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Latino Child Poverty Overview 2012 Leticia Miranda and Cristela Solorio Ruiz Office of Research, Advocacy, and Legislation National Council of La Raza


Latinos* compose a growing share of all poor children in the U.S. In 2011, there were 15.5 million poor children in the U.S. and 5.8 million (37.5%) were Hispanic. The projection is that this share will continue to grow.

Poor Latino Children as Percent of All Poor Children, 1974–2011 40%

37.5%

35% 29.7% 30% 25%

21.6%

20% 15% 14.2% 10% 5%

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

0%

Child Poverty Rate

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Historical Poverty Tables.” Current Population Survey. Washington, DC, 2011, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html (accessed October 2012), Table 11.


The recent recession drove the Latino child poverty rate up to its highest level in 14 years. Between 2010 and 2011, as the economy improved, the Latino child poverty rate fell for the first time since 2006. Percent of Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 1974–2011 50.0% 45.0%

46.6% 40.6% 38.8%

40.0% 40.0% 35.0%

30.2%

34.1%

30.0% 25.0% 17.8%

20.0% 15.0%

18.6%

11.6%

10.0% 5.0%

White

Hispanics

Blacks

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Historical Poverty Tables.” Current Population Survey. Washington, DC, 2011, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html (accessed October 2012), Table 3.

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

1983

1982

1981

1980

1979

1978

1977

1976

0.0%


Hispanic and Black households are more likely to be in the bottom two income quintiles compared to White households. Median household income for Hispanics was $38,624 in 2011. Percentage of Households in Each income Category by Race/Ethnicity, 2011 35%

33%

30% 26%

24%

25%

25%

19%

20%

19%

23%

21%

21% 20% 17%

17% 15% 15%

12% 9% 10% 6% 5%

2% 2%

0% Bottom Quintile

Second Quintile

Third Quintile Black

Hispanic

Fourth Quintile

Highest Quintile

Top 5 Percent

White

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.� Current Population Survey. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:0WpLncoIJygJ:www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032012/hhinc/hi nc05_000.xls+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us (accessed October 2012), Table HINC-05 Part 1.


Poor Latinos are more likely than other groups to be working full-time year-round.

Percentage of Poor People 16 Years and Over Who Work Full-Time Year-Round, 1987–2011 25.0%

20.0% 17.6%

15.0%

13.4% 13.4%

12.0%

9.1%

10.0% 10.3%

10.2% 5.0%

7.2% 6.2%

White

Black

Hispanic

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Historical Poverty Tables.” Current Population Survey. Washington, DC, 2011, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html (accessed October 2012), Table 18.

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

0.0%


The percent of poor Latino families who are headed by female householders has remained fairly constant since 1974. Percent of Poor Families Headed by a Female Householder by Race/Ethnicity, 1959–2011 90% 77.1%

80%

71.8%

72.6% 70% 60%

44.8%

50%

43.7%

41.3%

40%

41.0%

32.5% 30%

26.5%

37.0%

34.4%

34.3%

29.2%

20%

21.4%

16.6%

23.5%

10%

1959 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

0%

White

Black

Hispanic

Asian

Source: NCLR calculation using U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Historical Poverty Tables.” Current Population Survey. Washington, DC, 2012, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html (accessed October 2012), Table 2.


There are 17.6 million Hispanic children as of 2011. In 2008, 89% were nativeborn and 10% were foreign-born. Second-generation children outnumber thirdgeneration children in 2008. Hispanic Children by Generation and Nativity, 2008 First-Generation Children (ForeignBorn) 10% Third-Generation or Higher (Native-Born) 38% Second-Generation Children (Native-Born) 52%

Source: Jeffrey S. Passel and Richard Fry, A Majority Are U.S.-Born Offspring of Immigrants (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, 2009), http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=110 (accessed October 2011).


Of the 1.7 million immigrant Latino children, two-thirds (one million) were undocumented in 2008. Of the 8.2 million second-generation Latino children, 3.3 million (40%) have at least one undocumented parent. For five million (60%), both parents are legally present (documented) immigrants. Second Generation First Generation

Documented 700,000

Undocumented 1 million

Both Parents Legally Present 5 million 60%

At Least One Undocumented Parent 3.3 million 40%

Source: Jeffrey S. Passel and Richard Fry, A Majority Are U.S.-Born Offspring of Immigrants (Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, 2009), http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=110 (accessed October 2011).


In 2010, there were 50 million Hispanics in the U.S. Two out of every three Hispanics are of Mexican descent. The next largest Hispanic subgroups are Puerto Rican, Cuban and Salvadoran. Hispanic Distribution by Subgroups, 2010 Mexican

63.0%

Puerto Ricans

9.2%

Cuban

3.5%

Salvadorian

3.3%

Dominican

2.8%

Guatemala

2.1%

Colombian

1.8%

Honduran

1.3%

Ecuadorian

1.1%

Peruvian

1.1%

Nicaraguan

0.69%

Argentinean

0.45%

Venezuelan

0.43%

Panamanian

0.33%

Chilean

0.25%

Costa Rican

0.25%

Bolivian

0.20%

Uruguayan

0.11%

Paraguayan

0.04% 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “Hispanic or Latino Origin Population by Type: 2000 and 2010 .� Current Population Survey. Ethnicity and Ancestry Statistics Branch Population Division. Washington, DC, http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf (accessed October 2012).

70%


Certain regions in the United States have a larger share of the population that is of Hispanic origin than other regions. Percent Hispanic by Region, 2010 35% 28.6%

30%

25%

20% 15.9% 15%

12.6%

10% 7.0% 5%

0% Northeast

Midwest Northeast

South Midwest

South

West

West

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “The Hispanic Population: 2010.� Current Population Survey. Hispanic or Latino Population for the United States, Region, and States, and for Puerto Rico: 2000 and 2010. Washington, DC, http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf (accessed October 2010). Table 2.


Thank you for your interest

* The terms “Hispanic” and “Latino” are used interchangeably by the U.S. Census Bureau and throughout this document to refer to persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, Dominican, Spanish, and other Hispanic descent; they may be of any race.

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Latinos* compose a growing share of all poor children in the U.S. In 2011, there were 15.5 million poor children in the U.S. and 5.8 million...

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