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Teaching English Language Learners in Low-Incidence Settings


The National  Council  of  La  Raza  (NCLR)—the  largest  national   Hispanic  civil  rights  and  advocacy  organization  in  the  United   States—works  to  improve  opportunities  for  Hispanic  Americans.     Through  its  network  of  nearly  300  affiliated  community-­‐based   organizations  (CBOs),  NCLR  reaches  millions  of  Hispanics  each   year  in  41  states,  Puerto  Rico,  and  the  District  of  Columbia.    To   achieve  its  mission,  NCLR  conducts  applied  research,  policy   analysis,  and  advocacy,  providing  a  Latino  perspective  in  five  key   areas—assets/investments,  civil  rights/immigration,  education,   employment  and  economic  status,  and  health.    In  addition,  it   provides  capacity-­‐building  assistance  to  its  Affiliates  who  work  at   the  state  and  local  level  to  advance  opportunities  for  individuals   and  families. Founded  in  1968,  NCLR  is  a  private,  nonprofit,  nonpartisan,  tax-­‐ exempt  organization  headquartered  in  Washington,  DC.    NCLR   serves  all  Hispanic  subgroups  in  all  regions  of  the  country  and   has  operations  in  Atlanta,  Chicago,  Long  Beach,  Los  Angeles,  New   York,  Phoenix,  Sacramento,  San  Antonio,  and  San  Juan,  Puerto   Rico.   dŚŝƐƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶǁĂƐĨƵŶĚĞĚďLJƚŚĞŶŶŝĞ͘ĂƐĞLJ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ͘ We  thank  them  for  their  support.    The  opinions  presented  in  this   ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶĚŽŶŽƚŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJƌĞŇĞĐƚƚŚŽƐĞŽĨƚŚĞ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ͘ Copyright  ©2009  by  the  National  Council  of  La  Raza Raul  Yzaguirre  Building,  1126  16th  Street,  NW Washington,  DC  20036  |  (202)  785-­‐1670 Printed  in  the  United  States  of  America. All  rights  reserved.


TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN LOW-INCIDENCE SETTINGS

In  the  middle  of  the  second  semester,  while  teaching  her  fourth-­‐grade  class  a  lesson  on  congruent   shapes,  Mrs.  Thomas  received  a  new  student,  Yolanda.    Yolanda  had  just  arrived  in  the  U.S.  the  previous   ǁĞĞŬĨƌŽŵ'ƵĂƚĞŵĂůĂ͘DƌƐ͘dŚŽŵĂƐŝŵŵĞĚŝĂƚĞůLJĨŽƵŶĚzŽůĂŶĚĂĂĚĞƐŬĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚŽŶǁŝƚŚ ŚĞƌůĞƐƐŽŶ͘ŌĞƌƌĞǀŝĞǁŝŶŐzŽůĂŶĚĂ͛ƐƌĞĐŽƌĚƐĂŶĚƐƉĞĂŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚzŽůĂŶĚĂ͕DƌƐ͘dŚŽŵĂƐƌĞĂůŝnjĞĚƚŚĂƚƐŚĞ ĨĂĐĞĚĂǀĞƌLJŐƌĞĂƚĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ͘zŽůĂŶĚĂŚĂĚŽŶůLJĂǀĞƌLJďĂƐŝĐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚ͘^ŚĞĐŽƵůĚƌĞĂĚĂƚ ĂĮƌƐƚͲŐƌĂĚĞůĞǀĞů͘^ŚĞĐŽƵůĚǁƌŝƚĞƐŝŵƉůĞƐĞŶƚĞŶĐĞƐ͕ďƵƚǁŝƚŚŵĂŶLJĞƌƌŽƌƐ͘^ŚĞĐŽƵůĚĞdžƉƌĞƐƐƐŝŵƉůĞ ŝĚĞĂƐŽƌĂůůLJĂŶĚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚŽŽĚƐŽĐŝĂůůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͕ďƵƚůŝƩůĞĞůƐĞ͘,ŽǁǁĂƐƐŚĞŐŽŝŶŐƚŽĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ teaching  her  fourth  graders,  all  students  born  and  raised  in  the  U.S.,  and  teach  Yolanda  academic  content   ĂŶĚŶŐůŝƐŚĂůůĂƚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƟŵĞ͍ Many  teachers  face  this  same  challenge.    While  it  is  not  easy,  there  are  several  strategies  that  will   ŚĞůƉƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐĐƌĂŌůĞƐƐŽŶƐƚŚĂƚĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞŶŐůŝƐŚͲƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶƚƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĂŶĚƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĨŽƌƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ ůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐŶŐůŝƐŚ͘^ŽŵĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂƟŶŐŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ;>>ƐͿ ďLJĂĚĂƉƟŶŐƚŚĞƚĞdžƚ͕ƐĐĂīŽůĚŝŶŐǁƌŝƟŶŐĂƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĂŶĚŵŽĚŝĨLJŝŶŐƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƚĂůŬ͘KƚŚĞƌƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚĂƐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŽŶƉƌŝŽƌŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͕ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐŵŽƌĞŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐĨŽƌŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶ͕ĂŶĚĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂ ŶŽŶƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶŝŶŐĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ŝŶǀŽůǀĞĐŚĂŶŐĞƐƚŽƚŚĞĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵƚŚĂƚďĞŶĞĮƚŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐĂŶĚŶŐůŝƐŚͲŽŶůLJƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘

Build On Prior Knowledge dŚŽƐĞǁŚŽƚĞĂĐŚŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŵĂLJ ŶĞĞĚƚŽĮůůŝŶŐĂƉƐŝŶƉƌŝŽƌŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞƉƌŝŽƌĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐŽĨ>>ƐŵĂLJĚŝīĞƌŐƌĞĂƚůLJ ĨƌŽŵƚŚŽƐĞŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚͲŽŶůLJƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐ should  strive  to  understand  where  gaps  in  prior   knowledge  might  exist.    For  example,  some   ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŵĂLJŶŽƚŚĂǀĞŚĂĚƚŚĞ opportunity  to  visit  a  zoo  or  museum  with  their   families.    A  teacher  may  need  to  use  a  picture   ŬĂďŽƵƚǀŝƐŝƟŶŐĂnjŽŽŽƌŵƵƐĞƵŵ͕ĂǀŝĚĞŽ͕ŽƌĂ ĮĞůĚƚƌŝƉĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƚŽŚĞůƉĮůůŝŶƚŚŝƐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ gap.    Using  classroom  experiences  to  help   ďƌŽĂĚĞŶƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨĂƐƵďũĞĐƚƉƌŝŽƌ ƚŽďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶǁŝůůŚĞůƉƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐďĞƩĞƌ understand  content-­‐area  knowledge.

ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƐŚŽǁƐƚŚĂƚƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƉĞƌĨŽƌŵďĞƩĞƌ when new  learning  is  linked  to  previously  acquired   knowledge  or  concepts.    When  students  make   ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚŝƐďĞŝŶŐ taught  and  something  they  already  know,  they  are   more  likely  to  understand  and  remember  the  new   facts.1 dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐĐĂŶƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞ>>Ɛ͛ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ by: ͻƐŬŝŶŐƉƌĞǀŝĞǁŝŶŐƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ͻZĞǀŝĞǁŝŶŐĂŶĚĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐƚŽƉƌŝŽƌůĞƐƐŽŶƐ ͻhƐŝŶŐŐƌĂƉŚŝĐŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞƌƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƐĞŵĂŶƟĐ        mapping  and  Venn  diagrams   ͻ>ŝŶŬŝŶŐůĞƐƐŽŶƐƚŽƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐĂŶĚ        homes  

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Modify Teacher Talk for English Language Learners

Making  teacher  talk  understandable  is  one  of   ƚŚĞŬĞLJƐƚŽĞŶƐƵƌŝŶŐĨƵůůƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶŽĨ>>ƐŝŶ the  classroom.    How  teachers  adapt  their  speech   ĚĞƉĞŶĚƐŽŶƚŚĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJůĞǀĞůŽĨƚŚĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐͶĂ ďĞŐŝŶŶĞƌǁŝůůŶĞĞĚŵŽƌĞĂĚĂƉƚĂƟŽŶƐƚŚĂŶĂŶ intermediate  student.     Using  simple  sentence  structures  that  are  familiar   ƚŽƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͕ƐůŽǁŝŶŐƚŚĞƌĂƚĞŽĨƐƉĞĞĐŚ͕ƌĞƉĞĂƟŶŐ ĂŶĚƌĞƉŚƌĂƐŝŶŐŵĂŝŶŝĚĞĂƐ͕ĂŶĚĐůĞĂƌĞŶƵŶĐŝĂƟŽŶ ǁŝůůŚĞůƉŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ͘ &ŽƌŝŶƐƚĂŶĐĞ͕ǁŚĞŶĞdžƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐƚŚĂƚĚŝīƵƐŝŽŶŝƐ the  “movement  of  molecules  from  regions  where   they  are  more  concentrated  to  regions  where  they   ĂƌĞůĞƐƐĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ͕͟LJŽƵĐĂŶĂĚĚ͕͞ĚŝīƵƐŝŽŶ is  when  molecules  move  from  one  place  where   there  are  a  lot  of  molecules  to  a  place  where  there   are  few  molecules.”    Support  classroom  talk  with   visual  cues  such  as  diagrams,  pictures,  gestures,  

ĚƌĂŵĂƟnjĂƟŽŶ͕ƌĞĂůŽďũĞĐƚƐ͕ŵŽĚĞůŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌ visual aids  that  provide  contextual  clues  and   meaning.     Teachers  should  also  do  comprehension  checks   ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŶŽƚďĂƐĞĚŽŶƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ͕͞ŽLJŽƵ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ͍͟&ŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ƚŽŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚŽĨĚŝīƵƐŝŽŶ͕ĂƚĞĂĐŚĞƌĐŽƵůĚƐŚŽǁƚǁŽ ĚƌĂǁŝŶŐƐ͕ŽŶĞƚŚĂƚŝƐĂŶĞdžĂŵƉůĞŽĨĚŝīƵƐŝŽŶĂŶĚ one  that  is  not.    Ask  students  to  choose  which   ĚƌĂǁŝŶŐƐŚŽǁƐĚŝīƵƐŝŽŶĂŶĚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ explain  why.    When  explaining  academic  tasks,   present  the  tasks  step  by  step  and  provide  visual   ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐƵĐŚĂƐĂĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƟŽŶŽƌƉŝĐƚƵƌĞƐŽĨ what  students  are  expected  to  do.    It  is  also  helpful   ƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐǁŝƚŚǁƌŝƩĞŶŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ ŝŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶƚŽŽƌĂůŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶƐ͘KƌĂůƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͕ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ>>ƐĂƚ ůŽǁĞƌůĞǀĞůƐŽĨůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ͕ƐŚŽƵůĚďĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚŝŶĂĚǀĂŶĐĞĂŶĚŝŶĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚĂ ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚ͛ƐŽƌĂůƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJůĞǀĞů;ƐĞĞdĂďůĞϭͿ͘

TABLE 1.   PROFICIENCY     LEVEL   Newcomer

Beginner   Intermediate   Advanced

ORAL  Q UESTIONS

EXAMPLES  

ŽŵŵĂŶĚƐ͕ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐƌĞƋƵŝƌŝŶŐĂ physical  response,  yes/no,  either/or

ͻ^ŚŽǁŵĞĂŶĞƋƵĂůƐŝŐŶ͘ ͻ/ƐƚŚŝƐĂŵŽƵŶƚĂŝŶ͍ ͻ/ƐƐŚĞŚŽƚŽƌĐŽůĚ͍

One-­‐word  responses,  highly   ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚƵĂůŝnjĞĚƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ

ͻ,ŽǁĚŝĚƚŚĞďŽLJĨĞĞů͍ ͻdĞůůŵĞĂĐŽůŽƌLJŽƵƐĞĞŝŶƚŚĞƌĂŝŶďŽǁ͘

tŚĂƚͬŚŽǁƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ͕ůŝƚĞƌĂůƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ

ͻtŚĂƚǁĂƐƚŚĞŵĂŝŶŝĚĞĂŽĨƚŚĞĂƌƟĐůĞ͍ ͻ,ŽǁĚŽĞƐĂƉŽůŝĐĞŽĸĐĞƌŚĞůƉƵƐ͍

ŽŵƉůĞdžƉƌĞĚŝĐƟŽŶƐ͕ƐƵŵŵĂƌŝĞƐ͕ comparisons

ͻ,ŽǁĚŽĞƐƚŚĞůĞŐŝƐůĂƟǀĞďƌĂŶĐŚŽĨ   ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚĚŝīĞƌĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĞdžĞĐƵƟǀĞ   ďƌĂŶĐŚ͍

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/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶƚŽŵŽĚŝĨLJŝŶŐƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐƐŽƚŚĂƚ>>Ɛ ĐĂŶƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚ͕ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐƐŚŽƵůĚƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ǁĂŝƚƟŵĞĨŽƌƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ͘ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ learners need  to  process  in  two  languages  and   ŽŌĞŶŶĞĞĚĞdžƚƌĂƟŵĞƚŽĨŽƌŵƵůĂƚĞĂƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ͘ dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐĐĂŶƵƐĞĂƟŵĞƌŽƌĂƌĂŝŶƐƟĐŬĂŌĞƌĂƐŬŝŶŐ ĂƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƚŽŐŝǀĞĂůůƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͞ƚŚŝŶŬƟŵĞ͟ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƌĞƋƵĞƐƟŶŐĂƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ͘/ŶŐĞŶĞƌĂů͕ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐǁŝůů ŶĞĞĚĂƐŚŽƌƚĞƌǁĂŝƚƟŵĞĨŽƌďĂƐŝĐĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝŽŶ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ͕ƉĞƌŚĂƉƐĮǀĞƚŽƚĞŶƐĞĐŽŶĚƐ͕ǁŚŝůĞĂ ůŽŶŐĞƌǁĂŝƚƟŵĞǁŝůůďĞŶĞĞĚĞĚĨŽƌƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚ require  higher-­‐order  thinking  skills.    

on informal  assessments.    An  informal  assessment   might  consist  of  reading  a  passage  aloud  from  a   ƐƚŽƌLJŝŶƚŚĞŶĂƟǀĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŽƌĮŶĚŝŶŐǀŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJ ǁŽƌĚƐŝŶĂďŝůŝŶŐƵĂůĚŝĐƟŽŶĂƌLJĂŶĚǁƌŝƟŶŐ sentences  with  the  words  in  the  home  language.       While  informal  assessments  will  not  provide  an   accurate  measure  of  language  competence,  they   can  provide  useful  insight.  A  teacher  will  be  able   to  see  how  comfortable  the  child  is  reading  in  his   ŽƌŚĞƌĮƌƐƚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͕ŽƌǁŚĞƚŚĞƌƚŚĞĐŚŝůĚŝƐĂďůĞ ƚŽƌĞĂĚŝŶŚŝƐŽƌŚĞƌĮƌƐƚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂƚĂůů͘dŚŝƐƚLJƉĞ ŽĨŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶǁŝůůŚĞůƉƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐĚĞĐŝĚĞŝĨďŝůŝŶŐƵĂů ĚŝĐƟŽŶĂƌŝĞƐĂŶĚĮƌƐƚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƚĞdžƚƐǁŝůůďĞƵƐĞĨƵů supports.

 

Adapt the Text DĂŶLJŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐƐƚƌƵŐŐůĞƚŽ comprehend grade-­‐level  texts,  and  some   >>ƐŵĂLJĮŶĚŐƌĂĚĞͲůĞǀĞůƚĞdžƚƐĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJ incomprehensible.    Teachers  should  try  to   ĮŶĚĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƚĞdžƚƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞǁƌŝƩĞŶĂƚƚŚĞ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞůĞǀĞůĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͘ ^ĞǀĞƌĂůƉƵďůŝƐŚŝŶŐĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐŽīĞƌĐŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƌĞĂ ƚĞdžƚƐĚĞƐŝŐŶĞĚĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ;ƐĞĞ ƉƉĞŶĚŝdžͿ͘^ŽŵĞ>>Ɛ͕ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJƚŚŽƐĞǁŝƚŚ ƐƚƌŽŶŐůŝƚĞƌĂĐLJƐŬŝůůƐŝŶďŽƚŚŶŐůŝƐŚĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌĮƌƐƚ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͕ďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵŚĂǀŝŶŐĂĐĐĞƐƐƚŽďŝůŝŶŐƵĂů ĚŝĐƟŽŶĂƌŝĞƐĂŶĚƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚĞĚŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ŵĂŶLJ>>ƐĚŽŶŽƚŚĂǀĞĂƐƚƌŽŶŐĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐ ǀŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJŝŶƚŚĞŝƌĮƌƐƚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͘/ƚŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ƚŽĂƐƐĞƐƐĮƌƐƚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĐŽŵƉĞƚĞŶĐĞďĞĨŽƌĞƵƐŝŶŐ translated  texts  and  materials  as  a  support  for   language  learners.  

tŚĞŶůŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐĂůůLJĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞƚĞdžƚƐĂƌĞŶŽƚ available, there  are  a  number  of  strategies   teachers  can  use  to  adapt  the  text.    When   ĂĚĂƉƟŶŐƚŚĞƚĞdžƚ͕ƚŚŝŶŬĂďŽƵƚLJŽƵƌŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐĨŽƌ having  the  child  read  the  text: % What  are  the  concepts  you  want  the  child   ƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĨƌŽŵƌĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŚĞƚĞdžƚ͍ % Is  there  a  strategy  you  would  like  the  child   ƚŽƉƌĂĐƟĐĞǁŚŝůĞƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͍ KŶĐĞƌĞĂĚŝŶŐŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐĂƌĞĚĞĮŶĞĚ͕LJŽƵĐĂŶ ƉůĂŶŚŽǁƚŽƐƵƉƉŽƌƚŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŝŶ ŵĞĞƟŶŐƚŚĞƌĞĂĚŝŶŐŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐĂƐƚŚĞLJŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƚ with  the  text.    Here  are  various  ways  to  adapt  a   ƚĞdžƚĨŽƌ>>Ɛ͗                  hƐĞWƌĞͲZĞĂĚŝŶŐĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ

Many districts  use  published  tests  to  establish   ĮƌƐƚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĐŽŵƉĞƚĞŶĐĞ͘dŚĞ^ƉĂŶŝƐŚ ƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚŽĨĂƐŝĐĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ;^Ϳ͕ƉƵďůŝƐŚĞĚ by  CTB/McGraw-­‐Hill,  or  the  Aprenda  3,  published   by  Harcourt  Assessment,  Inc.,  are  widely  used   and  provide  a  valid  and  reliable  assessment  of   ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ƐŬŝůůƐŝŶ^ƉĂŶŝƐŚ͘/ŶƚŚĞĂďƐĞŶĐĞŽĨ formal  language  assessments,  many  teachers  rely  

% Take a  “picture  walk”  through  a  book  to   ŝĚĞŶƟĨLJĂŶĚůĂďĞůǁŚĂƚƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƐĞĞ % Highlight  key  vocabulary  words % Introduce  reading  topics  through  visuals % ŽŶŶĞĐƚƚŽƉŝĐƐƚŽƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ůŝǀĞƐ % DĂŬĞƉƌĞĚŝĐƟŽŶƐ

3


d,/E'E'>/^,>E'h'>ZEZ^/E>KtͲ/E/E^dd/E'^

hƐĞ/ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟǀĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐƚŽ/ůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞdĞdžƚ

ƚŚĞŝŶĨŽƌŵĂů͕ĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶĂůŶŐůŝƐŚƚŚĂƚ>>Ɛ ƵƐƵĂůůLJŵĂƐƚĞƌĮƌƐƚ͘dŽŚĞůƉ>>ƐŝŵƉƌŽǀĞƚŚĞŝƌ ǁƌŝƟŶŐƐŬŝůůƐĂŶĚĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞǁƌŝƩĞŶĂƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕ teachers should  provide  extra  support,  or   ͞ƐĐĂīŽůĚƐ͕͟ĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͘'ƌĂƉŚŝĐ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞƌƐĐĂŶƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĞdžĐĞůůĞŶƚƐĐĂīŽůĚŝŶŐĨŽƌ ǁƌŝƩĞŶĂƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚƐ͘KƵƚůŝŶĞƐ͕ĐŚĂƌƚƐ͕sĞŶŶ diagrams,  T-­‐charts,  and  concept  maps  can  help   ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞƚŚĞŝƌǁƌŝƟŶŐ while  providing  the  vocabulary  and  language   ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŶĞĞĚĨŽƌǁƌŝƟŶŐŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͘dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐ should  also  highlight  vocabulary  words  and   provide  a  model  before  students  are  asked  to   write.      

% ŽŶĚƵĐƚŚĂŶĚƐͲŽŶĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƟŽŶƐŽƌ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐďĞĨŽƌĞƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ % During  reading,  use  real  objects,  models,     ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĚƌĂŵĂƟnjĂƟŽŶƚŽŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞ   main  ideas % hƐĞŵŽĚĞůƐĂŶĚŚĂŶĚƐͲŽŶĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŽ   clarify  ideas % ƐŬƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐƚŽĚƌĂŵĂƟnjĞƚŚĞƚĞdžƚ DŽĚŝĨLJƚŚĞdĞdžƚ % Shorten  the  length  of  the  text % Present  the  text  in  small  “chunks”

ŶŽƚŚĞƌƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJĨŽƌƐĐĂīŽůĚŝŶŐǁƌŝƩĞŶ assignments is  to  use  sentence  frames.    For   example,  when  asking  students  to  describe  a   character  in  a  story,  the  teacher  could  provide  the   following  sentence  frames:

% Organize the  text  with  a  graphic  organizer % Outline  the  text % Highlight  key  sentences  within  the  text

                             Cinderella  is  __________________.    

ZĞǁƌŝƚĞƚŚĞdĞdžƚ % Delete extraneous  passages  and   ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ





;ĂĚũĞĐƟǀĞͿ

                           She  shows  she  is  _________________

% Simplify the  vocabulary % hƐĞĂĐƟǀĞǀŽŝĐĞĂŶĚƐŚŽƌƚƐŝŵƉůĞ sentences

;ĂĚũĞĐƟǀĞͿ                           when  she  __________________________.

% Add pictures,  graphs,  or  visual  displays

;ĂĐƟŽŶͿ

dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŽŌĞŶƵƐĞ ĂĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐĞƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐƚŽŚĞůƉ>>Ɛ understand the  content  presented  in  grade-­‐level   texts.    

The sentence  frames  will  help  students  who  do  not   ŚĂǀĞƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚĨŽĐƵƐŽŶƚŚĞ ĂĚũĞĐƟǀĞƐĂŶĚǀĞƌďƐƚŚĞLJŬŶŽǁĂŶĚĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞ ƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƌĞĂŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͘^ĐĂīŽůĚŝŶŐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐůŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĨŽƌ>>ƐƚŽĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞ ƚŚĞƐĂŵĞĂƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚƐĂƐƚŚĞŝƌŐĞŶĞƌĂůĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ peers.

Scaffold Writing Assignments ĐĂĚĞŵŝĐǁƌŝƟŶŐƉŽƐĞƐĂĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĨŽƌŵŽƐƚ ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͘dŚĞǀŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĂŶĚ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐǁƌŝƟŶŐĚŝīĞƌƐŐƌĞĂƚůLJĨƌŽŵ

4


d,/E'E'>/^,>E'h'>ZEZ^/E>KtͲ/E/E^dd/E'^

&ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ǁŚĞŶǁŽƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚ>>Ɛ͕ĨŽĐƵƐŽŶŽŶĞŽƌ ƚǁŽƐƉĞĐŝĮĐǁƌŝƟŶŐŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐĨŽƌĞĂĐŚĂƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚ͘ /ƚĐĂŶďĞƵƩĞƌůLJĚŝƐĐŽƵƌĂŐŝŶŐĨŽƌĂŶLJůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ learner to  turn  in  an  assignment  only  to  have  it   ƌĞƚƵƌŶĞĚĐŽǀĞƌĞĚŝŶƌĞĚŝŶŬ͘/ŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨĐŽƌƌĞĐƟŶŐ every  error  a  student  makes,  only  correct  errors   that  impede  understanding  and  errors  that  pertain   ƚŽƚŚĞƚĂƌŐĞƚĞĚǁƌŝƟŶŐŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐ͘

/ƚŝƐĂůƐŽŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽĞŵďĞĚĐŽƌƌĞĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ ĨĞĞĚďĂĐŬďLJŵŽĚĞůŝŶŐĐŽƌƌĞĐƚƐƉĞĞĐŚƉĂƩĞƌŶƐ͘ &ŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ǁŚĞŶĂďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐ>>ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĂLJƐ͕ “Me like  red,”  provide  a  model  of  the  correct   ƐƉĞĞĐŚƉĂƩĞƌŶ;ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJĐŽƌƌĞĐƟŶŐƚŚĞ error)  by  saying,  “I  like  red  too.” Teachers  may  be  tempted  to  ask  students  to  “speak   ŶŐůŝƐŚŽŶůLJ͘͟,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕>>ƐďĞŶĞĮƚĐŽŐŶŝƟǀĞůLJĂŶĚ academically  from  an  environment  that  welcomes   and  supports  their  primary  language.3

dŚƌŽƵŐŚƐĐĂīŽůĚŝŶŐĂŶĚŐƵŝĚĞĚƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ͕ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐ ĐĂŶŚĞůƉ>>ƐĞdžƉƌĞƐƐƚŚĞŝƌŝĚĞĂƐŝŶǁƌŝƟŶŐĂŶĚ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞƚŚĞŝƌǁƌŝƟŶŐƐŬŝůůƐŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͘

Provide Opportunities for Interaction

Create a Safe Environment

>>ƐďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽĞdžƉƌĞƐƐ their opinions  and  answers  to  both  the  teacher   ĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŽĨ>>ƐƐŚŽƵůĚ help  students  elaborate  their  answers.    Teachers   can  simply  ask  students  to,  “ Tell  me  more  about   ƚŚĂƚ͕͟ŽƌĂƐŬ͕͞tŚĂƚĚŽLJŽƵŵĞĂŶďLJ͙͍͘͟^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞƐŚŽǁŶƚŚĂƚ>>ƐŐƌŽǁǁŚĞŶƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐĂƐƐŝƐƚ them  “in  moving  from  registers  expressing  their   ĮƌƐƚŚĂŶĚĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŝŶŽƌĂůůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƚŽƚŚŽƐĞ ĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŶŐĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŝŶǁƌŝƟŶŐ͘͟4     /ŶƚŚĞĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵ͕ƚŚŝƐĐŽŶƟŶƵƵŵŵŝŐŚƚďĞŐŝŶ with  a  student  talking  in  a  small  group  about  an   experiment  on  magnets,  to  telling  the  teacher   ǁŚĂƚŚĞŚĂĚůĞĂƌŶĞĚ͕ƚŽǁƌŝƟŶŐĂďŽƵƚŵĂŐŶĞƚƐ ŝŶŚŝƐũŽƵƌŶĂů͕ĂŶĚĮŶĂůůLJƚŽǁƌŝƟŶŐĂƐŚŽƌƚ report  on  magnets.    Teachers  guide  students   to  use  academic  language  during  their  oral   ĞdžƉůĂŶĂƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞŝƌůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ͘ƵƌŝŶŐŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŵŽĚĞůĂŶĚĨŽĐƵƐŽŶŬĞLJ ǀŽĐĂďƵůĂƌLJĂŶĚŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͘ŶŐůŝƐŚ language  learners,  not  teachers,  should  restate   their  own  words  in  more  academic  terms.5  

Students learn  best  in  environments  that  are   nonthreatening.2    This  is  especially  important   in  language  learning,  where  students  should   be  encouraged  to  try  out  new  vocabulary  and   grammar  and,  in  doing  so,  will  likely  make  many   ĞƌƌŽƌƐĂƚĮƌƐƚ͘^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŶĞĞĚƚŽĨĞĞůĐŽŵĨŽƌƚĂďůĞ expressing  themselves  in  their  new  language.     To  help  create  a  safe  environment  for  language   learning,  teachers  should:     %

hƐĞƉŽƐŝƟǀĞƌĞŝŶĨŽƌĐĞŵĞŶƚ

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Use groups,  pairs,  and  choral  response  

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ĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐŝŶƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ home  language

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Pair students  with  a  common  primary   language  so  they  can  help  each  other    

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Allow students  to  discuss  content  in  the   home  language

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ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐƐŚŽƵůĚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞ opportunity to  work  together  on  academic  tasks   ǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝƌƉĞĞƌƐĂŶĚƵƐĞŶŐůŝƐŚƚŽĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞ͘ DĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƵůŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ ĂŶĚĂƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶŽĨĐŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƌĞĂŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞǁŝůů ŚĞůƉ>>ƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟǀĞĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͘^ƵĐŚŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶĐĂŶŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐƵƌǀĞLJƐ͕ ůĞƩĞƌǁƌŝƟŶŐ͕ŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁƐ͕ĂŶĚƐŝŵƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘KŌĞŶ͕ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟǀĞůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐŐƌŽƵƉƐĨƵůĮůůƚŚŝƐƉƵƌƉŽƐĞ when  students  have  the  opportunity  to  ask  and   ĂŶƐǁĞƌƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ͕ŐŝǀĞĂŶĚũƵƐƟĨLJŽƉŝŶŝŽŶƐ͕ĂŶĚ clarify  and  develop  ideas  with  their  teams.6  

dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚƚŽ^ƉĞĂŬĞƌƐŽĨKƚŚĞƌ >ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐ͕/ŶĐ͘;d^K>ͿƵƐĞƐĮǀĞůĞǀĞůƐ͗ >ĞǀĞůϭ͗^ƚĂƌƟŶŐ ƚ>ĞǀĞůϭ͕ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝŶŝƟĂůůLJŚĂǀĞ limited or  no  understanding  of   ŶŐůŝƐŚ͘dŚĞLJƌĂƌĞůLJƵƐĞŶŐůŝƐŚ ĨŽƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘dŚĞLJƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ nonverbally  to  simple  commands,   ƐƚĂƚĞŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĂŶĚƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ͘ As  their  oral  comprehension   increases,  they  begin  to  imitate   ƚŚĞǀĞƌďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶƐŽĨŽƚŚĞƌƐďLJ using  single  words  or  simple   phrases,  and  they  begin  to  use   ŶŐůŝƐŚƐƉŽŶƚĂŶĞŽƵƐůLJ͘ƚƚŚĞ earliest  stage,  these  learners   construct  meaning  from  text   ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƟŽŶƐ͕ graphs,  maps,  and  tables.  

English-Language Development /ŶƐĐŚŽŽůƐǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞǀĞƌLJĨĞǁŶŐůŝƐŚ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͕ŽŌĞŶƚŚĞĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵƚĞĂĐŚĞƌ ƐƉĞŶĚƐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĂůƟŵĞǁŝƚŚĂŶ ŶŐůŝƐŚůĞĂƌŶĞƌĂŶĚǁŝůůďĞŝŶƐƚƌƵŵĞŶƚĂůŝŶŐƵŝĚŝŶŐ ĂƐƚƵĚĞŶƚ͛ƐŶŐůŝƐŚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘dŽ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞůLJƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƚŚĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨ >>Ɛ͕ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŶĞĞĚƚŽƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJůĞǀĞůƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͕ plan lessons  with  both  content  and  language   ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĞŶŐĂŐĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝŶĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞLJƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƚŚĞĨŽƵƌůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĚŽŵĂŝŶƐ͗ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͕ ǁƌŝƟŶŐ͕ůŝƐƚĞŶŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚƐƉĞĂŬŝŶŐ͘

>ĞǀĞůϮ͗ŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ At Level  2,  students  can   understand  phrases  and  short   sentences.    They  can  communicate   ůŝŵŝƚĞĚŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŝŶƐŝŵƉůĞ͕ ĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJ͕ĂŶĚƌŽƵƟŶĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐďLJ using  memorized  phrases,  groups   of  words,  and  formulae.    They   can  use  select,  simple  structures   ĐŽƌƌĞĐƚůLJ͕ďƵƚƐƟůůƐLJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐĂůůLJ produce  basic  errors.    Students   begin  to  use  general  academic   vocabulary  and  familiar  everyday   ĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ƌƌŽƌƐŝŶǁƌŝƟŶŐƚŚĂƚ ŚŝŶĚĞƌĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶĂƌĞŽŌĞŶ present.

<ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJŝƐƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝƐĨŽƌƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ that help  students  acquire  the  academic  language   needed  to  succeed  in  school.    States  and  school   ĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚƐŚĂǀĞĚŝīĞƌŝŶŐĚĞĮŶŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚůĂďĞůƐĨŽƌ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJůĞǀĞůƐ͖ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ƚŚĞƌĞŝƐ ŽŌĞŶŐĞŶĞƌĂůĂŐƌĞĞŵĞŶƚĂƐƚŽƚŚĞƵŶĚĞƌůLJŝŶŐƐŬŝůůƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚǁŝƚŚĞĂĐŚůĞǀĞůŽĨƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ͘

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>ĞǀĞůϯ͗ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ At Level  3,  students  understand   more  complex  speech,  but  may   ƐƟůůƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐŽŵĞƌĞƉĞƟƟŽŶ͘dŚĞLJ ƵƐĞŶŐůŝƐŚƐƉŽŶƚĂŶĞŽƵƐůLJ͕ďƵƚ ŵĂLJŚĂǀĞĚŝĸĐƵůƚLJĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ all  their  thoughts  due  to  a   restricted  vocabulary  and  a   limited  command  of  language   structure.    Students  at  this  level   speak  in  simple  sentences  that  are   comprehensible  and  appropriate,   but  frequently  marked  by   ŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂůĞƌƌŽƌƐ͘WƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ in  reading  may  vary  considerably.     Students  are  most  successful   ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƌŽŵƚĞdžƚƐ for  which  they  have  background   knowledge  upon  which  to  build.    

can read  independently,  but  may   have  occasional  comprehension   problems,  especially  when   processing  grade-­‐level   ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͘ >ĞǀĞůϱ͗ƌŝĚŐŝŶŐ At  Level  5,  students  can  express   ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐŇƵĞŶƚůLJĂŶĚ spontaneously  on  a  wide  range   of  personal,  general,  academic,   or  social  topics  in  a  variety  of   contexts.  They  are  poised  to   ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶĂŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚ ŶŐůŝƐŚͲƐƉĞĂŬŝŶŐƉĞĞƌƐǁŝƚŚ minimal  language  support  or   guidance.       Students  have  a  good  command  of   technical  and  academic  vocabulary   ĂƐǁĞůůĂƐŽĨŝĚŝŽŵĂƟĐĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶƐ and  colloquialisms.    They  can   ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞĐůĞĂƌ͕ƐŵŽŽƚŚůLJŇŽǁŝŶŐ͕ ǁĞůůͲƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĚƚĞdžƚƐŽĨĚŝīĞƌŝŶŐ ůĞŶŐƚŚƐĂŶĚĚĞŐƌĞĞƐŽĨůŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐ ĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝƚLJ͘ƌƌŽƌƐĂƌĞŵŝŶŝŵĂů͕ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚƚŽƐƉŽƚ͕ĂŶĚŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ corrected  when  they  occur.7    

>ĞǀĞůϰ͗džƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ ƚ>ĞǀĞůϰ͕ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ skills are  adequate  for  most  day-­‐ ƚŽͲĚĂLJĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶŶĞĞĚƐ͘ dŚĞLJĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚĞŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚŝŶ ŶĞǁŽƌƵŶĨĂŵŝůŝĂƌƐĞƫŶŐƐ͕ďƵƚ ŚĂǀĞŽĐĐĂƐŝŽŶĂůĚŝĸĐƵůƚLJǁŝƚŚ complex  structures  and  abstract   academic  concepts.  

hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ ůĞǀĞůƐŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƟĂůƚŽƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐůĞƐƐŽŶƐƚŚĂƚŵĞĞƚ ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐĂŶĚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞͲĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŶĞĞĚƐ͘/ŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽŚĞůƉƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĂĐŚŝĞǀĞŶŐůŝƐŚͲ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞLJĂƌĞĂĐƋƵŝƌŝŶŐ content-­‐area knowledge,  teachers  should  plan   lessons  with  both  content-­‐area  and  language   ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐ͘dŚĞĐŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƌĞĂŽďũĞĐƟǀĞĚĞĮŶĞƐ the  subject  students  will  learn,  while  the  language   ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐƚŚĞĂƌĞĂŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ development  that  the  lesson  addresses.    

Students at  this  level  may  read   ǁŝƚŚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůĞŇƵĞŶĐLJĂŶĚĂƌĞ ĂďůĞƚŽůŽĐĂƚĞĂŶĚŝĚĞŶƟĨLJƐƉĞĐŝĮĐ facts  within  a  text.    However,  they   may  not  understand  texts  in  which   the  concepts  are  presented  in   a  decontextualized  manner,  the   sentence  structure  is  complex,   or  the  vocabulary  is  abstract  or   ŚĂƐŵƵůƟƉůĞŵĞĂŶŝŶŐƐ͘dŚĞLJ

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>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞ ďĂƐĞĚŽŶƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ůĞǀĞůƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ͘&ŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ĨŽƌĂůĞƐƐŽŶŽŶ ĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƌĞĂŽďũĞĐƟǀĞŵŝŐŚƚďĞƚŽ͗ WƌĂĐƟĐĞĞƐƟŵĂƟŶŐďLJƵƐŝŶŐƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐĂŶĚŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŽŵƉƵƚĂƟŽŶƐƚŽĂƌƌŝǀĞĂƚĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ͘dŚĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂŽĨǁƌŝƟŶŐĨŽƌůŽǁĞƌͲůĞǀĞů ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŵŝŐŚƚďĞƚŽ͗WƌŽĚƵĐĞ ƉŚƌĂƐĞƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶĨƌŽŵǀŝƐƵĂůƐĂŶĚ word banks,  using  vocabulary  such  as  “about,”   ͞ĐůŽƐĞƚŽ͕͟ĂŶĚ͞ĂƌŽƵŶĚ͘͟dŚĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŽďũĞĐƟǀĞ ĨŽƌŚŝŐŚĞƌͲůĞǀĞů>>ƐǁŽƵůĚďĞƚŽ͗ĞƐĐƌŝďĞŽƌ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚƋƵĂŶƟƟĞƐĨƌŽŵǀŝƐƵĂůƐƵƐŝŶŐ compound  sentences.    Sources  for  developing   ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŽďũĞĐƟǀĞƐĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐƚĂƚĞͲĂĚŽƉƚĞĚŶŐůŝƐŚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐĂŶĚd^K>͛ƐWƌĞ<ʹϭϮŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ WƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͘

ůĞǀĞůƚŚĂƚŚĞŽƌƐŚĞŝƐŵĞĞƟŶŐĂůůŐƌĂĚĞͲůĞǀĞů ĞdžƉĞĐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͘ŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐƚŽĂƐŬƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚŵĂŬĞƐƵƌĞƚŚĞLJŬŶŽǁƚŚĞŝƌƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐĂƌĞ ǁĞůĐŽŵĞĚ͘KŌĞŶ͕ŝŵŵŝŐƌĂŶƚƉĂƌĞŶƚƐǁŝůůŶŽƚ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƚŚĞƐĐŚŽŽůƐLJƐƚĞŵďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĂƚŵĂLJŶŽƚ be the  norm  in  their  home  country. Read  and  use  the  internet  to  learn  about  the   culture  of  your  students.    Be  sure  to  go  beyond   a  focus  on  stereotypes  or  surface  elements  of   ĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐƵĐŚĂƐĨĞƐƟǀĂůƐ͕ĨŽŽĚ͕ĂŶĚĂƌƟĨĂĐƚƐ͘ZĞĂĚ ĂďŽƵƚǀĂůƵĞƐ͕ďĞůŝĞĨƐ͕ĂŶĚƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘ZĞŵĞŵďĞƌ ƚŚĂƚŝĨƐŽŵĞŽŶĞƵƐĞĚŽŶůŝŶĞŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶƚŽůĞĂƌŶ ĂďŽƵƚŵĞƌŝĐĂŶƐ͕ƚŚĂƚLJŽƵŵŝŐŚƚŶŽƚĮƚŶĞĂƚůLJŝŶƚŽ ĂůůŽĨƚŚĞĚĞƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐƚŚĞLJǁŽƵůĚĮŶĚ͘dŚĞƐĂŵĞ holds  true  for  your  students  and  their  families.   /ŶƋƵŝƌĞĂďŽƵƚƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ŚŽŵĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐĂŶĚĂůůŽǁ ƚŚĞŵƚŽƐŚĂƌĞƚŚĞŝƌƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞĐůĂƐƐ͘ Design  the  learning  environment  with  culture   ŝŶŵŝŶĚ͘/ŶĐůƵĚĞƉŽƐƚĞƌƐŝŶŵƵůƟƉůĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐ͕ ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞƐŽĨƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĨƌŽŵŵĂŶLJĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂƌƟĨĂĐƚƐ ĨƌŽŵĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵŝƚĞŵƐ ůĂďĞůĞĚŝŶďŽƚŚŶŐůŝƐŚĂŶĚƚŚĞŚŽŵĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŽĨ ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͘

Cultural Considerations It  just  is  not  possible  to  know  everything  there  is   to  know  about  every  language  and  culture,  but   LJŽƵĐĂŶƐƚĂƌƚǁŝƚŚǁŚĂƚLJŽƵĚŽŬŶŽǁͶŶŐůŝƐŚ͕ the  culture  in  your  region  of  the  United  States,   ĂŶĚLJŽƵƌƐĐŚŽŽůĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͘ƌĂŝŶƐƚŽƌŵǁŝƚŚƐƚĂī ĂďŽƵƚLJŽƵƌƐĐŚŽŽůǀĂůƵĞƐĂŶĚĞdžƉĞĐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ then  think  about  how  you  can  convey  them  to   newcomers.    For  example,  it  might  be  helpful  to   create  a  booklet,  pamphlet,  DVD,  or  CD  with  key   ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŝŶƐŽŵĞŽĨƚŚĞůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐŽĨLJŽƵƌ surrounding  area.    

ŽŶ͛ƚƚĞůůƉĂƌĞŶƚƐƚŽƐƉĞĂŬŽŶůLJŶŐůŝƐŚƚŽƚŚĞŝƌ children.  Parents  may  heed  this  advice,  but   ŵŝŐŚƚŶŽƚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞůŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƚŚĞ ŐƵŝĚĂŶĐĞ͕ĚŝƐĐŝƉůŝŶĞ͕ĂŶĚĂīĞĐƟŽŶƚŚĞLJŶŽƌŵĂůůLJ would  if  using  their  home  language.    Instead,   ƌĞĂƐƐƵƌĞƉĂƌĞŶƚƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŝƌĐŚŝůĚǁŝůůůĞĂƌŶŶŐůŝƐŚ and  that  they  can  help  most  by  reading  aloud  to   their  child  in  the  language  they  know  best  and   helping  their  child  understand  academic  concepts.     ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŽŶůŝƚĞƌĂĐLJƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌƐŚŽǁƐƵƐƚŚĂƚĮƌƐƚͲ language  knowledge  transfers  to  the  second   language.8

ŽŶ͛ƚƚĂŬĞĨŽƌŐƌĂŶƚĞĚƚŚĂƚŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞĂďŽƵƚ school culture  is  shared  by  everyone.    For  example,   in  many  countries,  students  do  not  exit  a  grade   ůĞǀĞůƵŶƟůƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞŵĂƐƚĞƌĞĚƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞŶƚŽĨ ƚŚĂƚŐƌĂĚĞůĞǀĞů͕ƐŽƌĞƉĞĂƟŶŐĂŐƌĂĚĞĚŽĞƐŶŽƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJĐĂƌƌLJƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƐƟŐŵĂŝƚĚŽĞƐŚĞƌĞ͘ ůƐŽ͕ƚŚĞƉĂƌĞŶƚŽĨĂŶŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌ may  be  under  the  impression  that  simply  because   the  student  has  been  promoted  to  the  next  grade  

ŽŶ͛ƚƵƐĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĂƐƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚŽƌƐĨŽƌŽĸĐŝĂů ŵĞĞƟŶŐƐ͘dŚŝƐĐƌĞĂƚĞƐĂƌŽůĞƌĞǀĞƌƐĂůŽĨƉĂƌĞŶƚ and child.    Parents  may  encourage  their  child  to  

8


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ƚĂŬĞŽŶƚŚŝƐƌŽůĞŝŶƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞǀĞƌLJƐƚƌĞƐƐĨƵů ĨŽƌƚŚĞĐŚŝůĚ͘tŚĞŶƉĂƌĞŶƚƐǁŚŽƐƉĞĂŬŽŶůLJĂůŝƩůĞ ŶŐůŝƐŚŚĞĂƌƚŚĞŝƌĐŚŝůĚĐŽŶǀĞƌƐŝŶŐŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͕ƚŚĞLJ ŵĂLJďĞůŝĞǀĞƚŚĞŝƌĐŚŝůĚŝƐĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶƚ͘ dŚĞLJŵĂLJďĞƐĂƟƐĮĞĚĂƚƚŚĞŝƌĐŚŝůĚ͛ƐƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝŶ ŶŐůŝƐŚ͕ŶŽƚƌĞĂůŝnjŝŶŐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĐŚŝůĚ͛ƐĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐ ŶŐůŝƐŚŝƐŶŽƚLJĞƚƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶƚ͘/ƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽ ŚĂǀĞĂƉůĂŶĨŽƌƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƚƌĂŶƐůĂƟŽŶ;ǁƌŝƩĞŶ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶͿĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƟŽŶ;ŽƌĂů ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶͿ͘

ŶĞĞĚƚŽŚĞĂƌƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŝƌƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶŝƐǀĂůƵĞĚ͘/ƚ is important  to  take  extra  steps  to  ensure  that   ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƚĞĨƵůůLJŝŶƐĐŚŽŽůůŝĨĞ͘ Teachers  will  also  need  extra  support,  especially   ƚŚŽƐĞǁŚŽŚĂǀĞŶŽƚǁŽƌŬĞĚǁŝƚŚŶŐůŝƐŚ language  learners  previously.    Provide  or  fund   ƚƌĂŝŶŝŶŐĨŽƌŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĂůƐƚĂīŽŶƚŽƉŝĐƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽƚĞĂĐŚŝŶŐŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐ ƐĞĐŽŶĚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂĐƋƵŝƐŝƟŽŶ͕ůŝƚĞƌĂĐLJŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ>>Ɛ͕ĂŶĚƐŚĞůƚĞƌĞĚĐŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƌĞĂŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͘ ŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐƚŽƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƚĞŝŶƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ>>Ɛ͕ ƐƵĐŚĂƐĐŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐĂŶĚƐĞŵŝŶĂƌƐ͘/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƚƌĂŝŶŝŶŐĨŽƌĂůůƐƚĂīŝŶĐƌŽƐƐͲĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƐĞŶƐŝƟǀŝƚLJ͘KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌ ƉƉůŝĞĚ>ŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐƐĂŶĚd^K>ŽīĞƌƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐĨŽƌƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐ;ƐĞĞ Appendices  B  and  C).  

ŽŶƚĂĐƚLJŽƵƌƐƚĂƚĞ͛ƐĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌŶĞĂƌďLJƐĐŚŽŽůƐĂŶĚĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚƐƚŽĮŶĚŽƵƚ what resources  they  have  uncovered  in  working   ǁŝƚŚŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐǁŚŽƐƉĞĂŬƚŚĞ languages  of  the  students  in  your  school.    Find   local  community  resources  that  know  the  culture   and  language  and  can  partner  with  the  school  to   ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŚĞůƉƚŚĞ ƐĐŚŽŽůůĞĂƌŶŵŽƌĞĂďŽƵƚ>>ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘

What Principals Can Do

/ƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂůƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐĨŽƌ ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ>>Ɛ͘&ƵŶĚƐĨŽƌĂĚĂƉƚĞĚƚĞdžƚƐ͕ ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞĚŝĐƟŽŶĂƌŝĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƐƵƉƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ ǁŝůůŚĞůƉƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐďĞƩĞƌŵĞĞƚƚŚĞŶĞĞĚƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚ language learners.    Access  to  a  color  copier  or   printer,  extra  ink  cartridges,  and  an  ample  supply   of  cardstock  and  paper  will  help  teachers  create   ƐƵƉƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĨŽƌ>>Ɛ͘ĞƐƵƌĞƚŽĐŚĞĐŬ with  teachers  to  be  sure  they  have  the  materials   ƚŚĞLJŶĞĞĚĨŽƌǁŽƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚ>>ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘

WƌŝŶĐŝƉĂůƐŝŶƐĐŚŽŽůƐǁŝƚŚůŽǁŶƵŵďĞƌƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐĐĂŶĂƐƐŝƐƚƐƚĂīŝŶƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ>>Ɛ and their  families  in  several  important  ways.    One   ŽĨƚŚĞĮƌƐƚŝƐƚŽŵĂŬĞƐƵƌĞƚŚĂƚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŝƐŶŽƚ a  barrier  in  the  school.    Make  sure  important   documents  for  families  are  translated  into  the   home  language  and  provide  interpreters  for   ŵĞĞƟŶŐƐǁŝƚŚƉĂƌĞŶƚƐ͘ŚĞĐŬƚŽďĞƐƵƌĞƚŚĂƚ>>Ɛ ĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƚĞŝŶĞdžƚƌĂĐƵƌƌŝĐƵůĂƌ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘/ĨƚŚĞLJĚŽŶ͛ƚ͕ĮŶĚŽƵƚǁŚLJ͘&ŽƌƐŽŵĞ ĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐ͕ƟŵŝŶŐŝƐĂƉƌŽďůĞŵ͘WĂƌĞŶƚƐŵĂLJǁŽƌŬ evenings  or  weekends.    Older  children  may  be   responsible  for  the  care  of  younger  children   ĂŌĞƌƐĐŚŽŽů͘dŚŝŶŬĂďŽƵƚŚŽǁŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶŝƐ communicated  to  parents.    Some  parents  may  not   ŬŶŽǁĂďŽƵƚĞdžƚƌĂĐƵƌƌŝĐƵůĂƌĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞLJ ĚŝĚŶŽƚƌĞĐĞŝǀĞŽƌĐŽƵůĚŶŽƚƌĞĂĚĂŇLJĞƌ͘ůƐŽ͕ŝŶ many  countries,  parents  are  not  expected  to  be   ĂĐƟǀĞůLJŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚŝŶƐĐŚŽŽůĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘WĂƌĞŶƚƐŵĂLJ

&ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ŵĂŬĞƐƵƌĞ>>ƐĂƌĞĐŽƌƌĞĐƚůLJŝĚĞŶƟĮĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐLJŽƵƌƐƚĂƚĞŽƌĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͛ƐŝĚĞŶƟĮĐĂƟŽŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ĂŶĚƚŚĂƚƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚŶŐůŝƐŚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ ƚĞƐƟŶŐŽĐĐƵƌƐĂŶŶƵĂůůLJ͘ŽŶƐƵůƚLJŽƵƌƐƚĂƚĞŽƌ ĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚƚŽďĞƐƵƌĞƚŚĂƚLJŽƵĂƌĞĨƵůĮůůŝŶŐƉĂƌĞŶƚĂů ŶŽƟĮĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶŝŶŐ ŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐŽƵƚůŝŶĞĚŝŶƚŚĞEŽŚŝůĚ >ĞŌĞŚŝŶĚůĞŐŝƐůĂƟŽŶ͘

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Conclusion When you  think  about  a  child  entering  a  classroom   in  a  new  school,  a  classroom  where  every  other   ĐŚŝůĚƐƉĞĂŬƐĂůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƚŚĂŶƚŚĞŽŶĞƚŚŝƐ child  speaks  at  home,  you  can  imagine  the  support   that  the  child  will  need.    As  educators,  we  provide   that  support  every  day—by  weaving  strategies   into  our  lessons  to  help  the  child  learn  academic   ĐŽŶƚĞŶƚ͖ďLJĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐŽŶƚŚĞĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐŶŐůŝƐŚƚŚĞ ĐŚŝůĚǁŝůůŶĞĞĚƚŽďĞƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵů͖ĂŶĚďLJĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂ safe  environment  where  the  child,  her  family,  and   her  culture  are  welcomed  and  valued.    But  also   consider  how  much  that  child  brings  to  our  school   and  classrooms.    We  have  the  chance  to  have   an  inside  view  of  another  culture.    We  can  learn   new  ways  of  thinking  about  what  is  happening   in  our  world  and  gain  insights  about  our  own   ĐƵůƚƵƌĞďLJďĞƩĞƌƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐŚŽǁŽƚŚĞƌƐƐĞĞ ƵƐ͘KƵƌŶŐůŝƐŚͲŽŶůLJĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶŚĂǀĞƚŚĞĐŚĂŶĐĞƚŽ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĂƚŽƵƌǁŽƌůĚŝƐŶŽƚŶŐůŝƐŚͲŽŶůLJ͘tĞ ĂůůŚĂǀĞƚŚĞŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽůĞĂƌŶŚŽǁƚŽďĞƩĞƌ communicate  with  each  other,  with  or  without   ŶŐůŝƐŚ͘tŚĞŶĂŶŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌĞŶƚĞƌƐ our  classroom,  it  is  a  chance  for  us  to  develop   ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐĨŽƌ all  of  our  students  and  for  ourselves.  

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Endnotes ¹ Richard  T.  Vacca  and  Jo  Anne  L.  Vacca,    Content  Area   Reading:  Literacy  and  Learning  Across  the  Curriculum  (Boston:     Allyn  and  Bacon,  2005). ϸƌŝĐ:ĞŶƐĞŶ͕Teaching  with  the  Brain  in  Mind  (Virginia:     ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶĨŽƌ^ƵƉĞƌǀŝƐŝŽŶ͕ƵƌƌŝĐƵůƵŵĂŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ 1998). ³  Diane  August  and  Kenji  Hakuta,  ĚƵĐĂƟŶŐ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞͲ Minority  Children;tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕͗EĂƟŽŶĂůĐĂĚĞŵLJWƌĞƐƐ͕ 1998). ϺWĂƵůŝŶĞ'ŝďďŽŶƐ͕͞DĞĚŝĂƟŶŐ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ>ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ͗dĞĂĐŚĞƌ /ŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚ^>^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝŶĂŽŶƚĞŶƚͲĂƐĞĚůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵ͕͟ TESOL  QuarterlysŽů͘ϳϮ͕/ƐƐ͘Ϯ;ϮϬϬϯͿ͗Ϯϰϳ͵Ϯϳϯ͘ ϻ/ďŝĚ͘ ϼ:ĂŶĂĐŚĞǀĂƌƌŝĂ͕ĞďŽƌĂŚ^ŚŽƌƚ͕ĂŶĚDĂƌLJůůĞŶsŽŐƚ͕ Making  Content  Comprehensible  for  English  Learners:  The   SIOP  Model;ŽƐƚŽŶ͗WĞĂƌƐŽŶĚƵĐĂƟŽŶͬůůLJŶĂŶĚĂĐŽŶ͕ 2008). ϽdĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚƚŽ^ƉĞĂŬĞƌƐŽĨKƚŚĞƌ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐ͕/ŶĐ͘ ;d^K>Ϳ͕PreK͵ϭϮŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞWƌŽĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ   ;ůĞdžĂŶĚƌŝĂ͕s͗d^K>͕ϮϬϬϲͿ͘ ϾZŝĐŚĂƌĚ>͘Sparks  et  al.,͞ĂƌůLJ&ŝƌƐƚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞZĞĂĚŝŶŐĂŶĚ Spelling  Skills  Predict  Later  Second  Language  Reading  and     Spelling  Skills,”  :ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůWƐLJĐŚŽůŽŐLJVol.  100,  Iss.   ϭ;ϮϬϬϴͿ͗ϭϲϮ͵ϭϳϰ͘

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Appendix A Sample Content-Based Texts Designed for English Language Learners ACCESS Building  Literacy  Through  Learning 'ƌĞĂƚ^ŽƵƌĐĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ'ƌŽƵƉ   tŝůŵŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕DĂƐƐĂĐŚƵƐĞƩƐ   www.greatsource.com America’s  Story;  World  Geography  and  You;  Wonders  of   Science   Steck-­‐Vaughn  Company   ƵƐƟŶ͕dy   www.steckvaughn.hmhco.com ConceptLinks DŝůůŵĂƌŬĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ   Bethesda,  MD   ǁǁǁ͘ŵŝůůŵĂƌŬĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ English  Explorers ĞŶĐŚŵĂƌŬĚƵĐĂƟŽŶŽŵƉĂŶLJ   Pelham,  NY   ǁǁǁ͘ďĞŶĐŚŵĂƌŬĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Pacemaker  Series  and  AGS  Globe  Series WĞĂƌƐŽŶĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕/ŶĐ͘   www.pearsonschool.com

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Appendix B Resources for Teachers and Families ŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͕>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ͕ĂŶĚ>ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJŝŶƚŚĞĂƌůLJzĞĂƌƐ (ELLLEY) >>>zͶĂĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶtĞƐƚĚĂŶĚƚŚĞĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ŚŝůĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶͶ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞƐƚĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŽĨƉƌĞƐĐŚŽŽůŶŐůŝƐŚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐƚŽ ďĂƐŝĐĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽƐĞĐŽŶĚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĂĐƋƵŝƐŝƟŽŶ͕ŚŽŵĞ ůŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ͕ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĞŵĞƌŐĞŶƚůŝƚĞƌĂĐLJƐŬŝůůƐ͘ www.wested.org/cs/we/view/pj/543

ĐƟǀŝƟĞƐĨŽƌ^>^ƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ WůĂLJŐĂŵĞƐ͕ƚĂŬĞƋƵŝnjnjĞƐ͕ƌĞĂĚŐƌĂŵŵĂƌ͕ĂŶĚƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ vocabulary. ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĂϰĞƐů͘ŽƌŐ ĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌDƵůƟůŝŶŐƵĂůDƵůƟĐƵůƚƵƌĂůZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ This  website  provides  a  comprehensive,  annotated  list  of   ďŝůŝŶŐƵĂůͬ^>ͬŵƵůƟĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘   ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁͲďĐĨ͘ƵƐĐ͘ĞĚƵͬΕĐŵŵƌͬZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘Śƚŵů ŽŐŶĂƚĞƐĨŽƌ^ƉĂŶŝƐŚĂŶĚŶŐůŝƐŚ Cognates  are  the  related  words  that  share  roots  and/or   ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐƐĂĐƌŽƐƐƚǁŽůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐ͘dŚĞŝƌƉĂƩĞƌŶƐŽĨƐŝŵŝůĂƌŝƚLJ can  be  especially  useful  to  people  learning  a  second  language.       ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŐĞŽĐŝƟĞƐ͘ĐŽŵͬĂƚŚĞŶƐͬƚŚĞďĞƐͬϲϭϳϳͬǁƐͲĐŽŐŶĂƚĞƐ͘ html ͋ŽůŽƌşŶŽůŽƌĂĚŽ͊   ĨĂŶƚĂƐƟĐďŝůŝŶŐƵĂůƐŝƚĞĨŽƌĨĂŵŝůŝĞƐĂŶĚĞĚƵĐĂƚŽƌƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚ ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞůĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐŝŶϭϭĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ languages.    ¡Colorín  Colorado!  is  produced  by  Reading   ZŽĐŬĞƚƐ͕ĂŶĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůƐĞƌǀŝĐĞŽĨƚŚĞůŽĐĂůW^ƐƚĂƟŽŶŝŶ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕;tdͿ͘   www.Colorincolorado.org   ĂǀĞ͛Ɛ^>ĂĨĠ dŚŝƐƐŝƚĞŽīĞƌƐĞĂƐLJͲƚŽͲƵƐĞĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐŐĂŵĞƐ͕ƋƵŝnjnjĞƐ͕ ƉƌŽŶƵŶĐŝĂƟŽŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞ͕ĂŶĚƐƚŽƌŝĞƐ͘   www.eslcafe.com

ƌ͘:ŝůů<ĞƌƉĞƌDŽƌĂ͛Ɛ^ƉĂŶŝƐŚͬŶŐůŝƐŚŽŐŶĂƚĞƐtĞďƐŝƚĞ This site  provides  resources  for  teachers  of  Spanish-­‐speaking   >>Ɛ͕ǁŝƚŚƌƵůĞƐĨŽƌ^ƉĂŶŝƐŚƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͕ǁƌŝƟŶŐ͕ƐƉĞůůŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚ pedagogy.   ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĐŽĞ͘ƐĚƐƵ͘ĞĚƵͬƉĞŽƉůĞͬũŵŽƌĂͬŵŽƌĂŵŽĚƵůĞƐͬ ^ƉŶŐŽŐŶĂƚĞƐ͘Śƚŵ  

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Appendix C Research and Professional Development Resources

The  following  resource  list  is  based  on  the  work  of  the   Illinois  ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶĨŽƌDƵůƟůŝŶŐƵĂůͬDƵůƟĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ;/DDͿ—ĂŶĂƟŽŶĂůŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶĞdžĐůƵƐŝǀĞůLJĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞĚǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶŽĨůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞͲŵŝŶŽƌŝƚLJƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŝŶŵĞƌŝĐĂŶ schools.

dĞĂĐŚĞƌƐŽĨŶŐůŝƐŚƚŽ^ƉĞĂŬĞƌƐŽĨKƚŚĞƌ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƐ͕/ŶĐ͘;d^K>Ϳ d^K>͛ƐŵŝƐƐŝŽŶŝƐƚŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉĂŶĚŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂů ĞdžƉĞƌƟƐĞŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞƚĞĂĐŚŝŶŐĂŶĚůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐĨŽƌ speakers of  other  languages  worldwide.     www.tesol.org dĞĂĐŚŝŶŐŝǀĞƌƐĞ>ĞĂƌŶĞƌƐ;d>Ϳ ƌŽǁŶhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͛Ɛd>ǁĞďƐŝƚĞƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƚĞĂĐŚŝŶŐĂŶĚ learning  strategies  that  address  culturally  responsive  teaching,   ŵĂŝŶƐƚƌĞĂŵĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵƐ͕ďŝůŝŶŐƵĂůͬ^>ĐůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵƐ͕ĂŶĚƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘   www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl

ĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌƉƉůŝĞĚ>ŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐƐ (CAL)     >ŝƐĂƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ͕ŶŽŶƉƌŽĮƚŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶǁŚŽƐĞŐƌŽƵƉŽĨ ƐĐŚŽůĂƌƐĂŶĚĞĚƵĐĂƚŽƌƐƵƐĞƚŚĞĮŶĚŝŶŐƐŽĨůŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐƐĂŶĚ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚƐĐŝĞŶĐĞƐŝŶŝĚĞŶƟĨLJŝŶŐĂŶĚĂĚĚƌĞƐƐŝŶŐůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞͲ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚŝƐƐƵĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŝƐĂŶŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟǀĞƐŽƵƌĐĞĨŽƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐǀŝĚĞŽƐ͕ĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚƚŽŽůƐ͕ resource  books,  and  professional  development.   www.cal.org ĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŽĨĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕   ĂŶĚdžĐĞůůĞŶĐĞ;ZͿ ZŝƐŽŶĞŽĨϭϮŶĂƟŽŶĂůƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐĨƵŶĚĞĚďLJƚŚĞh͘^͘ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘Z͛Ɛ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚŝƐƚŽŝĚĞŶƟĨLJĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞīĞĐƟǀĞĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐĨŽƌůŝŶŐƵŝƐƟĐĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůŵŝŶŽƌŝƚLJƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͘   ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĐƌĞĚĞ͘ďĞƌŬĞůĞLJ͘ĞĚƵ

ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞĞŶƚĞƌƐWƌŽŐƌĂŵ The Comprehensive  Centers  Program  consists  of  21  centers   located  throughout  the  country.    The  U.S.  Department  of   ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚƚŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů assistance  to  low-­‐performing  schools  to  help  close  the   achievement  gap.    The  program  works  primarily  with  states,   ůŽĐĂůĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͕ƚƌŝďĞƐ͕ƐĐŚŽŽůƐ͕ĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌƌĞĐŝƉŝĞŶƚƐ ŽĨĨƵŶĚƐƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞEŽŚŝůĚ>ĞŌĞŚŝŶĚĐƚ͘   www.ed.gov/programs/newccp/index.html  

EĂƟŽŶĂůůĞĂƌŝŶŐŚŽƵƐĞĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚ>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĐƋƵŝƐŝƟŽŶ (NCELA) ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƐ͕ƐLJŶƚŚĞƐŝnjĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƚĞƐŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͕ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐĨŽƌŶŐůŝƐŚ language  learners,  and  related  programs.   www.ncela.gwu.edu

14


d,/E'E'>/^,>E'h'>ZEZ^/E>KtͲ/E/E^dd/E'^

Notes

15


d,/E'E'>/^,>E'h'>ZEZ^/E>KtͲ/E/E^dd/E'^

Notes

16


d,/E'E'>/^,>E'h'>ZEZ^/E>KtͲ/E/E^dd/E'^

www.nclr.org

20

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