Catalysts and Innovation Aleta Budd Michael Prattico
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
What factors can be added to conventional development practice to achieve an innovative building?
A catalyst is an element that affects the rate of change in matter, without itself being subject to change.
Typical Reaction Scheme. 1. x + C = xC 2. y + xC = xyC 3. xyC = Cz 4. Cz = C + z
This element may augment the results in some fashion, or create an entire typology not previously seen. Often, the reaction may not have been expected, though the results are highly desirable. Thus we focus on the positive catalyst as a method of investigating complex project delivery. This revolves around a small number of key catalysts defining direction in the overall path of a â€œreaction.â€? These catalytic elements are essential to innovation. While they in themselves are not innovative, a concept reliant on the improvement of an existing object or condition, they provide the impetus to reach beyond established methods and outcomes.
INTRODUCTION In 2003, hundreds of buildings were constructed in Boston. Of these, a handful stand out as remarkable. Only one, however, achieved a LEED platinum rating. While the sustainability of the Genzyme Corporate Headquarters has been emphasized in numerous published reports, this often distracts from other notable aspects of the building.
through the paper trail, the Genzyme Center defies its own novelty, appearing much like any other complex developer driven project.
It becomes apparent then that there were factors in individuals and institutions driving change within the framework of the typical development process. This case study examines the adjustments made to the conventional development process that resulted While the plaque in the lobby might set the in the Genzyme Center and the ways new building apart but it can be argued that, buildings might derive their own definitions even without this certification, the building of success from that result. would attract attention – it embodies innovation – the question is how? While it’s easy to tally inventiveness in physical aspects of the building, this does not get to the processes or people that put them there. On paper, and
DISCLAIMER The authors of this case study recognize the achievement in the Genzyme Center of USGBC LEED Platinum Certification. However, nearly all of the contemporary documentation on the building focuses on analysis of the sustainable building systems. While technical achievements are important, this study is concerned with process. This investigation examines a much broader spectrum of factors and
protocol in order to gain a deeper understanding of the relationships between all the team members involved. In addition, there are numerous intangible factors to be be considered as factors that shaped the process, and therefore serve as the basis of any lessons to be learned.
The conventional development process has remained unchanged for a considerable amount of time. This has not allowed for innovation within the process or by the individual players.
b c A commercial development project is not generally viewed as a desirable product, particularly when in close proximity to residential areas. Popular opinion might say that developers focus solely on the bottom line, without regard for less tangible factors, such as pleasing aesthetics and negative effects on the surrounding neighborhood.
Conventional practice typically does not include the future tenant as part of the planning and design process unless it is a prototype for a retail chain. Single-tenant commercial development projects are designed and built without consideration for eventual unique fitout and cannot always cater to a specific corporate mission.
This stereotype allows for a substantial amount of transformation in the nature of the project type: the developer and project team have the ability to become catalysts in their own right to produce a building with positive impact. This can also be achieved within the delivery process as professional advancement.
This means that the building may not function as necessary for the employee health and productivity or the image of the company, because they have to be shoe-horned in. The inclusion of the tenant early in the process not only creates possibilities for innovation within the boundaries of conventional development, but also makes the result more appropriate for the users.
Fig. 1. Typical process
Fig. 2. Atypical process
d(bc) a. Developer b. Architect c. Contractor d. Tenant e. Building Product
Above: Typical office floor plan driven by net leasable space and rational structural grid. Below: The floor plan of the Genzyme Center driven by access to daylight, openness, and interaction between employees. Design architect Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner believed the central space related directly to better communication, and wanted to establish a â€œMediterranean atmosphereâ€? with the various plantings.
Above: A typical office building facade. Below: The facade of the Genzyme Center showing correlation between the interior use and exterior expression. For example, the well-lit areas at the lower left and center reflect the open space of the atrium within.
Above: Typical corporate interior condition. Below: A typical office in the Genzyme Center. A common anecdote about recruiting employees for Genzyme is that once CEO Henri Termeer shows an interviewee the offices, they are ready to begin work.
The history of any project is more than the events within the scope of construction: The longer sequence of factors and decision-making are generally regarded as unrelated, but it is useful to examine them in the case of a successful project.
A project can be viewed as the snapshot in a long series of decisions. While this is certainly true of the design and construction process, one must realize that a building is indelibly tied to its site, and that the site itself bears the markings of history upon it.
this, the developer was attracted to the site because it was one of the last remaining parcels in the area. This was due to the fact that the previous owner had been unable to revitalize it over the past 20 years. This was in turn because of its large-scale contamination, and the associated cost. Finally, this The effects of time and events on a site do was related to that particular area of East not have to be overbearing and grudgingly Cambridge being developed early on as an acknowledged, though. The specificity of industrial zone. the context can be a catalyst for innovation. In the sense that the process is a drawn- There are numerous catalysts for this pheout reaction, the inclusion of these factors nomenon that are outlined in the timeline inherently alters the outcome, although their shown later in the case study. It is useful, influence may not be evident at the comple- and not just in this project, to identify the tion. However, as any student knows, itâ€™s not connections between prior events, people, possible to attain a correct answer without and physical characteristics in the site that all the proper components in the equation. may have helped to shape the nature of the resulting building. It is possible, as well, to For example (see facing page), in the case map related elements from Europe, considof the Genzyme Center, the firm was attract- ering the location of the design architect, ened to expanding to this location because it gineer, and some vendors. matches their corporate direction. Prior to v
a. Developer b. Architect c. Contractor d. Tenant e. Building product x: Outside influence
x = factor
d(b b b c) 1
The initial atypical process equation has to be revised to include the multiple architectural consultants (b). Their work is directed by the tenant within the constraints of the original concept, and later contracts. However, their involvement in the project creates additional elements, such as timezone differences, which affect the ongoing delivery process.
This inherently affects all the figures in the previous atypical equation as a whole. The reaction, now influenced by such catalysts, produces a building which is more than the sum of intentional decision-making during the prescribed fast-track schedule.
Without this influence, one may postulate that the development process would yield a conventional result: an office building that At this point, the real estate developer (a) has is not unique, which any corporation untaken a less prominent role, yet still monitors concerned about representing their mission progress to intervene on valuable line items might occupy. Though a long sequence of in the project. From an outside perspective, connected events may produce multiple opthis is imperative for the building to achieve tions for tenants, itâ€™s useful to examine the the integration intended by the original de- factors that lead to Genzyme Corporation velopment proposal. occupying such a well-known facility. The summation figure at left ( âˆ‘ ) describes the cumulative layering of factors (x: people, events). This begins at a much earlier time in history, and extends through the creation of the project itself (e), and in fact beyond. vi
Process Timeline 1813 1890s 1916 1918 1950s 1976 1978 1981 1982 1983 1985 1989 1993 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Boston Porcelain & Glass Co. becomes first industrial development in East Cambridge Charles River filled in to connect East Cambridge with surrounding area, used almost exclusively for new industry. MIT relocates campus to Cambridge. Cambridge Gas & Light begins gasification operations at Kendall Square site. Cambridge Gas & Light ceases operations, and buildings on site are demolished. Site is acquired by Commonwealth Energy. Cambridge Community Development Department commences urban design study. East Cambridge Riverfront Plan. JUNE 8: Genzyme Corporation is founded in Chinatown, Boston. The Athenaeum Group purchases nine acres at One Kendall Square. Two buildings are completed as part of One Kendall Square redevelopment. Henri Termeer appointed CEO of Genzyme Corporation. CambridgeSide Galleria opens. Lyme Properties founded by David Clem. August: Lyme Properties acquires 10-acre parcel in East Cambridge. Urban Strategies begins master planning for Kendall Square development. April: Cambridge approves PUD for Lymeâ€™s masterplan. September 23: Competition No. 1 Jury held - Buildings C, E, and G. September: Larkin Petition for moratorium submitted. January: 18-month moratorium commences. March 6: Competition No. 2 Jury held - Landscape design. April 26: Competition No. 3 Jury held - Building D (Genzyme Center). Ellen Dunham-Jones hosts Lyme Properties at MIT architecture review. June: East Cambridge Planning Study commences. August: Genzyme signs lease on new headquarters building. September 13: Competition No. 4 Jury held - Buildings A and B. November: Groundbreaking for new Genzyme Center. Spring: Genzyme project budget established. June: East Cambridge Planning Study is completed. Construction commences at the Genzyme site. Mass. Technology Collaborative awards Genzyme $321,750 grant for photo-voltaic system and reflective metal wall panels. January: Construction of parking garages commences. July: Structure of the bulding is completed. October: Building is weathertight. Fit-out commences. Genzyme Environmental Management System (GEMS) instituted. May: Furniture installation; Base building is substantially completed. October: Building is complete. Commissioning commences (two weeks). December: All employees have moved in. Genzyme shuttle bus service launched to decrease pollution, fuel use, and traffic congestion. June 1: BioMed Realty Trust acquires Lyme Propertiesâ€™ Cambridge portfolio for $523.6M. December: The Genzyme Center receives the LEED Platinum rating from the USGBC.
Contextual information & 1 early master plans
}x } }
Master planning & 2 Competition
Exceptional tenant involvement
Integrated delivery process
page 17 LEGEND a. Developer b. Architect c. Contractor d. Tenant e. Building Product x. Contextual Factor
Yield of atypical development process
Conclusion, page 33. Sources, page 35.
The history of the Kendall Square area has been defined by industrial development. Like many other such sites, the years after World War II saw a significant decline in the industrial base for the area. The resulting wasteland created a rift between the Charles River and the historic fabric of Cambridge.
East Cambridge has a rich history in regards which East Cambridge is still contending toto real estate and development. Initially an day as it attempts to manage its growth. island, it was the subject of one of the first large scale, speculative land purchases in the United States. Because of the abundance of waterfront property, the area proved ripe for industrial development. In 1813 the first industrial endeavor, the Boston Porcelain and Glass Company, found a home along the Charles River. However, it was not until after the Civil War that the industrial character of the area was established. In the 1890s, the decision was made to fill in a portion of the river bank, connecting East Cambridge with the surrounding area. This had a significant impact on the area as the newly filled land was used almost exclusively for industrial development. This created an isolating ring of industrial development, severing ties with the riverfront, an issue with 1
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Until World War Two, industrial development dominated the area because of relatively inexpensive land cost and an influx of cheap labor due to immigration. Beginning in the
1950s and continuing through the 1970s, however, a variety of factors contributed to the decline of East Cambridge as a manufacturing base. Foremost, land and labor costs rose diminishing the financial base for industry. In addition, urban renewal shifted the focus of the building industry and put alternative demands on land use.
Zoning at that time was relatively permissive, and allowed for the demolition of several industrial blocks to make room for office buildings. At the same time it remained lax in protection for the surrounding residential neighborhood. A planning initiative put forth in 1976 had latent fruition in projects such as the CambridgeSide Galleria and One Kendall Square and set off a boom that remained The combination of these dynamics lead to largely unchecked until the 1990â€™s. widespread blight. Where the residential development and mix of uses had previously Because of this zoning, the scale and use of been isolated by industrial development, projects allowed during the boom reinforced they now sat in a sea of abandoned ware- the isolation set in place by the large scale houses. industrial development of the area. This created distrust among residents and served In the 1980s, a research-based economic to isolate the community, detracting from boom renewed interest in the area. Fueled amenities such as open space, parks, and by the proximity to the Massachusetts In- access to the river. In the late 1990s, a call stitute of Technology, which had moved to was put out to revise zoning practices in an its current Cambridge location in 1916, East effort to mend the rift between the river and Cambridge became a prime location for in- East Cambridge. stitutional development.
The site on which the Genzyme Center is built closely follows the narrative of a typical building in East Cambridge. In 1918, the Cambridge Gas and Light Company inhabited the site. In the 1950s, the company left the site and its facilities were razed. The site sat open for the next 40 years and was employed primarily as a parking lot before purchased by Lyme Properties.
Contextual information & early master plans
Various master planning attempts were undertaken to address numerous issues caused by the massive undeveloped post-industrial area in East Cambridge. Prior to 1998, none were successful.
East Cambridge Riverfront Plan (1978) The intent of this plan was to provide a resource for any parties interested in a 40acre, mostly vacant industrial area in East Cambridge. The city wished to transform the site into a mixed-use neighborhood based on this plan. This was to include retail space, residences, offices, and institutions, along with necessary public uses. The plan was to provide significant tax advantages for the city, as well as a plethora of new jobs. At this time the area had seen closings of numerous industries, which adversely affected the physical landscape in East Cambridge, from the riverfront to the residential fabric. Committee meetings in the mid-1970s determined that a solution needed to be brought to the table, and in 1976 the Cambridge Planning Board directed the Community Development Department to commence a comprehensive urban design study. 3
Case Study: Genzyme Center
The study examines the historical background of East Cambridge as a generator for planning policies. Landmarks with architectural significance are also outlined in the report, with attention to the reasons behind certain styles. Overall, East Cambridge constitutes a range of vernacular elements based upon particular industries, which are no longer in operation. It is the sea of industrial land that threatens the diversities of East Cambridge during this time period, characterized by a loss of connection to the river. The study identifies the abundance of permissions available in industrial land that does not consider proximity to residential neighborhood. The zoning for the area does not encourage the types of development that were intended; rather, it does assure quality new development, provide for viable industrial activity, or distinguish physical location.
The 1978 plan outlined five goals: 1. Increased employment opportunities; 2. Expansion of the cityâ€™s tax base; 3. Enhancement of the physical environment; 4. Conservation of existing social/ economic diversity; 5. Exploitation of diverse potential of Charles River. Nine prerequisites were also established: 1. Create 16-acre open space system as an armature for new development; 2. Use Lechmere Canal as central public space bounded by residences and retail; 3. Reduce blight at Lechmere Square with new transit station; 4. Redirect traffic away from Kendall Square and East Cambridge; 5. Convert Cambridge Parkway into park/access road by shifting traffic onto a widened Commercial Avenue; 6. Protect and enhance historic resources of East Cambridge; 7. Rezone current industrial land to incorporate development objectives; 8. Work with existing businesses, landowners, and developers to improve mixed-use conditions; 9. Protect community from uncontrolled land-use modifications and offer housing rehabilitation and subsidy assistance.
Implementation of the plan dictated a multiphased approach extended over eight years (into 1983) on 26 different sites in the area. Land acquisition and development was to be entirely privately funded, with public involvement only in guidelines and limited technical assistance. The City retained power of eminent domain but did not see a reason to use it. Cost of the revitalization was to be in excess of $60,000,000.
Top: The study included many references to European precedents, particularly English urban planning and design characteristics. The architectural profile of Castle Combe served as example for important public spaces. Right: This romantic sensibility was in contrast to other strategies that were inclusive of large-scale superblocks. Note the use of the UnitĂŠ dâ€™Habitation typology, complete with sculptural rooftop elements, in the proposed view of the Lechmere Canal area.
Contextual information & early master plans
East Cambridge Development Review Process and Guidelines (June 1985)
East Cambridge Zoning Petition (June 2001)
East Cambridge Development Plan (1985)
This document incorporated concepts proposed in the Citywide Rezoning Petition: encouraging more housing in a mixed-use environment and reducing commercial density and traffic growth. The petition also aims to create zoning recommendations unique to the specific characters and needs of the individual neighborhoods (East Cambridge, Wellington-Harrington, and Area 4).
As the Lechmere Triangle redevelopment neared completion, the need to refocus the process for monitoring growth in the area was identified. There was concern that the new development did not relate to the existing neighborhood. In addition, there were questions about the ability of the development to absorb further impact of traffic pattern and infrastructure revisions. The document states that new development must be compatible with the existing context of East Cambridge. It lays out guidelines for open space, pedestrian circulation, service facilities; retail, housing, office and parking in the Planned Unit Developments (PUD)1. Features such as height, scale, massing, streetwalls and setbacks, silhouettes, and details including a wide range of architectural components.
1. This refers to a large-scale subdivision of land used for unified developments containing compatible uses.
Case Study: Genzyme Center
This petition was the basis for the Eastern Cambridge Planning Study (ECaPS), and laid out recommendations on multiple PUDs, modifying district nomenclature and Floor-Area-Ratios (FAR)2 for commercial and residential development. The revision to FAR values was intended to restrict over-scaled commercial or industrial development.
Above: The East Cambridge Development Plan outlined new areas for interventions in the area, mainly focused on the riverfront. The Genzyme Center site is listed as â€œFuture Development Area.â€? Even at this time, new large-scale development would sever connections between the river and residential areas.
The petition outlines development rights of Transfer Districts, which encourage reduced commercial density close to existing residential areas, while moving commercial and mixed-use development to areas that are closer to transit and more fully developed. The proposal includes two districts, one a Transfer Donating District (TDD), and the other a Transfer Receiving District (TRD).
2. Floor-area-ratio is defined as the ratio between the total floor area of all levels of a given building to the area of the plot of land on which it sits.
The goals of the rezoning recommendations are as follows: 1. Encourage housing as a predominant use in new development; 2. Create mixed-use districts close to transit infrastructure; 3. Reduce automobile trips from new development; 4. Increase public open space; 5. Create better transitions between residential and commercial areas; and 6. Create an urban environment that encourages pedestrian circulation, connections between neighborhoods, commerce, transit, and open space (including Charles River). Thus the 2001 petition proposes various zoning changes to achieve tighter conformity with neighborhood and citywide goals. The petition includes all proposed changes to the existing text and maps.
Eastern Cambridge Planning Study – The study identifies Amgen, Inc., Biogen, Inc., and Genzyme Corporation as three June 2000 - October 2001 firms producing five of the top ten biotech In September 1999 the citizens submit- products in the country (the products ar not ted a petition for an 18-month moratorium named in the study). This fact, coupled with on commercial development over 20,000 the proximity to MIT (large skilled workforce) square feet and residential development and transit opportunities to Boston and Longwood Medical Area (LMA), translates more than 20 units. Their concerns were: into low vacancy rates and very high rental rates and land prices. 1. Encroachment of commercial into residential areas; The study does not identify the Genzyme 2. Increasing traffic congestion; Center location as a “transition” area, so 3. Real estate price escalation; there are no direct recommendations for the 4. Inadequate public open space. proposed buildings. This study was produced by the City of Cambridge – the Cambridge Community Devel- The study proposes new street-level retail at opment Department and the Eastern Cam- the Genzyme Center site, and two adjacent bridge Planning Study Committee (ECaPS). lab buildings. It places an “activity generator” The rezoning petition was halted in order to across the street from the site, now the profind results of study, and a moratorium be- posed location of a performing arts center. gan in January 2000.
Right: The focus areas of the study are exemplary of the diverse nature of East Cambridge, a result of urban planning and infill beginning in 1830. Note how the central “transition area” envelopes the residential district: this swath is indicative of the old shoreline of Cambridge. Far right: The block patterns of the area , as expected, closely follow the diversity of focus areas. The superblock typology of the Genzyme Center site was to be addressed by Urban Strategies under the supervision of Lyme Properties.
East Cambridge Wellington/ Harrington
Area IV Kendall Square 0
scale in feet
Transition Area 2 Transition Area
Super Block New Block Pattern
Contextual information & early master plans
Significant development in the Kendall Square area was catalyzed in 1998 when Lyme Properties purchased 10 acres of brownfield. The subsequent planning and design processes marked a unique real estate development benchmark that resulted in a successful product.
Master Planning (beginning with site acquisition in August 1998) Lyme Properties’ documentation states that previous planning studies failed because they did not have a key development partner, with adequate resources and determination, at a time of political and economical optimism. The city, for example, was not able to deal with expense of remediating the site - even in the previous master plans, public contribution had been relegated to a minimum. A local utility company (the previous owner), was also not able to successfully redevelop the site over the span of 20 years.
workforce, anchored by new residential con- distributing the new construction according struction nearby. to a larger organizational concept in each, such as open space, or the Broad Canal. Lyme instructed their planning consultant, These iterations were as follows: Urban Strategies, to examine the broader THE SITE context, identifying connections and op- This process enabled Urban Strategies to • Area generally known as Kendall Square - MIT campus, Charles River East Cambridge • 10 acre former coal gasification plant portunities that might be a benefit for both determine the optimum layout of the streets • One of the last large development sites in Cambridge the city and the project. This would naturally and necessary program. Each plan was then create a result closely tied to its surround- thoroughly studied by the local community ings, addressing many of the concerns of and city agencies. the previous master plans. Urban Strategies produced a conceptual plan detailing the site as a crossroads between the Charles River and certain nodes existing within East Cambridge, such as Kendall Square, Cambridgeside Galleria, and the MIT campus (plan at bottom right). These were the kinds of connections that the City of Cambridge had been looking to establish since the late 1970s.
The new master plan was intended to create a dense, mixed-use model for life science laboratory development, strengthening bonds between private research communities and local academic institutions (MIT). It was also intended to promote an active and To assure a quality outcome, Urban Stratcreative urban environment for a younger egies tested multiple concepts on the site, 7
Case Study: Genzyme Center
• Challenge - create a context for a new neighborhood • The paradigm - a Crossroads linking the neighborhoods, the campus, the River and Longfellow Bridge15
Facing page, bottom right: The importance of the Broad Canal and the connections to armatures of existing green spaces nearby. This page, right: Master plan of the development showing the “spine” for access to ground floor retail, parking garages, and public spaces. This page, far right: Computer model showing the massing of the proposed development.
The plan includes numerous components to The master plan included a description of all • Build to street lines on central spine with active ground floors improve the existing conditions, as well as • the to be completed: Accessbuildings to 2 UG parking areas in public spaces establish successful elements of urban design within the local context: • Building A: six-story laboratory • Building B: laboratory with atrium • A “traditional” block design to conand retail space tinue existing urban patterns; • Building C: performing arts center • Block pattern allows for future de• Building D: 12-story life science velopment; office building with atrium and retail • Creation of five new connections to space the existing street system, to allevi• Building E: 230-foot residential ate traffic congestion; tower with attached 120-foot block • Streets are maintained privately, • Building F: parking access pavilion allowing greater flexibility in traffic • Building G: ground-level retail, ofstandards, but private property is fices and lofts above not delineated; • On the interior of the site, streets The proposed building massing is highest and pedestrian ways merged to at the Kendall Square side of the site, depromote a richer street experience. creasing as the site approaches the exist-
ing residential portion of East Cambridge. As stated previously, this was intended to alleviate concerns about the overscaling of new development and the associated impacts on nearby residences. 18
Lyme pursued Planned Unit Development (PUD) for site, allowing for some zoning relief and flexibility, as well as an inclusive planning process that invited the input of municipal services and the general public. The Cambridge Planning Board gave the PUD approval in April 1999, based upon the quality of the master plan and Lyme’s clear commitment to establishing high design standards as part of the plan, which would continue in the selection process of the numerous architects involved.
“...Genzyme’s participation in the transformation of an abandoned lot into a vibrant asset was seen as consistent with its corporate mission of improving individual lives through the proper application of technology.” - Nancy Solomon, Architectural Graphic Standards • Generally mid-rise with higher landmark elements
• Tight relationships between buildings and pedestrian spaces
• Intimacy and focus in a hospitable pedestrian-oriented micro-climate
Masterplanning & Competition
As for the specific site itself, we are excited to participate in the transformation of a former brownfield site into a productive, vibrant mixed-use area. We strive to be good neighbors, and we hope that the thoughtful design of the project will make this area a real addition to the Cambridge community Gordon Brailsford Jr., Senior Project Manager for Genzyme
A brownfield site is one which has been polluted by contaminants, usually due to the result of an industrial past. As previously noted, the parcel purchased by Lyme had been a brownfield for 50 years before its successful redevelopment. While development had been suggested for the site, the extent of contamination and significant financial obstacles involved in remediation had prevented these schemes from taking fruition.
and involves significant excavation of pollutants and site re-stabilization. Because Lyme Properties wanted not only a cost effective solution that would allow for construction during remediation, but one that would also be permanent, the remediation was phased and carried out according to future use. For example, the underground parking was placed in the most contaminated portion of the site because any latent pollutants would have a lesser impact on cars than people. In 1998 however, the Massachusetts Brown- Also, the parcel for the Genzyme Center, the fields Act was signed into legislation. The first building constructed, was remediated law provides financial incentives and liability first. relief for the development of brownfield sites in the state of Massachusetts. In addition to While the remediation ultimately cost $10 environmental aims, it focuses on economi- million, the efforts have proved worthwhile. cally distressed areas such as blighted post The site has not only been developed, healindustrial areas within cities. This legislative ing a gap in the midst of development, but break allowed Lyme to proceed with the de- the use of a brownfield helped attract Genvelopment of the plot. zyme as a long term, highly involved tenant and provided significant motivation in movThe remediation process is highly intensive ing along the LEED path. 9
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Technical Remediation Facts
Here’s how ISS worked: • A mixture of portland cement, In Situ Solidification/Stabilization (ISS) bentonite, and water was mixed helped meet the developer’s goals of a and injected into the impacted soil, quick, safe and cost-effective cleanup soimmobilizing free-phase NAPL in lution, while at the same time eliminating the subsurface. Soil mixing was risk to human health and making way for accomplished using a 10-foot (3 expedited redevelopment. m), crane-mounted auger. • The mixed soil columns were overlapped 35%, ensuring that all Below: Soil mixing using an auger. impacted soil was treated. • ISS treatment resulted in immobilization of contaminants of concern within a 20-foot (6-m) thick monolithic, solidified mass with a volume of more than 100,000 cubic yards (80,000 m3). • Nuisance gases generated during treatment were collected and treated to prevent atmospheric release.
Solidification/stabilization resulted in: • Greatly reduced movement of NAPL by binding the contaminants within the soil matrix with a cement-based S/S additive. • Lowered hydraulic conductivity of the treated soil by two orders of magnitude, preventing leaching of contaminants. • Improved groundwater quality by preventing groundwater from coming into contact with source material.
From “Phoenix Award Winning Kendall Site Arises from Cement Treated Brownfild Site” by Christopher Carleo, Thomas Clark and Charles M. Wilk
Masterplanning & Competition
The presence of competitions in the growth of the Kendall Square master plan is unique for a developer-driven process. This enables the project to break free from stereotypes to pursue innovation and gain recognition as a successful commercial building.
different designers. In the event that a submission introduced new ideas to the project site, the master plan could be adjusted to match. In this vein, completing all the competitions in a relatively narrow timeframe allowed for cohesion between the individual building designs and unifying landscape architecture.
Lyme Properties made an early commitment to retaining a separate architect for each building, each being selected through an invited competition process. This was to promote variety and diversity, avoiding the appearance of a suburban office park. The individual building designs were then intended to be unified through a cohesive Multiple sets of competitions were held, landscape strategy. According to Angela each with a different jury: McCanna of Lyme, this phase is where the • Housing structures: buildings C, E, success of the Genzyme project lay. and G. Each of the five competitors submitted for all three buildMore than 100 firms participated in the comings, but was not allowed to win petitions that followed, with selection based more than one; upon the appearance of innovative ideas, • Landscape design; commitment to the urban design goals of • Building D (Genzyme Center); the master plan, firm availability and motiva• Buildings A and B. tion of the staff. In addition, the competition process allowed a degree of validation of the master plan by 11
Case Study: Genzyme Center
The competition juries consisted of local academics, practitioners, and critics. This in-
creased the level of involvement of the community in the outcome of the project, and so allows for a sense of ownership. Utilizing some of the same jurors across competitions partially helped to unify the results of the disparate competitions into a recognizable overall project.
L SOUTH PLAZA BROAD CANAL WAY NORTH PLAZA
Competition 1: Buildings C, E, and G
Michael Van Valkenburgh
Competiton date: September 23, 1999 Advisory panel: Bob Simha, MIT; John de Moncheaux, MIT; Jon Gollinger, housing developer; Bob Kuehn, housing developer; pavilions executive architect Symmes MainiStuart & McKee Pratt, housing developer; Mike Hass, ADD Inc.; Dennis Pieprz, Sasaki Associates. Associates
Dimeo Construction Far left:
Building E: Hotel, Housing and Retail. Architect: Childs Bertman Tseckares
use Open Space, Skating Left: Area, Building
G: Office, Retail, and Housing. Alliance
Water Feature, Architect: and PavilionsArchitectâ€™s
NORTH PLAZA NORTH and BROAD PLAZA CANAL WAY and BROAD CANAL WAY
Competition 2: Landscape Design
Construction of the North
Competiton Plaza, Gas Transfer Station
date: March 6, 2000 Tim Agness, St. Paul Mississippi Design Center; D landscaping Richard is in progress Graf, Urban Designer & Development Consultant; for completion in Fall 2003.Robinson, Auburn University School of Architecture; Michael Operation of thePeter skatingVanderwarker, area architectural photographer and author. Advisory screening, and Parcels A and panel:
will be possible after completion of 650 East Kendall
Far left: North Sky Bowl Plaza Entry Landscape Architect: Michael van Valkenburgh Associates
Street building. Broad Canal Way landscaping will be
complete at the opening of Parcels E and G.Middle
Left: Broad Canal Way entrance
Left: North Plaza seasonal views
Competition 4: Buildings A and B Competiton date: September 13, 2000 Advisory panel: Elizabeth Padjen, Editor - Architecture Boston; Cliff Pearson, Sr. Editor, Architectural Record; Brigitte Shim, ShimSutcliffe Architects; Scott Simpson, Stubbins Associates. Far left: Building A, northwest view. 17 Architect: Steven Ehrlich Architects Left: Building B, west view. Architect: Anshen + Allen
Masterplanning & Competition
Competition 3: Building D The Genzyme Center April 26, 2000
ferent sites in mind. The firm provided a program document to the competitors via Lyme, and observed the competition. After the results were attained from the jury, GenLike the previous competitions, Lyme Prop- zyme CEO Henri Termeer was given leave to erties and Urban Strategies requested port- approve the winner. folios from a wide range of firms. A limited short list was then selected based on quality, As Termeer related at the grand opening of but a firm with no preconceptions about this the building, the first four firms presented typology was also sought, in order to attain very attractive buildings, with models that fresh perspective on the project. This short were statue-like and sculptural. list had a wide geographic range; the firms were as follows: • • • •
Allies & Morrison, London; Machado & Silvetti, Boston; NBBJ, Seattle; Bentham Crouwel, The Netherlands; • Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner, Stuttgart, Germany.
The firms were asked to provide elevations, plans, and project descriptions. There were no requirements in the project brief on a desired outcome for the building, and sustainability, while important, was not specified. 14 The shortlisted firms were paid a $10,000 stipend for their submissions, plus expenses, However, he felt that they did not quite “get” and were flown in to Boston for site visits. it. The last architect, he said, came in emptyAt this time, Lyme Properties was in nego- handed, and told the juryhe wanted to tell them tiations with Genzyme Corporation to lease what he was thinking the building might look a building on this site. The biotech firm was like. In contrast to the previous submissions, looking to expand and had about ten dif- Stefan Behnisch described the building from 13
Case Study: Genzyme Center
the inside out. He presented the building as a tree - the large atrium as the trunk, and the upper-level gardens and office spaces as the branches. Not only did this function as a strategy for organizing the building, but a way of explaining the environmental notions inherent to the design.
Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner proposed a scheme based in European practice, offering minimized energy usage and a workspace completely flooded with daylight (a common anecdote being that one would not have to take their sunglasses off once entering the building). This was intended to boost productivity, and also resulted in the workplace being very attractive to prospective employees. This resulted in a strong approval from Genzyme, because the long hours worked by their staff required a comfortable and healthy environment.
Facing page: Competition presentation board by Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner. Note the distribution of winter gardens (green) around the central hall (yellow) and the subsequent sightlines created, as well as the proliferation of daylight penetrating the interior.
Masterplanning & Competition
Far Left: Massing model of building atrium void space. This illustrates the analogy of the central tree trunk. Left: Overall building massing. Facing page: Competition presentation board by Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner.
It was these concepts and others, such as using water from the Charles River for cooling, that attracted the jurors to the project from the start, as related by Ellen DunhamJones, who participated in the jury. Despite the fact that the jury had an even number of people, there was no difficulty in coming to a decision on the winner. Initially Jones was unsure about the jury, given her involvement in the Congress for Genzyme Center Competition Jury Ellen Dunham-Jones, architect/associate professor of architecture at MIT Elizabeth Padjen, Editor, ArchitectureBoston Dennis Pieprz, Sasaki Associates Michael Sorkin, Michael Sorkin Studio
Case Study: Genzyme Center
the New Urbanism (CNU), and the possible difference in viewpoint with other jurors. But this concern was eliminated by the agreement on the Behnisch submission by all the jurors. From this itâ€™s possible to draw conclusions about the universal nature of the concepts presented by Behnisch.
development proposal. She conducted a studio based on the Kendall Square master plan by Urban Strategies, and invited Lyme President David Clem and architect Daniel Winny to sit on the review. This itself was innovative and unusal, because the prevailing attitude at MIT at the time was not one conducive to hosting real estate developers.
Jones, an instructor in architecture at MIT at the time of the jury, also was impressed by the use of competitions in Lyme Propertiesâ€™ Profile: Ellen Dunham-Jones
Director of the Architecture program at Georgia Tech, Jonesâ€™ academic interest is in linking contemporary theory to post-industrial development. She also advocates for alternatives to sprawl, and has recently focused on the retrofitting of suburbs. Both the former and the latter were suitable foci for this particular task. At the time of the competition, Jones also served as Chair of the Education Task Force for the Congress for the New Urbanism.
Masterplanning & Competition
The early involvement of a comitted tenant is a radical departure from business as usual in property development. This step, for the Genzyme Center, can be noted as a collecting catalyst allowing what had previously been limited to concepts of what should be to take physical form. The sucess of the project would not have been achieved in its current definition without early tenant involvement.
In the typical development process, a developer will often secure a site then approach an architect as a client for a structure. Upon completion, they secure tenants who lease space in the developer owned building. Often these spaces are generic in their attempt to serve a hypothetical population. Removing the variable occupant from the equation by constructing for a specific tenant allows for a perceived reversal in ownership and a higher quality product. Lyme Properties may have been the client for the Genzyme Center on a financial and contractual basis, but the building undoubtedly belongs to Genzyme in both occupation and realization.
ally, site selection was driven by a humanistic approach centered on interaction with the community and the notion that a building could give something back. These aims run counter to a developerâ€™s typical approach, which is based on square footage efficiencies and occupancy percentages.
It is this laundry list of characteristics that lead Genzyme to Lyme Properties as a partner in developing their headquarters. Lyme owned the largest development parcel in Cambridge. A former brownfield site, it had already been remediated and the master plan procured by Lyme had additional social agendas focused on revitalizing the area. In relocating his companyâ€™s headquarters, While the partnership of a large corporation Genzyme CEO Henri Termeer had a spe- and a developer is nothing new to the archicific set of criteria with a strong emphasis on tectural process, the timing and degree of employee and company health. This notion involvement of Genzyme is unique. extended to the site in looking for a location. Termeer desired an urban site to clean Typically, a developer will complete a project both environmentally and socially. Addition- then attract tenants based on the success 17
Case Study: Genzyme Center
of the building. In the case of the Genzyme Center, however, the tenant involvement was directly related to the success of the structure. Genzyme became involved in the process around the time of the competition and therefore had an integral role in design, construction and financing decisions. Lyme Properties provided much of the up front financing for the project but, by all reports, Genzyme took over the guiding role typically held by the developer, â€œGenzyme was steering the ship.â€? This uniquely shaped the project by making the process more of a building custom tailored to Genzyme rather than the typical tenant fit out process. While the traditional terms base building and tenant fit out are used on the project, they survive only in nomenclature in the finished project. Genzyme was present at weekly design meetings and frequently on the construction site. They are not only the sole occupant of the building,
but also have their own facilities staff dedicated to the continued maintenance and function of the building. In addition, the early commitment of Genzyme as a tenant enabled opportunities for innovation that might otherwise have been deemed unecessary or frivolous. Many of these element now correlate with the praised performance of the building.
This is not a design/build project. This is a conventional development building. One of the things that is unusual about it is that the lease was signed between the landlord and tenant before the builfing was designed. So, the lease provides for the mechanism and relationship between the landlord and the tenant on advancing and improving the design. - Randy Long, Lyme Properties Exceptional tenant involvement
While early tenant involvement is rare, the Genzyme Center is not the first instance of this happening, however, this relationship is heightened through deep involvement by the tenant. Typically, even with an established tenant, traditional developer/ architect roles are maintained. For the Genzyme Center, Lyme was able to take a backseat fiduciary role and allow Genzyme to drive the design. A system was set in place by which Genzyme could make changes to the design of the base building, a portion of the structure typically unavailable to tenant input. Genzyme could request a change. This would then be sent to the contractor for cost estimation then the financial impact would be sent to the developer. The developer then presented Genzyme with a yes, no option on the item. This kind of involvement was enabled through top down interest in the building. While many executives would keep their distance from the development process, this was not the case with the Genzyme Center. Henri Termeer has been reported to have extensive involvement in the project. Without this corporate interest, it is unlikely that the Genzyme Center would have arrived in its current form and achievements.
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Henri Termeer has been involved with the Genzyme Corporation since 1985, when he was named its president and was promoted to Chairman in 1988. In addition to guiding Genzyme to record success in the pharmaceutical world Termeer is committed to a number of social causes, many of them devoted to providing medical care for the underprivileged. As the CEO of Genzyme, Termeer was integral to the corporationâ€™s deep involvement in the construction of their headquarters. From association with the competition to frequent visits during construction, Termeer personally had his hand in every stage of delivery. This kind of involvement is rare from a corporate tenant, much less their CEO. In this instance, however, Termeer maintained a vested interest in the structure and the way in which it would represent the company. He is reported to have said, â€œThis is the flagship. Do not let it sinkâ€?, and was not bashful in rejecting designs nor repeatedly visiting the site through out the day to see how specific elements were progressing. In addition, his European roots are said to have influenced the selection of an urban site as well as the design.
Facing page: These three buildings are large, single tenant driven works.However, in these instances the traditional developer architect roles were maintained. Without passing aesthetic judgement, it can be noted that these buildings have failed to transform or innovate upon the the way in which an office building performs.
Hancock Tower Architect: IM Pei and Henry Cobb Developer: Beacon Capital Trust Tenant: John Hancock Insurance
The Prudential Center Architect: Luckman Partnership Developer: Boston Properties Tenant: Prudential Insurance
State Street Financial Architect: TRO Jung Brannen Developer: Columbia Plaza Associates Tenant: State Street Financial
Constructed in the 1970’s, the most extensive tenant involvement happened when Hancock Insurance paid for damags to surrounding buildings during the plagued construction.
Prudential Insurance may be the primary tenant behind the project, however the building has since increased to multiple tenants of varying size.
State Street’s participation in the project was eclipsed by the consciously minority group developer’s desire to create an icon on the Boston skyline.
Exceptional tenant involvement
Integrated delivery is a relatively new method employed in the architectural process. As a result, it is considered innovative on a stand alone basis. However, occasionally the project being delivered embodies innovation on its own terms and generates excitement to encourage integration beyond contractual terms within the project team.
The type of integrated delivery employed in the construction of the Genzyme Center goes well beyond the delivery method typically indicated by the term. Because of a diverse team, complex functional aims and a compacted schedule this building required a different, and not always easy, form of collaboration. Inherent in the concept of integrated project delivery are the notions that most, if not all, parties essential to the design will be brought onto the team early in the process and that all entities will regularly be able to assimilate to discuss the project. While Genzymeâ€™s process featured the appropriate timing for the designation of a design team, they faced a significant challenge in time zones. The design architects were located in Germany, one executive architect in California, another and the contractors in Boston, engineers in New York and England and significant consultants in Austria and Germany. As a result, 21
Case Study: Genzyme Center
meetings were difficult to schedule, offices maintained multiple clocks and the process was heavily reliant on digital communication. Beyond timing, the various localities of key players, notably the contractors constructing the building and the architects producing the design, provided some logistical diversions in regards to delivering the project. The project was largely driven by concerns about sustainability. In Europe, sustainable measures are part of the code. In America, sustainability tends to supercede code. As a result, many elements considered standard to performance in Europe, particularly complex systems had to be justified to both client and contractor. Of noteworthy issue was the filigree slab, a type of slab that saves material in both concrete and formwork, assists in thermal gains and reduces the weight of the building. Previously not encountered by Turner who initially suggested a different
structural system, the structure was coordinated into 3 daily pours. Currently, the slab, heliostats, and loggia faĂ§ade, all foreign methods to US contractors are 3 features integral to and frequently mentioned about the building. In addition to systems, there is a difference between the architectâ€™s scope of work in Europe and America. In Europe, the architect will carry a project through schematic design. After that, it is up to the trades to complete the details of the project. In America, the architect sees a project through construction. Because Genzyme was a project using European architects and American contractors, some inevitable conflicts arose in regards to the details. While these conflicts are embodied in some details of the building, they are relatively minor in scale. While trying to mesh a global project team implementing unprecedented systems might
The project meetings were held at 12:00 noon in Cambridge, with video-conferencing, meaning that the West Coast and European consultants needed to adjust their schedules accordingly to meet the demand of the construction team on-site. Initially this caused numerous issues with communication, but the team quickly developed their electronic methods to maintain workflow. For many, the project represented a major shift into email and other high-speed forms of communication.
seem difficult enough, the Genzyme team had to do so under a fast tracked American schedule. The building took 23 months to complete where as in Europe, to which the building form and systems are more native, such a structure would take an estimated 5 years. This schedule was not just for the base building, as would be in most typical office construction, but for the tenant fit out as well. The two processes were dovetailed and involved the use of many of the same consultants. For example, the entire base
and tenant structures, while carried out by the project. Members of the team knew two different architects of record utilized one they were building an entirely new type of engineer. structure - the sense of innovation provided motivation to reach for integration beyond While these challenges may have slowed, or traditionally defined terms. From frequent even have been a detriment to most proj- visits by Genzymeâ€™s CEO, to the construcects, the Genzyme team was able to absorb tion workers spending 14 hours a day on and capitalize. Beyond contracts, the typical site, less than ideal conditions under which signifier of an integrated project team, the to construct were successfully adapted to team operated as a unit. According to Lynne because of the top down integration of the Thompson and Joe Gaiko of Turner, there project team. was a constant sense of excitement about
One of the interesting aspects of the development process is the way that our team has operated over the last two years to bring us to the point we are today. This has been a fast track project. The building and design features are very unusual. We have a far flung design team, an architect from Germany with an associate executive architect from Los Angeles, an Engineering firm from Bath England with an office in New York and another associate Mechanical Engineer. - Michael Griffin, Turner Construction Integrated delivery process
Original Property Owner and Developer
Distribution (location): Hanover, New Hampshire Number of Employees: 2 (2009) Firm Leadership (at time of project): David Clem, Bob Green, and George Lightbody Scope of Markets: Biotech property development primarily in the Cambridge area Services: Property development, real estate Key Consultants: Genzyme, Millennium, Vertex, Microbia, Metabolix, and Monsanto
...the Cambridge Planning Board and the Community Development Department worked with Lyme to achieve a development that will complete the revitalization of the area and make it an important gateway to East Cambridge. The project reflects a vision for an urban, mixed-use community that will keep Kendall Square alive and vibrant well into the evening. David Clem
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Genzyme Corporation Majority Building Tenant
Distribution: Headquarters – Cambridge, MA Number of Employees: 11,000 worldwide, 900 in Cambridge Firm Leadership: Henri Termeer CEO, Jason A. Amello CAO, Mark Banforth Senior Vice President Corporate Operations, Richard A. Moscicki MD Chief Medical Officer Scope of Markets: Healthcare industry Services: drug development, genetic testing, cancer diagnosis and treatment products, orthopedic medical and surgical products Key Consultants: Mt. Sinai School of Medicine for Fabry disease treatment; BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.; Cambridge Antibody Technology; and Kirin Brewing Co., Ltd.
Creating a green buildingone that sets new standards-is consistent with what we do every day as a corporation. Genzyme Center is consistent with our purpose, and our purpose is to innovate to create new standards of care for patients who have untreatable diseases. Henri Termeer
Behnisch Architekten Design Architect, shell and core of base building
Distribution: Stuttgart, Germany; Venice, California; Boston, Massachusetts. Number of Employees: Approximately 50. Firm Leadership: Stefan Behnisch, Partner; David Cook, Partner; Martin Haas, Partner; Christof Jantzen, Partner. Scope of Markets: Gardens, Sustainability, Interiors, Education, Research Facilities, Public Realm, Infrastructure, Residential, Sports/Leisure; Offices. Services: Programming, Space Planning, Feasibility Studies, Project Management, General Planning, Cost Consultancy. Key Consultants: Structural: Schlatch Bergermann & Partner; Buro Happold; Knippers Helbig; King Shaw Associates; Atelier One; Wetzel & von Seht; Fischer Friedrich; COWI; Pfefferkorn Ingenieure. Architectural: architectsAlliance; Next Phase Studios; Wörner-Architekten & Partner; Blackbird Architects; KSR Architects; Kayaalp Architecture & Consulting; TKS. Cost: Davis Langdon. Environmental: TransSolar Klimaengineering; Max Fordham LLP; Buro Happold; King Shaw Associates; Birch & Krogboe. Master Planning: Gehl Architects; Ken Greenberg. Lighting: Bartenbach Lichtlabor; Nimbus Design GmbH. Specialist: Theatre Project Consultants; VS Möbel. Publishing: fmo publishers; Aedes.
We are convinced that we should design buildings with the human in mind. Stefan Behnisch
Next Phase Studios
Executive architects, tenant fit out CD & CA
Distribution: Boston, Massachusetts. Number of Employees: 10. Firm Leadership: Rick Ames, Principal; Martin Werminghausen, Principal. Scope of Markets: Institutional, Commercial, Housing, Residential, Competitions, Urban Projects. Services: Full design services for architecture and interiors; project leadership; integrated design, sustainability, and building performance. Key Consultants: Behnisch Architekten (architecture); Bartenbach Lichtlabor (daylighting, optimized artificial light); Fore Solutions (integrated designn and LEED consulting); TransSolar Klimaengineering (climate engineering); Michael Singer Studio (artist and environmental/landscape designer).
We see the experiential component of architecture, the composition of space and light, as being free and supportive of the social aspects. This leads to what we call human friendly or â€˜Humanisticâ€™ Design. We believe that such an approach can introduce a certain lightness and simplicity to architecture resulting in well received projects.
House & Robertson
Executive architects, base building CD & CA
Distribution: Culver City, California. Number of Employees: Approximately 3. Firm Leadership: James D. House, Principal; Douglas Robertson, Principal; Tom Williams, Project Manager. Scope of Markets: Various. Services: Executive Architectural Services. Key Consultants: n/a
Distribution: 24 US offices, Trinidad, Moscow, Dubai. International office based in New York, NY Number of employees: Over 5,000 worldwide. 300 in Boston office Firm Leadership: CEO Peter J. Davoren. Executive Vice Presidents Nicholas E. Billotti, William M. Brennan, John A. DiCiurcio, Pat A. Di Filippo, Wilfried G. Eckert - Chief Financial Officer, Kenneth J. Leach, Rodney J. Michalka, Stuart B. Robinson. Scope of Markets: Aviation, higher education, K-12 education, design/build finance, homeland security, logistics, e-technologies, industrial, pharmaceutical, green buildings, interiors, public assembly, healthcare, justice, sports Services: preconstruction consulting, program management, project management, construction management, design-build, design-build/finance, general construction, building maintenance, multiple building program
Our limited focus allows us to operate efficiently and to take a flexible approach to tackling unusual challenges. By combining our experience and technical expertise with the talent of top design firms, we excel at providing high quality buildings for our clients. Doug Robertson
We believe green buildings are not only good for the environment, they also provide immediate and long-term economic benefits for developers, building owners and occupants. Turner Construction
Integrated delivery process
Urban Strategies Masterplanning
Distribution: Toronto, Canada Number of Employees: 51 Firm Leadership: Partners - Joe Berridge, George Dark, Pino Di Mascio, Andrea Gabor, Melanie Hare, Frank R. Lewinberg, Connie Pasqualitto, Mark Reid, Cyndi Rottenberg-Walker, Michel TrocmĂŠ Scope of Markets: municipalities, governments and agencies, citizens and cooperative groups, institutions, development companies, private corporations Services: master planning, downtown revitalization, regional growth management, waterfront regeneration, campus planning, new community plans, visioning, TOD planning & design, site analysis & regulatory review, planning approvals, public consultation, urban design guidelines, parks and open space planning, official plans and zoning by-laws, plans of subdivision, expert testimony, administrative restructuring, design, competition management, model making, 3D renderings and animation
Building systems review and commissioning
Distribution: Needham, MA Number of Employees: 50 Firm Leadership: John McCarthy, Sc.D., C.I.H., and John Spengler, Ph.D founders Scope of Markets: Bioscience, healthcare, commercial real estate, higher education, legal, insurance, K-12, architects, government Services: health and safety compliance, strategic site support, indoor environmental air quality, systems commissioning Key Consultants (partners): Baxter Hodell Donnelly, Bennington Design Management, Elkus/Manfredi, Gorman Richardson Architects, Hanscomb, Faithful& Gould, HMFH Architects, Kallmann, McKinnell & Wood Architects Inc. 25
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing, [curtain wall design]. â€“ design and specification
Distribution (location): Abu Dhabi, Bath, Belfast, Berlin, Birmingham, Boston, Cairo, Copenhagen, Dubai, Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Jeddah, Kuwait, Leeds, Los Angeles, London, Manchester, Munich, New York, Pune, Toronto, Riyadh, Warsaw. Main offices in London. Number of Employees: 2,000 in 25 offices world wide Firm Leadership: Tony McLaughlin Principal for Genzyme. 44 other principals. Scope of Markets: airports, bridges, hotels, light industrial, medical and scientific, mixed use, offices, masterplanning, rail, residential, retail, roads and highways, tall buildings, transport buildings, waterfront development. Services: buildings (structural engineering, building services/MEP, site infrastructure, specialist consulting], infrastructure [planning and urban design, transport, bridges and civil engineering structures] environment [planning and policy advice, masterplanning and design, environmental impact assessment, environmental management Key Consultants: Behnisch Architekten
Bartenbach LichtLabor Lighting and Daylighting Consultants
Distribution: Innsbruck, Austria Firm Leadership: Christian Bartenbach (founder), Frank Bunte (project planning), Andreas Danler (project planning), Christian Anselm (research and development) Scope of Markets: Administrative buildings, railway stations, banks, airports, exhibition buildings, shopping centers, sacred buildings, outside facilities, hotels, gastronomy, public buildings, institutions Services: daylighting strategy consulting, natural and artificial lighting design
Facing page: Project team organizational diagram, developed from research and various interviews. This begins to show the complicated relationships between firms working on what was really two buildings: the base building (core and shell), and the tenant fit-out.
a Lyme Properties x Urban Strategies
d Genzyme Corporation
b Behnisch 1
Bartenbatch LichtLabor LOG ID Rolf Jansen TAC
House and Robertson
c Turner Construction Construction
e The Genzyme Center Legend Key relationship
Occupancy & Comissioning
Direct contractual relationship Incidental relationship
EH & E Genzyme Facilities Staff Integrated delivery process
The building is a benchmark for performance, not just through raw usage data, but as a constantly evolving technological object. The complexity of environmental systems allows for a nearly endless stream of possibilities for tweaking workplace comfort and functionality. Thus the building truly becomes a tool that is intrinsic to the operation of Genzyme.
The sustainable achievements for which the Genzyme Center has been lauded – it is the first LEED Platinum building in the Boston metro area – are not the limit of what can be taken from the atypical process. The real lesson lies in the building’s performance and decisions made regarding this performance. This is reflected in the extensive commissioning process, and Genzyme’s dedicated engineering and maintenance staff, who were involved in the entire process.
The physical form of the Genzyme center is the intersection between the master plan and open interior concept. While other buildings may have found innovation in form or aesthetics, the Genzyme center finds it in performance and employee comfort. The most noted features of the building, while aesthetically prominent, are geared towards these goals.
Many of these performative yields have been tallied in the form of the LEED Platinum cerBehnisch, Behnish & Partner, in a recent tification bestowed on the building in 2005, book about the project, put forth the state- however, there is the sense that the buildment: ing has aspirations beyond this checklist. In fact, the project did not start out specifically Technology is a living thing. It is the to become LEED, but to be sustainable. The extension of the creative force behind it. suggestion was made early on by Doug King of Buro Happold, once the consultants were As an embodiment of technology housing familiar with the building concept. This apthe administrative functions for a high tech proach was embraced by Genzyme admindrug company, this statement can be seen istration, especially CEO Henri Termeer. in the Genzyme Center. 27
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Building Facts Location: 500 Kendall Street, Cambridge, MA. Building Type: Commercial/office. Size: 344,000 square feet, 12 stories. Cost: $140 million with $107 million for construction. $400/sf. $23 million towards sustainable features.
When you throw something new into a machine that is running very smoothly you’re going to slow down the process and produce problems that you didn’t expect, but if those elements, over time, become the new paradigm or become the new normal system for designing and building buildings, I think you would see that cost premium increase. Randy Long, formerly of Lyme Properties
Schedule: Groundbreaking November 2000; Construction started June 2001; Completed November 2003. Structural System: Filigree wideslab on sitecast concrete frame, atop concrete foundation with 450 piles, pile caps, and grade beams. Façade: 100,000+ SF high performance curtain wall, 32% ventilated double façade. Roof system: Inverted roof membrane assembly, with extensive vegetative areas and reflective surfaces. HVAC: Both heating and cooling are powered by steam from cogeneration at neighboring power plant, reducing distribution loss. Cooling is achieved by absorption chillers, and heating is by direct conversion. 500+ fan coil units provide adjustments to specific heating or cooling demand.
Yield of atypical development process
Meanwhile, mirrors on the roof track the sun and reflect it into the atrium off prismatic chandeliers hung at various levels to create dancing rainbow effects, and a stainless steel pool looks from above, as if it
Innovative Features contains liquid mercury.
Critical elements (at right)
1. Heliostats. Seven motor-controlled mirrors follow the sun’s path and direct light into the building via the skylights at the top of the atrium. The motors are programmed to adjust for seasonal and climatic changes. However, they are susceptible to bird impact. 2. Prismatic louvers. Constructed of milled acrylic sheets, these louvers diffuse the sunlight directed into the atrium by the heliostats. They can be adjusted to block light and heat when the sun is especially strong.
Above: Supplemental light distribution was achieved by Everywhere, diffused daylight gives the work areas areas. a natural outdoor ceiling-mounted honeycomb devices in some This illumination. Nearly halfof of artificial the building is encased in athey glass-walled maximized the use fixtures where were second ì skinî , creating a four-foot-wide ì l oggiaî ó a private corridor with doorways necessary. to adjacent officesó
that acts as a climatic regulator for each floor. Light
Below: controlled the on integrated sensors inReflective the loggiablinds, automatically adjustby blinds the exterior wall to management system, further diffuse daylight descending regulate glare and heat. In the winter, the sun heats the air in the loggias through the atrium. and it is moved inside to warm the work areas. In warm weather, the hot
This ì loggiaî acts as climatic
Above: One regulator for each floor. of the rooftop weather stations used to track temperature, wind speed, air pressure, and intensity of light. This data is transmitted to the central Building Management System (BMS) (below), which adjusts the heliostats (right), prismatic louvers (right), interior reflective blinds (below left), and air movement, among its approximately 40,000 points of control. The BMS updates the building systems with new data every 15 minutes.
air rises and is automatically vented through louver windows that open to the outside. The effect of all these and other environmentally sensitive technologiesó light enhancement systems, reflective ceiling tiles above the blinds, solar
The blinds automatically regulate glare and heat.
You don’t feel like you’re in an artificial environment. That’s healthier for people and they perform better.”
Case Study: Genzyme Center
3. Loggias. Covering a large part of the facade, this zone was intended to moderate between climatic extremes. It is comfortable in spring and fall; during summer and winter it is most useful as a buffer to the exterior temperatures. 4. Filigree wideslab. This system eliminated 2,552 tons of concrete from the project, cut the weight of the slab by 33%, and entire weight of the building by 25%. In addition, the necessary steel reinforcing was cut by 386 tons. These in turn reduced the size of the foundations, but increased the thermal mass of the building. 5. Atrium chandelier. Serving a dual purpose as reflective surface and art installation, the 768 prisms reflect light into the office spaces. Breaking down the reflected light also reduces heat buildup, while creating a dynamic atmosphere. However, the prisms are susceptible to dropped extension cords, and require a specially-created cleaning device. They have also sometimes been a distraction for employees.
Sonnenlicht-Umlenkung - Heliostaten-System LIGHTRON Sunlight-Reflection - Heliostatic System LIGHTRON
Genzyme Center Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner
4 Industriestr. 8-10 • 79541 Loerrach/Germany • Tel:+49(0)7621-9596-0 • Fax: +49(0)7621-54368 • firstname.lastname@example.org • www.bomin-solar.de
Yield of atypical development process
Smart buildings need smart people . . . Troubleshooting isnâ€™t just going somewhere to fix it. You have to understand how it works. Louis Capozzi, Facilities Manager, Genzyme Corporation
In the four years the building has been occupied, trial and error backed by extensive knowledge has lead to refinement of significant building components. The maintenance staff, headed by Lou Capozzi, is really more of a study group. Perhaps in the typical building process, the occupation of the structure would be seen as the end of the process, and the tenants mere occupants. However, the Genzyme Center is viewed by its facilities engineers as an ongoing project. Capozzi and his staff are constantly seeking new efficiencies in the building functions. This includes testing existing systems, through which it was discovered that only one of two chillers was necessary. Because a 450-ton chiller is a big-ticket item to have purhcased, but difficult to extract from the penthouse, Capozzi has since devised an operational plan for keeping both chillers in play so as not to lose the functionality of either. 31
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Speculating about new systems, such as the potential for wind turbines on the roof (see above), is also among their interests. Sometimes the smallest task, such as cleaning the reflective atrium chandelier, becomes a lengthy investigation, because of the cost associated with breaking the components. The facilities staff developed a way to run the chandeliers through a cleaning solution without having to clean the prisms individually, lessening the risk of breakages. Maintenance of the plant life is critical, too. An early misunderstanding on the part of an evening security detail caused the building to flush its air, opening up windows to the cold night and killing all the tropical plants. Even these organic elements are integral to the buildingâ€™s systems, and more indirectly: ladybugs are used as natural pesticides and fertilization contributor, a unique addition to the cavalcade of mechanical systems.
Unique results from a unique building: This page, right: RMJM Hillier has designed a new laboratory building for Genzyme Corporation in China. The building is slated to incorporate “innovative green elements,” based on the architects and clients mutual respect for environmental sustainability and collaboration. These are two qualities that clearly lead back to the headquarters project. This page, far right: Next Phase Studios has collaborated with Behnisch on a competition for a life sciences complex at Harvard’s new Allston complex. Facing page, top: An image produced by Next Phase Studios showing the proposed installation of wind turbines on the roof of the Genzyme Center. These would replace the highpoint decorative element, which had not served any particular function. The installation further extends the efficiency of the building - the users carrying on the mission of the architect. Facing page, bottom: Facilities Manager Louis Capozzi shown near the rooftop heliostats. The vegetative roof system on which he stands did not develop as intended, as it became contaminated with weeds and grasshoppers: a lesson learned about this type of installation.
In addition to the building and what it represents to the architectural community, several key team members have experienced atypical yields. For Genzyme and Henri Termeer, their headquarters is a flagship of their mission. While certainly this corporate identity existed before the building was built, most agree that the experience augmented Genzyme’s outlook - an outcome that could be called out of the ordinary.
In a typical development process, the developer and design architect may walk away with an agreement to complete additional work together. It is rare that the degree of future collaboration would extend further into the project team.
Although many team members have moved on to other firms, Turner and Genzyme have continued their solid relationship. Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner (now Behnisch Architekten) has since secured additional commissions in the United States as sustainability became a larger part of the national consciousness. Behnisch designer Martin Werminghausen moved from Germany to Boston to enter a business partnership with Next Phase principal Rick Ames. Yield of atypical development process
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Conclusion The physical innovation of the Genzyme Center is apparent. It is in a stand alone category in terms of building performance and sustainability in the United States. However, this yield would not have been possible without the reconsideration of the traditional development process.
The true innovation of the project then, is not in the product but in the process. While the yield of the equation may be unusual, this oddity can not be understood without examining the factors and variables involved. What architects can learn from this backward approach is that a building, and the building process, exists within a context. This context presents opportunities to draw out catalysts to reshape both the process and the product. These alterations do not have to be radical, but intelligently placed and definitive in their aims.
The most significant and pivotal improvement on the existing process has been through early and encompassing involvement of the tenant. The Genzyme Corporationâ€™s deep, top down involvement in the construction of their headquarters is unique, and lent definition to many conceptual aspects of the building. If innovation in the physical result is the goal, then the process by which a building it proThis involvement has to be understood with- duced has to innovate as well. in context. From a site history that enabled unique development from the start to the conscientious use of a different method of architect selection, the notion of business as usual has been rejected.
Sources AIA/COTE Top Ten Green Projects. “Genzyme Center.” American Institute of Architects. April 22, 2004. Accessed February 2009. http://www.aiatopten.org/hpb/overview.cfm?ProjectID=274 Archambeault, Bill. “Developers chafe at Cambridge regulations.” Boston Business Journal. May 12, 2000. Accessed February 2009. http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2000/05/15/story4.html?page=2 Architectural Record. “Genzyme Center.” McGraw_Hill Construction. July 2004. Accessed February 2009. http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/portfolio/archives/0407KendallGenzyme.asp Brailsford, Gordon. “Genzyme Center: Showcase on Building Green.” Presented to Low Impact Development Conference for the Real Estate Development Industry. April 5, 2007. Brailsford, Gordon. “Genzyme Builds New Corporate Headquarters in Cambridge.” High-Profile Facilities Development News. Posting date unknown. Accessed April 10, 2009. archive.high-profile.com/2002/nov/genzyme.html Buildings Database. “Genzyme Center (Corporate Headquarters).” U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program. December 27, 2007. Accessed February 2009. http://hpb.masstech.org/process.cfm?ProjectID=446 BuildingGreen, Inc. “Genzyme Center.” U.S. Green Building Council/Certified Project List. Site updated 2008. Accessed February 2009. http://leedcasestudies.usgbc.org/overview.cfm?ProjectID=274 Business Editors. “$400 Million Biotech Development On Brownfield Site in East Cambridge Unveiled by Governor Cellucci.” Business Wire via The Free Library. November 9, 2000. Accessed February 2009. http://www.thefreelibrary. com/$400+Million+Biotech+Development+On+Brownfield+Site+in+East+Cambridge...-a066763790 Campbell, Robert; Clem, David; Ehrlich, Steven, and Greenberg, Ken. “Kendall Square Development: A Proven Collaboration for Success.” Presented at American Institute of Architects National Convention, Boston, 2008. May 17, 2008. Campbell, Robert for The Boston Globe. “‘Green’ building is bright and beautiful - Genzyme Center wins annual Parker Medal.” Biovalley Basel. January 22, 2009. Accessed February 2009. http://www.biovalley.ch/content.cfm?nav=4&content =10&command=details&id=8535 Cambridge Community Development Department. “East Cambridge Riverfront Plan.” City of Cambridge, MA. Published 1978. Accessed February 2009. http://www.cambridgema.gov/~CDD/cp/zng/ecambrfplan/ecamb_rfplan_all.pdf Cambridge Community Development Department. “East Cambridge Development Review Process and Guidelines.” City of Cambridge, MA. Published 1985. Accessed February 2009. http://www.cambridgema.gov/~CDD/cp/zng/ecambrfplan/ ecamb_guide.pdf Cambridge Community Development Department/Eastern Cambridge Planning Study Committee. “Eastern Cambridge Planning Study.” City of Cambridge, MA. Published October 2001. Accessed February 2009. http://www.cambridgema. gov/cdd/cp/zng/ecaps/report/ecaps_rpt_all.pdf Carleo, Christopher; Clark, Thomas, and Wilk, Charles. “Phoenix-Award Winning Kendall Square Rises from Cement-Treated Brownfield Site.” Portland Cement Association. Published 2006. Accessed April 2009. http://www.concretethinker.com/ Content/Upload%5C406.pdf Case Studies: Green Buildings. “Genzyme Center is Distinctively Efficient.” Portland Cement Association. 2009. Accessed February 2009. http://www.cement.org/buildings/buildings_green_genzyme.asp
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Sources City of Cambridge Planning Board. “Eastern Cambridge Rezoning Petition.” City of Cambridge, MA Planning Board. Published June 2001. Accessed February 2009. http://www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/cp/zng/ecaps/petition/ecpas_pet_textonly. pdf Clark, Thomas. “Kendall Square redevelopment project: An award-winning transformation.” Revitalization Online. January 25, 2007. Accessed February 2009. http://www.revitalizationonline.com/article.asp?id=1559 Deane, Michael (Turner Construction). “A Contractor’s View of Sustainable Development.” Presented to USGBC - Hampton Roads Chapter. June 17, 2008. Finneran, Catherine. “Green for Brown: Brownfields Financing.” Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. December 7, 2007. Accessed February 2009. http://www.eot.state.ma.us/smartgrowth/downloads/SessionsC/C4/ C4_finneranc.pdf Gose, Joe. “The Biotech Equation.” National Real Estate Investor. June 1, 2008. Accessed February 2009. http://nreionline. com/property/office/real_estate_biotech_equation_0601/ Gould, Kira L. “A Developer Raises the Bar in Cambridge.” Competitions Magazine. Winter 2002/2003: 6-15. Hillman, Michelle. “Lyme to sell portfolio, could fetch $1B.” Boston Business Journal. June 11, 2004. Accessed February 2009. http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2004/06/14/story2.html Hillman, Michelle. “BioMed buys seven Lyme buildings for $531M.” Boston Business Journal. April 18, 2005. Accessed February 2009. http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2005/04/18/daily1.html Lyme Properties, LLC. “Kendall Square: a place and a project.” Lyme Properties, LLC. Published 2003. Mandell, Julia. “Genzyme Center.” Building Climatology (Arch 516). Rice University, Fall 2005. Accessed February 2009. http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~arch316/2005_genzyme.pdf Massachusetts Biotechnology Council. “Economic Development.” Massachusetts Biotechnology Council. 2009. Accessed February 2009. http://www.massbio.org/economic_development/ Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. “Chapter 23G: Section 29A. Brownfields Redevelopment Fund.” The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Site update unknown. Accessed February 2009. http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/23g-29a.htm Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP). “Building on History.” (video) Internet Archive. 2006. Accessed February 2009. http://www.archive.org/details/MassDEP-Brownfield-Success-Cambridge-2006 Massachusetts Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA). Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR) for Kendall Square masterplan, EOEA# 11657. MEPA. Accessed January 25, 2009. MassDEP. “Summary of the Brownfields Act: Chapter 206 of the Acts of 1998.” Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. Posted 1998. Accessed February 2009. http://www.mass.gov/dep/cleanup/bfhdout2.htm May Young, Niki. “RMJM go green with Genzyme Centre.” World Architecture News. May 8, 2008. Accessed April 10, 2009. http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=2266
Sources Neely, Dona, and Olmstead, Dara. “Genzyme Center; Headquarters for Genzyme Corporation; Shedding New Light on Sustainabile Building Strategies; A Case Study of Sustainable Building Strategies.” Tufts Climate Initiative & Tufts University Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning; Commissioned by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative. September 27, 2005. Accessed February 2009. Ramsey, Charles George; Andy Pressman, Harold Reeve Sleeper, Smith Maran Architects. Architectural Graphic Standards. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Rosenberg, Brian. “University Park granted parking.” The Tech (MIT). January 9, 1991. Accessed February 2009. http://tech.mit.edu/V110/N58/park.58n.html Smith, Erin. “Cambridge gets its own Frog Pond.” Wicked Local: Cambridge. December 4, 2006. Accessed February 2009. http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/archive/x396775921 Steelcase, Inc. “Case Study: Genzyme Corporation.” Steelcase, Inc. Published 2004. Steele, James and Behnisch, Behnisch, & Partners. Genzyme Center. Germany, fmo publishers, 2004. Zacks, Steven. “Form Follows Performance.” METROPOLISMAG.COM. December 17, 2008. Accessed February 2009. http://www.metropolismag.com/story/20081217/form-follows-performance ZDNet.com “Photos: A look inside the green, high-tech Genzyme Center.” ZDNet.com. Site updated 2009. Accessed March 2009. http://content.zdnet.com/2346-9595_22-160621.html
Project Team sources Preliminary phone interview with Angela McCanna at Lyme Properties. February 18, 2009. Subsequent email communication with “Kendall Square Project” document. February 18, 2009. Interview and building tour with Louis Capozzi, Genzyme Facilities Manager. February 19, 2009. Preliminary phone interview with Rick Ames of Next Phase Studios. February 18, 2009. Interview with Rick Ames at Next Phase Studios. March 3, 2009. Preliminary phone interview with secretary at Behnisch Architekten. February 18, 2009. Preliminary phone interview with Doug Robertson at House and Robertson. February 18, 2009. Interview with Lynne Thompson (formerly of Turner Construction) at Bain Capital, Boston, MA. March 13, 2009. Email communication with Ken Greenberg (formerly of Urban Strategies), received “Competitions” article. March 13, 2009. Phone interview with Ellen Dunham-Jones (formerly of MIT Faculty). March 19, 2009. Phone interview with Joe Gaiko (formerly of Turner Construction). March 27, 2009.
Case Study: Genzyme Center
Thanks Thank you to Daniel Hewett, our instructor who challenged us to create a case study that told more than the basic facts. Letâ€™s hope we didnâ€™t disappoint. Thanks to all of our classmates who offered criticism and advice throughout the semester.
Michael Prattico is a graduate student in the School of Architecture at Northeastern University in Boston. He received his Bachelor of Architecture magna cum laude from Syracuse University in 2004. He attained LEED Accreditation in 2007.
Aleta Budd is a graduate student in the School of Architecture at Northeastern University in Boston. She received her Bachelor of Science in Architecture magna cum laude from Northeastern in 2008.
In 2003, hundreds of buildings were constructed in Boston. Of these, a handful stand out as remarkable. Only one, however, achieved a LEED platinum rating. While the sustainability of the Genzyme Corporate Headquarters has been emphasized in numerous published reports, this often distracts from other notable aspects of the building.
building, this does not get to the processes or people that put them there. On paper, and through the paper trail, the Genzyme Center defies its own novelty, appearing much like any other complex developer driven project.
It becomes apparent then that there were factors in individuals and institutions driving change within the framework of the typical development process. This case study exWhile the plaque in the lobby might set the amines the adjustments made to the conbuilding apart but it can be argued that, ventional development process that resulted even without this certification, the building in the Genzyme Center and the ways new would attract attention â€“ it embodies innova- buildings might derive their own definitions tion â€“ the question is how? While itâ€™s easy to of success from that result. tally inventiveness in physical aspects of the