioned as a regional expansion project by the Prudential Insurance Company who partnered with a developer planning to extend the Massachusetts Turnpike into Boston by following the Albany line. The tower was built in collaboration with the turnpike and the footprint is adjacent to the transportation system. Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Back Bay and South End neighborhoods are connected by the multi-use complex which conceals the highway and passenger rail systems transporting thousands of commuters to the city each day.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Constraints


170

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

265’

The Standard Hotel straddles the elevated High Line in New York’s historic Meatpacking district. The linear public park was developed as an alternative to demolishing the abandoned rail line once pivotal to the industrial commerce of Manhattan’s West Side and creates valuable open space in the dense neighborhood. The hotel uses concrete piers and steel trusses to span the width of the High Line and invites pedestrians to pass underneath and experience the elevated mass. Concrete and glass in the hotel’s façade reflect the industrial style still evident in the surrounding urban context.

100’


Constraints


172

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


PROJECTIONS


T

+

Boston’s skyline has remained stagnant for decades due to the hesitation with building tall and its effects on the city’s historic fabric. While plans for the high spine are developed, Boston’s historic districts recede into the background, neglected from the city’s economic future. Incorporating tall buildings into historic neighborhoods would not only leverage high land values, higher lease rates would also stimulate economic development in those areas. Consideration of building program, materiality, and form as well as the dimensional realities of historic contexts could contribute to successfully integrating tall buildings in historic districts. The expansion of tall buildings into these neighborhoods would foster economic growth in all parts of the city without compromising the qualities of its distinguished neighborhoods.

+

=


Vitruvian Man Leonardo da Vinci c. 1487

Guaranty Building (Prudential Building) Louis Sullivan | 1895


The Wainwright Building in St. Louis, MO was the “very first human expression of a tall steel office building...” The eleven-story high rise was designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler. Sullivan believed that a building should reveal a “single, germinal impulse or idea, which shall permeate the mass and its every detail,” so that, “there shall effuse from the completed structure a single sentiment.” He is also responsible for dividing the building up into three main parts (called tripartite), similar to how a column is comprised.

1

1

- ARCHITECTURAL ATTIC (private) stores mechanical equipment suggests a richly decorated way of terminating the facade

2

- SHAFT (private) repetitious, identically articulated, similar to program of interior (office work)

3

- BASE (public) one or two stories easily identifiable entrance flanked by broad display windows

2

3

The Wainwright Building By Louis Sullivan 1891


178

During the Renaissance, designers began to experiment with the different parts of a building. During the Renaissance designers began to The base was typically rusticated because this experiment with the different parts of a building. portion interacted with the user as well as the The base was typically rusticated because this ground. Columns, pilasters, and windows were often portion interacted with the user as well as the rusticated as well. In skyscrapers today, the base ground. Columns, pilasters, and windows were typically consists of a centralized core, supporting often rusticated too. In skyscrapers today, the columns periphery, and space began for a lobby During at thethe Renaissance designers to and base typically consists of a centralized core, reception. experiment with the different parts of a building. supporting columns at the periphery, and space The base was typically rusticated because this for a lobby, reception, and retail. portion interacted with the user as well as the ground. Columns, pilasters, and windows were According to Sullivan, the base should have an often rusticated too. In skyscrapers today, the easily identiďŹ able entrance marked by broad base typically consists of a centralized core, public display windows. supporting columns at the periphery, and space for a lobby, reception, and retail.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

555 California St. San Francisco, CA

According to Sullivan, the base should have an easily identiďŹ able entrance marked by broad public display windows. 555 California St. San Francisco, CA


Guaranty Building (Prudential Building) Louis Sullivan | 1895 Projections


180

The shaft is the building’s body in which most of its internal takes place. body The facade The program shaft is the building’s in whichserves most to draw the user’s eye upward. Columns positioned of its internal program takes place. According to side by side a dialogue with one another, Sullivan, thecreate shaft should be a repetitious forming a pattern that gives thefacade building its identity. articluation of elements. The serves to The shaft is signifi cant at the city scale in terms of draw the user’s eye upward. Columns positioned The shaft is the building’s body in which most theside building’s to its neighbors. Also, the side relationship create a dialogue with one another, of itsby internal program takes place. According to ascending refi nement ofgives windows on the its facade in forming a pattern that the building Sullivan, the shaft should be a repetitious classical architecture the separation from identity. Theofshaft isdramatizes signifiant at the city scale articluation elements. The facade serves to in theterms potentially hazardous environment of the street. of the building’s relationship to its draw the user’s eye upward. Columns positioned neighbors. side by side create a dialogue with one another, forming a pattern that gives the building its Also, the refinement of windows identity. Theascending shaft is signifiant at the city scaleon in aterms facade in Classical architecture dramatized the of the building’s relationship to its separation from the potentionally hazardous neighbors. environment of the street. Also, the ascending refinement of windows on a facade in Classical architecture dramatized the separation from the potentionally hazardous environment of the street.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Hancock Tower Boston

Hancock Tower Boston


Marshall Fieldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Warehouse Henry Hobson Richardson | 1887

Guaranty Building (Prudential Building) Louis Sullivan | 1895 Projections


Tuscan Capital Francesco di Giorgio c. 1485

Tuscan Capital Francesco di Giorgio c. 1485 Guaranty Building (Prudential Building) Louis Sullivan | 1895

The capital of the column is an especially important element in terms of defining its order. The “capital” of the skyscraper is significant at the urban scale in that it gives the building its identity as well. A building can be recognized specifically by its capital when looking at a city’s skyline. Columns can be positioned systematically to designate spaces as seen in the Imperial Forum in Rome. SImilarly, skyscrapers can be positioned within a city to create invisible boundaries that form districts like the Financial District

Guaranty Building (Prudential Building) Louis Sullivan | 1895


The capital of the column is an especially important element in terms of defining its order. The “capital” of the skyscraper is significant at the urban scale in that it gives the building its identity as well. A building can be recognized specifically by its capital when looking at a city’s skyline. Louis Sullivan believed it to be an eloquent way of terminating the facade. Columns can be positioned systematically to designate spaces as seen in the Imperial Forum in Rome, for example. Similarly, skyscrapers can be positioned within a city to create invisible boundaries that form districts such as the Financial District.

Chrysler Building New York City


184

This projection represents what the city could look like if towers were to expand significantly in the vertical dimension. In a standardized tall building, the ground level is typically designated for public space, whether it be in the form of a lobby, retail, etc. The blue represents extensions of those public spaces, positioned between the shafts of the towers. Coinciding with the projection idea of there being elevated highways that overlap the existing roadways, these blue boxes would eventually be accessible in multiple ways.

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

This projection represents what the city could look like if towers ZHUHWRH[SDQGVLJQLÄ&#x;FDQWO\LQWKHYHUWLFDOGLPHQVLRQ,QD VWDQGDUGL]HGWDOOEXLOGLQJWKHJURXQGOHYHOLVW\SLFDOO\GHVLJQDWHG IRUSXEOLFVSDFHZKHWKHULWEHLQWKHIRUPRIDOREE\UHWDLOHWF The blue boxes in this rendering represent extensions of those SXEOLFVSDFHVSRVLWLRQHGEHWZHHQWKHVKDIWVRIWKHWRZHUV &RLQFLGLQJZLWKWKHSURMHFWLRQLGHDRIWKHUHEHLQJHOHYDWHG KLJKZD\VWKDWRYHUODSWKHH[LVWLQJURDGZD\VWKHVHEOXHER[HV ZRXOGHYHQWXDOO\EHDFFHVVLEOHLQPXOWLSOHZD\V


Projections


16

-0 ”

8’

-6

Accounting for how the occupants arrive at a tall building is an important economic factor. In Boston, the total amount of cars parked in garages is a considerable amount portion of the the city’s square footage. This area is equal to the total square footage of four John Hancock towers

136 sf per parking space x

2,607 ft

50,000 garage spaces in Boston 2,607 ft

6,800,000 sf

6,800,000 sf


60 FLOORS 24 I RK PA N

G ES AC SP IN ARK 16 P

1.7 MILLION SF X4 6.8 MILLION SF

E PAC

GS

S

1.7 MILLION SF

1.7 MILLION SF

1.7 MILLION SF

1.7 MILLION SF


10’ - 3”

10’ - 3”

’55 0”

6

6

8

8

’-

50 PASSENGERS

Public transit is a much more efficient means of occupying space in dense urban fabric.

70 PASSENGERS

’-


8’ - 0”

’50 0”

64 PASSENGERS

64 PASSENGERS ’10

0”

64 PASSENGERS


90 sec

4

32 in

-7

m

m in

commute The commute to a tall building is more than simply the commute time. Parking amenities separated from a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vertical transportation are an inefficiency of cost in terms of time.

transfer

arrive


OUTGOING

INTERFLOOR

INCOMING

POPULATION OF BUILDING INHABITANTS

11%

10%

5%

7AM

8AM

9AM

10AM

11AM

12PM

1PM

2PM

3PM

4PM

5PM

6PM

7PM

8PM


by

25 ,7

ne alo ive dr

carpo ol

563,832 commutes to work daily

ation or other sport tran blic pu

31 0,1 07

25 3

r ca

The economic and spatial efficiencies inherent in tall buildings have neglected the fiscal and urban benefits of a truly public lobby condition. Public transportation is designed with many of these financial and spatial factors in mind and its presence in historic urban fabric is critical to a cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vitality. Linking the spatial and temporal efficiencies of public transportations with our tall buildings can further enhance the viability of tall buildings in dense historic fabric. Furthermore, expanding the lobby, what should be the most public space of the tall building, downward to be the zone of arrival to incorporate public transit creates a viable public space and can be the means to justifying a tall building in historic urban fabric.


The tall building is generally in direct opposition to the public space within a city. In tall buildings, architects synthesize a design that is the result of market forces, developer metrics and floor to core efficiencies. As a result of these choices, perhaps even ingrained in their possibilities, is a privatization of space that stifles any relationship between the design of the building and those that are not part of the buildings target demographic. Utilizing similar concepts to how privately owned public spaces are dealt with in other cities, the conflict between the tall building and public space can be mitigated, ultimately leading to a more open city.


Abbey of San Mercuriale, ForlĂŹ

St Mark's Campanile, Venice King Street Station, Seattle Custom House Tower, Boston Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, NY North Toronto Station Brisbane City Hall, Australia the Rathaus (Town Hall), Kiel Germany A historic city builds upon itself over time. It overwrites its identity time after time through social changes, revolutions, art movements etc. Numerous construction and destruction have changed city fabric, constantly demolishing the forgotten past and giving birth to the new.

Daniels & Fisher Tower, Denver Campanile in Port Elizabeth, South Africa Sather Tower, UC Berkeley, California St. John Gualbert, Johnstown, Pennsylvania St. George's Parish Church, Piran 14th Wall Street, NY The Venetian Towers, Barcelona, Spain India Mill, Darwen, Lancashire St. Euphemia's Basilica, Rovinj


St Mark's Campanile, Venice

King Street Station, Seattle

Custom House Tower, Boston

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, NY


In the endless river of time, power shifts, authorities rise and fall, but architecture that symbolizes these authorities has remained although its functions, surroundings, and the social value in which it was created may have already been lost in history and changed in time.

St.Markâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Campanile section

the Custom House Tower Section


Egyptian Temple plan

the Custom House Plan


The Custom House Tower is made of two distinct architectural models that once represented two different kinds of authorities, yet they were used and combined to represent another kind of authority. Today, the original meaning of architecture is even more lost. The architecture language of these two models are left with almost only aesthetic values, and the building itself is not for any authority anymore but for leisure and entertainment. By manipulating and using tall buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s features to add another historic layer to the Custom House Tower, its historic meaning can be dislocated and a new identity can be endowed that evokes some of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s value.


Tall buildings add to the city through public and private spaces they offer. However, there are spaces near tall buildings that are not utilized. There are several reasons for this. One is their inaccessibility due to being privately owned. Some of these spaces are only available at certain hours and target a specific audience, like a winter garden. Another reason is disrepair. Some spaces are too complexly designed for regular upkeep; limited funding and demand for high quality spaces also renders regular upkeep too expensive. By incorporating amenities like recreation, storefronts, seating, and sidewalks, tall buildings can ensure utilization of their public and private spaces to enliven the neighborhood and generate greater profitability.


Throughout history, Buildings have been taking advantage of natural elements in their design. Tall buildings can strive to be more sustainable and efficient by incorporating sustainable elements into tall buildings as well as taking advantage of the natural elements.


PLACEHOLDER


Tall buildings are obliged to create public space at the ground level. We must, however, perceive the urban site as inherently public and desirable space as the generator of building form â&#x20AC;&#x201C; opposed to its result. The transitional movement from public to private should occur in the vertical direction, better utilizing lower levels and maximizing the vertical character of tall buildings. The horizontal threshold condition of our current model is an inefficient use on ground level space and the creator of static street walls.


APPENDIX


BIBLIOGRAPHY

“Architectural details: Walter Gropius.” Architectural Record, Feb. 1965, 133-148. Ascher, Kate, and Rob Vroman. The Heights: Anatomy of a Skyscraper. New York: Penguin Press, 2011. “Assessing Online - City of Boston.” City of Boston.gov. City of Boston, 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www. cityofboston.gov/assessing/search/>. Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” (1968) in Illuminations, ed and tr. Hannah Arednt, Fontana, London. Blaser, Werner. Mies van der Rohe: The Art of Structure. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1994. “Boston Civic Design Commission.” Boston Civic Design Commission - Boston Redevelopment Authority. Boston Redevelopment Authority, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/ bcdc/bcdc.asp>. “Boston Landmarks Commission.” E-mail interview with Caitlin Greeley. 19 Sept. 2012. “Brownfield Redevelopment.” MassDevelopment. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <www.massdevelopment. com>. Cannell, Michael. “Windows over Copley Square.” In I.M. Pei: Mandarin of Modernism, 206-225. New York: Carol Southern Books, 1995. “Cityofboston.gov - Official Web Site of the City of Boston - Thomas M. Menino, Mayor.” Landmarks Commission. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cityofboston.gov/landmarks>. “Cleanup of Sites and Spills.” Mass Department of Environmental Protection. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Appendix


194

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n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. “Cleanups in My Community.” United States Environmental Protection Agency. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2012. <www.epa.gov>. Frampton, Kenneth. “7 World Trade Center.” SOM Journal 3 (2012). Glaeser, Edward. “What’s so Great about Skyscrapers?” In Triumph of the City, 135-164. New York: The Penguin Press, 2011. International Code Council, Building Officials and Code Administrators International, International Conference of Building Officials, and Southern Building Code Congress International. 2012. International building code. Falls Church, Va: International Code Council. Jett, Megan . “The Standard New York / Ennead Architects” 28 Jan 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 31 Oct 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/201783>. Lambert, Phyllis. Mies in America. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2001. Manfredo Tafuri: 9780064301084: Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.amazon. com/Theories-History-Architecture-Manfredo-Tafuri/dp/0064301087>. Mitchell, Ehrman B. Mitchell/Giurgola, Architects. N.p.: Mulgrave, Victoria - Images Pub Group, 1986-1998. Print. “Memorandum: Boston Civic Design Commission, October 2001.” Boston Redevelopment Authority, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/pdf/documents/bcdc/A%20CONTEXT%20 FOR%20BCDC%20PROJECT%20REVIEWS.pdf>.


Mumford, Lewis. “What is a City?”, en Richard T. LeGates y Frederic Stout, The City Reader. London: Routledge, 1996. “Pan Am building, N.Y.C.” Architectural Record, May 1963, 151-158. New Oxford American Dictionary, Third Edition, Angus Stevenson and Christine A. Lindberg (editors), 2096 pages, August 2010, Oxford University Press. New York City Zoning, “Privately Owned Public Plazas Text Amendment.” 17 Oct 2007. Accessed 24 Nov 2012. <http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/priv/101707_final_approved_text.pdf>. Rubin, Elihu. Insuring the City: The Prudential Center and the Postwar Urban Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. Schliemann, Todd, Tara Leibenhaut-Tyre, Megan Miller, Mark Plechaty, Erik Madsen, and Craig D. Tracy. “Case Study: The Standard Hotel, New York.” CTBUH Journal, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <https://www.ctbuh. org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=KfS%2BUs7vm8E%3D&tabid=749&language=en-GB>. Stoller, Ezra, and Franz Schulze. The Seagram Building. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Strakosch, George R., and Robert S. Caporale. “The Basics of Elevatoring a Building.” In The Vertical Transportation Handbook, 31-62. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.

Tafuri, Manfredo. “Theories and History of Architecture [Paperback].” Theories and History of Architecture. “The Standard Hotel New York.” Metals in Construction, Spring 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.siny. org/media/projects/Standard.pdf>. Appendix


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“The Standard Hotel New York.” Projects: Hotels and Residences. Ennead Architects, n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://ennead.com/>. Wiseman, Carter. “The John Hancock Tower (1966-76): A Near Fatal Beauty.” In I.M. Pei: A Profile in American Architecture, 138-153. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990.

***Definition of Community from Villa Victoria: “local trust, intergenerational closure, the increased safety generated by informal social control and the presence of many eyes on the street…” (pg 168)


Appendix


GLOSSARY

Atmosphere noun the pervading tone or mood of a place, situation or work of art Aura noun the distinctive atmosphere or quality that seems to surround and be generated by a person, thing or place Capitalism noun an economic and political system in which a countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state Center noun a place of specified concentration; the point from which process is directed or towards which it is focused Code noun a systematic collection of laws or regulations Community noun a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common; a feeling of fellowship with others, as a result of sharing common attitudes, interests and goals Constraint noun a limitation or restriction Contextualism noun a doctrine that emphasizes the importance of the context of inquiry in a particular question District noun an area of a country or city, especially one regarded as a distinct unit because of a particular characteristic


200

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Economics noun the branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption and transfer of wealth; the condition of a region or group as regards material prosperity Finance noun the management of large amounts of money, especially by governments or large companies Globalization noun process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world Historic adjective the significance of past artifacts that can be criticized in the creation of contemporary models Historic Center noun a concentration of significant artifacts within a built environment, realized and amassed over long periods of time in a continuously evolving society Landmark noun an object or feature of a landscape or city that contains historic significance Orthography noun a system of symbols, the conventions of a written or visual language Perspective noun a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something; a point of view Precedent noun an earlier event or action regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances


Preservation noun the retention of sufficient aspects or associations through change which convey the historical significance of an artifact Private adjective belonging to or for the use of one particular person or group of people only; provided or owned by an individual or an independent, commercial company rather than by the government Projection noun a prediction of future situations or trends based on the study of present ones Public adjective of or concerning the people as a whole; done, perceived, or existing in open view Real Estate noun property consisting of land or buildings Significance noun the quality of being worthy of attention; importance; the meaning to be found in words or events Tall Building noun any realized building of at least 240 feet in height, determined as the necessary minimum for the accurate comparison of global urban centers Zoning noun an area or stretch of land having a particular characteristic, purpose, or use, or subject to particular restrictions

Appendix


202

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

BBRS Board of Building Regulations and Standards BCDC Boston Civic Design Commission BLC Boston Landmarks Commission BRA Boston Redevelopment Authority FAR Floor Area Ratio IBC International Building Code ICC International Code Council NHL/NHLD National Historic Landmark/Landmark District NRHP National Register of Historic Places NTHP National Trust for Historic Preservation PDA Planned Development Area REIT Real Estate Investment Trust


Appendix


204

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers

Scraping Neighborhood: John Hancock Tower, 134 - 135 Architect: Henry Cobb, I.M. Pei & Partners City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 60 Height: 790 ft Completed: 1976

Seven World Trade Center, 140 - 141 Architect: David Childs (SOM) City: New York, New York Floor Count: 49 Height: 743 ft Completed: 2006

Bank of America Tower, 146 - 147 Architect: CookFox Architects City: New York, New York Floor Count: 57 Height: 1,200 ft Completed: 2009

Scraping Neighbor: One Boston Place, 136 - 137 Architect: Pietro Belluschi City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 41 Height: 601 ft Completed: 1970

500 Park Avenue, 142 - 143 Architect: James Stewart Polshek and Partners City: New York, New York Floor Count: 40 Height: 466 ft Completed: 1984

CitiCorp Center, 148 - 149 Architect: Hugh Stubbins City: New York, New York Floor Count: 59 Height: 915 ft Completed: 1977

Seagram Building, 138 - 139 Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson City: New York, New York Floor Count: 38 Height: 516 ft Completed: 1958

Atlantic Wharf, 144 - 145 Architect: CBT Architects City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 32 Height: 395 ft Completed: 2011

Custom House Tower, 150 - 151 Architect: Peabody, Stearns, and Furber City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 32 Height: 496 ft Completed: 1915


INDEX

Exchange Place, 152 - 153 Architect: WZMH Architects City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 40 Height: 510 ft Completed: 1984

Penn Mutual Tower, 158 - 159 Architect: Mitchell/Giurgola Architects City: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Floor Count: 22 Height: 375 Completed: 1975

One Penn Plaza, 164 - 165 Architect: Vornado Realty Trust City: New York, New York Floor Count: 57 Height: 751 ft Completed: 1972

Scraping Infrastructure: Hearst Tower, 154 - 155 Architect: Foster and Partners, Gensler City: New York, New York Floor Count: 46 Height: 597 ft Completed: 2006

33 Arch Street, 160 - 161 Architect: Elkus Manfredi City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 33 Height: 477 ft Completed: 2004

Pan Am Building, 166 - 167 Architect: Emery Roth and Sons, Peter Belluschi, and Walter Gropius City: New York, New York Floor Count: 59 Height: 808 ft Completed: 1962

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 156 - 157 Architect: Walk Jones and Francis Mah City: Boston, MA Floor Count: 15 Height: 171 ft Completed: 1973

Old State House, 162 - 163 Architect: Original, Unknown City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 3 Height: 65 ft Completed: 1713

Prudential Tower, 168 - 169 Architect: The Luckman Partnership City: Boston, Massachusetts Floor Count: 52 Height: 749 ft Completed: 1964

Appendix


206

The Standard Hotel, 170 - 171 Architect: Polshek Partnership Architects City: New York, New York Floor Count: 20 Height: 265 ft Completed: 2009

Tall Buildings in Historic Centers


Appendix


Tall Building in Historic Centers  

Though slim in volume, "Tall Buildings in Historic Centers" is rich with information specific to the disparate stratospheres of landmarks-or...

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