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Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 1


Section 1: Chapter 1: Executive Summary 1.


1.1 We, M/s Naik Environment Research Institute Ltd. (NERIL) were allotted the work for ‘Preparation of a Comprehensive Catchment Area Treatment Plan for entire Satluj Basin in HP’. A Memorandum of Understanding for preparation of Comprehensive Catchment Area Treatment Plan for Satluj Basin was signed between Government of Himachal Pradesh through Pr. Chief Conservator of Forests, HP and Chairman & Managing Director, Naik Environment Research Institute Ltd. (Consultant) on 25th March, 2009. The duration of the project was 18 months the work commencement date was 1st April, 2009. However due to some compulsive factors it was extended to 21 months. 1.2 The Satluj Basin has a total catchment area of 20,000 sq. km. NERIL’s study area starts from Bilaspur district and extends up to Spiti valley, i.e., the Satluj basin above Kol Dam and its tributary Spiti. The spatial unit of this study is a Micro-watershed. In all we have 179 micro-watersheds in the study area from Kol Dam to Wangtoo and 31 sub catchments from Wangtoo to Spiti region are not demarcated into their micro-watershed. Hence, the sub catchments have been considered as a unit of study for this region. NERIL team of field investigators have visited all the MWSs and SCs. (both inhabited and uninhabited) to collect primary and secondary data in respect of the demography, topography, plantation, status of current treatment measures, pressures on the MWS from various sources etc.

1.3 In order to obviate any subjectivity and to provide a template for uniform observations, a set of 14 check lists was made during the inception stage of this project. These check lists were deliberated upon and approved by the HPFD together with the inception report. Additionally, in order to increase people’s participation NERIL has conducted Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) s. The field investigators by themselves and also accompanied by our experts / consultants, have undertaken stakeholders’ consultations at various levels. Additionally our Sociology and Agricultural experts have independently done RRA / PRA consultations. 1.4 As topographical maps are an essential requirement for generating the base map, NERIL has prepared the base map for the entire project area. The base map was then overlaid with the data collected during primary field Survey. All the deliverables are presented in the GIS application which is helpful to analyze the progress, the changes and requirement of any updating. This developed GIS system is called as NERIL’s Catchment Information System (Satluj) (NCIS). The overlaying of the surveyed data has been completed for all the MWS and sub catchments.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 1 1.5 In order to analyze the current situation, NERIL treatment measures for individual micro-watershed are presented in the NCIS for Plantation Area, Conservation Measures for Forest Areas, as well as for Non Forest Areas and Landslides. The Comprehensive CAT Plan along with Implementation Arrangements, Financial Plan and Monitoring & Evaluation Mechanism is prepared. Silt monitoring system and implementation monitoring sheets for various stakeholders has been prepared and attached.

Structure of the report on “Comprehensive Catchment Area Treatment plan for Satluj basin”. 1.6

1.6.1 This section describes in brief about the structure, flow and the content of this report and the corresponding task covered in keeping with the ToR. In the planning, conduct and preparation of the comprehensive Catchment Area Treatment Plan for the Sutlej, NERIL’s endeavor has been to remain closely aligned to the Terms of Reference at every stage of this project. The final report is also arranged in a manner that it’s Volumes, Sections and Chapters represent fulfillment of the Terms of References. The studies as well as the prescription are location specific. The treatment measures are also location specific. Considering the large geographical area of the catchment, this report is submitted in 15 Volumes. 1.6.2 Volume I largely represents the Tasks A, Task B, Task D3 and Task D4 of the Terms of References. It would be prudent to first examine the Contents Page which displays the flow of this Report. It can be seen that preparation of Base map using G.I.S., collection of baseline data from the Forest Department, collection of all other secondary data are in Volume I, Section-1. Volume II relates to the most hazardous of the damages to the


Catchment Area i.e. the landslides. NERIL has chosen to submit the landslides with their description, mitigation and estimates separately in the form of a Red Book which means that while it complies with Tasks D1 of the Terms of References, it warrants utmost urgency as its action plan pertains to the most endangering landslides, land slips and debris flow. 1.6.3 Volume III of the Report refers to deliverable No. 3; which expects NERIL to provide a separate report documenting all Stakeholders Consultations. It will be noticed that the contents of this Volume are intentionally left uncorrected, as it intends to bring out the actual expressions of Stakeholders during such consultations. The Terms of References Task B relates to ‘analysis of the current situation’, whereas Task C asks for preparation of a Plan for prevention of further degradation of the catchment. Similarly, the Task D demands development of CAT Plan Actions in the Catchment in the form of Specific Action Plans (D1), Implementation Arrangements (D2) and Monitoring Plan with Revenue and Evaluation Mechanism (D4). Since these Action Plans relate to specific location, they are not generic in order but are location specific. The study Area from Kol Dam to Wangtoo consists of 10 SubCatchment, comprising of 179 Microwatersheds. These are clubbed in 9 volumes from Volume IV to Volume XII, wherein one such Sub-Catchment represents one Volume, within which all data pertaining to Tasks B, C, D1 and D2 are sequentially provided. (It may be noted that Sub Catchment Sf has only one micro-catchment and, therefore, it is combined with subcatchment Sh in Volume IV. The microcatchment specific collection of information and providing prescriptions to prevent further degradation are given in 14 tabular formats per micro-

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 1


watershed in these volumes (Vol. IV to XIV)

ready instruction software

1.6.4 The All India Soil and Land Use Survey has not yet delineated the Micro-watersheds in areas between Wangtoo to Spiti. As such the Kinnaur Region is distributed in 23 subcatchments and Spiti is delineated in 8 sub catchments. This delineation was done in the year 1991 by Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Palampur (by Dr. S.D.Verma and Dr. P.D. Sharma). NERIL has adhered to the same delineation in its approach. Volume XIII contains the 23 subcatchments of Kinnaur Region and Volume XIV contains 8 sub-catchments of Spiti Region. The methodologies for these sub-catchments remain nearly the same as the methodologies applied for the micro-watersheds in the lower region (i.e. as in Volume IV to Volume XII).


1.6.5 NERIL has provided all this data in its software named as “NERIL’s Satluj Catchment Information System-SCIS”. This goes far beyond the demand of the Terms of References which requires under Task A1 and A5 that a base map using GIS is to be prepared and further GIS Overlays are to be finalised, to represent such data on the base map. NERIL has provided this and in addition has provided its application software which is not merely a soil and moisture survey system but is a dynamic system for keeping an inventory of natural resources together with human habitation.




METHODOLOGY FOR DELINEATION AND CODIFICATION OF WATERSHED SYSTEMENT IN INDIA: The All India Soil and Land Use Survey (AISLUS) initiated work on delineation and codification of watersheds in India on a macro level drainage map on 1:1 million scales. The delineation has been done in five stages starting with Water Resources Regions (WRRs) and their subsequent division and sub division into basins, catchments, sub catchments and watershed. Each of these terms indicates decreasing size of the delineated hydrologic unit. Each WRR has been divided into basins which constitutes individual big river. Each basin is then divided into number of catchments which mostly pertain to main tributaries or a group of contiguous small tributaries or individual streams. The catchment is further divided into number of subcatchments which are mainly smaller tributaries and streams. Sub catchment is divided into no. of watersheds which are the smallest sized hydrologic units in the macro level category and can be cartographically delineated on a base map of 1:1 million scales.

The SCIS has the ability to record and monitor access levels to ensure updating the data, its verification, its monitoring at superior authority level and its modification at the senior most levels of intervention. The details of operating instructions of this Information System are in Volume I and also in all 14 Volumes so that the Department officials at all levels have a Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 1

CODIFICATION SYSTEM: Alpha-numeric symbolic codification system consisting of combination of alternating Arabic Numbers and English capital alphabet

are used delineation.





The system followed by AISLUS for delineation of boundaries is as follows:

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Section 1: Chapter: 1 (a) Demarcation of big tributary catchment code. Each of the subcatchments in Satluj catchment is indicated as Sa, Sb and Sc etc. (b) Sub division of subcatchments into watersheds is indicated by Arabic numerical. Each watershed in each subcatchment is thus coded as Sn1, Sn2, Sn3 etc. The numbering is made from downstream upwards; (c) The watershed is further divided into sub-watershed and differentiated by a small English Alphabet. Thus a complete symbol for sub-watershed gives the information about the catchment, sub-catchment and sub watershed such as Sn1a, Sq1b, Sk1c etc.


For the purpose of Department of Forest delineation in nomenclature, the sub watershed is considered as microwatershed as it is the most convenient size of a hydrologic unit. In case of Satluj this hydrologic unit admeasuring an average of approximately 2000 hectares is named as micro-watershed for the purpose of this study. It must finally be noted that the objective of the soft ware or the volumes of CAT plan continues to remain: “Conservation of Soil and Water�

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 2


Section 1: Chapter 2: Introduction to Comprehensive Catchment Area Treatment for Satluj in Himachal Pradesh 2.1


Himachal Pradesh is predominantly a mountainous state. Its geographical area is about 55,673 km² and is bordered by the states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and Tibet Autonomous Region on the east. Himachal Pradesh has one of the highest per capita incomes in India. Himachal Pradesh generates and sells hydro power to other states, as it has an abundance of perennial rivers with steep descent. The economy of the state is mainly dependent on hydroelectric power, tourism and agriculture.


Climate and Geography:

Himachal is situated in the western Himalayas. It is a mountainous state with elevation ranging from about 350 metres (1,148 ft) to 6,000 metres (19,685 ft) above the sea level. There is great variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to extreme variation in elevation. The climate varies from hot and sub-humid tropical in the southern tracts to cold, alpine and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges. The state has areas like Dharamsala that receive very heavy rainfall, as well as those like Lahaul and Spiti, which are cold deserts. Broadly Himachal experience three seasons; the summer, winter and the rainy season. Summer lasts from mid April till the end of June and most parts become very hot (except in alpine zone which

experiences mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from 28°C (82 °F) to 32°C (90 °F). The rainy season is from July to September, which is followed by a relatively warm October. The winter lasts from late November till mid March. Snowfall is common in alpine tracts (generally above 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) i.e. in the Higher and Trans-Himalayan region).


Drainage System of Himachal Pradesh

The drainage system of Himachal is comprises of rivers and glaciers. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain. Himachal Pradesh provides water to Indus and Ganga basins. The major river basins of Himachal are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Satluj and the Yamuna. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall.


Satluj River

Satluj, originates at Lake Rakshatal near Mansarover, and is called as ‘Longcchen Khabab’ in Tibet. It flows generally west and southwest till it

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 2 enters India at Shipkilla at an altitude of 6,608 metres. The Satluj was known as Shatadru or Su盪ュudri in the Vedic period. It is an important tributary of the Indus River and is the longest of the five rivers. The river cuts through both the great Himalayan and the Zaskar ranges The Spiti River joins Satluj from the north at Khab. It runs for 320 km in Himachal Pradesh, Passing through gorges, it emerges from the mountains at Salapad at the tail end of the Govindsagar reservoir of the famous Bhakra dam.


The catchment area of Satluj in Himachal Pradesh is about 20,000 kmツイ. Tributaries of Satluj River in HP: The major right and left bank tributaries joining the Satluj are schematically displayed below.


Projects on Satluj drainage system

It is a well known fact that the hydropower potential of various River Basins in HP is 20,463.5 MW. Out of which for Satluj Basin alone it is ~9000MW. The details are as follows.

Projects on Satluj Sr No





Nathpa Jhakri

On Satluj



Bhakra Dam

On Satluj



Karcham Wangtoo

On Satluj



Kol Dam

On Satluj



Jhangi Thopan

On Satluj



Khab 窶的

On Satluj




On Satluj



Shongtong- Karcham

On Satluj



Yangthang Khab

On Spiti



Thopan Powari

On Satluj




On Satluj



Baspa Stage-II

On Baspa



Baspa Stage-I

On Baspa



Khab 窶的I

On Satluj



Chango Yangthang

On Spiti




On Kashang Khad




On Kothans



SVP Bhaba

On Bhaba Khad



Lara Sumata

On Spiti




On Satluj




On Satluj



Mani Nadang

On Spiti




On Keshang Khad




On Satluj


Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 2 Sr No







On Keshang Khad



Lara Project

On Spiti




On Ropa Khad



Kuling Lara

On Spiti




On Ghanvi Khad




On Kut khad




On Ghanvi Khad




On Bahajrari Khad



Bhaba Aug. P/H

On Shango Khad



Nogli Stage-I

On Nogli




On Rongtong Khad




On Nauti Khad




On Rukti Khad




I. Under Operation.


II. Under execution in state/Pvt./Central Sector


III. DPR Ready


IV. Under Investigation




Problem Area

The Satluj flows from the high-elevation arid parts of the eastern Himalayan ranges. This is the region of the mountain desert. This orographic rainfall barrier at about 3000 m changes abruptly into very humid sectors further downstream with mean annual precipitation of 3 m.

zone, bounded to the east by the orographic rainfall threshold barrier, is characterized by pronounced geomorphic changes, such as a decrease in river sinuosity, steepening channel gradients and hill slopes over a short distance of a few kilometers. Numerous landslide deposits dammed the Sutlej River and its tributaries in the past and acted as sediment traps storing large quantities of sediment. 1 Thus the Himachal Pradesh faces a gigantic problem of soil erosion and loss of water. The hydro electric projects mentioned above may suffer serious damages by the huge amount of silt coming into their turbines and forcing closure for long periods during the peak generating hours. The silt though

1 This significant increase in precipitation Bookhagen, B.; Thiede, R. C.; Strecker, M. R. 3. Mass Movements, Erosion is also reflected by amplification in Patterns and Sediment Transport along the Sutlej sediment flux, hill slope processes, and River (NW-Himalaya) vegetation cover. The climatic transition Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 2 directly affects the hydel projects but indirectly causes many uncountable damages to electricity generation, financial loss, losses to electricity user and so on. Apart from these, silt load harms the farming lands during monsoon damages agriculture to the extent that people shift their occupation due to huge losses. The anthropogenic aspects, geology, soil type, rains and snow are main reasons for landslides in this region. They cause severe landslides resulting in endangering human life, loss to biodiversity as well as to infrastructure such as roads and such other development. These issues can only be handled if we have clear knowledge of the catchments of the river Satluj and catchments of its tributaries.


consequent retention.


1.2.4 or




Soil erosion may be defined as the detachment and transportation of soil. Water is the major agent responsible for this erosion. In many locations, winds, glaciers, etc. also cause soil erosion. Hence planning for treatment of catchments of the major Himalayan Rivers would primarily require collection of a large amount of baseline data. This data was collected from both the primary and secondary sources. The catchment area treatment involves: •

Understanding of the erosion characteristics of the terrain and,


Suggesting remedial measures to reduce the erosion rate

Catchment Area

Catchment Area of Satluj River is spread over an area of about 20,000 sq kms. This is highest compared to any other river in Himachal Pradesh. It may be reiterated that in the Himalayas, movement of soil (landslide / soil erosion) is a very common phenomenon. A comprehensive database on terrain conditions, different types of soil of the catchment, natural resources and socio-economic status etc. is essential to evolve an appropriate and site specific treatment plan. NERIL in keeping with the ToRs therefore planned to create an inventory of natural and manmade resources, impacts and infrastructure to arrive at the most appropriate technique for Catchment Area Treatment (CAT). The plan involves various techniques to control erosion in the catchment area. In high hills, variability of site specific parameters such as topography, soils, land use, climate, rainfall sociological compulsions, lively hood options, biodiversity and so on combine together to affect the stability of hill slopes and

The ministry of environment and forest has promulgated a number of projects by types that need the environmental clearance under the EP act. Large river valley projects necessarily need the environmental clearance. Under this routine catchment area treatment plan is made compulsory. However such a plan is restricted in its application to the immediate catchment of the project and it does not cover the entire basin. It must be appreciated that on a large river such as Satluj, the traverse of water is from a very longer distance and that too at the very large velocity. Thus treating the immediate catchment areas does not provide protection from heavy erosion.

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 2 A typical approach for good catchment area treatment is the ridge to valley approach. It means that The eroding surface, and the streams that flow down in the valleys, eventually joining and becoming larger tributaries, have to be

1.2.5 treated from the beginning i.e. from the origin of the river throughout the entire river basin. The Himachal Pradesh government has rightly chosen this approach.

2.7.1. Present Status of Catchment Area Treatment Plans on Satluj River Number of CAT plans approved for Satluj River is 9. Please refer to Section 4 Chapter 1 for details of project wise progress as on 30 Nov 2010. River Basin


Total catchment area in HP (in Km2)


Hydroelectric Potential in the River Basin (MW)

Tapped HE potential (MW)



Number of CAT Plans approved & Total Outlay (Rs. In Lakhs)

Amount deposited by the User Agency

Expenditure till 30.9.2010 (Rs. in lakhs)

Balance to be spent (Rs. in lakhs)



(Rs. in lakhs) Nine &


(18855.55) Source: Presentation by Addl. Chief Secretary Mr. Avay Shukla River Basin Development work For Satluj, Ravi, Beas and Chenab, Initiatives by HP Forest Department

Hydroelectric power potential which can be generated from the river basin is about 9863.7 MW. There are 9 CAT plans prepared for H.E.P on Satluj. Total outlay for this is Rs. 18855.55 lakhs. Total amount deposited by the user agency is Rs. 16914.99 lakhs and expenditure done till 30.9.2010 is Rs.9321.96 lakhs. Balance amount which should be utilized is Rs.9533.59 lakhs. Status of CAT plans for different hydroelectric projects on Satluj River are given below: I.

Hydro-Electric Projects with clearances and CAT Plans approved are:


Baspa - II HEP, Rampur/Shimla


Karchham Wangtoo HEP, Kinnaur


Kashang HEP, Kinnaur


Kol Dam HEP, Bilaspur


Nathpa Jhakri, Rampur/Shimla


Rampur HEP, Rampur/Shimla


Hydro-Electric Projects with clearances awaited and CAT Plans yet to be Commenced are:


Kut HEP, Rampur/Shimla


Sorang HEP, Sarahan/Shimla

9. Tidong HEP, Kinnaur III. Cost Distribution Total cost of all these 9 CAT plan is 19725.06 lakhs. Total amount of funds released for implementation of CAT plans upto 31-03-2010 was 10176.76 lakhs and total amount of funds released during 2010-11 is 1252.84 lakhs.



Integrated basin wide watershed management aims at minimizing the sedimentation and ecosystem conservation of the catchment area,

Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Volume I: Part I: Section 1: Chapter: 2 which can be further, simplified and listed as: •


To prevent soil erosion and land degradation

To improve land capability and moisture regime

To rehabilitate the degraded forest areas slopes and landslide prone areas

To promote land-use to match land capability

To improve the pasture land

To plant wild fruit species and create water resources for wildlife

To seek people’s Participation in Planning & Implementation

To upgrade skills in planning and execution of land development


D4: Monitoring Plan and Review and Evaluation Mechanism



1. A Base Map [covering all items in the scope of works] 2. Basin-wide CAT Plan, including Implementation Arrangements, Financing Plan, and Monitoring, Evaluation and Review Plan [covering all items in the scope of works] 3. A separate report documenting all stakeholder consultations during the assignment;

4. All support to the GoHP in public disclosure and consultation during and at the end of the preparation of the Satluj basin CAT plan.

Terms of Reference

Task A: Creation of Baseline Data A1: Preparation of Base Maps using GIS A2: Collection of Baseline Data from the Forest Department A3: Collection of Other Secondary data A4: Collection of Primary Data on Sediment Load A5: Finalization of GIS Overlays Task B: Analysis of the current situation Task C: Plan for Prevention of Further Degradation of Catchments Task D: Develop CAT Plan Actions D1: Specific Action Plans D2: Implementation Arrangements D3: Financing Plan Comprehensive CAT Plan of Satluj River Basin

Vol1 - Intro