Security Authority & Power

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SECURITY Authority & power Security Regimes and their Impact on Spatial and Social Hierarchies Northeastern University School of Architecture | Fall 2018

This publication is a synthesis of the research, collaborative class discussions, and speculative design thinking done during the 2018 Graduate Research Studio at the Northeastern University School of Architecture. The evolving work was both enriched and clarified as a result of a series of panel discussions that included the participation of guest critics and editors. Published by Northeastern University School of Architecture 360 Huntington Avenue Boston Massachusetts, 02115 Copyright Š 2018 by Northeastern University School of Architecture All rights reserved

SECURITY Authority & power Security Regimes and their Impact on Spatial and Social Hierarchies Northeastern University School of Architecture | Fall 2018

acknowledgements Authors and Information Graphic Designers Sultan Assiri Chaimee Bouzid Shelly Chipimo Jonathan Corriveau Joshua Friedman Jieteng Luo Vivian Nguyen Alena Parunina Juhi Patel Sarah Soltes Paige Stathopoulos Avery Watterworth

Graphic Layout Designer and Editor Jonathan Corriveau

Copy Editors

Shelly Chipimo Tim Love FAIA Avery Watterworth

Content Editor Tim Love FAIA

Guest Critics and Editors

Dan Adams Northeastern University School of Architecture Peter Boynton The Kostas Research Institute for Homeland Security at Northeastern University Cyrus Dahmubed Utile Architecture + Planning Kevin Drakulich Department of Criminal Justice, Northeastern University Robert Ducibella R APCS LLC and DVS Kyle Jonasen Utile Architecture & Planning Kristian Kloeckl Department of Art & Design, Northeastern University Andrea Leers FAIA Leers Weinzapfel Architects Matthew Littell Northeastern University School of Architecture John McCartin Utile Architecture & Planning Mark Pasnik Department of Architecture, Wentworth Institute of Technolog y Jessica Robertson Utile Architecture & Planning


Security, Authority, & Power

Acknowledgements 5

meet the team

Sultan Assiri

Chaimae Bouzid

Shelly Chipimo

Vivian Nguyen

Alena Parunina

Juhi Patel

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

BFA Architecture, UMASS Amherst

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B. Architecture, Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technolog y

Jonathan Corriveau

Joshua Friedman

Jieteng Luo

Sarah Soltes

Paige Stathopoulos

Avery Watterworth

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B.A. Architectural Studies, Boston University

B.S. Architecture, Northeastern University

B.A. History, Boston University


Security, Authority, & Power

A letter from the editor

Given the complexity and richness of the subject of security in architecture, this publication is organized into a series of chapters that look at the topic from different of perspectives. This has allowed the authors to explore the wide range of spatial, psychological/situational, social, and political issues that need to be considered when integrating security strategies into the design of public space. Central to our argument is the idea that security regimes are manifestations of power, since the authorities with control and resources—whether they are public agencies, corporations, or property owners—define the potential threats, design the security response, and manage the ongoing security protocols and supporting information infrastructure. Ironically, much urban crime is provoked by this demonstration of authority and power. Whether it is the “vandalism” of graffiti, the Robin Hood-like motivations of shoplifting or looting, Occupy Wall Street, or acts of terrorism, a social and political statement is explicitly or implicitly connoted in the intentionality of the act. Within this context, the benign goals of contemporary security approaches— to keep citizens safe—can also reinforce class distinctions and stereotypes. With this more robust understanding of what is at stake, we hope to inform design solutions that are both mindful of the real risks in an increasingly polarized world and celebrate a society that is open, diverse, and inclusive. Security regimes are predicated on defining both who is at risk and potential threats, whether they be potential criminal agents or an entire class of people. This initial categorization is typically done through “risk assessments” conducted by security experts, whether they be government officials, members of the military, or consultants trained in criminal justice, engineering, or one of the design professions. The identification of potential threats helps define vulnerabilities that can be mitigated or eliminated

through design. The tactics that are available extend from physical design responses to cybersecurity measures. The approaches across this broad spectrum can be organized into four categories: Community Engagement | To disarm disgruntlement that may lead to future action; to learn of potential threats before they are conceptualized Surveillance |To identify potential antagonists before they act Hardening | To thwart attacks and the penetration of secure perimeters Resiliency | To increase recovery from attack Importantly, each of these tactics have a potential social and political dimension that should be considered when developing a comprehensive security plan. The first two categories rely on the identification of specific groups to identify and target. In the case of community engagement, the very act of organized interaction in itself can be perceived to be an overt identification of “otherness.” Likewise, visual surveillance, by definition requires some degree of stereotyping. The recent controversy surrounding “stop and frisk” policing strategies highlights the negative social consequences of pre-digital surveillance techniques. Ironically, these tactics often invite a backlash in terms of politically or socially motivated “crimes.” As these observations make clear, the topic of security in architecture exposes both the richness and complications of a discipline that defines and subdivides space based on levels of privacy and access. By focusing on the deeper implications of security regimes, the hope is that the public realm can be more ambitiously welcoming and democratic. The informed optimism outlined in the chapters that follow offers a productive resistance to the paranoia and implicit racism that has shaped too much of our built environment. Tim Love FAIA

A Letter from the Editor 9



fortified palaces 32 Site & Context

Underlying frameworks and master planning strategies of royal cities and palaces

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS 14 Framing Safe Space Theoretical Frameworks of Spatial Security

18 Jane Jacobs

The Death and Life of Great American Cities

20 C. Ray Jeffrey

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

22 Oscar Newman Defensible Space

24 Ronald Clarke

Situational Crime Prevention

26 Schneider & Kitchen Planning for Crime Prevention

34 City Within a City

Concentric security layers and their corresponding thresholds

36 Program & Planning

Programmatic organization of palatial master plans

38 Layered Courtyards

Opened vs closed courtyards as security thresholds

40 Gates as Thresholds

Examining the varied gates and entries across palaces

48 Double Gates

Redundancy in design

50 Thick Walls

Utilizing the “space between�

54 security studies & solutions 62 Deterrent Tactics Discouraging Criminal Behavior

64 Protection Tactics

Neutralizing a Crime in Motion

66 Resiliency Tactics Recovering in the Aftermath

68 Spatial Applications

Security implementations at local and regional scales

72 Hybrid Tactics 73 Tactics Glossary 76 Security Elements Catalogue

A comprehensive database of landscape, vehicular, control point, and standalone security elements

112 78 crime & culture 84 Crime of the Century

Tracking U.S. political and cultural reactions in the wake of national security events

94 Against “The System”

Examining heist media over time and its biased portrayals of the wealthy and powerful

100 A New Era

Tracing the major shift in pop culture narratives in a post-9/11 nation

106 Don’t Name Them

Examining the role of media coverage in the wake of mass shootings

speculative security scenarios 116 The Switchback Queue 118 The Accessible Pulpit 120 The Symmetrical Hall

122 Appendix 124 Embassies 126 Court Houses 128 Federal Facilities 132 Ports of Entry 138 Airports 140 Neighborhood Facilities 142 Municipal Facilities


Theoretical Frameworks

theoretical frameworks


Framing safe space

Theoretical Frameworks of Spatial Security Security permeates countless aspects of daily life—from the omnipresent keys in our pockets to the bollards we pass daily on the sidewalk, space is dictated by a series of thresholds, boundaries, and gates. The powers that be, colloquially known as “authorities,” construct and dictate who belongs on which side of the boundaries, and for what reasons. Police, government agencies, administrations, and private companies all act as spatial manipulators, setting up boundaries and granting access to only those who qualify. However, space cannot always be governed or controlled. Barriers can only be so tall, locks so common, and pat-downs so often before people start to feel uncomfortable. Security carries with it an inextricably social context, and has an effect on all those who come in contact with it. This social consideration has inspired a number of theories that address the social and spatial aspects of security. In the second half of the 20th century, theorists began to form ideas that would alter the physical landscape in order to provide auspiciously better security strategies for neighborhoods and the built environment. These theories were developed by all types of thinkers, first urban theorists like Jane Jacobs and architects like Oscar Newman, and then criminal justice scholars. Each set of ideas builds on the literature and outcomes of the theory before it. In researching these frameworks, common threads and crucial differences appear. Each has a diverse take on how physical tactics, visual surveillance, and community engagement intertwine to become effective strategies for creating livable environments at different scales. The complexity of social, political, and authoritative relationships that define these spaces are addressed differently in each theory, but all have the same goal: to create a crime-free space for urban life to play out. The main criterion for selecting the theories presented here was the author’s goal to influence

“The powers that be, colloquially known as ‘authorities,’ construct and dictate who belongs on which side of the boundaries, and for what reasons.”


Theoretical Frameworks

crime outcomes and social relationships through an applicable spatial framework. By using a spatial framework to understand these different arguments, the question of scale, community, culture, power and resilience were brought to light. It is important to identify that while each of these theories does not necessarily solve all of the problems of security and space, they do provide a productive theoretical framework that facilitate discovering a more modern and adaptable solution to the issues they aim to solve.

Spatial Security: A Primer At its most essential, spatial security is the division of space based on privilege. While in reality, every spatial security solution is unique and site-specific, peeling back the nuances reveals that all security scenarios share a common framework. These two theoretical frameworks can be referred to here as “barrier” and “threshold”. The barrier is a simple demarcation, a physical wall, fence, or other obstruction that separates one population from another. The threshold is similar to a barrier, but contains within its thickness an area for processing and screening users as they pass from an “unprotected” area to a “safe” one. Consequently, these relationships carry psychological implications. The relationships in a spatial security scenario create a certain dichotomy of actors: those in a position of power (authorities), and those seeking to navigate the system in place (users). The psychological actions that take place between authorities and users are herein referred to as “surveillance” and “deterrence”. Surveillance is the psychological act of watching and observing the actions of the population outside the privileged area by the authorities. Deterrence, on the other hand, is just the opposite—the observation of the authorities’ impediments by the users.

Spatial Basics: The vast majority of conditions of spatial security can be interpreted as a barrier or threshold. The perception of these elements is interpreted as surveillance or deterrence.




The simplest form of spatial security, a barrier carries several implications. The first is spatial: the barrier divides two populations. An authority determines where the barrier is placed, deciding which group of users is being protected from the other. The second implication is social. By placing the barrier, the authority designates two groups: insiders and outsiders. The effects of this social hierarchy can be benign or severe, depending on the social dynamics of the two populations and their relationship to one another.



A threshold represents many forms of spatial security solutions. A threshold divides populations by means of a space between them which is used for screening. Examples include checkpoints, lobbies, and airport security. This form has social implications that go beyond the barrier. The space inside the threshold is often staffed by security personnel, which become a human representation of the managing authority.



Psychological as much as physical, surveillance is the act of watching users in a security situation. This psychological concept is crucially important to the way people—both authorities and users—behave in particular situations. When users are aware of being watched, they behave differently. When authorities watch, they develop stereotypes and prejudices that can lead to alterations in the social hierarchy that surrounds a place.

Deterrence This term is the psychological opposite of surveillance—it happens in the opposite direction. This is at once an intentional and unintentional act by the authority. Users perceive the authority in a certain way based on its spatial reality—users see the measures that are being used to keep them out. These observations then translate into the amount of deterrence a user feels.

Framing Safe Space 15

time & space

Qualifying Theoretical Characteristics Visual Visual surveillance is the simple act of watching, or the psychological knowledge that one is being watched. This is a strong traditional approach to security that is emphasized in tactics like Bentham’s Panopticon, or modern day CCTV cameras. Visual surveillance is a proactive tactic, but it does not always prevent crime from occuring.

Physical Physical tactics are a ubiquitous spatial security approach. These include any measures undertaken to physically block or protect from crime. Hardening measures such as walls, locks, and other fortifications fall under this category, which is used in most theories. This was the dominant approach before the 20th century.

Community Community interaction is a security approach that leverages human interaction to keep groups of people safe. By forging personal bonds and involvement in neighborhoods, buildings, or housing blocks, societies can protect themselves from outside threats and police their own community. This is a favorable approach for reducing the causes of crime.

Resilience Resiliency is perhaps the newest approach to spatial security. In accepting that crime cannot be fully eradicated, some theories propose that remaining functional during a crime event is as important as preventing it. This includes the ability of a group to rebound from a crime event, which often depends on community support.


Theoretical Frameworks

Crime has been a factor in human society for time immemorial. However, conceiving crime as a factor of space is a relatively new phenomenon. Beginning in the early 20th century, designers and theorists began to consider the quality and design of space in criminal psychology. The five theories collected here represent the driving thought surrounding spatial security. The language and tactics of each theory differ from author to author, so a language was needed in order to compare them. Each theory emphasized a different approach to what became the four categories contained in the chart. Those categories are the common factors in any spatial security theory, and to understand them will give insight into how to approach security design.

A Common Language: Each theory was evaluated based on the emphasis given to the categories of physical tactics, visual surveillance, community engagement, and resilience. The size of the circles denotes very high, high, medium, or low emphasis.


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vis u 1961


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Jacobs Safety is achieved through interpersonal relationships and and a strong sense of community. Visibility, active street life, and familiarity play key roles.


Jeffery Crime is prevented through the thoughtful ordering of physical elements in an environment. Territoriality, obstruction and psychology play key roles.


Newman Security is managed by residents who take a sense of pride in their territory. Strong delineations of space and critical adjacencies play key roles.


Clarke Security is specifically designed to prevent the opportunity for crime to occur. Visibility, thresholds, and identification play key roles.


Schneider & Kitchen Safety is achieved by elminitating the source of crime through community organization. The active participation of users and authorities are essential.

Time & Space 17

Jane jacobs

The Death and Life of Great American Cities Jane Jacobs’ seminal text “The Death and Life of American Cities” proved instrumental in reasserting the power of community. Jacobs was a communityfirst thinker who presented her research through an urban-scale lens. Jacobs attacked the modernist sensibilities that prevailed during the 1950s and 60s, and shed light on why diversity of both building stock and inhabitants created a safe and self-supporting neighborhood. Her book was “an attack on current city planning and rebuilding” which looked at several cities to identify what common factors led to strength of community. Jacobs posited that maintaining and encouraging strong community involvement would allow for many “eyes on the street” to keep inhabitants safe. Jacobs observed wide sidewalks, front stoops, street-facing windows and a diversity of building stock to be factors in creating safe and thriving community life. Her observations valued the bustling community life and activity as a primary defense against the creation of unused parks and open spaces that became hotbeds for petty and violent crime. Her sociological approach was valued across the country, and presented a strong counterpoint to the fight against “urban blight.” Largely successful in the areas where these conditions already existed, Jacobs’ embrace of high density neighborhoods is still championed by urban planners today.


Theoretical Frameworks

Eyes on the Street: Wide sidewalks accomodate a variety of activity in an ideal Jacobian neighborhood. Activity and community engagement allow neighbors to police their own street. Street life is crucial to the success of Jacobs’ theory.

C. Ray Jeffrey

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design The theory of C. Ray Jeffrey, a criminology professor at the University of Florida in the early 1970s, is known as Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, or CPTED, and it is aimed to deter criminal activity based on spatial design. By altering the physical environment, Jeffrey believed that crime could be prevented. This was a novel theory at the time, and was well received throughout the crime-prevention world. However, the theory was criticized for its social repercussions. Creating divisions and putting visual focus on “outsiders” became a racial problem, and CPTED was sometimes used to reinforce racial divisions. Set in an urban context, the theory is based around a number of consistent tenets. The first, natural surveillance, relied on improving the visibility of streets and other public areas and increasing traffic and activity. This would increase the natural tendency for people to surveil one another, but also could lead to racial profiling and stereotyping. Secondly, natural access control aimed to use a single point of entry, along with gates, hedges, and other spatial elements to control and direct the flow of people within a given area. Another tenet, natural territorial reinforcement provides clear cues that communicate use and maintenance by users. Paving patterns, sidewalks, and changes in foot traffic point subtly to the divisions between public and private space, reinforcing psychological perception of these social boundaries. The emphasis on “natural” tactics demonstrates the spatial nature of these ideas: all were meant to happen without supplementary support from government or paid security. CPTED became the basis for many of the US government’s official guidelines on building safety. The concepts that Jeffrey outlined are still considered in the design of urban environments all over the world.


Theoretical Frameworks

Drawing Lines: CPTED emphasizes the difference between public and private space, which creates a dichotomy that can lead to complicated social heirarchies.

C. Ray Jeffrey 21

oscar newman Defensible Space

Published during a similar timeframe as CPTED, Oscar Newman’s “Defensible Space” is unique in the the security theory literature because it was written by an architect. Newman’s theory is a multiple-principle urban planning theory influenced by Jane Jacob’s ideas. Newman’s ideas are organized by five main principles: •The assignment of different resident groups to environments they are best able to control •The territorial definition of space •The juxtaposition of dwelling interiors and exteriors •The orientation of dwelling entries and amenities •The adoption of building forms that avoid stigma Along with these five principles, Newman also delineates five factors that can create defensible space: territory, natural surveillance, image, mileu, and safe adjoining areas. The first factor, territory, is the idea that inhabitants develop a proprietary demeanor when territorial lines are clearly defined, which in turn propels a perception of ownership and pride with regards to maintaining a space. The second factor is natural surveillance. The inhabitants’ ability to see their neighbors and surrounding areas, ensures a sense of safety among them. Next is image, the building’s ability to provide a notion of assurance based on its impression. Penultimately, and closely related to image, is the concept of milieu. This factor is the amalgamation of all of the other facets that compose a more complete feeling of security. An example of this could be the close proximity of a police station, commercial areas, or well-maintained parks. The last factor is the safe adjoining area. This factor calls for the proper design of lobbies, courtyards, and other areas that are junctions for inhabitants and require the proper orientation and permeability.Newman’s tenets were considered during the design of public housing projects in the late 1970s. While many of Newman’s ideas provided the groundwork for future theories, there are also myriad contemporary critiques of the moral and ethical implications of Newman’s argument.


Theoretical Frameworks

Power Structure: As an architect, Newman knew the power of the built environment and pushed for his theories to be incorporated in modern housing projects.

Oscar Newman 23

ronald clarke

Situational Crime Prevention In the late 1990s, Ronald Clarke synthesized a number of growing trends to create a highly specific and well-received theory of spatial security. Clarke and a colleague at Rutgers University called it “Situational Crime Prevention”, and the pretext was elegantly simple; remove the opportunity for crime to occur. To do this, authorities would carefully consider the “management, design or manipulation of the immediate environment in as systematic and permanent way as possible.” By ordering space in such a way that crime could not occur, crime itself would quite literally have no place in a community. For Clarke, this meant strategies and methods that would reduce the chance that a criminal would be unnoticed. Closed circuit television, badging, security desks, and many of the security fixtures that remain in use today fell into this framework. But crucially, these spatial and physical elements did not fit all situations. The theory was directed at “highly specific forms of crime”, and Clarke stressed the need for the selective and strategic deployment of the measures. The theory identifies target hardening, accessing control, deflecting offenders, controlling facilitators, denying benefits, stimulating conscience, and facilitating compliance as key points. These points emphasize the specific nature of the crime that they aim to stop, and are applicable in many scenarios. Unlike his theoretical predecessors, Clarke emphasizes the fact that none of these solutions alone can be the answer to a crime problem; they must be used as part of a well-considered and site-specific system in order to be successful.


Theoretical Frameworks

Custom Fit: Clarke aimed to reduce the chance for very specific crimes to occur through an array of carefully deployed methods.

schneider & Kitchen Planning for Crime Prevention

Richard H. Schneider and Ted Kitchen’s book, “Planning for Crime Prevention,” based on studies performed in Britain and the United States, recommended a more social and preventive approach. In addition to social engagement , the authors advocated for the widespread use of closed-circuit cameras (CCTV) and other technological solutions. The authors emphasize the need for the considered investment of the users and managers of urban and suburban environments, along with public and private security entities. They assert that traditional security alone is not enough; there is no one-sizefits all approach. A wide range of strategies must be thoughtfully and carefully combined in order to effectively slow crime. One example of a multi-faceted approach is creating community organizations and outreach centers within a neighborhood. This way, crime can be prevented at the source. Disadvantaged children and hostile environments lead to criminal behavior, and preventing this starts with the community. By organizing programs for children, an increased responsibility for neighborhood kids leads to “parenting by committee.” These children, therefore, are removed from the possibility of becoming criminals; ostensibly, criminals would cease to exist. Similar to the theories of Jacobs, Schneider and Kitchen elucidate the benefits of a healthy and self-policing community over a barren and government-controlled alternative.


Theoretical Frameworks

Get Involved: Healthy community organization would encourage the active participation of residents in ensuring their own security.



Fortified Palaces


Fortified palaces

Examining defensive strategies across cultures and time From dictatorships to democracies, security has historically been a major factor affecting people all over the world. In this chapter, we focus on three large palace complexes from different empires and times: the Topkapi Palace from the Ottoman Empire, the Forbidden City from the Ming Dynasty, and Fatehpur Sikri from the Mughal Empire. It is helpful to understand how buildings from these different eras can be so similar in terms of their security layering and spatial planning, even though they were implemented by different cultures in a diverse range of architectural styles. All three empires played a pivotal role within a larger trading realm along the Silk Road, a major trading route still being used in the twenty-first century. The Silk Road was established by the Han Dynasty in 130 BC which connected Eastern Asia with Western Europe and Northern Africa through the Middle East. The participants of the Silk Road created a vital cross-cultural network that might also account for why the three palaces analyzed below are similar in terms of their security approaches. Each of the palaces have similar layering systems to address security through fortification. The Onion Layering deployed within the framework of Topkapi is evident in both Forbidden City and Fatehpur Sikri. This involves largely limited entry points and sequential double walls that are deployed to segregate programs. Sight is also extremely essential in giving a greater visual scope throughout different spatial elements of the three palaces; this is evident in the use of courtyards, corridors and double walls as thresholds. The walls punctured by fortified thresholds define specific areas where the public, ambassadors to the court, and different members of the royal family can go. Furthermore, the architecture of the gates between the precincts have elaborate decorative schemes because they both serve as an important security element—signifying the hierarchy of the larger society—while also playing a pivotal role in expression of royal power. Just like multiple layers of onions, the palaces similarly employ a series of layered, nested zones that sort out and control access to the royal family.


Fortified Palaces

Forbidden City: Shenwu Gate, the north gate of Forbidden City. Photo Credit: JOSEMEIJITCAPA, Flickr Cover Photo Credit: Kevin Tadema

Fatehpur Sikri: One of the largest security thresholds, the Buland Darwaza. Photo Credit: Airpani, Flickr

Topkapi: Marble patterning and masks the size of the Imperial Gate, while Arabic calligraphy maniscript in gold is carefully articulated as an ornametal element. Photo Credit: Sultan Assiri

Preface 31

site & context

Underlying frameworks and master planning strategies of royal cities and palaces The Forbidden City is located in Beijing, China, and is comprised three concentric cities: Beijing, the Imperial City, and the Forbidden City that served as palaces for the emperor and the royal family. The Forbidden City is the smallest city that is nested in the center of the Imperial City. The Imperial City is an extension of the Forbidden City and it includes royal gardens, altars, palaces for princes, eunuch offices, workshops and warehouses. Lastly, Beijing is the largest city and the capital—measuring 5,350 by 6,650 metres. It encloses government ministries, residences of royal nobles and high officials, and the rest of the urban population and functions. The layering of these three cities, each with their own set of walls and gates, historically protected the Forbidden City both externally and internally and restricted access to the royal families during their respective reigns. Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India, which served as the capital for the Mughals for almost 15 years. It was only after Emperor Akbar’s son was born in Fatehpur Sikri that construction of the walled city and imperial palace began in 1571. The city sits on a ridge and is enclosed by an embattlement on three sides and a vast artificial lake on the fourth side, which was the main source of water supply to the city. The palace is 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) in length and 1 km (0.62 mi) wide, and is divided into two major parts: the royal complex and the sacred complex. The royal complex is comprised of private palaces as well as the administrative offices of Akbar’s government. The sacred complex comprised of Jami Masjid (mosque), still one of the largest mosques in India, sits adjacent to the palace complex. Topkapi sits on an important hill surrounded by three bodies of water that separate Europe from Asia: the Marmara sea, the Golden Horn and Bosphorus— all of which were used during Byzantine rule as pivotal entry points to the Black Sea. These were the only points for boat traders to access the coastal cities that sit on the Black Sea. However, after the conquest of Constantinople, which occurred at such an important regional intersection, Sultan Mehmet II fortified both European and Asian ends of the Golden Horn. This pivotal point of regional trade within the Silk Road was the only access point by boat transportation to the Black Sea.


Fortified Palaces

Forbidden City Map Context




Fatehpur Sikri








Major Circulation Gate

Site & Context 33

Forbidden City Onion Diagrams Onion Onion Diagrams Diagrams

Fatehpur Sikri


Neighborhood Imperial Boundary Imperial City Forbidden City River

River Boundary

Forbidden City Land Forbidden City

City Wall Land Palace Boundary

Neighborhood Imperial Boundary Imperial City Forbidden City River Forbidden City Land

River Boundary

Forbidden City

River Boundary

City Wall

City Wall


Land Palace Boundary

Imperial City Limit River Boundary Imperial Land City Wall Forbidden City River Boundary Land City Wall Imperial City Limit Land Imperial Land Imperial City Limit Forbidden City Imperial Land Forbidden City

Neighborhood Imperial Boundary Imperial City Forbidden City River Neighborhood Forbidden City Land Imperial Boundary Forbidden City Neighborhood Imperial City Imperial Boundary Forbidden City River Imperial City Forbidden City Land Forbidden City River

City Boundary City Wall Fatehpur Sikri Palace

Forbidden City Forbidden City Land

Inner Court Boundary Inner Court

Forbidden City

Emperor’s Place

City Boundary City Wall Fatehpur Sikri Palace Inner Court Boundary Inner Court Emperor’s Place

City Boundary City Wall Forbidden City Inner Court Boundary City Boundary Inner Court City Wall Imperial’s Place City Boundary Forbidden City City Wall Inner Court Boundary Forbidden City Inner Court Inner Court Boundary Imperial’s Place Inner Court Imperial’s Place


Fortified Palaces

City Boundary City Wall City Land

Inner Court Boundary Inner Court Emperor’s Palace

City within a city

Concentric security layers and their corresponding thresholds Forbidden City | From the Great Wall of China to the Forbidden City, architecture in Chinese culture has not only served as a place for shelter, but also as a place for the expression of security and power. The Great Wall of China was one of the most important security layers established in Chinese history that protected its capital from the North. It is the most notable embodiment of the Onion Layering system that has acquired historical significance in Chinese culture. The second most notable embodiment of the Onion Layering can be found in the Forbidden City. This former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty was built in 1420 and it is now being used as the Palace Museum. It served as the home for numerous emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years. Built in the center of the capital city, the Forbidden City also follows the city within a city model. The design of the Forbidden City also employs several landscaped elements that historically served as security thresholds. One major component includes an artificial river that surrounds the entire perimeter of the outermost city. The man-made river penetrates the exterior walls from the north of Beijing and runs all the way inside the Forbidden City to separate the Forbidden City and the city of Beijing on the west side. The river was initially made for the transportation of building materials and furniture during construction of the Forbidden City, but it was later segmented to prevent people from entering the city. The displaced dirt from the river excavation was moved to the rear of the Forbidden City to create a hill. This would minimize the exposure of the Forbidden City to the larger city to the north side. The extensive threshold was further supplemented by a series of nested walls and gates, as well as numerous courtyards that were used to control access to the royal family. Fatehpur Sikri | Defense was not one of the primary concerns for Fatehpur Sikri. Most palaces of that time were kept walled in, separated from the town by wide moats. City plans were based on concentric circles, but Sikri was different. The absence of a wall between the imperial complex and the city where ordinary people lived reflects a new

relationship between the emperor and his people. It indicates a ruler living among his people, secure and unafraid. However, it had security devices that linked thresholds with the architecture of the palace, making it secure and safe for the emperor. The most notable of these security devices were nine gates located in the outer walls that provided access into the walled city: the Delhi Gate, the Lal Gate, the Agra Gate, Birbal’s Gate, the Chandanpal Gate, the Gwalior Gate, the Tehra Gate, the Chor Gate, and the Ajmeri Gate. Each of these gates included guards and watchtowers. Additional watchtowers were located at the gates to the sacred and royal complex, providing a second layer of security for the palace. Because the watchtowers were placed on the ridge, the guards were also able to detect threats from the four cardinal directions. Also, the inner palatial complex has layers of heavily guarded entrances specific to the hierarchy of the people, which again exemplifies the Onion Layering used by the emperor and the royal family. Topkapi Palace | The intitial construction to the palace was commissioned six years after the conquest of Constantinople (1453) and served as the center of operations for the Ottoman Empire from the sixteenth to twentieth century. Necessitated by the growth of the Ottoman Empire during this period, it was one of many large, fortified palaces created during this vast expansion. Like the layers of an onion, the concept of a city within a city—characterized by a nested series of walls and gates—reinforced the security of the royal family and the holy manuscripts that legitimized the emperor’s power. This expression of power was evident in the outer layers of Topkapi, which had massive deterrent walls, as well as in the use of holy manuscripts, which portrayed the leadership agendas of the ruling family. Courtyards are the main architectural device used to filter different users between specific programs. Upon entering the first gate of the fortified palatial campus, there is a ceremonial courtyard in which military parades take place. This establishes a socializing space for military officials with government counterparts. Next, there is a diplomatic courtyard, were diplomats meet top empire officials. Lastly, there is the courtyard used by the emperors family for recreational purposes.

City Within a City 35

Thick Zone program & planning

Programmatic organization of palatial master plans Forbidden City | The design of the Forbidden City has various levels of security. From south to north, the central axis has three different courtyards ranging from ceremonial to diplomatic to private. Outside the courtyards, there are service zones placed on the south and east sides of the complex. Residential areas are placed on the north side. The whole complex is separated from the public on the north and west sides by the imperial city and kept at a distance from the public on the south and east sides. Fatehpur Sikri | The city’s imperial complex serves as its focal point. The layout plan of Fatehpur Sikri can be described as open, informal, flexible, and democratic. It was generated in the form of an arena where the focus was on creating social and court life through the provision of courtyards. The building is divided into three major zones- public, diplomatic, and private. Its buildings are connected through a series of interlocking courtyards of different zones set to the cardinal points. The locations of the buildings in the courtyards can be viewed from several different vantage points, creating a dynamic visual experience. Topkapi | Servants, parade participants, and military officials can gather in the first courtyard, which is designed to support large numbers of people. However, the second courtyard is more restricted and only accessible by ambassadors and other highranking officials. Furthermore, it has a character and aesthetic that is radically different than the first courtyard. In many ways the second courtyard has the attributes of an exotic zoological garden where peacocks, ostriches, and other exotic animals are bred, preserved, and looked after. Lastly, the most restricted courtyard of them all is the family courtyard—which integrates recreational elements with a view toward the Marmara Sea.


Fortified Palaces

Forbidden City








Fatehpur Sikri


Ceremonial Courtyard Diplomatic Courtyard Private Courtyard Service Zone Center of Operations Residential Diplomatic Quarters







Service Zone Diplomatic Quarters Residential Center of Operations

Program & Planning 37

Layered courtyards

Opened vs closed courtyards as security thresholds Courtyards are also a major architectural device used to establish a sense of order in the Forbidden City. The palace is organized into two main courtyards—an inner court and an outer court. The first is a private residential quarter for the royal family, whereas the latter is a public area for larger audiences to host ceremonies and some bureaucratic functions. On the north–south axis, there are three audience halls in the outer court and three residential palaces in the inner court. The last courtyard of the outer court is also a foreground of the gate into the inner court. This gate was a critical space, effectively a transitional area, between the inner and outer worlds of the Palace City; known as qian qing men, or Gate of Heavenly Purity. It served as a strategic joint between the two worlds of the palace. Critical communications occurred at this point and in this area. One such event was known as the “audience at the imperial gate” (yumen tingzheng). It referred to the ritual where audiences were held in front of the gate while the emperor held meetings with high-ranking officials. The event was a critical moment in the process of communication between the inside and outside— between the emperor and his officials, and the entire country. The residential palaces, from south to north, were the Palace of Heavenly Purity (qianqinggong), the Hall of Union (jiaotaidian), and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility (kunninggong). The first was formally assigned as the residence for the emperor, whereas the latter was for the empress. The middle one, on the other hand, was a store of imperial seals. A ring of chambers encloses the three buildings, forming an intimate courtyard compound. It was the core of the inner court, the “great within” (danei). Behind the compound was a garden, defined by the last gate of the Palace City, the Gate of Martial Spirit (shenwumen). The five gates on the eastern side of the central compound, and the five on the west, respectively, led to the Six Eastern Palaces (dongliugong) and the Six Western Palaces (xiliugong). They were the two large complexes for the emperor’s consorts and concubines. To the south of the Six Western Palaces, and outside the south-western gate of the “great within,” was a palace compound known as Palace of Mental Cultivation (yangxindian). This was the second


Fortified Palaces

Inner Court & Outer Court

Forbidden City: Inner Court and Outer Court Diagram

Inner Court Outer Court

Open Space Outer Court Inner Court

Forbidden City: Trajectory of Cheng De’s assassination attempt in the Forbidden City in 1803.

Gates Escape Route Open Space


residence for the emperor, and after Emperor Yongzheng, it became the only residential palace for the Qing emperors for the rest of the Qing history. The palaces described so far, from the “great within” outward, formed one giant symmetrical complex in the northern section of the Palace City. It was enclosed by one continuous wall, with four main gates to the south, north, east and west. Assassination Route Open Courtyard

Forbidden City

Fatehpur Sikri: The axonometric view shows the heirarchy and the layers of courtyards and spaces accessible to specific catefories of people. Photo Credit: Fernando Aznar Cenamor

Public | The public courtyard is also known as Diwan-I am or Hall of Public Audience. The main use of this is public hearings, receptions and festive celebrations. People came together during festivals to meet and greet the emperor. It is the place where Akbar heard petitions of the general public and did justice every morning. The building was devoid of any dome or superstructure as seen in Islamic architecture, but the elevation was artistically made prominent using skillful use of pillars, brackets, chhajjas and kiosks at regular intervals in a masterful composition. At the time of Akbar, both this complex and Diwan-I-Khas made an ostentatious display of rich fabrics and other beautiful decorative items befitting the grandeur of the emperor.

Diplomats | Diplomats would pass through Diwan-I- Am and further into a courtyard known as Pachisi Court. It had square checkered paving (like chess) which acted as a life-size board game for the diplomats and emperor to play—where the servants were the pawns pieces themselves. The main administrative building was the Diwan-I-Khas or Hall of Private Audience situated in the northeast corner of the royal complex with a huge and richly carved pillar in the center. The central platform attached to the pillar was the seat of the emperor, while the diagonal galleries were believed to be the seat of ministers and nobles that were entertained here.

Private | The private zone was comprised of many buildings, namely Khwabgah, Jodabai’s Palace, and Panch Mahal. Khwabgah was exclusively the emperor’s chamber where he used to reside. It had a courtyard in front of it with a small pond as well as a private courtyard inside of the building itself for queen Jodha. In addition, the queen had access to Panch Mahal, a five-story building designed as a wind catcher for her and the emperor to relax and spend quality time together.

Fatehpur Sikri

Layered Courtyards 39


Fortified Palaces

Forbidden City

Gates as thresholds

Examining the varied gates and entries across palaces Thresholds and Layers: A series of gates and platforms serve as primary security devices to separate the general public from the royal officials. Photo Credit: Fernando Aznar Cenamor

Forbidden City

Forbidden City | The Forbidden City is located at the center of the Capital City, creating a city within city situation. Inside the Forbidden City, there is also a wall within wall situation. The complex has several zones surrounded by walls. Each zone also has walls separating the spaces within. These walls create circulation corridors and secure public and private courtyards. In order to enter into different spaces, people have to pass through thresholds placed along the walls. Those thresholds are often gates or buildings. Buildings sometimes exist at the boundaries of courtyards, serving as both meeting places and gates. These buildings are usually elevated from the ground to prevent horses and war chariots from crashing into buildings. This also means that people have to slow down in order to walk up the staircases. The restricted access to higher level platforms allows for authorized, powerful people to overlook the ground plane. Beside those thresholds, there are smaller gates placed along the walls for officials who work for the emperor. While those gates have less restriction, they still have small level changes and are guarded by the army as well. The deeper one walks into the Forbidden City, the more thresholds he or she must pass through. In order to get to the private courts on the north end of the Forbidden City, people have to walk through many layers and gates.

Gates as Thresholds 41

Forbidden City Gates: A series of gates filter the public from the private residents. Map Credit: The Palace Museum


Fortified Palaces

Forbidden City

Photo A Credit: Yuezheng Li







Photo B Credit: Yan Zhao

Photo C Credit: Yuezheng Li Photo D Credit: The Palace Museum

Photo E Credit: Yuezheng Li Photo F Credit: Story of Yanxi Palace

Forbidden City

Gates as Thresholds 43

Fatehpur Sikri | Buland Darwaza, also known as the “Gate of Victory� is one of the main entrances to the sacred complex of Fatehpur Sikri palace. The grand entrance, which stands at an astounding 15-stories high, was characteristic of Akbar’s rule. Built from red and buff sandstone, decorated by white and black marble, it was the direct entrance to the sacred complex ( Jami Masjid) and used by the emperor and his family. It was built to secure the palace entry from common people as well as intruders. The top kiosks in the gate were also used as watchtowers.


Fortified Palaces

Buland Darwaza: One of the largest, most important gates of the palace. Photo Credit: Airpano

Fatehpur Sikri

Fatehpur Sikri

Fatehpur Sikri | Gates as Thresholds 45

Topkapi: The Imperial Gate’s massive scale is camouflaged by the use of marble. Gold Arabic calligraphy manuscript is carefully articulated as an ornametal element. Photo Credit: Sultan Assiri

The Imperial Gate of Topkapi Palace is the main threshold that controls access and limits entry points to the palatial complex. Other gates are spread sequentially as spatial barriers between the inner courtyards of the complex are supplementary. The Imperial Gate, the primary gate of the complex, serves as a deterrent through its massive scale and its grounded aesthetic qualities. Within this massive wall are several servant spaces that comprise the thickened zone. Kitchens, with walls as deep as ten feet, populate the perimeter and limit entry points. The primary circulation path parallel to the kitchen serves a corridor connecting the ceremonial courtyard to the kitchen. Alternative access points require one to go through the horse stables. The use of precious stones such as marble camouflage the 10-foot-thick walls. The walls are further camouflaged with calligraphy—an ornamental arabic writing style that can be coded when used excessively in a collage. For instance, the Imperial Gate writings on the rectangular pediment of the entrance capture social hierarchies and regional domination at the emperor’s disposal.


Fortified Palaces

The calligraphy, translated into english reads as follows:

“By the Grace of God, and by His approval, the foundations of this auspicious castle were laid, and as parts were solidly joined together to strengthen peace and tranquility, by the command of the Sultan of the two continents and the Emperor of the two Seas, the Shadow of God in This world and the next, the favorite of God on the two Horizons (East and West), the Monarch of the Terraqueous Orb, the Conqueror of the Castle of Constantinople, the Father of Conquest Sultan Mehmed Khan, Son of Sultan Murad Khan, Son of Sultan Mehmed Khan may God make eternal his empire and exalt his residence blessed month of Ramadan of the year 883 and December 1478.”


Gate of Felicity: This is the threshold of highest security clearance of the Ottoman Empire throughout their rule from the sixteenth to twentyfirst century. Photo Credit: Mbell1795, Flickr


The Gate of Felicity, a thickened zone between the first military ceremonial courtyard and the second state ceremonial courtyard served a different functions. It acted as an acoustical barrier and created a new set of limitations for the acoustics. The gate also would not allow noise or anyone to pass through on their horses except for the Sultan. As one enters the threshold to the state ceremonial courtyards, triangular gardens with carefully placed stone paths created roads for circulation. Exotic animals such as peacocks, songbirds, gazelles and deers were groomed and fed to adapt to life within that courtyard. This man-made biblical scene was just a mere mask of the realities which took place within this courtyard. The Gate of Felicity thickened zones once housed an executioner, who executed people who were prosecuted through open court. The Courthall and the Tower of Justice were the thick zone perpendicular to the gate, and they protected the Sultan’s center of operations, Murat III Pavillion. This contradiction between the biblical garden imagery in the courtyard and the actual historical context shows how security tactics can be manipulated by the elite to perpetuate false images of prosperity and safety.

Gates as Thresholds 47

double gates Redundancy in design

Fatehpur Sikri: Jodhabai’s palace incorporates the two layers of security devices described below.

Fatehpur Sikri | The Sikri complex is a sequential organization of enclosed open spaces of varying sizes that also use the double-gate concept to trap intruders. This strategy is particularly noticeable in Jodhabai’s palace. First, the walls between the two gates to the palace are thick and would have an armed soldier present all the time. Additionally, the vast courtyard spreads far, without any visual hindrance, thus acting as a huge playground with no blind spots. This vast expanse of space would effectively allow for an easy sighting of an intruder.


Fortified Palaces

Fatehpur Sikri

Forbidden City: Capital City Plan and double gate implementation

Forbidden City | There are nine gates located on the perimeter of the Capital City—three on the south side, which are connected with the separated south part of the Capital City. The other three sides of the Capital City have two thresholds opened to the outside. All nine thresholds are built in double walls and double gates so that everyone has to travel through two security check points while passing through the thresholds. The idea is that the first gate would identify individuals and the second gate would restrict access to those individuals who have been recognized as threats to the Capital City. In between the walls delineated the boundary of the Imperial City and the walls of the City of Beijing. The city was patrolled and secured by eight different

Forbidden City

banners. Furthemore, there was restricted access between the inner court and the outer court based on gender. Officials and visitors were normally not allowed in the inner court while the ladies who lived in the inner court were not allowed to go into the outer court.

Double Gates 49

Thick walls

Utilizing the “space between”

Fatehpur Sikri | Diwan-i-Khas or the Hall of Private Audience was where Akbar met his ministers, scholars, and generals to discuss religious and courtly matters. The Hall has a giant and splendidly engraved pillar in the center, which was the main seat of the king; the diagonal galleries were supposed to be the seats of the ministers and aristocrats. The Hall also has staircases on both sides—which the guards would have used to monitor all the four sides of the complex. The thick walls and stairs collectively provided a buffer zone that could be protected in the event of an attack—ensuring that the emperor would remain safe while seated upstairs.


Fortified Palaces


Topkapi | Designed by renowned architect Sinan, thick walls were created to facilitate a robust and monolithic dome. The integration of several thickened zones helped isolate the center of operations of the structure. Hidden staircases and intervening spaces are located within the these zones. Serving as the center of operation, Murat III Pavilion has served as a space for the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire to conduct their day-to-day operations. An assasination attempt was avoided through the deployment of such systems.


Thick Walls 51

According to Russian sources, Mehmed had invited the Bolognese architect and engineer Aristotele Fioravanti to Istanbul to help build his palace before the Italian master went to Russia in 1475 to work on the kremlin. Courtyards are the main architectural device used to filter different users with specific programs. Upon entering the first gate of the fortified palatial campus there is a ceremonial courtyard in which military parades take place. This established a social space for military officials with government counterparts. Next, there is a diplomatic courtyard, were diplomats met top empire officials. Lastly, there is the courtyard used by the emperors family—for recreational purposes. In the first courtyard, servants, parade participants, and military officials gathered im this designated space, which supported large numbers of people. However, the second courtyard was more restricted and only accessible by ambassadors and other high-ranking officials. Furthermore, it had a character and aesthetic that was radically different than the first courtyard. In many ways, the second courtyard had the attributes of an the exotic

zoological garden where peacocks, ostriches and other exotic animals were bred, preserved, and looked after. Lastly, the most restricted courtyard of them all was the family courtyard—which integrated recreational elements with the view toward the important Marmara Sea. The courtyards were all separated by a thickened zone that varied anywhere from a simple wall to an entry to dormitories for security personnel. The deployment of these zones throughout the palace masterplan fundamentally served to limit entry points into the family courtyard and created a fortified deterrent-edge condition. The interior of these courtyards, however, had an abundance of ornamental details that served to distract the users from the robust security frameworks—by camouflaging it as recreational space.


Fortified Palaces

Topkapi Kitchen: Located inside the thick zone, this kitchen features steeples that stick out of domes for ventilation. The exterior elevation provides a sense of scale to the structure. Photo Credit: Mbell1975, Flickr

Thick Walls 53

Security studies & solutions


Security Studies and Solutions

Photo Credit: Bjarke Ingels Group


Design Guidelines Best Practices

In the wake of 9/11, numerous federal, state, and private agencies made a carefully considered effort to produce guidelines documenting the most up-to-date security design practices. Following the conceptual approaches outlined in “Theoretical Frameworks, government agencies and municipalities as diverse as FEMA, the City of New York and the government of Singapore developed design guidelines that are still used today. Though varying drastically in scope and style of presentation, these design guidelines have several common threads. Design tactics fall in three categories: “soft” preventative measures like surveillance, “hard” measures intended to neutralize threats in motion like bollards and gates, and post-crime “resilience” measures to mitigate impacts and restore spatial function. This enables a comprehensive approach to security design that can be tailored to specific programmatic and precautionary needs. The juxtaposition of the public and private realms require different design tactics which are developed to allow for varying degrees of restriction. Consequently, the design guidelines which are separated into three categories are defined by the type of threats the tactics are intended to mitigate. Each set of guidelines deploys tactics based on a risk assessment formula, which takes into account the varying factors that different buildings and municipalities face. These design tactics relate to space in different ways. Most guidelines feature a layered spatial diagram which physically locates specific design tactics in relation to an asset. The “asset” can vary in scale, from building to city to region. Spatial layers relate to degrees of public access; the outermost layer enjoys the most public access, with interior layers becoming progressively more restricted to the public. Based on a comprehensive analysis of security design guidelines, this chapter summarizes and illustrates contemporary best practices by representing a baseline for further investigation instead of a “howto” for security design. The tactics illustrated here are collected to represent the current state of security as it is recommended by governments and other agencies. It is the role of the designer to further expand, critique and integrate these ideas in order to advance the design of safe and active community spaces.


Security Studies and Solutions

Security Protocol and Regimens: While specific design measures aid in creaitng secure spaces, human elements like security guards and pedestrian traffic are still a major component in their function. Photo Credit: Jerry Morsey


Risk assessment The Risk Assessment Process (RAP) tells which layers of the spatial model to focus on and what specific design tactics are most appropriate for the given asset. The process takes into account threat, asset value, vulnerability and impact as guiding principles for design. Multiplying the stated factors indicates the probability of a particular threat from occurring. The summation of said values dictates proper design measures and which spatial layer to focus on.

Threat: The type of crime scenario being evaluated.


Security Studies and Solutions

Asset Value: The economic, social, or political value to a community or individual stakeholders a place or building holds.

Design and Risk Assement Formulas: Can either be used as concepts or with designated values, these formulas predicate which design measures should be taken.

Risk Assessment Formula

“Risk Assessment” states the likelihood of a specific threat, determining how much design energy one should expend in preparation for said threat. “Design Measures” is the summation of all aspects of threat preparation. Factoring in the four categories described, one can determine the proper design measures to take.

Design Measures Formula

Vulnerability: How well situated a building/place is to dealing with a particular threat scenario. Can be assessed on a sitewide or individual systems basis.

Impact: The economic, social, or political consequences that might result from the success of a particular event

Risk Assessment 59

Design tactics Risk assessment is part of a more comprehensive design approach, informing future design decisions. In a cycle of assess, design, evaluate, reassess, one collects data in the event of calamity and uses it as input for the risk assessment process. Design decisions are driven by the results of risk assessment, and in turn, are shown to succeed or fail when placed under stress. The result gives new fuel for the risk assessment process, leading to updated design strategies.

Design Process: “Design Development” factors in the three periods of a crime when designing protective measures. Each period corresponds to a specifc category of design strategies. Once a crime has occurred and architectural measures have been tested, a new phase of data analysis occurs. This sets the stage for redesign and update of security features.

Design Tactics: Architectural design features fall in three categories, depending on what stage of a crime they deal with. “Deterrent” strategies aim for crime prevention, “protection “ strategies ain to neutralize a crime, and “recovery” strategies aim to restore order in the aftermath.


Security Studies and Solutions

Community Role in Design: Community involvement in all steps of the design process ensures a space that is both secure and hospitable is produced. Photo Credit: City of Fresno, CA

Design Tactics 61

Deterrent tactics Discouraging criminal behavior

Deterrent or “soft� tactics consist of design strategies that aim to prevent crimes from taking place. Design features that intend to produce a psychological deterrent to potential criminal actors, either through the provision of specific hardware that implies that someone is watching, or the continual presence of individuals within the space. These tactics communicate to criminal actors that they will be seen in the act of committing a crime. The presence of potential witnesses to any crime and individuals with a vested interest in maintaining the space deter crime from occurring. Strategies aiming to build community in a space rely on the notion of constant physical surveillance as occupied space is less likely to be the scene of a crime. This is because the odds of witnesses seeing or obstructing a perpetrator are higher. Increasing territoriality in a space through material choices or beautification helps to build ownership, which leads to a population of users who will actively work to protect the space. Physical hardware is used in place of civilians in many circumstances. The feeling that one is being watched by cameras, for instance, decreases the likelihood of criminal action. Cameras are arguably as unsettling to casual bypassers as they are to criminals, which could increase the need for cameras in the first place. By making people uncomfortable, the space will have less users and become more dangerous. Physical hardware can also be overridden, making it less reliable than having a watchful community on hand. Thus, designers should always focus on creating social activity through various site improvements and amenable features before entirely resorting to physical hardware for security.


Mixed Use Development


Security Studies and Solutions





Informational Signage


Facade Transparency








Controlled Sightlines




Territorial Reinforcement


Public Realm Programming

Deterrent Tactics 63

Protection tactics Neutralizing a crime in motion

Protection or “hard tactics� are comprised of active design strategies dedicated to stopping a crime in motion. Design measures in these instances aim at increasing the reaction time one has to respond to a criminal threat through the creation of physical barriers. Increased reaction time means individuals can evacuate a facility, in the case that it isn’t able to withstand the oncoming threat, or that the criminal might be apprehended prior to succeeding in their act. Design tactics employed largely relate to the nature of the perceived threat. Some design tactics, such as fences, are largely aimed at individuals on foot. Conversely, use of large scale landscape elements like berms or ditches, or specific road elements like spikes are targeted towards vehicular threats. In addition to the use of physical hardware and landscape as design tactics, strategic site planning would also be considered a form of hardening. Placement of specific utilities, or elements such as roads, parking, and service docks, can distance potential threats further away from the asset, increasing the time it takes for a criminal actor to reach his target. Use of checkpoints in layers can further increase the effectiveness of site planning, limiting physical access to different spatial layers for criminal actors and ensuring screening occurs prior to reaching the asset.


Structural Redundancy


Security Studies and Solutions


Blast Proofing



Integrated Barriers



Circuitous Routes







Remote Deliveries


Remote Parking

Checkpoints & Access Control

Protection Tactics 65

resiliency tactics Recovering in the Aftermath

Resilience tactics encompass all design strategies dedicated to preventing total system failure should a criminal actor succeed in accomplishing their goals. Design tactics consist of either establishing means of evacuation for individuals within an affected area, or provisions for ensuring first responders and security personnel can reach individuals in distress. Often these tactics are coupled with specific protocol and regimens individuals must act under should a catastrophe occur; fire drills are a legal requirement for specific occupancy buildings, for instance, and are intrinsically tied to the provision of alarm hardware, signage, and egress routes. Tactics highlighted here typically can be found in building codes or local fire codes, given how the primary ethical task of the architect is to ensure the public’s safety and wellbeing. Many of the tactics highlighted thus aren’t design suggestions but requirements. Means of egress, for instance, are universally stipulated in building and fire codes, though specific dimensions and material requirements may vary by jurisdiction.



Egress Routes


Security Studies and Solutions

Areas of Refuge



Emergency Access Routes







Backup Utilities

Emergency Signage


Emergency Notification Systems Resiliency Tactics 67

Hybrid tactics Many tactical elements do not fall squarely in one of these categories. A number of objects and designs have the capacity to act in both physical and psychological manners, or as protective and resilient measures. For instance, a tall wall would be a deterrent factor for potential perpetrators, while at the same time acting as a protective measure. Combined strategies help to strike a balance between protection and allowing visibility. To avoid choosing between a hard, unwelcoming barrier versus a low shrubbery, a designer could employ a combined strategy. These choices always have trade-offs that must be weighed. For instance, a chain-link fence offers greater visibility to people on either side of it, but doesn’t have the same protective capabilities against vehicles that a concrete wall might have. The design tactics highlighted here attempt to mediate these differing needs. Additionally, there are specific ways to measure protective desires against resilience needs. For instance, there is a necessity for emergency personnel access at an arena, but criminals must also be kept out. Retractable bollards are an emblematic example of addressing these concerns, as they prevent most through traffic while allowing first responders to gain access to an area in select circumstances. That said, such a case has numerous moving parts, and is thus more prone to failure under crisis than either bollards alone or a clear emergency access route, showing potential tradeoffs and disadvantages for hybrid design tactics

Venn Diagram: Tactics falling between design categories classified as “hybrid design tactics�


Security Studies and Solutions

Integrated Barrier: Example of combined protection and deterrent strategies. Programming low walls with benches makes a space more inhabitable, while also preventing vehicular rammings.

Chainlink Fence: Example of combined protection and deterrent strategies. A semi transparent infill for fencing allows both visual surveillance and acts as a barrier.

Control Pojnts: Example of combined protection and recovery strategies. Retractable bollards selectively permit emergency vehicles on to site.

Tactics glossary Deterrent Tactics

Activated Streetscape: Uses design elements to make a space more amenable, fostering frequent usage and thus creating a constant presence. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV): Provides cameras and other surveillance hardware in visible locations, suggesting a constant visual presence. Controlled Sightlines: Allows for unobstructed line of sight from the asset outwards and blocks views from exterior into the asset. Facade Transparency: Permits visual surveillance from interior spaces onto street. Informational Signage: Establishes territory and provides visual guidance to building occupants and visitors. Mixed Use Development: Implementation of tactical zoning and programming ensures surrounding buildings are always in use and provides spaces with a continual presence. Strategic Lighting Design: Illuminates spaces increaseing feelings that one might be caught in a criminal act, preventing potential miscreant behaviors. Territorial Reinforcement: Implies ownership over a space through security and material elements.

Protection Tactics

Access Control and Checkpoints: Establishes Screening layers preventing the entry of specific individuals, or allowing apprehension prior to reaching asset. Blast-proofing: Windows and walls resist explosions and shattering, decreasing harm to pedestrians or likelihood of failure. Circuitous Routes and Road Obstacles: Slow down perpetrators en route to asset, allowing time to react to threat. Integrated Barriers: Prevent vehicles or individuals from reaching asset by using form based design features Remote Deliveries: Isolates package based threats off site, allowing additional screening prior to reaching asset. Remote Parking: Reduces potential impact by isolating vehicle based threats from the asset. Structural Redundancy: Prevents total collapse of structure in the case of failure of primary members.

Resiliency Tactics

Areas of Refuge: Provide safe locations where individuals might wait out an event while first responders/security personnel are arriving. Backup Utilities: Offers continued building function in the case of an event by providing pedundant or standby units for electricity, water, etc. Emergency Access Routes: Grants individuals with means to leave an affected site and for security and emergency personnel to reach it. Emergency Signage: Directs individuals to safely escape the building by the use of directional or protocol signage. Fire Code and Egress Routes: Provide safe evacuation to building occupants in event of attack/ natural disaster. Notification Systems: Warn individuals of threats, and permit communication between individuals and security/emergency personnel.

Other Terms

Buffer Zone: Establishes a spatial divider between the asset and the perimeter. The goal of this zone is to maximize reaction time to any incoming threats, affording an opportunity for the occupants and security personnel to address them. Control Zone: Filters individuals approaching the asset using interior protective boundaries. Final Defense: Represent final measures aimed at neutralizing a threat. Might include resiliency strategies, protocols, panic hardware, and human elements like security guards Perimeter Access: Acts as a barrier indicating site boundaries. Filters incoming members of the general public, restricting access to interior zones.

Hybrid Tactics | Tactics Glossary 69

Spatial Applications Security implementations at local and regional scales

This spatial model reflects basic layers of security tactics applied in space. Representing a transition from the public space into more private and secured space, this model is an abstract representation of progressive security layers, divided between boundaries that are more defined through security elements and spatial zones that happen in between. Boundaries provide access control, allowing or denying entrance to individuals and vehicles, while zones operate as reaction spaces slowing down potential threats. As one moves progressively through the layers, increasingly stringent measures are instituted, and access is more restricted. The model comprehensively considers all incoming elements and categorizes them as general public versus authorized entities. These are subjected to different protocols. Thus, staff and employees would have the ability to get through the boundary layers with faster verification procedures while general public users must to go through more involved procedures for access. External threats are likely to be identified during the sequential movement through the layers of the model. Depending on the value of the asset and the inherent qualities of the security elements in the boundary layers, they can vary in their permeability and be selective to what elements they allow to enter. For instance, bollards and other site furnishings prevent vehicles from driving into public spaces, but they allow pedestrians to move freely through the space. Fences and gates, on the contrary, are designed for maximum control and regulation. Similarly, in some cases building envelope is open for public and doesn’t include monitoring and oversight, while in others it incorporates rigorous security protocols and grants access only to authorized personnel. This model can be applied at various scales. Site and building scales are more concrete architectural examples and will be discussed more in depth. At the site scale, spatial territory is defined by changes in materiality and any signage that would signal building’s presence. Access control in this case can be represented through gates and fences to grant entry into the site itself. Usually, at highly regulated buildings, pedestrian entry is handled through a visitor center where general public and authorized individuals get sorted out and processed. Vehicles


Security Studies and Solutions

are, in turn, monitored and inspected through a gatehouse with security guards or gates. After one passes through perimeter access they end up in a buffer zone that is a standoff between the building and the exterior threat. Site elements can be placed strategically in the buffer zone to control circulation and slow down traffic. On a site scale, the control zone is the building’s envelope and one can use key cards to get access into the building. Finally building lobby acts as a final defense layer and incorporates last measures to prevent building damage from occurring. Similarly, on a building scale, perimeter access is the building envelope, public lobby is the stand off distance where surveillance can happen and guards can take notice of suspicious individuals. Checkpoints and turnstiles are the control zone while the final defense zone is the secured lobby.

Elements In Space: Specific security hardware corresponds with different spatial security layers when featured in designs. (See right for layers)

Spatial Applications 71

City Scale City Signage City Boundary City Fabric Neighborhood Downtown

Financial District

Neighborhood Scale Neighborhood Property Line Campus Site Boundary Building Yard Campus Building


Security Studies and Solutions

Site Scale Signage Fence/Gates Yard Building Envelope Building Interior Private Spaces

Building Scale Plaza Building Entry Unsecured Lobby Security Check Secured Lobby Elevator/Stairs

Spatial Applications 73

security elements catalogue A comprehensive database of landscape, vehicular, control point, and standalone security elements


Jersey Barrier: Precast concrete barrier element. Can be erected permanently or temporarily on a site to prevent unwanted vehicle access. Geometry designed to lift car wheels off of the road surface, arresting vehicles in motion. Typical lengths range from 12’6” to 20’, allowing easy on site delivery from manufacturer via flatbed.

Low Wall: Walls falling within the range of 2’6 to 4’. Walls are high enough to provide a barrier against vehicular entry, but low enough to allow pedestrians to see over them for surveillance purposes. Can be integrated with other design features.

Planting: Vegetation that may exist in a raised planter or as part of street design (example shown for latter). Specific types of plantings might act as barrier elements due to size, density, or thorns. Also serve to make spaces more amenable to pedestrians, increasing site surveillance.

Ha-ha: A vertical barrier that is a recessed landscape element which prevents access but preserves views beyond. It can be used instead of a fence.

Berm: Raised topographic feature. A slope greater than 5 degrees incline can prevent individuals or vehicles from reaching the peak point. Ideal for preventing entry onto a site, or to provide a higher elevation for increased sight.

Ditch/Moat: Depressed landscape feature designed to prevent pedestrian and/or vehicular access. Slopes exceeding 5% prevent pedestrians from scaling the feature. Can be filled with water or plantings as a further barrier.

Security Studies and Solutions

Landscape Elements

Tiger Trap: Collapsible sidewalk with sand or gravel infill below. Sidewalk designed to cave in under pressure, arresting vehicles in motion. Breaking point for sidewalk dependent on weightpedestrian and light vehicle weights are supported, cars and heavier are not.

Road Spike: Retractable device to deny vehicle entry from a single direction. Spring loaded spikes shred tires of vehicles attempting to enter in wrong direction. 12’ length typ.

Rectractable Bollard: Vehicular control point. Single-lane width rotating plate with bollards, selectively allowing vehicular access onto site. Best suited for sites with limited depth for foundations.

Turntable: Vehicular control point. Single-lane width rotating plate with bollards, selectively allowing vehicular access onto site. Best suited for sites with limited depth for foundations.

Wedge Barrier: A pop-up plate that selectively allows vehicle access on to site. Deployed when a road needs to be shut down. Either built in or free-standing vehicle control point. Typical width 12’. Typical width 12’.

Vehicular Elements

Security Elements Catalogue 75

Drop Arm: Gate designed to prevent vehicle entry at a checkpoint. Can be specified to be of highly durable materials withstand high velocity impacts, though typically used in environments where lower security is required. Typical length of 12’ to cover one lane of traffic.

Crash Gate: Retractable gate designed to prevent vehicle entry at a checkpoint. Able to withstand high velocity impacts. Comes in 1 or 2 lane variants, with a maximum length of 24’ to cover two lanes of traffic. 7’6” typical to prevent unauthorized foot traffic from climbing over gate.

Turnstile: Control point in a fence, building, or other secured perimeter. Serves both as a checkpoint element and to slow down bad actors attempting to pass between security layers.

Guardhouse: Any checkpoint station requiring the presence of security personnel. Typically integrated with gates and fences, though its mere presence at the periphery of a site acts as a psychological detractor from unwanted entry.

Gate: A point of entry that may either control or prevent the entry of any individual attempting to enter the premises.


Security Studies and Solutions

Control Point Elements

Standalone Elements

Lighting: Devices that illuminate spaces to improve visibility for occupants, fostering community space usage and deterring criminals. Can be movable (temporary fixtures), continuous (consistent lighting in a row), or standby (sensors activate lights when movement is detected). All fixtures should allow one’s face to be seen at a distance of 50’.

Nogo Barrier: Sculptural barrier element, designed to prevent vehicular access. Height allows pedestrians to utilize element as seating.

Planter: Low lying feature that can be used in place of bollards or low walls as a means of preventing vehicular access into a site. Has added benefit of integrating plantings to make a space more amenable to pedestrians, increasing community engagement and surveillance for the site.

Bollard: Element designed to prevent vehicle entry into a perimeter when placed in series. Shape may vary, though mass produced versions are typically round or square, with varying dimensions. 33” height typical. Place at a maximum of 4’ on center for optimal protection.

Water Feature: Natural water features found on site (rivers, lakes, streams) or man made water elements (fountains, waterfalls). Can be incorporated into designs to act as access controls or site furnishings.

Signage: Wayfinding or emergency protocol information. Makes spaces more amenable by increasing user awareness of surroundings. Conversely aids in response to incidents by offering first responders directions and directing occupants towards exits.

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& Crime security in culture culture

Crime & culture

Exploring the role of security and crime in American film, television, and politics

September 11, 2001. Across the globe, the events of 9/11 were broadcast live, ushering in a new era of mass fear and paranoia.

Since the very founding of our democracy, notions of fear and danger have dominated American politics, media, and culture—and it is only getting worse. Advertising, political ads, news coverage and social media all send the constant message that there is something to be afraid of. Film and television play crucial roles in shaping the narrative around some of this country’s most important issues. At any given moment in the U.S., there are a multitude of things we might be afraid of: terrorist attacks, disease, gun violence, food poisoning, criminals, climate change, and the pervasive fear of the “other”—immigrants, people of color, etc. Throughout this chapter, we seek to examine the ways in which this fear has very quickly permeated into the depths of our democracy. Time and time again, federal security policies and regulations have almost always been created in direct response to breaches in national security out of fear that they might happen again. We build walls to keep people out. We fortify our offices, our schools, our libraries, so much so that the effort to keep us safe creates an uncomfortable, uninviting environment. We create agencies and regulations that monitor the actions of our citizens simply out of fear that the “other” might strike again. Furthermore, we will begin to explore the centuries-long relationship between American society and fear, carefully examining the ways in which this fear is manifested in media in pop culture. Does media influence society? Or does society influence media? We seek to question the very nature of these fears—to question their origins and their validity. And now, in the era of mass shootings and vehicular terrorism, we continue to find ourselves in a society dictated by fear—fear of the “other,” fear of public space, fear of harm in our classrooms and offices, on our sidewalks and in our parks. And it is our job as architects and planners to distill this sense of fear, to create an environment that keeps us safe without compromising our comfort; an environment that welcomes rather than one that alienates.

Preface 81

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Skyjackings Vehicle Rammings Mass Shootings

1952 National Security Administration

National Security act is signed



Wall street BOMBING


attack on pearl harbor

1939 World War II Begins


launch of sputnik 1

Federal aviation administration



First u.s. hijacking


Golden age of hijackings

1968 Pan Am Flight 281 Hijacking 1969 TWA Flight 85 Hijacking 1970 Eastern Air Lines Flight 1320 Hijacking 1971 United Airlines 737 Hijacking

2011 TSA PreCheck 2010 Enhanced TSA Screening 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act 1985 Diplomatic Security Service

FAA REquires passenger screenings

1994 Southern Border Wall

inman report on overseas security


vulnerability of Fed. Facilities



U.S. Beirut embassy bombing

1972 Munich Olympic Massacre 1972 Southern Airways Flight 49 Hijacking



Oklahoma City bombing


World Trade Center Hijacking Attacks

2002 Department of Homeland Security 2002 Aviation and Transportation Security Act

TSA is formed

2017 TSA Fails 95%

DHS safe school design guidelines




Sandy Hook Shooting

2018 LA Metro Scanners

vehic. TERRORISM PREvention ACT



nice truck attack

2015 San Bernadino Shooting 2015 Charleston Shooting 2016 Pulse Shooting 2016 OSU Attack 2016 Berlin Truck Attack 2017 Attempted NYC Subway Bombing 2017 Las Vegas Shooting

1985 TWA Flight 847 Hijacking 1988 Pan Am Flight 103 Hijacking and Bombing 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing 1999 Columbine Highschool Shooting 2006 UNC Chapel Hill Truck Attack 2007 Virginia Tech Shooting 2012 Aurora Theatre Shooting 2013 Boston Marathon Bombing

crime of the century

Tracking U.S. political and cultural reactions in the wake of national security events

by Jonathan Corriveau Since the invention of dynamite in 1867, ideological radicals across the country have used the awful spectacle of terror and hysteria to draw our national attention to political causes, to protest policy, and to inspire fear. In the 150+ years that have followed, criminals and terrorists alike have utilized the advancement of technology to inflict harm across our nation; explosives, airplanes, guns, knives, cars, and trucks—objects initially created for the advancement of civilization—have been exploited and used to divide us, to weaken us, to instill terror within us. More often than not, to some degree, it works. This comprehensive timeline that follows catalogues the most critical breaches in national security and the reactionary federal policies and regulations that often follow. From the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor to the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, the 1983 bombing of the U.S. embassy in Beirut to the 2012 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, both federal and cultural attitudes have often dramatically shifted in wake of these catastrophic events. Sometimes, this shift in attitudes promotes a positive social change. Communities come together and grow stronger, opening their arms to those who need our help in an effort to prevent further harm. However, and perhaps more frequently, this cultural shift promotes an environment of fear and paranoia, often alienating those we deem as “other.” In the months and years that follow, we build our walls even higher; we strengthen our borders and increase our security; we screen and surveil our citizens and visitors at every possible opportunity; simply, we change the very essence of American life. While this intense paranoia dominates contemporary American culture, its strong roots in society stem from one of the first recorded incidents on U.S. soil, the Wall Street Bombing Wall Street Bombing | Mass Paranoia At 12:01 pm on September 16, 1920, a horsedrawn carriage passed by lunchtime crowds on Wall Street and stopped across the street from the headquarters of the J.P. Morgan bank on the Financial District’s busiest corner. Inside the carriage, 100 pounds of dynamite with 500 pounds of heavy, cast-iron weights exploded in a timer-set detonation, sending the weights tearing through the air. The horse


Crime & Culture

September 16, 1920. The aftermath of the Wall Street bombing.

Crime of the Century 85

and wagon were blasted into small fragments, killing 38 and injuring hundreds more, but the driver left the vehicle and escaped. Many believe this to be the first major indication that our streets and our offices must be protected. Though this incident did not elicit any official regulatory changes, it sparked national conversations about the threats we may face in our day-to-day lives. Attack on Pearl Harbor | National Security Act of 1947 21 years later in 1941, just 2 years after the start of World War II, the United States witnessed what was at the time the most catastrophic attack on American soil. On Decmber 7 at 7:48 am Hawaii Time, the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service launched a series of coordinated airstrikes at the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, killing 2,335 and injuring over 1,000 others. The surprise attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan, and several days later, on December 11, Germany and

Italy each declared war on the U.S. Two years after the end of the War, President Harry Truman signed the National Security act of 1947, a major restructuring of the United States government’s military and intelligence agencies. Aside from the military reorganization, the act established the National Security Council, a central place of coordination for national security policy in the executive branch, and the Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S.’s first peacetime intelligence agency. The council’s function was to advise the president on domestic, foreign, and military policies, and to ensure cooperation between the various military and intelligence agencies. This serves as one of the first major regulations aimed at keeping America safe from foreign and domestic attacks. Launch of Sputnik 1 | Federal Aviation Administration On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik into an elliptical low Earth orbit, orbiting for three weeks before its batteries died, then silently for two more months before falling back December 7, 1941. A ship is seen smoking during the attack on Pearl Harbor.


Crime & Culture

June 14, 1985. Captain John Testrake talks to newsmen from the cockpit of his Boeing 727 at Beirut airport, after TWA Flight 847 was hijacked.

into the atmosphere. Across the nation, civilians and government officials alike were in a state of panic. The media not only reported this public concern, it also created the hysteria. Journalists greatly exaggerated the danger of the Soviet satellite for their own benefit. Not only did this position the Soviet Union as technologically superior to the United States, but many became afraid of the unknown, afraid of what was lurking “out there,” afraid that even their skies might no longer be safe. Less than one year later, on August 23, 1958, The Federal Aviation Administration was founded to regulate the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. That same year, NASA was founded, solidifying America’s defiant position in the international Space Race. While the FAA marked a crucial shift in the advancement of American aviation, it did not take long for its flaws and shortcomings to be exploited. There were virtually no security implementations for commercial flights at this time.

Golden Age of Hijackings | FAA Passenger Screening Dubbed The Golden Age of Hijackings, 19681972 witnessed the skyjackings of over 130 American commercial airplanes. During the same time, there were 300+ skyjackings worldwide, or one skyjacking approximately every 5.6 days. Hijacking during this era had two primary goals: first, as a method of transportation. Of the worldwide hijacking attempts, 80% occured in the Western Hemisphere, 77% of which originated in Cuba or were efforts to divert planes to Cuba. After the United States cut diplomatic ties with Cuba in 1961, hijacking a plane was one of the only ways to reach the almost entirely inaccessible island. Second, planes were often used as weapons or methods of ransom. One of the first on U.S. soil, the hijacking of Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305 on November 24, 1971 was carried out by a man known as “D. B. Cooper. After revealing an apparent bomb onboard the flight, Cooper demanded $200,000 and a parachute. Two years later, the Air Transportation Security Act requires the FAA to conduct universal screening

Crime of the Century 87

of all passengers with screening portals, which spurs U.S. airports to adopt metal-detection screening portals for passengers and X-ray inspection systems for carry-on bags. These security measures, monitored by private security contractors, contributed to the significant decline in American hijackings. U.S. Beirut Embassy Bombing | The Inman Report On April 18, 1983, a suicide bomber detonated a delivery van with over 2,000 pounds of explosives at the base of the United States embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 63 people, including 17 Americans. The victims were mostly embassy and CIA staff members, but also included several U.S. soldiers and one U.S. Marine Security Guard. It was the deadliest attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission up to that time. In direct response, the Inman Report, formally known as the Report of the Secretary of State’s


Crime & Culture

Advisory Panel on Overseas Security, was a report released in 1985. The report recommended a range of security improvements, including increased setback between embassies and public streets. It also recommended a major building program to improve security in existing embassies, and build new embassies to replace those that could not meet security standards. With the report came the creation of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and the Diplomatic Security Service within the U.S. State Department. Oklahoma City Bombing | Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols detonated a moving truck with over 4,800 pounds of explosives at the Alfred P. Murdoch Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The attack killed at least 168 people, injured more than

September 11, 2001. A crowd of stunned New Yorkers witness the collapse of the South Tower of the World Trade Center at 9:59am.

680 others, and destroyed one-third of the federal building. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars, causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage. Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the U.S. and remains the deadliest incident of domestic terrorism in the country’s history. In June of that same year, the United States publishes the Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities, a report that covers the recommendations for minimum security standards in all Federal facilities, and a survey of existing security conditions. Perimeter, entry, and interior security are discussed along with security planning for the different level facilities, establishing the security requirements for federal facilities with security rankings 1-5.

September 11th | Transportation Security Administration Perhaps the most defining moment of security in American society is the series of events of September 11th. The 9/11 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. Four passenger airplanes were hijacked by 19 members of al-Qaeda. Two of the planes were flown into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan. Another plane was flown into the Pentagon. The fourth plane, on its way toward Washington, DC, crashed in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. These attacks, more than any other in history, fundamentally altered almost every aspect of American public life.

Crime of the Century 89


Crime & Culture

April 14, 2016. Crowds of passengers wait in long, congested lines before passing through a TSA security checkpoint.

Later that November, President George W. Bush signed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act into law, creating The Transportation Security Agency (TSA) to oversee security in all modes of transportation. The TSA gave the federal government the responsibility to screen all passengers of commercial airlines, a responsibility that was previously carried out by private contractors. In the largest restructuring of the U.S. government in contemporary history, the United States enacted the Homeland Security Act of 2002, creating the Department of Homeland Security, including the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Congress also passed the USA PATRIOT Act, with an explicit mission to detect terrorist acts in their planning stages and prosecute terrorists after the fact. After an attempted shoebomb on an American domestic flight, the TSA soon after required all passengers to remove their shoes for screening. Similarly, in 2006, after learning that certain explosives could be created after security screening with larger amounts of liquid, the TSA limited each passenger to 3oz bottles of liquid. In 2010, the TSA introduced its most recent enhanced screening procedures, installing full-body scanners in airports across America. The TSA, perhaps one of this country’s most controversial agencies, recently failed an internal security assessment by the DHS at a staggering failure rate of 95%. 70 DHS agents were asked to bring prohibited materials through TSA, and only 3 were stopped. This raises the question whether TSA’s success can be contributed to their ability to actively prevent threats from occuring, or to the optics of security and power that it sends to all passengers. Mass Shootings | A Cry for Help As TSA rapidly increased their role and advanced their security screening protocols, planes were no longer seen as viable options for crime or terrorism. Thus, we have witnessed a shift toward more easily accessible weapons that have created a uniquely American problem: the mass shooting epidemic. While there is no fixed definition of a mass shooting, a common definition is an act of violence—excluding gang killings, domestic violence, or terrorist acts sponsored by an organization—in which a gunman

Crime of the Century 91

kills at least four victims. Using this definition, one study found that the United States alone accounts for over one third of the world’s mass shootings.

The U.S. has more mass shootings than any other country in the world. From the Columbine Massacre of 1999 to the 2006 shooting at Virginia Tech, the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the 2015 San Bernardino shooting, the 2015 Charleston shooting, the 2016 Pulse Nightclub shooting, the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, the 2018 shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School or the recent shootings at the Tree of Life Congregation and in Thousand Oaks, the list continues, but federal and state governments have left us crying for help. In the first 75 days after the Sandy Hook shooting, federal and state politicians introduced 24 pieces of gun control legislation. All failed except for one, which required the registration of assault weapons and limited the number of bullets in magazines in New York State. This is a pattern that is often repeated after such events, pushing concerned Americans to the streets to make their voices heard. After the Marjory Stoneman Douglas shooting, survivors of the high school attack organized one of the most influential gun control movements in modern American history. What started as a political March for Our Lives turned into an international movement. Protesters urged for universal background checks on all gun sales, raising the federal age of gun ownership and possession to 21, closing of the gun show loophole, a restoration of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban, and a ban on the sale of high-capacity magazines and bump stocks in the United States. There were over 800 marches across the globe, bringing an estimated 2 million people to the streets, making the March for Our Lives the one of the largest demonstrations in American history. Vehicular Terrorism | A New Kind of Terror In a similar vein, the world has seen the introduction of a new kind of terror: vehicular terrorism. On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19-tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des


Crime & Culture

Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others. In November of that same year, at Ohio State University, 11 people are injured when a student carries out a car and knife attack. Just one month later, a man drove a truck into a Christmas market in Berlin, killing 12 people. March 22, 2017: A man drives an SUV into a crowd on the sidewalk along the Westminster Bridge in London, killing at least four. April 7, 2017: Four people are killed when a truck drives into pedestrians on a busy street in the center of Stockholm, Sweden, before crashing into a department store. June 3, 2017: Eight people are killed in two terror attacks in central London after a van swerves into pedestrians on the London Bridge. August 17, 2017: At least 13 people are killed and about 100 are injured after a van plows through a crowd of people in a popular tourist district in Barcelona, Spain. October 31, 2017: Eight people are killed and almost a dozen injured when a 29-yearold man in a rented pickup truck drives down a busy bicycle path near the World Trade Center in New York.

“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.” Jane Jacobs This list is growing, and citizens across the globe are increasingly concerned about their safety in public spaces. In March of 2018, the Vehicular Terrorism Prevention Act is proposed in the House, a bill that would require the Secretary of Homeland Security to examine the threat of vehicular terrorism and develop a strategy to improve DHS support for the efforts of emergency responders and the private sector to prevent, mitigate, and respond to such a threat. Other government officials have proposed the increase of physical security tactics in our most vulnerable public spaces, while others reject the unfriendly fortification of our streets. And while the solution may not yet be clear, it is our job as architects and designers to evaluate the role we play in shaping the very nature of the American landscape. We must address whether our designs for safe cities should be proactive or reactionary, forward

March 24, 2018. Hundreds of thousands of protestors took to the streets for the March for Our Lives in Washington, DC demanding stricter gun control legislation.

thinking or defensive. It is no easy task, but we must start by recognizing that our policies and regulations, our design decisions and security implementations fail to be objective in the wake of these breaches of national security. We are responsible for the future of public life and we must work toward creating a common good, an equitable environment that promotes inclusion and civility, not one that isolates.

Crime of the Century 93

AGAINST "the system"

Examining heist media over time and its biased portrayals of the wealthy & powerful

by Sarah Soltes From the beginning of time, the anxious and the eager, the curious and the fearful gathered ‘round to indulge in heroic tales of gods who controlled the heavens and earth. As society transformed – bringing with it new technologies and obstacles – so too did the nature of storytelling. Tales once told around a fire were being recorded and archived. Great battles between gods and monsters were being replaced by comedies and tragedies of the everyman. Fast forward several millennia to find hauntingly advanced technologies paired with exceptional imaginations to shape an everyman who is able to become a god and leap out of a screen fighting zombies and spacemen in all of his 3-dimensional, anachronistic glory. From an admittedly Western temporal perspective, the trajectory of society seems to put pressure on the “new,” resulting in fresh characters and plot lines, as well as platforms across which stories are delivered. As this deviation from the past exacerbates in certain ways, it is critical to recognize core elements that tie stories together through time, namely: character archetypes, the presence of conflict, and its eventual resolution. Though these and other key elements compose almost every form of narrative entertainment that we consume, it is also quite obvious that the stories being told over time vary greatly. Part of this is due to advances in and access to technology, but the key, ever-transforming variable to note here is the state of contemporary society and its culture. The content and plotlines of stories are often tied to relevant events, trends, and mentalities that pinpoint sources of paranoia or interest amongst the masses at that particular moment. The combination of a relatively constant character dynamic paired with the technologies, values, and fears of a people at a given point in time is why heist stories have had such a consistent presence over time. Classic heist movies, with some space for variation, can be broken into two oppositional parties. The first is the protagonist: relatable and disaffected, often with character traits that are attractive to society at a given time. This person or group is almost always visually appealing and has inherent qualities that sway an audience in their favor. In the other corner is “the system”: the individual or organization of great means and often of cold heart. This party is often known for


Crime & Culture

August 1, 2018. Friends and peers gather around a campfire at a college dorm event for bonding and storytelling.

Against “The System” 95

Skyfall, 2012. James Bond prepares for a standoff as he tries to restore justice when an enemy group steals critical intel.

holding the power and oppressing or disadvantaging others for their own gain. These two groups are represented differently over time and placed into the context of modern life to create wildly different stories with remarkably similar frameworks. Robin Hood | Stealing from the rich & giving to the poor Robin Hood is perhaps one of the oldest and best-known stories that fits within this framework of people versus “the system.” Robin Hood, throughout various interpretations over the years, is known for fighting injustice and taking from the rich to give to the poor. As a legendary archer and swordsman, he resists the oppressive local governing body of the time, namely the Sheriff and Prince, while remaining loyal to the King, whom he deems the rightful ruler. This plot structure where the protagonist represents the common folk against the wealthy few reflects the tendency of viewers to root for the underprivileged, hard-working masses whom they relate to as opposed to the few who possess wealth and power. These wealthy and powerful characters often are given malicious character traits to suggest that those who


Crime & Culture

can afford to be stolen from have it coming, as well as often to paint the governing body in a negative light when they represent the system. James Bond | Preventing heists & serving justice In other cases, the protagonist is for the government and rather expresses national pride against “the system” of corruption, international threat, and illegal activity. Known for his dashing good looks and license to kill, James Bond works for the Secret Intelligence Service, starring in a series of action films where he prevents the greedy few from stealing, smuggling drugs, and committing acts of violence. Author Ian Flemming draws his inspiration for Bond from all of the secret agents and commandos he had known during the Second World War. The creation of this hero comes during a post-war period when the masses crave comfort and justice. Brought to life by some of Hollywood’s most desirable dreamboats – including Sean Connery, Pierce Brosnan, and Daniel Craig – Bond possesses the qualities that many viewers admire, making him

the young and attractive protagonist in a film full of otherwise ruthless wrongdoers. The Thomas Crown Affair | Stealing for amusement In some stories, “the system” is represented by large organizations or institutions. In this particular instance, art museums are painted as faceless and wealthy groups for whom the viewers need not feel bad. In this case, the act of stealing is not even particularly the focus, but rather the mere activity that brings together two unsuspecting lovers - the thief and the detective. Ocean’s Eleven | Stealing from those who deserve it Led by a team of People’s “Sexiest Men Alive,” a group of criminal specialists join George Clooney and Brad Pitt in this thriller film to simultaneously rob three different casinos. George Clooney’s character, Dapper Danny Ocean, is an ex-con who lives by three rules: Don’t hurt anybody, don’t steal from anyone who doesn’t deserve it, and play the game like you’ve got nothing to lose. This film illustrates the power of character development to convince viewers to root for

the criminals. It also makes a statement about wealth and those who can afford to be stolen from. The protagonists in this film steal from the rich to give to themselves and the audience is completely on board the entire time. The Italian Job | Stealing from the rich and then themselves Bringing with it a slight variation on this people versus “the system” framework, The Italian Job illustrates a group of likeable, quirky characters who steal from the rich – which no one questions – and then steal back from the one team member who betrays the group internally and takes all the gold. This movie again reaffirms that the general public has no problem seeing money taken from those who possess it in abundance, especially when there is little to no character development to defend them to the audience. These classic heist movies—all with different settings and plot details—can be boiled down to a protagonist representing the interest of the masses who in some way opposes “the system,” “the man,”

The Italian Job, 2003. Charlie and Stella watch a truck full of gold fall through the street where they are waiting to collect its contents.

Against “The System” 97

February 2, 2018. A crowd of people watches a movie in a public theater.


Crime & Culture

“the wealthy,” “the powerful,” or “the elite.” Because this is such a classic story structure, it persists through time, adapting characters and conflicts to fit current fears and paranoia. This storytelling format is designed to draw viewers in and justifies why crime makes for such an effective theme in media. Ultimately, these stories are developed in strategic ways in to push audiences to root for whomever the storyteller decides. By adapting this story structure where one party opposes another, filmmakers and writers are able to paint contemporary people or issues in biased ways, portraying the protagonist as whomever they favor in a situation, despite the possible other points of view. For this reason, it is important to be self-aware and recognize why we favor certain groups over others and how we see the truth in life beyond the screen. Just as with news articles, it is critical for the masses to see beyond just one point of view that they may be emotionally drawn to believe. This is not to say that one should root for the antagonist in a movie or sympathize with wealthy organizations - it just means that perhaps we as consumers of stories should be conscious of how we let others shape our thoughts and feelings.

Against “The System” 99

A new era

Tracing the major shift in pop culture narratives in a post-9/11 nation

by Michelle Chipimo 9/11 caused a dramatic shift in media trends. Two years following the attacks, film was defined by undertones of xenophobia, overtones of patriotism, as well as a general aversion to images of violence. Genres like Armageddon disappeared almost overnight, as did many scenes depicting realistic mass destruction or explosions. It was not until Steven Spielberg initiated a post 9/11 visual initiative through heavily codified imagery of War of the Worlds (2005) that Americans began to slowly reevaluate what life in a post-9/11 world would mean for the citizens

of this country. Americans now sought patriotic affirmation, but without the depiction of any potential consequences, and film was the most adept medium to achieve this much needed comfort. 24, which was one of the first TV shows to air post-9/11, depicted torture and war as an unfortunate but necessary part of ensuring public safety. However, the premise of this series received widespread criticism from human rights activists, military officials, and experts in interrogation for obvious ethical reasons. At the time the show was made, the point was not to offer

September 12, 2001. The Orlando Sentinel front page following the tragic events of 9/11.

Two years following the attacks, film was defined by undertones of xenophobia, overtones of patriotism, as well as a general aversion to images of violence. Genres like Armageddon disappeared almost overnight, as did many scenes depicting realistic mass destruction or explosions.

a thoughtful exploration of the recent tragic events, but rather to provide reassurance to the vulnerable American citizen that the government would do whatever it takes to ensure its citizens’ safety. Although most of the initial reactions of post-9/11 film and television tended to deal with the aftermath in this implicit manner, there were a select few films that actively attempted to address the aftermath in a more explicit fashion. 2001 The West Wing, “Isaac and Ishmael” This serial political drama is set in the West Wing of the White House, where the Oval office and offices of the president’s senior staff are located. The characters in the series are largely fictional, and their respective characteristics often have nothing to do with the political opinions of the figures they represent. Nevertheless, the series itself offered great pedagogical potential in this time of national crisis. “Isaac and Ishmael” was written and shot within two weeks of the 9/11 attacks. The underlying stance asked, “why can’t we all just get along?” This attitude was one of the first to offer a sympathetic perspective towards the now marginalized community of Muslims. The main cast can be seen explaining to several high school students how terrorism is not synonymous with Islam. 2001 South Park, “Osama Bin Laden Has Farty Pants” South Park is one of the most popular cable tv shows in the United States—infamous for its dark humor, profane language and heavy satire that leaves no topic untouched. It has consistently earned the highest rankings of any basic cable program since its debut in 1997 after it went viral on the internet. While the opinions on the show have been subject to endless critiques in the media and literary world regarding popular political, social, philosophical and theological concepts- the show has nonetheless remained a hallmark among viewers of modern television. In this particular episode of South Park, which aired on November 7, 2001, the producers present Osama bin Laden as a harmless buffoon (while also being self-critical of American foreign policy in general) but they ultimately avow loyalty to the United States, ending the episode with Stan gently planting

A New Era 101

a small American flag in Afghan soil and saluting it with a soft, sincere, “Go, America,” followed by, “Go, Broncos.” 2005 25th Hour, Spike Lee 25th Hour is perhaps the black sheep of post9/11 visual media that doesn’t bother trying to find some profound meaning in the tragedy; instead, it tries to move on, and in doing so, 25th Hour became one of the strongest of any cinematic attempts to deal with the aftermath head on. The film was released a mere 15 months after the 9/11 attacks and is widely regarded as an urban historical document comparable to Open City—which was filmed in the immediate aftermath of the Nazi occupation of Rome. Unlike numerous films that actively edited out footage of the World Trade Center (out of sympathy for a mourning nation), Spike Lee refused to pretend that the tower never existed. Instead, Lee films the conversation in one continuous shot, all but daring the viewer to look away. Furthermore, the film offers a unique and highly controversial perspective in the way it handles the events of 9/11 without reinforcing the notion that the attacks came out of the blue or changed everything. While this stance is blunt, it is also problematic due to the decontextualization of the attacks that are now used to advance certain


Crime & Culture

ideologies, such as American exceptionalism, simply by placing yet more attention on 9/11. This practice of attaching too much singular importance to the attacks is easy to identify in retrospect, however, in the immediate aftermath, the public was only just coming to terms with the tragedy. The films and tv shows above (except for 25th Hour) all attempted to offer answers to the burning question on every American citizen’s mind: how could this happen to us? Interestingly, as time passed and the nation’s psychological wounds began to heal, the appropriation of 9/11 imagery soon became profitable for making cinematic blockbusters. We see the emergence of films like Batman vs Superman , Transformers, and various Marvel films- the latest being Infinity War- which are unabashedly shameless in their pervasiveness of large scale violence and destruction. To this day, this pervasive imagery persists so long as the production budget allows it. It’s no secret: violence sells! The films top millions and billions in the box office perhaps because the images are what we (the audience) want to relive over and over again- but only from a safe distance, and with the promise that the protagonist will defeat the villain time and time again. 2012 Zero Dark Thirty, Kathryn Bigelow & Mark Boal Zero Dark Thirty is an American political thriller that dramatizes “the greatest manhunt in history,” the hunt for bin Laden, the leader of al Qaeda. The suspenseful film culminates with the discovery of bin South Park, 2001 Characters are seen placing an American flag in Afghan soil and saluting it with a soft, “Go, America.” Zero Dark Thirty, 2012 Many criticized the film’s overly enthusiastic portrayal of enhanced interrogation techniques, arguing that these techniques are in fact torture.

American Sniper, 2014 Bradley Cooper’s depiction of veteran Chris Kyle drew equal praise and cricism for the over-simplification of American military presence in the Iraq war.

Interestingly, as time passed and the nation’s psychological wounds began to heal, the appropriation of 9/11 imagery soon became profitable for making cinematic blockbusters. Laden’s compound in Pakistan and the subsequent military raid by the US SEALs team that resulted in bin Laden’s death on May 2, 2011. While the film unsurprisingly received widespread, critical acclaim for taking down the leader of a major terrorist organization (Best picture, Best Original Screenplay, Best Film Editing, Best Motion Picture Drama, etc…) others took issue with the film’s overly enthusiastic portrayal of “enhanced interrogation” tactics used by the CIA. Some even went as far as to call these tactics pro-torture propaganda—because the interrogation techniques are shown producing reliable, useful, and accurate information. The film also misleads viewers into thinking that “enhanced interrogation” was the key to finding bin Laden, while simultaneously

understating the role that the Obama administration played in orchestrating the hunt and overplaying the efforts of a single agent battling against the CIA “system” in an effort to take down bin Laden. 2014 American Sniper, Clint Eastwood & Jason Hall American Sniper is an American biographical war drama that is loosely based on the memoir American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S Military History (2012), by Chris Kyle. Kyle boasts 255 kills from four tours in the Iraq War, 160 of which were confirmed by the Department of Defense; but despite his military accolades, Kyle’s successes took a heavy toll on his personal life. The film offers a blunt insight into the physical and psychological traumas of those sent to the front lines of a war zone. While heavily patriotic in its affirmation, the film was also no stranger to negative criticism. Some argued that it over-simplified the moral premise surrounding mass-bloodshed of Iraqi civilians, who are portrayed as savages. Furthermore, it turned the plot into a one-sided, black and white

A New Era 103

May 11, 2011: White House photographer Pete Souza captures the scene inside the Situation Room as U.S. forces raided Osama bin Laden’s Pakistan compound and killed the terrorist leader.


Crime & Culture

“fairytale,” with no historical context- this accusation was based on the way in which facts in the film quickly turned fictions based upon legends of moral courage as the ultimate masculine virtue. While some view American Sniper as a necessary commentary on the struggles of the American soldier at war, others argue that American Sniper furthered attitudes of ignorance, fear, and bigotry among American public and glorified acts of destruction.

The United States, as a people and a culture never fully learned how to cope with the nations’ trauma. To this day, film and television remain popular mediums through which the American public continues to heal. The list of films that capitalize on the imagery of 9/11 could go on forever, but what this small selection collectively shows is that the United States, as a people and a culture never fully learned how to cope with the nations’ trauma. To this day, film and television remain popular mediums through which the American public continues to heal. It is easy to laugh at the South Park episode “Osama Bin Laden Has Farty Pants” 17 years after the fact, but we should not forget that at the time these various commentaries were created, they served a fundamental purpose larger than just entertainment. Movies sought to affirm the message that terrorism and/or mass destruction of any kind in a post- 9/11 world was no longer a joking matter- and this is a trend that exists in popular culture to this day. It’s hard to believe that there was a time where travelers didn’t even have to show and ID to board a plane, but seventeen years ago, concerns about public safety, vigilance, and privacy were largely complacent. In fact, one’s behavior or appearance in an airport was rarely cause for alarm. It took the tragedy of

9/11 for airports, along with various other public buildings (such as government offices, and banks) to undergo a series of major security crackdowns. Spatial hardening in airports was prioritized first, and it included everything from hardening cockpit doors with bulletproof material, to installing cameras in flight, federalizing screening procedures, using body scanners, as well as creating a robust system of electronic checks to verify legitimate travelers with photo ID and proper travel documentation. Spatial hardening has been successful in ensuring that not a single successful terrorist attack on any US airliner since 9/11 has been carried out. However, the contemporary implementation of these robust security infrastructures in widespread building typologies has begun to prioritize national security and defense at the expense of civil liberties. Film has been instrumental in igniting discourse on the infringement of privacy and rights for certain minority individuals. It has also been useful in challenging the profiling systems used by the FAA which seem to exacerbate public paranoia. None of the films in question propose any overarching solutions to the various security problems that are addressed in this chapter, instead, they act as social commentaries on the people, processes, and tools that work together to protect the public. Furthermore, they question how these ever-changing security services and processes are implemented, operated and controlled—and to what aim.

[These films] act as social commentaries on the people, processes, and tools that work together to protect the public...They question how these ever-changing security services and processes are implemented, operated and controlled—and to what aim.

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don't name them

Examining the role of media coverage in the wake of mass shootings

by Jonathan Corriveau This much is clear: the United States has a problem with gun violence. And although mass shootings remain relatively rare events, these incidence warrant serious concern for when they do occur, they not only cause multiple casualties and devastate communities, but they also leave some survivors, bystanders, and reporters with serious cases of post-traumatic stress, and further create extensive fear among the larger public. Unfortunately, after more than fifty years of high profile mass shootings, the United States has done little in reducing the prevalence of these attacks. In fact, the five deadliest mass shootings in American history have occurred within the past six years, killing 192 and injuring 1,835 others.. While the definition of mass shootings is not yet fixed, a recent study by The Congressional Research Service indicates that the rate in which public mass shootings occur has tripled since 2011. Between 1982 and 2011, a mass shooting occurred roughly once every 200 days. However, between 2011 and 2014 alone, that rate has accelerated threefold, with at least one mass shooting occuring every 64 days in the United States. As these incidents are becoming increasingly more common, Americans are left searching for solutions. Although previous research suggest that mass shootings may be reduced if guns can be kept out of the hands of those who would commit such crimes, in the United States, significant progress on firearms has proven politically unfeasible. A mental health approach appears to be less politically controversial, but still remains difficult to successfully implement, further stigmatizing mental health problems as a fundamentally dangerous illness. Though many public mass shooters struggle with mental health problems and suicidal tendencies, the vast majority of mentally ill people are nonviolent and pose no threat to anyone. Furthermore, although some progress has been made in mental health

If we can change how the media covers mass shooters, we may be able to deny many offenders the attention they seek and deter some future perpetrators from attacking.


Crime & Culture

March 24, 2018. Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Senior Emma Gonzalez speaks at the March for Our Lives rally in Washington, DC.

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treatment in recent decades, many people suffering with mental illness rarely visit a doctor who could properly diagnose them. Until these broader social problems are successfully addressed, it may be difficult to significantly improve a mental health approach to mass shootings. However, one area in which major progress appears possible involves the media coverage of these offenders. If we can change how the media covers mass shooters, we may be able to deny many offenders the attention they seek and deter some future perpetrators from attacking. To understand how to address this problem, we must first examine the consequences of the current media coverage of mass shooters. First and foremost,


Crime & Culture

media coverage gives the suspects exactly what they want: notoriety. America has glorified the actions of criminals like Bonnie and Clyde for decades, and current media coverage only further rewards these suspects by making them famous, thus providing a clear incentive for future offenders. Many of these individuals recognize that committing a mass murder in a public space will guarantee them fame. We see time and time again that their names and faces will adorn newspapers, television, magazines, websites, and social media.

“Seems the more people you kill, the more you’re in the limelight.�

November 5, 2012. A woman kneels in front of a memorial with the names of the 20 children killed at the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut.

Many attackers even admit that fame is their goal. Often times, they reach out directly to news media organizations to achieve it. The Columbine shooters fantasized about the attention they would gain and believed that movies would be made about their lives. The 2007 Nebraska mall shooter left behind a suicide note in which he wrote, “Just think tho, I’m gonna be fuckin famous.” The 2011 Tucson shooter posted online, “I’ll see you on National T.V.!” The 2012 Sandy Hook shooter posted “just look at how many fans you can find for all different types of mass murderers.” Similarly, the 2007 Virginia Tech shooter sent a video and manifesto to NBC News, the 2015 Roanoke shooter sent his suicide note to ABC News, and the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooter called News 13 for more attention in the midst of his own attack, later checking social media to see if he had “gone viral.” And all of these shooters were granted the fame they wanted. Furthermore, this extensive media coverage of mass shooters increases their competition to maximize victim fatalities. Mass shooters who directly seek fame tend to be the deadliest offenders. Adam Lankford of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Alabama found that fame-seeking offenders kill and wound more than twice as many victims as other active shooters. As the 2015 Umpqua Community College shooter summarized, “Seems the more people you kill, the more you’re in the limelight.” The Columbine shooters expressed their intentions to cause “The most deaths in U.S. history...We’re hoping. We’re hoping.” The Tucson shooter wrote “I HAVE THIS HUGE GOAL AT THE END OF MY LIFE: 165 rounds fired in a minute!” The Sandy Hook shooter posted online about the competition between mass killers for who receives the most fame. Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, this excessive coverage leads to contagion and copycat effects. When mass shooters receive a tremendous amount of media attention, that can turn them into role models and celebrities for other impressionable individuals, who they may be more likely to commit mass shootings of their own. These imitators are not always fame seekers; some may empathize with the original attackers’ claims that violence is a justifiable response to their feelings of mistreatment and

marginalization, and thus have an urge to emulate tham. Others may be attracted to the sensationalized, dramatic, or powerful ways the original attackers were portrayed by media outlets, and therefore commit attacks of their own. As the columbine shooters accurately predicted, “I know we’re gonna have followers.” One of their eventual followers was the Sandy Hook shooter, who closely studied the personalities and biographies of prior attackers, and then posted online “Everyone knows mass murderers are the cool kids.” Many media organizers have argued that their news attention is negative. This, however, no longer appears credible. After all, “there is no such thing as bad publicity.” To reach a solution, the media must first and foremost accept their responsibility in perpetuating ideas of fame and power that are often provided to these attackers. Then, researchers argue there are a series steps for media organizations to follow.

At least one third of such shootings could be prevented by more responsible reporting. First and foremost, do not name the suspect. Second, do not use photos or representations of the suspect. No longer publishing their names or images would stop giving them the attention they often seek, and likely deter some future perpetrators from attacking. If the media stops publicly identifying these offenders, they will ensure that all offenders receive the same amount of personal fame: none. In a paper published by Jennifer Johnston and Andrew Joy of Western New Mexico University, at least one third of such shootings could be prevented by more responsible reporting. Though the implementation of these practices may seem improbable, the media have already demonstrated through their own behavior that they could adopt a “Don’t Name Them” policy. Afterall, it is already an established policy that television networks do not show fans who run out onto the field during football or baseball games. This is not because the networks are worried about hurting their ratings or because viewers might be uninterested, it is because they do not want to be complicit in giving these fame-seekers the attention they deserve. ESPN sports

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produce Tim Corrigan explains, “We’re not looking to glorify someone running onto the field.” Additionally, the media also take stands to not publish the names of victims of sexual assault. One hopeful difference in the one of the most recent attacks is that media coverage of the Parkland shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School has given more prominence to the victims and the survivors than is typical of past incidents. Just days after the shooting, the Florida teens made it clear that their voices would not be silence. Many survivors were very vocal on social media, calling out politicians and urging them to propose gun control legislation. Groups of students across the country staged national walkouts to protest gun violence. Students urged networks and major corporations to cut ties with the National Rifle Association, successfully ending the relationships between the NRA and companies like Delta Airlines, United Air Lines, Hertz, Symantec, and more — all companies that offered discounts to NRA members. Furthermore, In the wake of this event, survivors advocated again for movements like “Don’t Name Them” and “No Notoriety.” In a matter of days, 18-year-old survivor and activist Emma Gonzalez, an active advocate against the NRA, gained more twitter followers than NRA spokeswoman Dana Loesch. The survivors of the Parkland shooting started the March for Our Lives, further prompting a CNN town hall debate on gun violence in which victims, politicians, and activists discussed potential efforts to decrease gun violence in America. There have been several attempts to reduce the impact of images of gun violence in America in the recent years. Several television shows, including American Horror Story: Cult and Heathers, have either removed or greatly edited their scenes involving school shootings. The season one finale of Mr Robot was delayed because of a shooting earlier that day. Shooter, a sniper-theme action series, was significantly postponed following the 2016 attack on five Dallas police officers. NBC pulled a 2013 episode of Hannibal featuring child deaths that was set to run a few months after the shooting at Sandy Hook. After the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting, producers for the broadway musical Hamilton announced that their performance at the Tony Awards would no longer include the use of prop rifles. Other shows, such as


Crime & Culture

American Horror Story: Murder House, Degrassi, 192, 13 Reasons Why, and Glee have been criticized for their dangerous portrayal of school shootings.

Perhaps it will be these images, not those of the perpetrators, that will stir people from complacency and move them into action. In an impassioned speech just days after the Parkland shooting, Emma Gonzalez chastised lawmakers, stating “We are up here standing together because if all our government and president can do is send thoughts and prayers, then it’s time for victims to be the change that we need to see.” This, in the end, may prove to be more effective than any images of the shooter, or any images of bloodshed or grief. Illustrations of protest, courage, and resilience. Images of hope and optimism. Perhaps it will be these images, not those of the perpetrators, that will stir people from complacency and move them into action.

January 5, 2016. In a national address on gun violence, President Barack Obama tears up while discussing the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School.

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Speculative Security Scenarios


speculative security scenarios A synthesis of spatial security implementations

In order to synthesize the concepts in the preceding chapters into a more projective architectural agenda, three scenarios were developed that imagine a sequence from street curb to building elevator. The function of the hypothetical buildings is not to be specified, but they all require a level of security screening that is typical of an airport, courthouse, or other public building. All of the scenarios distinguish between visitors who need security clearance from badged employees who can bypass screening. The scenarios also deploy the three fundamental security tactics that have served as our framework throughout: Community Engagement | To disarm disgruntlement that may lead to future action; to learn of potential threats before they are conceptualized Surveillance | To identify potential antagonists before they act Hardening | To thwart attacks and the penetration of secure perimeters Each scenario leverages the devices and dimensions required for a comprehensive spatial security regime to create a public sequence of spaces that are welcoming, accessible, inclusive, and appropriate in scale and character for a public building. Importantly, each of the scenarios transforms tactics meant to thwart a vehicular attack into design elements that promote informal seating in the public realm. The benches, seat walls, and stairs in each scenario have been located and configured to invite a wide range of social opportunities, from informal conversations, to people watching, to phone calls, to personal absorption in the screen of a smartphone.


Speculative Security Scenarios

Photo Credit: Department of Homeland Security


The Switchback Queue The Switchback Queue is organized by an external ramp that is perpendicular to the lobby inside. Both employees and visitors climb the shallow slope and enter into a large lobby vestibule. At that point, employees can enter directly through the turnstiles into the elevator lobby, while visitors need to make a 180 degree turn into a queuing space that is parallel and immediately adjacent to the entrance ramp. A final 180 turn sends visitors through the visitor turnstiles and into a security line that leads to the security checkpoint. After being screened, visitors can enter directly into the elevator lobby. The guards who manage the baggage and body scanners look in the direction of the people being scanned, the queue, and the ramp outside. As a result, surveillance and the processing of visitors is both efficient and put on display.




Information Desk


Employee’s Turnstiles


Visitor’s Turnstiles


Baggage Scanner


Body Scanner


Territorial Reinforcement


Integrated Barriers

Speculative Security Scenarios



3 5




The Accessible Pulpit The Accessible Pulpit creates a sequence that brings visitors deep into the building at a lower level than reception and the security checkpoint. This internal eyes-on-the-street approach balances the benefits of informal surveillance from people above with deterrence, since an unwelcome intruder would feel like they were being watched from above. A switchback stair or elevator from the ground level to the piano nobile (the main reception level on the second floor) further slows down the progression of the visitor. The reception desk, the goal of this elongated sequence, is treated like a raised pulpit in a cathedral. It both aids wayfinding from below and provides a privileged position to survey the entrance lobby from above. At that point, badged employees continue around the reception desk to turnstiles, while visitors need to double back, go through visitor turnstiles and then security screening.




Information Desk


Employee’s Turnstiles


Visitor’s Turnstiles


Baggage Scanner


Body Scanner


Territorial Reinforcement


Integrated Barriers

Speculative Security Scenarios








The Symmetrical Hall The Symmetrical Hall is similar to neoclassical post offices and small city halls in its spatial organization and character, but not in terms of crowd management and control. The scheme is organized by a large central hall with a reception desk on the far wall. From the central hall, badged employees move left through one set of turnstiles into a second lobby space while visitors move through an identical threshold of turnstiles on the right side of the space. Visitors queue in the smaller hall that matches the badged employee lobby and then move through the linear security checkpoint in a spatial zone parallel to the central hall. After passing security, visitors end at the far end of the badged employees lobby at the threshold into the elevator lobby.




Information Desk


Employee’s Turnstiles


Visitor’s Turnstiles


Baggage Scanner


Body Scanner


Territorial Reinforcement


Integrated Barriers

Speculative Security Scenarios


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United States Embassy Kieran Timberlake, 2017 London, United Kingdom | 518,000 sf

The “transparent crystalline cube” is intended to symbolise “transparency, openness, and equality”, stated architect Kieran Timberlake. Upon arrival, visitors will enter the embassy through a pavilion on the northern side of the campus, before passing along curving pathways in the landscaped gardens and over a pond set into the large protective plinth the main building rests upon, emulating the moats of traditional royal palaces. A linear park is planned as a nod to traditional English city parks, planted with native oak trees and tall grasses and wildflowers to recall both America’s rolling prairies and the original wetlands that once occupied this stretch of the Thames. Curving walkways inside the building spiral round the floors, each of which has an interior garden representing the many varied landscapes found in America, from the deserts of the Canyonlands national park to the lush Pacific Forests.

Image Credits: Richard Bryant



Dutch embassy

OMA, 2003 Berlin, Germany | 91,000 sf

The Dutch Embassy is a disciplined cube with equally disciplined irregularities which aims to facilitate a better understanding of Berlin, confronting divergent ideas about how the city, with its complexity, heaviness, opacity, and beauty, should build / rebuild. Traditional planning guidelines of the former West Berlin demanded that new buildings in the neighbourhood reflect the local 19th century architectural style. Planning officials in the former East Berlin were more open to innovation. As a result, OMA combined an obedient approach (strictly fulfilling the block’s perimeter) with a disobedient one (building an isolated cube). Inside the cube, the sense of security and stability required for an embassy coexists with the free circulation provided by a 200m path that zig-zags up through the eight storeys, determining the arrangement of the building’s spaces. From the entrance, the trajectory of the path leads to the library, on to the meeting rooms, skirting the offices, leading up to the fitness area and finally the restaurant on the roof terrace. This trajectory also distributes fresh air drawn from the double plenum façade to the work spaces (the areas that the path has carved out of the cube). At one point the path escapes the constraints of the cube and cantilevers over the courtyard. The regularity of the cube’s glass and steel facade is disturbed again at moments where the path grazes the exterior, making itself visible from the outside and providing strategic views of the city. Image Credits: Christian Richters

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John joseph moakley u.s. court house Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, 1999 Boston, MA | 760,000 sf

An exceptionally privileged site on Boston Harbor is the occasion for this celebration, in architecture, of the dignity and probity of our federal court system. The building houses two appeals courtrooms, 19 district courtrooms, six magistrate’s courtrooms, 42 judge’s chambers, a law library, offices for the U.S. attorney, and extensive facilities to support the operations of the federal courts. To maximize the public benefit of its prime waterfront location, the courthouse incorporates a broad array of services and amenities, including a cafe, information center, and excursion boat ticket office in an arcaded waterfront loggia, as well as spaces for exhibitions, lectures, meetings, and dining in the Great Hall overlooking the Harborpark.

Image Credits: Pei Cobb Freed & Partners



Cedar rapids u.s. court house

William Rawn Associates, 2012 Cedar Rapids, MI

A courthouse must simultaneously respond to the needs of individual petitioners and address broad societal issues. It must convey authority, but still connect to its community as the source of that authority. Its processes must be transparent and open to all citizens in our democratic society. The new United States Courthouse for the Northern District of Iowa strives to meet these high aims in a welcoming, daylight-infused building. The courthouse expresses a democratic spirit of openness and approachability through two organizing principles: Justice on display: This is one of the only recently constructed Federal Courthouse where entrances to all courtrooms are visible to the public at street level. Windows in every courtroom: This is the first recently constructed Federal Courthouse with windows on two sides of every District, Magistrate and Bankruptcy courtroom. This courthouse aims to contribute to the evolution of a proud building type in American culture. It serves as a model for unobtrusively integrating security on the site and upon entry. And it responds to the increasing size and scale of federal buildings with a design that is both recognizably civic and contemporary.

Image Credits: Robert Benson Photography

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united states coast guard headquarters Perkins & Will, 2010 Washington, D.C. | 1,300,000 sf

It takes real skill to add the 1.2-million-squarefoot U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters to St. Elizabeths National Landmark campus in Washington, D.C., without detracting from that historic setting. The first phase of the Department of Homeland Security’s consolidation project, the Coast Guard’s new site slopes down 115 feet, the building stepping downhill toward the Potomac River. Green roofs make the structure disappear when seen from above. The structure’s narrow wings and its perimeter brick walls echo the form and material of the nearby St. Elizabeths Hospital. But the cladding facing away from the campus toward the green roofs, courtyards, and views of the D.C. skyline has a much different character: glass curtainwalls, with irregular patterns of mullions and green spandrel panels that echo the foliage of the surrounding landscape. Entered at the top of the hill—through a zincand stone-clad portal—the building has a bank of

Image Credits: Perkins & Will



glass-walled elevators that connect all 10 floors. A circulation spine links this entrance to the furthest wings at the bottom of the slope, making it easy to navigate what otherwise looks like a complicated plan. At the base of the site, a separate visitor’s entrance filters guests from employees, ensuring that the facility achieves its Level 5 security rating. Because of the excavation required to work the massive square footage into the sloped site, the design team also had to think about water circulation to keep flooding at bay, devising a system that pumps groundwater from the foundation drains back to the aquifer. The base of the site is anchored by a pond, (similar to those of historical castles and palaces) keeping the institution’s nautical sensibility at hand.

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fbi headquarters Krueck + Sexton, 2015 Miramar, FL | 375,000 sf

“Designing the Federal Office Building was a unique opportunity to articulate, in physical form, the values and aspirations of our democracy under GSA’s Design Excellence Program” said Mark Sexton, Founding Principal of Krueck + Sexton Architects. “This building expresses the dignity, enterprise, vigor, and stability of the United States government, while the landscape connects to the native environment by restoring wetlands and vegetation typical of the Everglades.” Two 60-foot wide, undulating multi-story buildings are connected by a link containing meeting spaces that partially enclose two central courtyards. The Eastern entry courtyard combines a reflecting pool and more formally composed landscape elements, while the Western courtyard is an extension of the informally designed, restored wetlands. Both the office building and its site offer a user and visitor experience unlike any other federal facility. Image Credits: Nick Merrick | Hedrick Blessing



U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters

ZGF Architects, 2012 Seattle, WA | 209,000 sf

The integrated design solution sets a new standard for high-performance, cost-effective, and sustainable workplace environments. The “oxbow” design creates an open, collaborative workplace environment for the USACE, emblematic of their mission of “Building Strong.” The building’s form—reflecting the natural oxbows in the adjacent Duwamish Waterway—provides measurable energyperformance benefits and is both functional and flexible to accommodate the USACE’s nearly constantly changing team-based work. The indoor campus environment enhances the concept of creating a collective community and identity by centralizing all common services and conferencing within the “commons.” Reclaimed timber bridges and stairs throughout the atrium connect people across the building, and are strategically located adjacent to informal seating and touchdown work surfaces to encourage communication and collaboration.

Image Credits: Benjamin Benschneider

Federal Facilities 131

San Ysidro Land Port of Entry Miller Hull, 2017 San Ysidro, CA | 365,000 sf

The busiest border crossing in the world, the San Ysidro Land Port of Entry is designed as a high performance “port of the future.” The previous outdated 30-year old facility was intended for lighter crossing volumes in a lower threat environment and could no longer support nor enforce operations at this busy location processing an average of 50,000 northbound vehicles and 25,000 northbound pedestrians per day. Improvements address operational inspection and safety measures, with modernized infrastructure that dramatically reduces border wait times from hours to minutes, and which improves national security, comfort for federal employees and the traveler’s experience. San Ysidro sets a high bar for U.S. border crossings—with site specific solutions providing seamless integration of operations, design and sustainable features that surpass GSA goals and Federal mandates for energy performance.

Image Credits: Miller Hull



Mariposa Land Port of Entry

Jones Studio, 2014 Nogales, AZ | 216,000 sf

Mariposa Land Port of Entry is a study in balancing security with a dignified welcome; efficient operations with a healthy work space and achieving a high energy performance/ low water use facility within a harsh desert climate. Influenced by the smooth continuous lines of a railroad yard and the contrasting vision of a desert oasis, the site plan is designed to infuse the human experience with a connection to nature, alleviating stress and creating a respite for visitors, staff and the officers who operate the port. At a basic level, the United States/ Mexico border region is defined by a geopolitical line on the earth. In his poem “Border Lines,” Arizona’s 2014 Poet Laureate, Alberto Rios clearly sees: “the border is what joins us, not what separates.” Inspired by this clarity of thought, the new Port of Entry strives to be a cultural connection – rather than a division. Image Credits: Bill Timmerman

Ports of Entry 133

Border lines Alberto Rios

A weight carried by two Weighs only half as much. The world on a map looks like the drawing of a cow In a butcher’s shop, all those lines showing Where to cut. That drawing of the cow is also a jigsaw puzzle, Showing just as much how very well All the strange parts fit together. Which way we look at the drawing Makes all the difference. We seem to live in a world of maps: But in truth we live in a world made Not of paper and ink but of people. Those lines are our lives. Together, Let us turn the map until we see clearly: The border is what joins us, Not what separates us.

Van Buren Land Port of Entry Snow Kreilich Architects, 2013 Van Burden, ME | 46,000 sf

The design of the new US Land Port of Entry in Van Buren, Maine fuses an abstraction of the cultural and landscape context with concepts essential to port operations: surveillance and camouflage. Located in the St. John River valley, an area profoundly influenced by its roots in the Acadian culture, this heritage is made visible in Van Buren’s original town plan of long narrow plots oriented toward the river. Forests still cover much of the area and provide another layer to the genesis of the design. As the repetition of trees in a forest provides camouflage, the building uses the patterned repetition of joints, columns and mullions to provide the officers with both concealment and direct visual site surveillance. To provide maximum visual surveillance, the main work areas are largely clad in glass. To balance the need to see out while mitigating the nighttime “fishbowl” effect, a silk-screened pattern on the glass provides both camouflage and glare protection. Image Credits: Paul Crosby



Warroad Land Port of Entry

Snow Kreilich Architects, 2010 Warroad, MN | 40,000 sf

Conceived as a specific response to the vast open landscape along the Minnesota-Canadian border, the Warroad Land Port of Entry reiterates the dominant horizon of the landscape while making reference to the East-West border. Inflected building forms facilitate intuitive use by visitors, the officers’ ability to survey the entire site, and vehicle access to secondary and commercial inspection areas. The entire facility is clad in sustainably harvested cedar siding, embracing the “north-woods� identity of the region. Vehicular inspection areas (experienced primarily from the car) and the public spaces use expanses of glass and warm, stained cedar siding to create a transparent, welcoming presence. The exterior cedar siding is finished in a black stain, anchoring the building to its site. This strong contrast reinforces the threshold, creating a material warmth and richness in the cold winter months for officers and visitors through the port.

Image Credits: Paul Crosby

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United Airlines Terminal, LAX Krueck + Sexton, 2017 Los Angeles, CA

Krueck + Sexton adapted the existing patchwork of buildings at LAX Terminal 7, incorporating a new Security and Screening Checkpoint addition, to create a cohesive design that simplifies passenger circulation and creates a whole unified by light. The existing security process could not keep up with passenger demand which led to severe congestion in the Entry Hall. The solution was to incorporate a new Security Screening Checkpoint (SSCP) at the T intersection of the Entry Hall and the Terminal. The passenger circulation was simplified to create a straight path with a direct line of sight from Entry to the Gates. This tiered circulation route not only provides clear direction to all airline gates without wayfinding material, but it simultaneously provides guards and security personel a more enhanced, extended view of potentially vulnerable areas.

Image Credits: Nick Merrick



Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport

UNStudio, 2015 Taiwan | 4,200,000 sf

Needing to accommodate over 45 million passengers annually, UNStudio’s proposal breaks the airport typology that relies on an “excessive and monotonous use of space.” The proposal is characterized by its design for the scale of its user, creating efficient, short walking distances, informed by natural wayfinding. The small footprint of the terminal leaves enough area for quick assembly using prefabrication, contributing to the effective implementation of the project. A sequence of spaces privilege the comfort, ease of use and orientation of the airport users, defining the unique “place” of the terminal. The different microclimates are defined by environmental conditions such as daylight, humidity, temperature and air flow according to the program of each zone. Vegetation, media, art and Taiwanese culture constitute the integral elements of these different zones, solidifying their identity. Image Credits: UNStudio

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Dudley Square Neighborhood Police Station Leers Weinzapfel Associates, 2012 Boston, MA

The first city investment in the revival of Boston’s “other downtown,” the Dudley Square Police Station reflects the site and the mission of the Boston Police Department to provide an open, welcoming, and secure place for the community. Facing the center of Dudley Square, the glazed glass public lobby and double height community room create a clear invitation to public entry and impart a sense of welcome and arrival to the station. At night, the luminous entry corner acts as a beacon to the community. Beginning at the entry corner, the building is organized in increasing levels of security. On the first floor, the spaces move from public to private: public lobby, police operations, booking and the cell block. The community room and other community related offices are directly accessible on the second floor from the corner entry. The third floor is devoted to locker rooms and a physical fitness space. Image Credits: Leers Weinzapfel Associates



Yale University rose center

William Rawn Associates, 2006 New Haven, CT | 38,000 sf

As the first project in an important new campus sector linking Central Campus and Science Hill, this building acts as a beacon for the University and the New Haven Community that places manned police functions at the ground floor to provide 24 hour “eyes on the street.” Uninterrupted glass walls at the public edges of the building reinforce the department’s commitment to community policing. In addition, the project includes a community center for gathering and education, the office of LGBT resources, the campus visitor center, and more.

Image Credits: Robert Benson

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Des Moines Municipal Services Center Neumann Monson Architects, 2014 Des Moines, IA | 105,000 sf

Previously, this Midwest city operated field services from scattered, old, and outdated facilities. Departments include Public Works; Parks and Recreation, Engineering, Fleet, Traffic and Transportation, Housing, Maintenance, and Satellite Maintenance. This project consolidates and centrally locates these services to develop interdepartmental cooperation and capitalize on organizational efficiencies. The project capitalizes on its connection to the regional bike trail system by providing bike racks, showers, and changing rooms. The building’s layout represents an evolution of the typical municipal facility. The building houses two primary components: Administration and Operations. Administration, separated from Operations, connects back to it via bridges. Their interstice allows light to penetrate the facility’s center, creating a glass-enclosed courtyard. Image Credits: Integrated Studio



Bruce C. Bolling Municipal Building Sasaki, 2015 Roxbury, MA | 178,000 sf

Sasaki’s design embodies the City’s vision of a symbol of change that is freely accessible to all, celebrating the history of Roxbury and inaugurating a new era for the neighbourhood. Since every student and parent in the state will visit the BPS at least once, the building is designed to be friendly, healthy and inspirational to people of all ages. It challenges what an office building is, proposing new ways of working and promoting collaboration and transparency through an open layout. The project unites and reengages the existing built corners by stitching them together into a bright new building. In blending new and old into one proud yet subtle, interconnected series of spaces, it boldly looks to the future while referencing the neighbourhood’s rich and vibrant past. The ground floor serves as an entirely public zone—known as the “New Dudley Square”— providing both community gathering space and opportunities for individual economic advancement.

Image Credits: Mecanoo

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SECURITY, AUTHORITY, & POWER ARCH 7130 MASTER'S DEGREE RESEARCH STUDIO FALL 2018 Security devices and protocols are ubiquitous. Whether we are enduring the relative benefits of TSA Pre-check or the habitual swipe of our identity card, spatial thresholds in contemporary life are conceived to segregate people into categories based on organizational affiliation and level of perceived risk. It is within this broader context that the issue of security is explored in this publication - not simply as a technical and procedural problem, as emphasized by security consultants, the police, and public agencies - but as a way to elaborate and prolong spatial thresholds, maintain order (and control), and effect psychological states. Significantly, these are spatial and experiential design considerations that point to fundamental disciplinary questions.