2022 Fall Directions

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NCBA.org CATTLEMENNATIONAL The trusted leader and definitive voice of U.S. cattle and beef industry 2022 DIRECTIONS THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF NCBA


4............................LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT 6.................................................LETTER FROM THE CEO 8......................................................................STATE OF NCBA 11......................................................WALL STREET REGULATOR 14.................................STATE OF THE FEDERATION 20.............................................THE EFFECTS OF WILDFIRES 24...........................................ECONOMIC 38...................................................DIRECTIONS36...........................................................WEATHER34..................................................................MARKET32...........................................................CONSUMER30...................................................NON-FUNGIBLE28.............................................................CARBONSUSTAINABILITYMARKETSTOKENSREPORTUPDATEOUTLOOKSTATISTICS TABLE OF CONTENTS 2022 NCBA Leadership President Don Schiefelbein President-Elect Todd Wilkinson Vice President Mark Eisele Treasurer Joe Guild Federation Division Chair Brad Hastings Federation Division Vice-Chair Clark Price Policy Division Chair Buck Wehrbein Policy Division Vice-Chair Gene Copenhaver Immediate Past President Jerry Bohn Chief Executive Officer Colin Woodall Senior Editors John Robinson Jill Johnson Editor Sarah Drown Contributing Writers Wendy White Hunter Ihrman HadenMikComstockeSimone Creative Director Don Waite Graphic Designer Dancinee Jennings For ad sales contact Summer Johnson 303-850-3346, Shannon Wilson 303-850-3345, Lindsay Clark 303-850-3339, Kate Ramsey 303-850-3321 or Jason Jerome 303-850-3313. Contact NCBA: 9110 E. Nichols Ave., Suite 300, Centennial, CO 80112 (303-694-0305); Washington D.C.: 1275 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20004 (202-347-0228). National Cattlemen’s Beef Association reserves the right to refuse advertising in any of its publications. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association does not accept political advertising in any of its publications. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association does not accept any advertising promoting third-party lawsuits that have not been endorsed by the board of directors. ©2022 National Cattlemen’s Beef Association. All rights reserved. The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or part, without the prior written consent of the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association. KEEP UP WITH THE LATEST NEWS www.NCBA.org Like Us. Follow Us. Watch Us. Hear Us THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF NCBA NATIONAL CATTLEMEN

DENVER OFFICE 9110 E. Nichols Ave. Suite 300 Centennial, CO membership@beef.org303-694-030580112 WASHINGTON D.C. OFFICE 1275 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W. Suite 801 Washington, D.C. 202-347-022820004-1701 Todd President-ElectWilkinsonSouthDakotaDonMinnesotaPresidentSchiefelbein Mark Eisele ViceWyomingPresident BuckPolicyWehrbeinChairNebraska GenePolicyCopenhaverVice-ChairVirginia Brad FederationHastingsChairTexas

Price Federation Vice-Chair North Dakota Joe TreasurerGuildNevada Jerry Bohn Immediate Past KansasPresident ColinColoradoCEOWoodall 4 NATIONAL CATTLEMEN DIRECTIONS 2022


ADM Animal Nutrition, Inc. Advanced Ag Products Agri-Pro Enterprises of Iowa, Inc.


Purina Animal Nutrition LLC www.purinamills.com/cattle Ritchie Industries Inc. www.ritchiefount.com

Zoetis Animal Health www.zoetis.com

ENDOVAC Animal Health

Corteva Agriscience™ www.corteva.com

44 Farms


Caterpillar www.cat.com

Hayden Outdoors Real Estate Hyundai Construction Equipment IMI InternationalGlobalStock Food International Genetic Solutions Jorgensen Land and Cattle Kent Nutrition Group Krone Kubota Tractor Corporation Kunafin “The Insectary” Laird Manufacturing Meat & Livestock Australia, Ltd. Micronutrients National Corn Growers NationwideAssociation

New Generation Supplements Newport Laboratories, A Vaxxinova Company Noble Research Institute Novus International

Central Life Sciences www.centrallifesciences.com

Micro Technologies www.microtechnologies.com

Merck Animal Health www.merck-animal-health-usa.com

Moly Manufacturing www.molymfg.com New Holland Agriculture www.newholland.com

Bayer Environmental Sciences CHR HANSEN Farm Credit LallemandHuvepharma,CouncilInc.AnimalNutritionNeogenNorbrook,Inc.RaboAgriFinanceRAMTrucksAmericanFoodsGroupCargillMeatSolutionsCertifiedAngusBeefCulver’sDardenRestaurantsempiricalFarewayStores,Inc.FiveGuysMcDonald’sCorporationNationalBeefPackingOmahaSteaksPerformanceFoodGroupPreferredBeefGroupTysonFreshMeats

(MinimumInvestment)$100,000 NATIONAL CATTLEMEN 5DIRECTIONS 2022

Farmers Business Network Feed-Lot Magazine Fera Diagnostics & Biologicals Corp Food Safety Net Services Furst-McNessGallagherCompany

Animal Health International www.animalhealthinternational.com

Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Inc. www.bi-vetmedica.com/species/cattle.html


Parker McCrory PBS Animal Health Phibro Animal Pneu-DartHealth Priefert Ranch

Elanco Animal Health www.elanco.com

John Deere www.deere.com

Roto-Mix www.rotomix.com

Gravely, an Ariens Company Greeley Hat Works Grov TechnologiesGroviv

These are companies that have teamed with NCBA as corporate members, demonstrating their commitment to the beef industry. Their involvement strengthens our future. NCBA members are urged to support these partners in turn by purchasing their products and services. Those who would like to become corporate members with NCBA (securing premium booth placement at the annual convention and trade show as well as other membership benefits), please call the Corporate Relations team at 303-694-0305.

Congress directed the organizers and attendees of the conference to examine why hunger and nutrition insecurity persists, as well as explore approaches to improve health by improving access to and consumption of nutritious foods. There is no better example of a nutritious food than beef, and farmers and ranchers are essential to food security and meeting Americans’ nutrition needs. You show up every day making sure beef makes its way through the supply chain to consumers’ plates. We will continue to make the case for beef with the Administration and use science-based, data-driven research to guide the conversation.


Standing Together for a Better Future

Growing up in a large family and now running the farm with more than 80 family members involved, I have learned a tremendous amount about what the word “family” truly means. To me, it means a group of people who — despite differing opinions, experiences and values — find common ground, support each other and ultimately work together for the betterment of each other and their goals.

When I think about our industry, I think of it as a family. As the nation’s oldest and largest cattle organization, it’s no surprise that we as individual members have our differences from time to time. From the type of businesses we operate to the past experiences we’ve had — each of us provides a perspective that ultimately drives our sector to learn from the past and be more prepared for the challenges we will face in the future.

Our grassroots, member-driven engagement is what keeps our industry strong year after year. July proved that when we gathered in Reno for our Summer Business Meeting. It was during this meeting that cattlemen and women helped guide NCBA policy for the next big issue for our industry — the 2023 Farm Bill. Authorized every five years, the Farm Bill is the largest piece of legislation impacting all of agriculture. For NCBA, the 2023 Farm Bill presents an opportunity to build on our successes in the 2018 Farm Bill by improving our investments in animal health, livestock risk protection and voluntary conservation programs. NCBA will continue advocating for all these programs that protect cattle producers and their livestock.

As I write this column, the White House is making its final preparations for the upcoming Conference on Hunger, Nutrition, and Health, and agriculture is finding itself fighting for a seat at the table. Farmers and ranchers form the literal base of the food chain, and beef producers supply the highest quality protein, packed with essential vitamins necessary to provide Americans of all backgrounds with a healthy diet; we need to be part of this conversation.

For the sake of the future of our business, we must work together as an industry. We need, as leaders, to find common ground that will likely determine our long-term fate and avoid the ruin of our industry that some desire. I am committed to working diligently to ensure the success of our industry now and in the future. Our industry is strongest when we band together and fight collectively. This year, I continue to be honored to lead that charge!

to keep beef at the center of the plate. Beef demand is at an all-time high, but that doesn’t mean we can afford to be complacent in addressing consumer concerns and ignore the rising challenges from the alternative protein sector. The work of NCBA as a contractor to the Beef Checkoff is focused on increasing consumer confidence in beef’s nutritional profile and beef production practices. NCBA’s work in Washington, D.C., is focused on advocating for proper labeling of our product, fighting against false claims of fake meat companies, and making sure regulators don’t fall victim to misinformation when making decisions about beef’s role in a healthy diet.

Another issue the organization is focused on is continuing




The Republicans see an opportunity to capitalize on last year’s withdrawal from Afghanistan, gas prices, food prices, overall inflation, the border crisis and even California’s decision to stop selling gas-powered vehicles. They want to offer an alternative and hope they can get enough supporters to come along and vote for them. Republicans believe that their views of governing are more attractive right now and look at last November’s success in Virginia’s gubernatorial race as proof.

The United States government also has tremendous influence on our success. As this edition is hitting your mailboxes, we are about a month away from election day, Tuesday, November 8. I know that you are sick and tired of seeing and hearing campaign commercials. That whole aspect of our election process just seems to get worse and more ridiculous each cycle. Regardless, it is a part of trying to get elected in America. However, do not let your disdain for the process keep you from participating. I need you to get out and vote!

Our Right to Vote!

Now, I realize that many of you just read that and wondered why I did not make some sort of prognostication about who will win. While we can have our strong beliefs, to win in Washington you must have friends in both parties. From Republican Frank Lucas in Oklahoma to Democrat Jim Costa in California, we have friends on both sides of the aisle willing to step up and fight for us. That is why, regardless of the outcome, NCBA will continue to work with all Members of Congress to advance our policy positions. As the head of our D.C. office, Ethan Lane, likes to say, “we are in the friend making business.” While that statement may seem simplistic, the ability to work both sides of the aisle is based on relationships. That is why we have a full-time presence in our nation’s capital. Relationships take time and effort to build, and in Washington, face-to-face interaction is still the preferred method to make this happen.

We stand ready to work with Congress, regardless of who is in charge. It will be easier, though, if you get out and vote for cattle-friendly candidates who are willing to step up and help us fight for your right to stay on your land and produce cattle and beef without the government making it even harder than it is. The process of voting varies from state to state, so be sure to take the time to review your polling location and the time it is open, check your mail-in ballot deadlines, vote early, or request your absentee ballots early enough to get them in. Every vote counts, and you need to make sure you are exercising your right to have your voice heard. Vote!

Colin Woodall, NCBA CEO

The fall edition of National Cattlemen Directions has become a must-read among our membership. The industry data, facts and figures give you a sense of trends we are seeing in the cattle and beef business. This publication is one that can serve as a reference throughout the year. From drought to inflation, we are facing many challenges, so being informed of the latest industry information is critical to our success as cattle producers.

Control of both the U.S Senate and House of Representatives is up for grabs, and I believe both parties still have a fighting chance. Democrats and Republicans have had primary and special election success they believe will bolster their positions going into the general election. All it takes to change that, though, is a three-second soundbite that reflects poorly on the party or the candidate. Late October and early November surprises have changed the course of some elections in our nation’s history. It is not over until election day, and as we have seen over the past several elections cycles, there is no guarantee we will have all the races called on election night.

We start building our relationships when these Members of Congress are just candidates looking for the chance to serve. We bring them to our office on Pennsylvania Avenue and talk about our industry and find out what they know, or do not know, about cattle and beef production. These relationships prove critical when it is time to vote on a piece of legislation and we ask them to support us. If you wait and reach out to a Senator or Representative for the first time just to ask for their vote, you will be sorely disappointed in the outcome.

Congressional control becomes even more important during a mid-term election. President Biden wants to maintain Democrat control of Capitol Hill so he can keep moving forward with his political agenda. The Democrat leadership in Congress believes they have delivered on many of the President’s priorities and deserve another two years of control. They are also looking at the 2024 presidential election cycle and the need to show more wins to get four more years of a Democrat in the White House.



Authorized every five years, the Farm Bill is the largest piece of legislation impacting all of agriculture. While the Farm Bill does not require reauthorization until Sept. 30, 2023, NCBA is already having conversations with policymakers about our priorities for the next bill.

• Supporting disaster recovery programs that help producers return to normal operations following adverse weather, attacks by predators, or extreme conditions like drought and wildfire.

NCBA holds a seat on the USDA National Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Program’s (NADPRP) Consultation Board, and recently NCBA partnered with the sheep industry to receive a NADPRP grant to develop guidance for safeguarding livestock grazing on public lands in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak.

NCBA is also focusing on the threat posed by ticks in the U.S., specifically the Asian Longhorned Tick (ALT). This small pest, which is about the size of a sesame seed, has more than 25 hosts in the U.S., including birds, making this tick highly mobile. The ALT can transmit a protozoan pathogen called Theileria orientalis Ikeda. Theileriosis may cause anemia, failure to grow (ill-thrift), reproductive problems, and in some cases, death. Recovered animals may be persistently infected and serve as a reservoir for the disease. There is currently no approved treatment against Theileria orientalis, leaving the U.S. cattle herd at risk. To increase education and awareness for the threat posed by this tick, NCBA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) hosted a two-day virtual tick symposium that included veterinarians, state animal health officials, industry experts, cattle producers and an expert from Australia, where the ALT and theileriosis is endemic. NCBA is continuing to advocate for resources and research to control the ALT and mitigate any associated pathogens.

Animal Health

NCBA holds a seat on the USDA National Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Program’s (NADPRP) Consultation Board and, recently, NCBA partnered with the sheep industry to receive a NADPRP grant to develop guidance for safeguarding livestock grazing on public lands in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak.

Farm Bill

• Promoting voluntary conservation programs that recognize the value of producers’ nationwide conservation activities, and support implementation of these practices free from government mandates.

A healthy cattle herd is a top priority for producers to ensure economic success as well as safe and wholesome beef for consumers. NCBA's Chief Veterinarian is based in the NCBA Center for Public Policy office in Washington, D.C., and serves as a leading voice for animal health and disease prevention.

• Strengthening risk management programs that provide producers with added protection against weather events and price decline.


While NCBA is advocating for policies that support healthy herds, each individual cattle producer also has an important role to play. Every cattle operation should formulate a basic biosecurity plan that addresses common disease threats. Basic biosecurity plans can be enhanced, using information from the USDA-funded Secure Beef Supply plan to guard against

A Look into Issues on Capitol Hill

• Blocking a stand-alone livestock title. A stand-alone livestock title within the Farm Bill would open the door to unnecessary overregulation and harmful mandates.


NCBA grassroots members set Farm Bill priorities at the 2022 Summer Business Meeting in Reno, Nevada. These priorities include:

• Protecting animal health through programs that guard against the spread of foreign animal diseases. This includes support for programs like the National Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Program (NADPRP) and the National Animal Vaccine and Veterinary Countermeasures Bank (NAVVCB). NADPRP allows for government entities to collaborate with animal health partners to implement projects that enhance prevention, preparedness, detection and response to the most damaging, emerging foreign animal diseases that threaten U.S. agriculture. The NAVVCB, which currently houses the Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine for U.S. producers, provides vaccine protection for livestock producers but also recognizes the danger that a foreign animal disease poses to the U.S. livestock industry.

Regardless of how producers choose to sell cattle, data availability and market transparency are crucial to make informed business decisions. In March 2022, Congress authorized a Cattle Contract Library pilot proposal — a tool which allows producers to learn more about the types of

Cattle Markets

American cattle producers raise some of the highest quality beef in the world, and foreign consumers have developed a taste for it. Exports add value to cuts that are less popular among domestic consumers. Beef tongue, liver or short plate may not be in high demand in your local grocery store, but these cuts fetch a premium in other countries where they are a delicacy.


Strong foreign demand for U.S. beef is driving record U.S. beef exports in 2022. For the first half of 2022, beef exports soared to 743,904 metric tons valued at $6.19 billion, a 33% increase from 2021. Most of our export growth is due to strong demand in Asia and Latin America, where marbled beef is gaining a bigger following. For cattle producers, exports alone account for an average of $476.98 of value per head.1 Likewise, the U.S. is also a major importer of lean beef trimmings that are combined with our fattier trimmings to make hamburger. Even though imports have risen in 2022, the U.S. remains a net exporter, exporting more beef than we import.

Transportation and Supply Chain


Producers and consumers alike have experienced shortages, delays and disruptions caused by supply chain challenges. A shortage of truck drivers and unreliable rail service has harmed

foreign animal diseases, like FMD. Recent foreign animal diseases in other countries have highlighted the importance of implementing a biosecurity plan for your farm or ranch. This key step protects your cattle herd and the entire beef cattle industry. The Checkoff-funded Beef Quality Assurance program has biosecurity resources to assist in getting you started. Please visit BQA.org for more information.

While trucks and trains are the primary ways to haul livestock and livestock feed in the U.S., ocean shipping is essential to exporting beef to foreign consumers. Foreign trade provides an important financial benefit to U.S. cattle producers, and NCBA was pleased to see the Ocean Shipping Reform Act — which granted new authority to the Federal Maritime Commission — signed into law, thus beginning to help alleviate congestion at U.S. ports.

Historically, customers abroad have had little access to U.S. beef due to high tariffs and non-scientific trade barriers. Realizing the benefits for foreign markets and U.S. cattle producers, NCBA continues to advocate for greater market access to existing markets and the opening of new markets through marketbased and science-based trade policies. In fact, some of the markets where we see the greatest gains are markets where trade agreements have removed barriers to trade. Moving forward, we must continue to identify and remove barriers and


is not like hauling toilet paper, drivers cannot stop for 10 consecutive hours of rest with a load of live animals on their truck. That is why NCBA has continued advocating for flexibility within hours-of-service (HOS) and with electronic logging devices (ELD). Each month, NCBA has worked with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to request an emergency declaration within HOS that gives livestock and livestock feed haulers a complete exemption from HOS when fully loaded. Thus, giving these haulers additional flexibility for their critical deliveries.

At the 2022 Summer Business Meeting, cattle producers also passed new policy on railway concerns as it relates to overall supply chain issues. This led NCBA to support the Freight Rail Shipping Fair Market Act, which would reauthorize the Surface Transportation Board and allow for further oversight and much needed transparency within the rail industry.

contracts offered by meatpackers for the procurement of fed cattle. The pilot program will provide producers with additional market information, and NCBA is continuing to work with the USDA on developing this tool in a manner that benefits producers.

NCBA’s policy opposes arbitrary mandates on cattle marketing. In response, NCBA has opposed attempts to enact heavy-handed government intrusion into the markets.

NCBA has also advocated to expand beef processing capacity by supporting small- to mid-size regional processors. In addition to $1 billion in pledged funds from USDA, NCBA has advocated for workforce development programs and technical assistance to help new processing facilities open their doors and hire skilled workers.

In addition to hearing the Sackett v. EPA case on WOTUS, the Supreme Court is also hearing another critical agricultural case in October: National Pork Producer’s Council v. Ross. This case challenges California’s Proposition 12, which prohibits pork raised in gestation crates in other states from being sold in California. The case will set an important precedent about whether states can regulate the production practices of producers outside their state boundaries. The Supreme Court also handed down another important decision in West Virginia v. EPA. While this case was about the Obama Administration’s Clean Power Plan, the court ruled that the EPA must have Congressional approval before making sweeping policy decisions. This will have ramifications on the EPA’s future rulemaking on WOTUS and other issues impacting the cattle industry.

Throughout the year, the Biden Administration and some members of Congress pushed for broad infrastructure spending proposals known as “Build Back Better.” To fund these expensive proposals, some looked to cutting tax benefits that currently support family farmers and ranchers.

In December 2021, NCBA submitted comments to defend the 2019 rule that finalized the definition of “habitat” under the ESA. The Trump administration formulated the rule to comply with the Supreme Court’s decision in Weyerhaeuser Co. v. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (2018), which — in addition to being common sense — stated that to be designated as critical habitat, an area must first qualify as habitat. The Biden administration has rolled back this definition, potentially putting the administration at odds with the law without further regulatory action.

Last month, NCBA submitted technical comments on the administration’s attempt to widen the 10(j) rule to allow for the introduction of nonessential experimental populations of listed species outside of their historical range. While not the only instance, this proposed rule is the best example of the administration’s attempt to regulate based on what the land might look like after 100 years, rather than basing rules on the science and ecology of the land today.

NCBA made it clear to Congress that expensive proposals cannot be funded on the backs of farmers and ranchers. NCBA and our affiliates fought to protect several important tax provisions including stepped-up basis, like kind exchanges, and maintaining relief from the estate tax.

overreach and advance commonsense rules that put wildlife species management in the hands of state and local leaders.



Supreme Court

The habitat definition is not the only area where we are seeing a regulatory backslide. In July, a federal judge in the Northern District of California remanded and vacated three ESA rules that were finalized in 2019 to address 4(d) exceptions for listed species, consider economic impact in listing decisions, and streamlining of the interagency consultation process. Alongside a coalition of other national agricultural and land management groups, NCBA intervened in court to defend these three rules.

1. U.S. Meat Export Federation (https://www.usmef.org/newsmonth-pace-pork-exports-below-last-year/)statistics/press-releases/first-half-beef-exports-on-1-billion-

In May, NCBA submitted comments on the uplisting of the Northern Long-Eared bat from “threatened” to “endangered.” While the impact of the bat protections seems more indirect than protections for other species, NCBA seized the opportunity to talk about the need for 4(d) exemptions for endangered species and aggressive, wildfire-mitigation treatments even in forests with wildlife species.


NCBA is dedicated to advocating on behalf of U.S. cattle and beef producers on these issues and will continue our efforts on all of these fronts as we approach 2023.

For seven years, policymakers have tossed around the political football of WOTUS; that is, the definition of “waters of the United States” and the federal government’s jurisdiction to regulate under the Clean Water Act. At the start of this year, the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) own Farm, Ranch and Rural Communities Advisory Committee made a series of policy recommendations including a clear, limited definition of WOTUS, protecting WOTUS exemptions for common agricultural features like stock ponds and ditches, and allowing stakeholders to voice their concerns with existing WOTUS rules.

A concerning series of regulatory actions from the Biden Administration and decisions from the courts threaten to expand the federal government’s reach under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). NCBA is working to rollback potential government

diversify our export markets. Earlier this year, NCBA President Don Schiefelbein traveled to the United Kingdom (U.K.) to meet with British government officials and explain U.S cattle production. U.S. and U.K. cattle producers share many similar production practices and values that will support complementary beef trade between our countries. NCBA will continue to press the Biden Administration and Congress to expand trading relationships and solidify trade deals that support U.S. cattle producers.

In February, NCBA submitted comments on the EPA’s proposed WOTUS rule, highlighting the issue of removing bipartisan exclusions for common agricultural features. In addition to technical comments, more than 1,600 cattle producers from 44 states submitted letters to the EPA.

Endangered Species Act

Separately, the U.S. Supreme Court will soon hear the case Sackett v. EPA, a direct challenge to the EPA’s authority under the Clean Water Act. This case will have important ramifications for the future of WOTUS, and NCBA filed an amicus brief with the court highlighting specific WOTUS issues for cattle producers. Arguments in the case will be heard in October with a final decision expected in early 2023.


Most Americans never interact with the SEC. While the SEC is tasked with regulating the financial markets that many Americans are invested in (through retirement, 401K, or brokerage accounts), only the top investment firms, publicly traded companies and major shareholders are regulated by the agency. That is, until SEC Chairman Gary Gensler came along.

investors should review a company’s climate policies, social and workforce practices, and corporate ethics and governance standards as part of determining whether the company is a good investment. ESG is controversial, with opponents arguing that the ESG metrics prioritize company politics over purely economic decisions.

Under the rule, all publicly traded companies would have to disclose their direct (scope 1), energy/electricity use (scope 2), and supply chain (scope 3) greenhouse gas emissions. By requiring the inclusion of scope 3 emissions, the SEC stepped far beyond its jurisdiction and placed a mandate on private companies like farms and ranches. Any cattle producer whose beef is eventually sold by a publicly traded restaurant or retailer could be liable for reporting greenhouse gas metrics from their operation. REGULATOR


Gary Gensler was appointed SEC Chair in 2021, just a few short months after President Biden took office. Since becoming chair, Gensler has made ESG investing a top priority. ESG refers to environmental, social and governance, and it is the idea that



Wall Street Regulator Wades into Cattle Industry

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was founded at the height of the Great Depression when massive swings in the New York Stock Exchange made Americans fearful of investing in the stock market. The SEC’s mission is simple: protect investors; maintain fair, orderly and efficient markets; and facilitate capital formation.

While the SEC, members of Congress and investors have been debating ESG for some time, the cattle industry became involved when the SEC proposed a controversial, sweeping climate disclosure rule in March 2022.



“Regardless, NCBA will continue being an advocate for the cattle industry and we thank you for partnering with us to stop overreaching climate rules on farms and ranches.”

9:00 AM - 5:00 PM CENTRAL TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 1 For more information stockmanshipandstewardship.orgvisit FREE!ISREGISTRATION

Now that the SEC has proposed this rule, the agency is required to review the comments they have received. This includes thousands of comments from cattle producers as well as investment industry advocates, environmental lobbyists and others. After the agency reviews the comments, the rule will be finalized and placed in effect.

This proposed rule poses a multitude of issues for cattle producers. First, there is no way to measure greenhouse gas emissions on the farm or ranch level, and the federal government already admitted as much. Second, the SEC is a financial sector regulator with no understanding of agriculture. The SEC’s divisions include corporate finance, economic risk and analysis, enforcement, examinations, investment management, and trading and markets. None of those divisions are equipped to handle agricultural or environmental issues, and the SEC would have to increase staff to even handle the amount of new data being requested. Third, the rule is a massive invasion of producer privacy. Court cases like American Farm Bureau Federation v. EPA have established the precedent that farmers and ranchers have the right to maintain data privacy, and this proposed rule would force the release of confidential information.

“The SEC is tasked with regulating large publicly traded companies and major investors, not private businesses like cattle operations,” said NCBA Chief Counsel Mary-Thomas Hart. “Immediately after the rule was released, NCBA launched a campaign to tell the SEC to stick to regulating Wall Street, not main street. NCBA also submitted technical comments with a large coalition of other livestock and agricultural organizations sending the same message.”

“The SEC’s decision to wade into agriculture, beyond the bounds of its constitutional jurisdiction, is remarkable,” Hart said.


emphasized that other federal agencies already provide climate metrics for the cattle industry. The Environmental Protection Agency’s greenhouse gas inventory has consistently indicated that direct emissions from cattle account for just 2% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Department of Agriculture also maintains lifecycle assessments that provide more than enough climate data to satisfy the SEC.

Through NCBA’s campaign, cattle producers submitted more than 7,460 comments to the SEC commissioners and members of Congress. This sends a strong message to policymakers that their decisions will have an impact on rural NCBAAmerica.also


Region I Allan Robison, OH

Region V Andy Kellom, MT

As we look forward to 2023 when the Federation of State Beef Councils commemorates its 60th anniversary, let’s take time to celebrate our accomplishments, plan for the future, and continue to work together to drive beef

For decades, state beef councils have partnered with the national Beef Checkoff to drive demand for beef with remarkable success. By working together and sharing a unified voice, we develop creative and innovative ways to reach consumers even as their buying behaviors change.

For more than 35 years, the Beef Checkoff has been using funds wisely and effectively, and the Supreme Court recently confirmed that USDA has appropriate and adequate oversight to ensure that Checkoff funds are being spent in compliance with the Beef Promotion and Research Act. As Checkoff dollars are budgeted for projects, the Federation is at the table with producer input guiding decisions through a grassroots process.

This annual report touches on some of the programs that producers help direct. From research and promotion to consumer and industry outreach, these efforts demonstrate the positive impact that national programs have when extended at the state level. These success stories confirm that we are better and stronger when we work together!

Dear Fellow Producers,

Despite changes in how families make their grocery purchases, they still love beef. Recent research shows that 69% of consumers eat beef at least weekly. Research like this serves as the foundation of all Checkoff programs, and the Federation continues to support product quality, nutrition, beef safety, sustainability and market research to strengthen beef’s promotional efforts.


Federation Members Beef Promotion Operating Committee

Rev. Seat Jim Ramm, NE

Rev. Seat Dan Gattis, TX

Front Row, left to right: Chris Jeffcoat, PA; Travis Maddock, ND; Kiley Martinell, MT; Nancy Jackson, MS; Scott Lake, WY

Region VI Mark Wintch, UT

Federation of State Beef Councils Executive Committee

Region IV Jess Kane, OK

Region VII Gary Deering, SD

Vice-Chair Clark Price, ND

Region III Janine Moore, IA

Region II Don Terry, TN

Rev. Seat Barb Downey, KS


Chair Brad Hastings, TX

Back Row, left to right: Brad Hastings, TX; Clark Price, ND; Al Lyman, IL; Dan Gattis, TX, Jeff Rudolph, NE

Amarillo, Texas Chair, Federation of State Beef Councils



Industry Information

• Beef was the star of the holidays with 125 ads airing during the holiday season on the Hallmark Channel including during Thanksgiving weekend with a sponsorship of a movie premiere.

e-commerce projects with nationwide retailers encouraging consumers to add beef to their online carts.

Masters of Beef Advocacy (MBA) Program reached 20,000 graduates.

• The Trailblazers program, a yearlong training program, was developed to prepare a new generation of advocates to protect the reputation of the beef industry.

The following pages include an overview of national programs developed by NCBA, a contractor to the Beef Checkoff, which were supported by the Federation of State Beef Councils and extended by states locally. To learn more, find the 2022 Federation of State Beef Councils Investor Report online at NCBA.org/federation.

• Product Quality


• Beef Safety

statement of beliefs includes believing in the success of a strong state and national partnership resulting in increased consumer demand for beef and

The$745,000Federation supported foundational research projects in the areas of:

Better and Stronger Together

• For the second year, the Federation sponsored the Beef. It’s What’s for Dinner. 300, the 41st season-opening race for the NASCAR Xfinity Series, at Daytona International Speedway in February 2022.

• Human Nutrition

• Beef Sustainability

The Federation of State Beef Councils builds a larger, more impactful, coordinated plan that is executed as a partnership between the Federation and individual state beef councils (SBCs). State beef councils voluntarily invest in the Federation each year, and more than 50% of those contributions supplement tactics within Authorization Requests (ARs) approved by the Beef Promotion Operating Committee (BPOC). Supplementing these tactics helps the national Checkoff program have a larger impact on consumer Indemand.2022,the



• Distributed more than 3,000 Pediatric Health Professional In-Office Educational Toolkits in 32 states to highlight the importance of beef as a complementary food for infants and toddlers.




athlete Tony Romo served as the new spokesperson for Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. and was utilized across multiple campaigns throughout the year.

• Market Research Consumer Information

As a division of the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA), a contractor to the Beef Checkoff, the Federation of State Beef Councils represents the 44 Qualified State Beef Councils (QSBCs). Collectively, these QSBCs include more than 700 state board members representing every segment of the beef industry. The vision of the Federation is to build beef demand by inspiring, unifying and supporting an effective state and national Checkoff Thepartnership.Federation’s

Federation contributed $4.5 million to supplement the approximately $40 million national plan funded by the BPOC for promotion, research, industry information and consumer information. Specific programs made possible by SBC contributions to the Federation include but are not limited to the following:

higher consumer confidence; believing in producer control of Checkoff funds through the Qualified State Beef Councils, which are the foundation of the Beef Checkoff; and believing in the industry Long Range Plan as a guidepost for the Beef Checkoff and the principle of “one vision — one plan — one voice.”


• The Checkoff began funding Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) programs in states, and the first National Beef Quality Audit began in 1991.

• By the late 80s, the BIC launched major campaigns including “Beef. Real Food for Real People.” and declared that “Beef is Back.”

• A 1991 study showed that the Checkoff had accounted for a 2.24% increase in demand, and a report later in the decade showed that more than 80% of cattlemen and women approved of the Checkoff.

• The “Bicentennial Beef Cookbook” featured great beef dishes from America’s first 200 years and reached 100,000 consumers.

• With a small budget, partnerships were essential, and the BIC joined with the American AssociationDairyfor a “Buttered Barbecued Steak” promotion and with the American National CowBelles in promoting “Beef for Father’s Day.”

• The well-known brand, Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner., was born, launching one of the most successful campaigns ever.

New Spokesperson Scores Points for Beef

• The goal for newly acquired funds was to focus beef advertising and promotions in top markets in the United States.


Putting Beef in Online Baskets

In November and December 2021, a nationwide club store promoted beef and the Beef. It's What's For Dinner. brand during the holidays on the retailer’s digital properties. Holiday beef digital ads were placed on the retailer’s website and app directing consumers to a page where they could add beef to their shopping cart. Almost 40,000 consumers interacted with the ads, and those ads drove more than $8 million in beef sales with 8.6% new buyers to the beef category. The return on ad spend for the campaign was $41.72, which means that for every Checkoff dollar spent on the project, nearly $42 was returned in beef sales. In addition, the effort was supported by 14 state beef council partners which helped increase the overall reach and impressions and brought additional beef sales to individual states.

• After several failed attempts, the Cattlemen’s Beef Promotion and Research Act was passed and approved by producer vote, creating the national Beef Checkoff.


• NCBA assumed the duties of the former BIC, including becoming home to the Federation of State Beef Councils.

Beef scored points this summer with new spokesperson, Tony Romo. The former professional football quarterback and current sports commentator is the new face of Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner., sharing his family’s passion for beef with consumers nationwide.

Market research shows that utilizing a well-known spokesperson consistently drives increased sales, stronger brand awareness, attraction of new customers, and credibility in advertising campaigns. Tony Romo built a career as a trusted, authentic and credible broadcaster, and his presence brings more consumer trust to the Beef. It’s What’s for Dinner. brand.

Promoting beef through online shopping platforms complemented other promotional efforts as well. For example, when the Federation of State Beef Councils, on behalf of the Beef Checkoff, partnered with Daytona International Speedway to sponsor the Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. 300 in February 2022, promoting beef to consumers at home reached a broader


• In 1963, the Federation of State Beef Councils was established as the Beef Industry Council (BIC) of the National Live Stock and Meat Board.

• Industry consolidation took place in 1996, with the Beef Industry Council merging with the National Cattlemen’s Association, forming the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA).


• In 1973, with a grant from the Texas Cattle Feeders Association, the BIC increased public relations with advertising in major city newspapers in the East.

Romo promoted beef nationwide through digital and social media, outdoor advertising, on ESPN.com and through broadcast television ads on the Food Network, HGTV and the Magnolia Network. State beef councils extended this national programming through billboards, displays, advertising and other promotional efforts. Tony Romo’s Playbook on

www.BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com also highlighted new recipes and valuable information about beef’s taste, nutrition, versatility and sustainability.

• The inauguralFederation’syearalso brought the first television campaign.advertising

Finding New Ways to Educate Health Professionals About Beef



• Television ads featuring composer Aaron Copland’s iconic “Hoe Down” music and Sam Elliott’s voice promoted beef nationwide.

• For the first time ever, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans made recommendations for infants to include nutrient-rich foods, like beef, starting around six months of age.


• The Checkoff-funded Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet (BOLD) study provided evidence that the inclusion of lean beef as part of a heart-healthy diet is as effective in lowering heart disease risk as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.

• Following the discovery of BSE in the U.S., the beef industry worked with food safety experts to reassure consumers about beef’s safety.

• The popular “Drool Log” made mouths water and reminded consumers that beef is the star of the holiday meal.

Keeping up to date with the latest research and medical information can be overwhelming — especially for health professionals working in the field. With their busy, fast-paced work schedules, many medical professionals struggle to find time to attend conferences, workshops or even live virtual events, like webinars. Health and medical experts, such as physicians, registered dietitians and even credentialed fitness professionals, are required to participate in a specific number of continuing medical education hours annually in order to maintain their licenses and/or credentials.


• To better connect consumers with producers, several beef-related websites were consolidated into a single site www.BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com

• Beef promotions extended to digital and social media to reach consumers where they find information and make buying decisions.


• In response, NCBA, on behalf of the Beef Checkoff, created the “Beef in the Early Years” campaign to educate health professionals and parents incorporating beef as an early complementary food. Through the Federation, state beef councils extended the campaign locally.

audience and extended the positive beef message beyond NASCAR fans. Funding provided by 13 state beef councils made an e-commerce campaign with a nationwide retailer possible, which drove the beef message home for families while they were shopping for groceries online.

A recent partnership with board-certified general pediatrician, Candice Jones, MD, created the “Making Every Bite Count” podcast series that explored the importance of feeding beef in the early years to support infant and childhood development. In this four-part podcast series — accredited for medical doctors, physician assistants, nurse practitioners and registered dietitians — Jones interviewed pediatric nutrition experts to discuss the value of introducing nutrient-dense foods, like beef, to infants around six months of age. By tuning in, health and medical experts gained continuing medical education hours for listening and learning from the podcast. Since the series was released in October 2021, more than 2,800 participants have listened to the episodes, with 85% of these listeners, such as physicians, nurses and physician assistants, having direct contact with patients.

Podcasts are just one of the ways educational resources and continuing medical education opportunities are provided to health professionals. The success of this cost-effective effort demonstrates the value podcasts have in continuing health education efforts targeted to health professionals and confirms the importance of sharing beef’s nutritional message in new ways.

• Checkoff-funded muscle profiling research reinvented and added value to the chuck and round, which were previously underutilized and undervalued, by developing “new” cuts including the Flat Iron Steak and Petite Tender.

• Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. returned to broadcast television with ads airing during Hallmark Channel’s popular “Countdown to Christmas” movies.

During the training, Trailblazers focused on actively working to acknowledge the importance of connections outside the industry, discovering new ways to connect with consumers and defend the work of the Beef Checkoff in their own communities. The Trailblazers were able to coach one another, receive feedback from subject matter experts, and watch their peers complete interviews with a focus on contentious issues facing the beef community.

The BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com website was decked out for the season with holiday recipes designed for every celebration. Social media included new Hanukkah content highlighting Brisket recipes, and a roasting video series on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter had a reach of 32,000 and generated 3,000 engagements.

Beef Advocates Blaze New Trails


Promoting Beef to the Next Generation of Consumers

approved beef recipes to learn more about beef production across the country. An important aspect of the online content was kids sharing their stories of life on the ranch with their urban neighbors, helping bridge the gap between pasture and plate.

Online engagement also kept beef front and center during the holidays with 11 food and agriculture influencers posting content throughout December. More than 30 posts generated a reach of 933,228 and nearly 45,000 engagements.

The Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. Holiday Campaign Put Beef at the Center of the Season

As part of reputation management initiatives around sustainability, kid-focused media outlets, such as The Week Jr. and ScoutLife shared beef’s positive message. Kids and parents alike were directed to the newly created Beef Sustainability for Kids page on the Beef Checkoff-funded Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. website. On the page, kids found videos, graphics, games, articles and kid-

The holiday campaign is a perfect example of the importance of the Beef Checkoff’s state and national partnership that NCBA has through the Federation of State Beef Councils. At the national level, NCBA, through Beef Checkoff resources, managed broadcast television, paid media, influencer communications and earned media. Creative assets including radio ads and video ads were shared with state beef councils, which extended the campaign through a variety of tactics and digital platforms at a local level. Overall, the holiday campaign was a tremendous success, reaching families across the country and helping them make beef the center of the season.


Trailblazers representing six state beef councils are (from L to R): Marya Haverkamp, Kansas; Kacy Atkinson, Wyoming; Jaclyn Wilson, Nebraska; Jonathon Black, West Virginia; Markie Hageman, California; Shaye Koester, Nebraska; Haley Ammann-Ekstrom, Minnesota; Natalie Jones, Nebraska; Brianna Buseman, Nebraska; Sebastian Mejia Turcios, California.

Beef’s role in social, economic sustainabilityenvironmentalandgoes far beyond today’s grocery shopping consumer. Kids are influencing their family’s buying behaviors and are more engaged with social issues than ever before. Fun and exciting ways to reach the next generation of consumers were developed to educate America’s youth about beef’s positive sustainability story.

The new Trailblazers program takes advocacy to an unprecedented level by giving participants the tools and training they need to promote beef to new audiences while addressing and correcting myths. Ten Trailblazers from across the country attended a multi-day training, which provided them with the resources, information and engaging activities they need to become expert communicators, excel in media interviews and understand how to build confidence in beef-related practices when talking to consumers.

More than 125 Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. television ads ran on the Hallmark Channel during the holiday season reaching an estimated 112 million adults, with an accompanying Hallmark.com digital advertising effort that earned about 2.2 million digital impressions. Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. was also featured during the cable TV premiere of “Christmas at Castle Hart,” and 17 delicious, perfect-for-the-holidays Beef Checkoff recipes were included in Hallmark.com’s recipe listicle.

1. Holiday Campaign Research, Dynata Platform, September 2021

During the holiday season, families were inspired to enjoy the moments that matter most with simple “how-to’s” on selecting, preparing and serving delicious and nutritious holiday beef meals. With additional funding from the Federation of State Beef Councils, Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner. television ads aired during the Hallmark Channel’s Countdown to Christmas movies, as 87% of consumers planned to watch holiday movies, including those shown on the Hallmark Channel, at home.1

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Wildfires across the country have consistently made headlines in the past decade. 2020 had the most acreage burned in a single year in decades with 10.3 million acres burned by wildfires in the United States, according to the National Interagency Coordination Center. Cattle producers, especially in the western U.S., are acutely aware of the hazards of wildfire as the frequency and intensity of these events continue to increase. Changing grazing patterns, loss of feed supplies including pastures, and suboptimal animal health are all major concerns when wildfires break out.

“Livestock in all sectors, including beef and dairy operations, reported lost productivity in some way,” Ranches explained. “The producers helped us recognize both direct and indirect losses from wildfire smoke exposure.”

More studies are being conducted to determine physiological effects of smoke inhalation in dairy cattle. Particulate matter is found in wildfire smoke and is a known air toxin that can contribute to illness in humans.2 Amy Skibiel, assistant professor at the University of Idaho, specializes in lactation physiology and has seen immune cell responses to wildfire smoke in dairy cattle.

Animal well-being during stressful environmental events can be difficult to measure. Studies in California from 2017 to 2018 demonstrated negative effects on the cardiovascular system in cats and pregnancy rates in Rhesus macaques (a primate) at a research facility, in addition to immune suppression.1 While effects from wildfire smoke in humans could be inferred to animals, specified research looking at cattle is needed to truly understand the potential effects. While previous research in Australia and the U.S. has attempted to survey the effects of wildfire smoke in animals, focused studies on livestock remain scarce.

“Our research looks at the cellular physiological response and how wildfire smoke and particulate matter causes the reaction it does,” he described. “Pulmonary physiology is the same between dairy and beef cattle even though the management systems are different.”

“Evaluating blood markers characterizing the immune response over time will provide more information on how smoke inhalation affects productivity,” Cruikshank added. “Data is still being collected but we are looking forward to the results and how it can help producers respond to wildfire disasters.”

Pedram Rezamand, professor at the University of Idaho, studies how particulate matter affects dairy systems in the Pacific Northwest.

The team recently completed a similar study in dairy calves and found that wildfire smoke and high THI negatively impacted the immune system and increased the risk of respiratory symptoms such as cough and eye discharge in days after the wildfire event.3 Since beef calves in the region are kept outside like dairy calves, the results could be considered comparative, though beef specific studies would confirm the results.


Continued on page 22


To better understand the production losses from wildfire smoke, a team of researchers at Oregon State University (OSU) sought to identify what impacts producers saw after wildfire season. Juliana Ranches, assistant professor and extension beef specialist, expanded on a recently published study (2021) that surveyed livestock producers in California, Nevada and Oregon about their perception on productivity in their herds post-fire.1

By Julia Herman, DVM, MS, DACVPM Beef Cattle Specialist Veterinarian, NCBA, a contractor to the Beef Checkoff

The survey found indirect losses were primarily associated with smoke inhalation and included cases of pneumonia and reproductive losses, such as reduced conception, low birthweight, rare abortions, poor weight gain and drops in milk production. Stress from evacuations or confinement following the fire was also considered. Burns and burn-associated deaths or euthanasias, evacuations and pasture losses were included in direct losses. The producers who contributed to the study demonstrated the wide effects that wildfire smoke can have on various livestock species, including beef cattle, dairy cattle, goats and sheep. Evacuations and loss of pasture were important factors in causing stress to animals. Commingling

Not only was milk yield affected, but milk components such as protein and butter fat were negatively affected which can further impact the producer’s bottom line. Blood components including white blood cells and red blood cells also changed when exposed to wildfire smoke and particulate matter.

“Smoke inhalation has a negative effect on circulating immune cells which can hinder the respiratory system, the first defense against smoke inhalation,” she explained. “Temperature Humidity Index (THI) also compounds the effects of wildfire smoke. Our studies showed negative impacts on metabolism, milk production, and immune system function when cattle were exposed to either or both wildfire smoke and high THI.”

Effects of Wildfire Smoke on Cattle: What Research is Out There?

of animals at rescue locations also appeared to be a stressor. All of these could potentially have long-term effects on overall productivity, though more research is needed.

Ranches, along with Jenifer Cruickshank, assistant professor and dairy specialist at OSU, started collecting baseline data on beef and dairy herds this year as part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture grant.

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Continued from page 20

3. Pace et al. 2022. Effects of wildfire smoke PM2.5 on preweaned Holstein dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 105 (Suppl. 1): 113.

As wildfires are predicted to increase in frequency and severity across the U.S., efforts to identify the impacts on cattle operations are ongoing. Cattle producers have adapted to new environmental challenges and will continue to do so. With new research being developed and collected every day, there are several researchers who are working towards practical tools to help producers adapt to these severe weather events. The BQA program strives to do the same by updating animal care guidelines using the latest scientific research. Staying up to date with BQA certification and utilizing BQA resources is one way that cattle producers can be proactive in their planning and preparation.

1. O’Hara et al. 2021. Impacts from wildfires on livestock health and production: Producer perspectives. Animals 11, 3230. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113230

Rezamand’s experience in dairy nutrition also reveals how the immune system responds to stressors such as wildfire smoke. He said paying attention to vitamin and mineral status of feeds is essential to preparing the immune system before an environmental stressor occurs as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties will naturally occur with good nutrition. In the Beef Checkofffunded Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) program, nutrition is recognized as the cornerstone to a healthy animal, from the calf to the adult. BQA guidelines recommend working with the herd veterinarian to develop vaccination plans, including those for pregnant cows to optimize colostrum production, ensuring calves receive colostrum in the first four to six hours of life, and providing quality feed and clean water throughout the animal’s life. Drought can intensify the effects of wildfires, not only from fueling them, but also challenging producers to ensure supplementation or adding in feed varieties that offset the drought-stricken forage that may be lacking in nutrients.

While we may not have much control over the immediate effects of wildfires on livestock, there are ways cattle producers can prepare before the unimaginable happens. Emergency action plans (EAP) are important tools that all operations should develop prior to a natural disaster or emergency. These can be developed with your herd veterinarian, extension specialist or BQA state coordinator. EAPs contain phone numbers of important team members including family and employees on the farm, local first responders, veterinarian, brand inspector and more. Maps of an operation noting where important structures and roads are located are also included. Effective EAPs have a communication plan that can be found quickly during an emergency. A draft EAP can be found in the BQA National Manual at BQA.org.

The long-term effects of wildfire smoke have not been studied yet, though both research groups are seeking funding to complete this research. Their ideas include identifying immune response factors to understand how health outcomes are affected by wildfires. In addition, discovering the indirect impacts on the fetus if exposed to smoke during pregnancy and whether this exposure and associated health effects go beyond one generation of cattle will be valuable to both beef and dairy producers.

The research realm of wildfire smoke effects on cattle is relatively new, and these studies have started raising awareness for this important area. As such, the collaboration that both research teams had with livestock producers during their studies was integral to finding results.

2. Anderson et al. 2022. Effects of wildfire smoke exposure on innate immunity, metabolism, and milk production in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 105: 7047-7060. https:// doi.org/10.3168/jds.2022-22135

When asked about how producers can best care for their animals during wildfire seasons, the researchers answered with strategies already recommended in the BQA program. When monitoring cattle, pay attention to signs of respiratory irritation such as coughing, fast or heavy breathing, and general signs of illness such as droopy ears or discharge from nose or eyes. Reducing exercise or movement during these periods will help the animals recover more quickly, as wildfire smoke and higher temperatures can cause increased respiratory rates and lead to increased harmful particulate matter into the body. Low-stress handling and good stockmanship will be even more important during times when air quality is poor. Constant and clean water sources for proper hydration are key because it will help the immune system, minimize effects of heat, and help clear respiratory airways. Even though the wildfires themselves are hard to predict or control, cattle producers can continue to provide quality care to their herds using BQA principles.


This sentiment is mirrored with the other researchers as exploring in depth how wildfire smoke affects cows, measuring that effect, and working on solutions. Skibiel sees it as a reciprocal process where both sides create awareness of the problem and find opportunities for resolutions.

“Finding practical solutions to problems that producers are seeing is a major goal of our team, and having producers willing to participate was and will be key to future data collection,” Ranches said.

“We want to interact with producers at every step because we want to test what they are observing out on farm,” Skibiel added.


with a positive multi-year average net income can continue, even though some of the years are not profitable. Most ranches do not have to register a positive net income in every year as adjustments to capital asset purchases and contributions from outside capital (money invested from a source remote to the business) would occur. The ranch would continue to cash flow while profitability would be negative. Yet, at some point, even

Profitability is the primary prerequisite for ranch sustainability. Measuring ranch operational profitability involves accrual adjustments to pair revenue with expense during a fiscal year and includes an annual depreciation

The purpose here is to nominate specific metrics for the assessment of economic sustainability of a ranch business. These metrics consider a rolling, annual-average assessment of sustainability as well as the ability to endure potential black swan events.

Sustainable foods and sustainable ranching are often discussed together. Much of this discussion, and the relative ‘sustainability’ of either products or practices, focuses on environmental or social concerns. However, sustainability of food production systems, and particularly those that involve ranching, are undeniably complex (Figure 1). Without consideration of economic sustainability, the systems will not be able to deliver either social or environmental services.

Numerous resources offer metrics for the three dimensions as they pertain to beef production, and others suggest systemlevel metrics. Production efficiency and financial metrics for beef production are examples (Table 1). Many of these metrics are interrelated and reflect outcomes of management action or decisions. In the context of persistence of a business, metrics associated with profitability, solvency and liquidity are standard elements in persistence-predicting models.


Metrics for Ranch Economic Sustainability

layers to ranch sustainability: 1) continuity of a ranching business (ranch ownership); 2) continuity of use of the ranch property for similar purposes; and 3) sustaining food and fiber production and ecosystem services to meet society’s needs. Multi-generational ownership of a ranch has long been equated with sustainability. However, if a ranch is sold outside of a family it does not necessarily mean the ranch is not sustainable, assuming the new ownership continues to use the natural resource for food and fiber production. If primary use of a ranch changes from its use as a platform supporting land-based enterprises, or if its natural resources are mined or eroded, and food and fiber production and wildlife habitat are no longer sustained, then the property is no longer sustainable as a ranch, regardless of ownership. Lastly, profitability of ranch enterprises changes annually, but as long as the sum of ranch enterprise productivity and financial returns are sufficient to meet ownership financial requirements, the ranch can remain sustainable under the current ownership.

Measuring Ranch Economic Sustainability

In contrast to the environmental and social dimensions, metrics for monitoring economic performance and viability of agriculture production at the firm level are well defined but have rarely been explicitly associated with sustainability. When it comes to economic sustainability, seldom does public concern extend beyond the personal boundaries of food price. In some cases, the idea that ranchers would profit from managing natural resources and producing food and fiber is made to seem unpalatable.

A portion of the hesitancy to discretely define ranch economic viability metrics stems from there being at least three

by the King Ranch® Institute for Ranch Management



According to triple bottom line accounting, sustainability is three dimensional, having environmental, social and economic (planet, people and profit) components. A viable production system must integrate and meet targets for all three dimensions. Metrics for environmental longevity are often defined in the context of environmental impact or resource-use intensity (i.e., the inverse of efficiency). For ranching systems, effective metrics should be indicators or predictors of future resource integrity or capacity to continue to deliver production, environmental or ecosystem services. Social sustainability metrics are somewhat arbitrarily defined by various organizations and emphasize people and their communities.


By Rick Machen, Jason Sawyer, Stan Bevers and Clay

These definitions are useful conceptually and imply that sustainable ranching requires sound stewardship of natural (soil, water and plants), animal (both domestic and wild) and human (families, employees, community, consumers) resources entrusted to the steward’s care. However, managers require metrics that determine or are correlated with the likelihood of operational persistence to effectively address stakeholder concerns and manage ‘sustainably’.

A Case for Ranch Sustainability


those capital assets will have to be replaced, requiring the ranch to make a positive net income or face liquidation.

Rate of Return on Assets (Market Basis)

The rate of return on assets (ROA) is a viable indicator of sustainability of a ranching operation; as ROA decreases toward (or below) zero, it becomes increasingly likely that the ranch will not persist in its current form. If ROA declines because the numerator (net income) is decreasing, management must react to seek increased income, reduced expenses or improved efficiencies. Most operators in commodity businesses are price takers with minimal market influence, and therefore, inflation in input expense and/or decreases in market price and revenue will require operators either identify new markets or business models, add additional enterprises, and/ or increase enterprise efficiency to maintain ROA at acceptable levels. These same drivers affect net income.

result in diminished ROA, and therefore, an incentive to sell the asset and reinvest the capital into a higher returning (or less risky) asset.

The relationship between ROA and sustainability of the ranching operation holds whether the operator is also the landowner (i.e., is engaged in both the passive real estate activity and the active operational pursuits) or not (i.e., an operator on land leased from another entity). In the latter case, increasing land values will reduce ROA to the landowner unless rents are increased; these increasing rents reduce net income, and therefore, lessee/operator ROA.



When expressed on a market basis, ROA is subject to the externalities of increased demand for ranch real estate, and the valuations generated by this demand are often independent of production revenue potential. As a result, even a profitable (positive net income) operation may have a diminishing ROA due to factors beyond the control of the operator. In fact, good stewardship of the resources that leads to their improvement over time is likely to also increase the amenity value and desirability of the property relative to others in the agricultural real estate market. While this increase effectively rewards the stewardship by increasing owner equity, it may

NCBA August ad NEW.pdf 1 19/08/2022 17:20

Figure 1. Interconnectedness of sustainability factors in sustainable ranching systems. = opposite relationship)

Ultimately, a ranch operation can meet each of these metrics under current ownership and yet not be sustainable into the future. If sustainability requires persistence across generations, only the coming generation will determine whether it will be continued. Subsequently, if the ranch is sold, the economic sustainability definition of past ownership has not been met, but the economic sustainability tenure for the new ownership is reset to zero.

With a target of greater than 50%, this ratio represents how much of the business is owned versus that portion owned by financiers. For ranching operations, owner equity is a result of owning real estate, breeding herds, market animals, etc. where the value of those assets are greater than the liabilities owed. Ranches with an equity-to-asset ratio less than 50% can have difficulty securing loans to purchase or support non-current inventory assets. Three noteworthy points follow:

1) As market value of assets increase, the need to borrow money for additional asset purchases increases. Yet ROA at market value is low, making debt service difficult as the excess earning relative to asset value (debt obligation) is low.

Labor and management as a percent of total revenue, % < 15 Operating expense as a percent of total revenue, % < 75 Net income ratio, % > 5

If only one measure must define ranch economic viability, the measure would be a positive multi-year average accrual-based net income. However, the complement of a positive multi-year average accrual-based net income, a market-based rate of return on assets greater than 1.5%, an equity-to-asset ratio of greater than 50%, and a current ratio greater than 2% is necessary to truly measure ranch economic sustainability.

While any ranch operation must have a positive net income periodically, the balance of owner assets and liabilities indicates how long sustainability may persist. This balance is best illustrated by the equity-to-asset ratio. This ratio is a measure of the financial leverage of a business and is an indicator of solvency, or the capacity of the business to meet its debt obligations.

Table 1. Economic sustainability metrics for beef cow calf operations Metric Target

The interaction of ROA at market value and Equity-to-Asset ratio at market value will influence whether subsequent generations foster ranch sustainability. Specific to cow-calf operations, productivity of the cowherd is maximized relative to the annual precipitation received, yet input costs will continue to rise due to inflation. How long a ranch can operate in this environment is dependent upon the Equity-to-Asset ratio. Subsequent generations may choose to exit the operation prior to driving the Equity-to-Asset ratio below acceptable levels.

Total investment per breeding female (market basis), $ 7,500 12,000 Debt per breeding female, $ < 500

The information in this article is abbreviated from the original white paper found at https://bit.ly/3LbBjg9 or by scanning the QR code.

In conclusion, sustainability of food production systems is often described as sustainability of an ‘industry’. However, it is the sustainability of the businesses within those industries that ultimately impacts the viability of the system. Numerous metrics are available for tracking the production efficiency and financial health of food and fiber production systems, but few have been nominated for measuring economic sustainability at the ranch level.

Equity to Asset Ratio (Market Value)

Current Ratio

The current ratio indicates the ability to pay short-term liabilities as well as quickly mitigate the impact of these unforeseen events. A goal is to maintain a current ratio greater than 2%. Current assets can be cash, savings, investments, insurance, market livestock or other assets that can be quickly liquidated.

Pounds weaned per exposed female > 460 Revenue per breeding female, $ > 950 Nutrition as a percent of total expense, % 30 45

3) This ratio incorporates the need for current assets to pay current liabilities as well as non-current assets and possibly more in the case of a black swan event (internal or external). Equity to Asset is a measure of resilience; an indicator of business capacity to withstand financial shocks. Current equity capital can be set aside as a risk management tool as in the case for drought management or a sudden drop in cattle prices.

Disruptive events such as drought, flood, wildfire, market interruptions and litigation can threaten ranch economic sustainability. It is imperative that a ranch has adequate liquid assets to pay current liability obligations to endure such circumstances; in other words, resilience is an important feature of sustainability.

2) This ratio has contributed to the sustainability of many ranches. As the real estate value of owned land increases, market-valued equity increases, although net income may be declining. The increase in equity-to-asset ratio allows cash acquisition through financing for either expansion (to increase gross revenue) or operations financing (to relieve cash flow constraints).


Weaned calf total cost of production, $/cwt < 170 Current ratio, % > 2

Equity to asset ratio (market basis), % > 50 Asset turnover ratio (cost basis), % > 15 Rate of return on assets (market basis), % > 1.5


Automation for commercial feed delivery

Designed for the Roto-Mix Ration Delivery Box RDB models 822-17, 1102-23, and 1202-25. • Increased feeding efficiency. • Even distribution of feed. • Reduce or Eliminate backing up. Auto-Feed System ™ Patent Pending • Stainless liners, 60" high. • 48" wide stainless steel conveyor body. • Side access door in conveyor body. • Automatic sensor above conveyor pauses floor belt movement. • Spout with magnets optional. • One piece full width floor belt. • Truck mounted scale and hydraulic controls. • Full length scale frame. Ration Delivery Box • Controls the throttle, ground speed and all RDB functions. • Produces downconsistentmorefeedingthebunk. • Provides better control of call weights. • Utilizes Micro Technologies and Animal systems.InternationalHealthfeeding • The system learns and adjusts feed rate for different rations based on the call weight and delivered rate. • Ability to feed partial sections of bunk to accommodate lower head counts in large pens. www.rotomix.com620.225.1142Call for more information! AFS RDB

Carbon Market Facilitators

Standards define the credit units (e.g., 1 tonne of CO2) and the methods for measuring and validating accumulation and storage of credited CO2 equivalents. Standards may also describe required components and types of ‘projects’ intended to generate tradeable credits and other procedures governing accumulation and maintenance of soil carbon. Since there are

The fundamental consideration for a rancher contemplating a carbon credit enterprise is the physical capacity of the ranch to accumulate soil carbon. Strategies associated with ‘good’ grazingland management, that increase forage growth and reduce bare ground, are generally expected to promote soil carbon accumulation. The uncertainty of soil carbon accumulation rates, and factors like drought that are beyond the control of managers, can impact these rates and create ‘production risk’. Managers should consider this uncertainty in the development of the soil carbon accumulation enterprise.

A Decision Guide for Ranchers

What is a ‘Carbon Credit’?


Should I Sell Carbon Credits?

Prepared by the King Ranch® Institute for Ranch Management

Increasing public attention to climate issues has amplified pressure on many industries to develop ‘climate neutral’ systems. A central goal of most ‘climate neutral’ strategies is for an entity to achieve ‘net zero’ carbon emissions by reducing direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) where possible and seeking sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions offsets (often called ‘carbon credits’) to balance emissions that cannot be eliminated. These ‘offsets’ or ‘credits’ represent CO2 being removed from the atmosphere and stored. Land-based carbon accumulation has long been considered an essential element of climate mitigation strategies, and is increasingly viewed as a potential source of purchasable credits for those seeking to offset emissions. This article describes the foundational concepts of carbon trading, risks associated with entering a carbon credit contract, and market considerations. Our goal is to inform ranchers so the best decisions can be made in an emerging and uncertain enterprise.

A carbon credit represents one metric ton (1,000 kg) of CO2 or CO2 equivalents removed from the atmosphere. From an accounting perspective, if the atmosphere is the ‘account’, then a release of CO2 into the atmosphere is a ‘debit’ to that account, and removal of CO2 from the atmosphere is a ‘credit’. A company may seek to reduce its emissions, but may not be able to completely eliminate emissions. If they wish to achieve ‘net zero’ emissions, then they will seek ‘credits’ to their atmospheric account that offset any remaining ‘debit’ amounts to balance the account. Sources of carbon credits include those associated with natural processes that begin with photosynthesis of plants These are the focal point of this decision guide.

Creating a Carbon Credit

Contract Standards

multiple entities that facilitate the trade of carbon credits, more than one standard exists. While the various standards share many similarities, they may also have key differences. Standards may also differ in their approach to and definition of questions of ‘additionality’ and ‘permanence’ of storage. These two items often form critical distinctions in how credits are accepted and valued, and understanding these differences is essential.

Production Risk

Capacity to Accumulate Soil Carbon

It is difficult to gain precise measurement of soil carbon across large landscapes, and measurements can vary considerably across a single property or management unit. The change in soil carbon measurement (% carbon in a soil sample) that represents 1 tonne of CO2 per acre is very small, and reliable detection of small changes generally requires a large number of samples. This inherent variability creates considerable risk that small changes cannot be detected. Soil sampling is likely to be the greatest expense incurred in the development of a carbon credit project, and clarity about the magnitude of soil carbon increase that can be expected coupled with the number of samples required to detect that change are essential. Managers should seek reliable estimates of soil carbon accumulation potential and have clear understanding of sampling requirements before entering a carbon contract.

Figure 1. Schematic of the global carbon cycle.

Overall, entry into a carbon credit contract is similar to a commodity production contract with committed future delivery. As such, the carbon market has several participants. The ranch is subject to production (accumulation) risk, price risk and various transaction risks that may be contained in, or mitigated by, the specific contract governing the transaction.

Plants effectively capture CO2 from the atmosphere, and combine it with water through photosynthesis to assemble it into carbohydrates. Some carbohydrates are translocated to the root of the plant, and may be excreted or assimilated into the soil as organic matter that contains ‘soil carbon’. This process transfers atmospheric carbon into soil carbon and is the basis of land-based carbon credit generation (Figure 1). Generating a tradeable carbon credit requires measuring, verifying, certifying, recording, and tracking the amount of carbon accumulated and retained in the soil. Much like an exchange traded contract for a commodity, several entities have created ‘Standards’ for the generation of carbon credits.


Carbon Credits and Carbon Credit Trading

Amendments and assignments. There are some contracts with amendment provisions that essentially allow the developer to make any contractual modifications they choose. Ranchers should pay attention to provisions related to how contracts may be amended.

Stacking prohibition. These provisions generally provide that a rancher cannot enroll the same land in multiple carbon contracts. Some stacking provisions may state that the rancher may not participate in any other carbon contract or program. Contracts may also disallow participation in any government programs and prohibit the receipt of any government payments.

Data provision and ownership. All contracts will require landowners to provide extensive data about their land and operation. Many contracts allow the purchaser to enter the property for inspection and allow for aerial views by drones. Most contracts provide that all data generated and collected under these agreements is the property of the landowner.

Taxes and insurance. A landowner should require the counterparty to the contract or the purchaser of carbon credits to be liable for any change in property valuation and/or increases in ad valorem taxes that result from the carbon enterprise. Ranchers should require the purchaser and any contractors entering the property to carry insurance and to list the manager as an additional insured.

Potential penalties. In every contract there will likely be various penalties that could be triggered based upon actions by the rancher. Taking the time to understand exactly what actions a rancher must take — or not take — to avoid penalties is critical.

In conclusion, the emerging market for carbon credits may offer an important opportunity to ranchers. As with the addition of any enterprise to the ranch portfolio, the costs, benefits and risks should be explored to make an informed decision.


Market Risk and Value of Carbon Credits


Measurement and verification. Measurement and verification are central to any carbon contract. Clear reference to a standard outlining these requirements is important. Contracts should specify which party will pay for the cost of any measurements.

Term. Most currently offered contracts last 10 to 15 years.

As with any contract, the devil is in the details in carbon storage contracts. There are no ‘standard’ contracts; and terms in currently offered carbon contracts are unique and may be unfamiliar. It is important to seek counsel from an attorney with experience in negotiating these types of agreements. The items below provide a starting point for contract evaluation.

Required & prohibited practices. Determine what activities will be required and what activities will be prohibited pursuant to the contract. Ranchers should ensure the contract clearly describes required practices.

To download the complete “Should I Sell Carbon Credits: A Decision Guide for Ranchers” white paper or view the recorded webinar visit: https://krirm.tamuk.edu/carbon-credits/ or scan the QR code.

1. Jason E. Sawyer, PhD1, David S. DeLaney, M.S.2, David P. Anderson, PhD3, Tiffany E. Dowell-Lashmet, J.D.3, and Clay P. Mathis, PhD2; 1East Foundation, 2King Ranch® Institute for Ranch Management, 3Texas AgriLife Extension

Transactional Risk

credits are not eligible for sale, but are placed into a ‘reserve pool’ as a hedge against future potential accumulation reversals (i.e., drought). Additionally, fees are assessed by developers, verifiers and registries, and sampling costs are incurred. These may represent an additional 20% or more of gross potential revenue. The net price for generated credits is therefore 60% to 80% of the gross price.

Entering into a carbon credit contract is an additional enterprise to the ranch portfolio. The gross revenue is the contracted price of a carbon credit times the number of credits secured. The gross unit price of a carbon credit in the United States is currently $18 to $22. Some fraction (often 20%) of generated

Payments. The payments being offered to landowners can essentially be put into two buckets: ‘payments for practice’ and ‘payments for outcome’. A payment for practice contract is one where a set payment is guaranteed if a rancher undertakes the required practice. A payment for outcome contract offers a payment per metric ton of CO2 equivalent either captured in the soil or no longer emitted from production activities.

There are multiple companies in this market paying producers to store carbon. There are differences in the contract terms that may make a given strategy more or less valuable for a given ranch. These different opportunities should be explored to find the highest value proposition, which may not always be at the highest transaction price.

Flying Diamond Beef is a direct-to-consumer (DTC) cattle business selling high-quality protein that is sold locally and shipped across the U.S.


Why does blockchain technology appeal to those in the food sector? Blockchain technology is a trustworthy way to track food through the entire supply chain to ensure that consumers’ purchases are what they expect and what the labels claim to be.

Jaclyn Wilson, manager and owner of Wilson Flying Diamond Ranch and Flying Diamond Beef in Lakeside, Nebraska, has personal experience with combining NFTs and cattle production.

There are many reasons why blockchain has grown in the news. Blockchain is decentralized. The information stored is not held on one single server or cloud network but on hundreds or thousands of computers (nodes) with no central or controlling body. This creates a new level of transparency. Because there is no single person or body overseeing the information, rather it is stored across multiple devices within the blockchainnetwork,information is trustworthy and unlikely to be corrupted. Additionally, each participating person’s identity in the blockchain is protected, they are only seen by others via their public code; all transactions are public and seen by anyone within the network. Lastly, and probably most appealing in the food industry, blockchain cannot be changed, altered, or tampered with in the future. Once data has been established, it can be added to, but not altered. For this reason, many sectors have explored the use of blockchain technology where data security is important.

Proof of life was the biggest hurdle, and Flying Diamond Beef could do this by working with a variety of companies partnering together for the trial to be effective.


“Unlike some NFTs where you just purchase a token, in this project, customers got a product,” she said. “It was a really neat venture.”


“The biggest reason that I got involved in the project was the traceability aspect,” Wilson said. “NFTs can provide irrefutable proof that the product is what we say it is.”

“With the increase in DTC programs, there were a lot of them that were saying they were selling home-raised, ranch-raised, grassfed, grass-finished beef. There are all those ‘labels’ they are selling. But, if a consumer actually thought about it, if they asked a producer to prove those labels, could they,” Wilson asked.

“And I had to think about that from a standpoint.”producer

An NFT is a digital asset, something with a unique identifier that can be bought or sold. NFTs represent a real-world object like art, music or videos, but they are bought and sold online, usually with cryptocurrency. In 2021 and 2022, NFTs became notorious for buying and selling digital artwork. NFTs come with authentication to serve as proof of ownership, and they can only have one owner at a time and can be thought of as a digital signature.

The U.S. food and agriculture industry has evolved time and time again to meet consumer demands and farmers and ranchers produce the safest and most sustainable beef in the world. With the use of research and technological advancements, we have improved the eating experience for our consumers. But, what’s the next revolutionizing piece of technology? Blockchain is making its way into the food and agriculture sector and is changing the way information is shared and collected, and how commodities are bought and sold. By definition, blockchain is, “a time-stamped, distributed, decentralized, historical ledger of all the transactions on a crypto network; copies of the ledger are held on a global network of computers; it acts as a golden copy of time-stamped transactions that can replace intermediaries normally tasked with executing the transactions.”1

Flying Diamond Beef started in 2019 with multiple partners, one of whom, Danna Schwenk, worked on several blockchain projects while simultaneously working with Flying Diamond Beef. Schwenk was approached by Wyoming-based company CattlePass about selling cattle as NFTs in 2021. This led to an entire project using steers born and raised by Wilson Flying Diamond Ranch that were marketed and sold as NFTs.

This project gave Wilson the ability to prove to consumers how cattle are raised and treated with a step-by-step look.

“CattlePass had a partnership with a company in Australia called Livestock Labs. And they had developed this brand-new implantable sensor,” Wilson explained.

Livestock Labs wanted to test the ability of their sensor to track location, monitor heart rates, rumination activity and more. Their goal was to find a U.S. cattle producer willing to do the trial. Wilson’s first step after the initial consult with Livestock Labs was to call her Beef Quality Assurance coordinator in Nebraska and inquire about the best steps to take since this was new territory. After ensuring this was safe for her cattle, Wilson scheduled her vet to come install the implants into 20 of her feedyard steers. In addition, Denver-based company Merkle Mountain joined the

Applying Non-Fungible Tokens to Beef Production and the Supply Chain

A part of blockchain technology is Non-Fungible Tokens, or NFTs

Companies like Walmart and Nestlé are already utilizing blockchain technology to reduce the amount of time to trace back any food contamination in their stores.2 It was a way for brands and stores to increase trust and transparency with their clients, something that is becoming ever more important. Customers can scan a QR code of the product and trace the history of the production and location of that product.2 With increased concerns over food-borne illnesses as well as foreign animal diseases, livestock traceability is an important conversation amongst producers and consumers.

1. Shin, L. (2022). The Cryptopians. Idealism, Greed, Lies, and the Making of the First Big Cryptocurrency Craze.

On the same day the implants were completed, a company out of Texas called Plain Sight was present to create biometric algorithms on those 20 steers. To do this, they captured a panorama photo of the face of the animal and different pixelizations to put into their algorithm. Simply put, they did facial recognition of the steers.

project to complete the transactions of NFTs to a real product for customers. Customers could either pay for the cattle (NFTs) in cryptocurrency, or they could convert the cost into U.S. dollars. Merkle Mountain exchanged cryptocurrency into U.S. dollars to pay Flying Diamond Beef.

After the initial setup, the cattle were raised as they normally would be on Flying Diamond Ranch. In December of 2021, six months after the sensors were implanted, the cattle were harvested at the USDA-inspected plant that Wilson works with closely. One of her top priorities was ensuring the sensors were removed before the cattle entered the food chain.

“The progressive producers are going to appreciate something like this in the future,” Wilson said. “I think it might be pushed down from the distributors or the end-sellers of the product, and producers may have to step-up their game.”

The grant is made possible by a partnership between the National Cattlemen’s Foundation and Cargill Protein and is administered by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association.

biggest response and interest we’ve received has been from the finance industry,” Wilson said.


“We tokenized those steers that same day through a NFT program,” Wilson said.

Wilson admits that this trial may be ahead of the curve for where the cattle industry is right now. She believes it will take years before commercial, mid- to large-scale cattle operations are ready to implement a technology like this due to the cost and limited “Surprisingly,demand.the

This new tool can be a benefit to the producer as well as the consumers and lenders, but potential value-add from NFTs in cattle production is still being discovered. Flying Diamond Beef was able to sell their NFT cattle for a significant premium compared to their non-NFT steers. In addition to safety, there is immense opportunity to select carcass quality traits that would improve the flavor of beef.

Wilson is glad to say she can look back and know that Flying Diamond Beef was one of the first U.S. ranches to use blockchain For her, the most rewarding part of the trial was the feedback she received from customers. Many of whom came back and told her it was the best beef they’d ever eaten. For cattle producers, that is high praise and something we continue to strive toward.

NFTs in the food chain provide more trust with financial lenders because there is less chance of marketing fraud or falsifying data. Rather than having an employee come verify headcount and data for a farm or ranch, NFTs offer validity of

2. Blockhead Technologies. (March, 2021). How Blockchain is Revolutionizing Food Supply Chains. security,have%20access%20to%20the%20information.technology%20provides%20traceability%2C%20revolutionising-food-supply-chains/#:~:text=Blockchain%20blockheadtechnologies.com/how-blockchain-is-https://

Rancher Resilience Grant The Rancher Resilience Grant is designed to support cattle producer attendance at impactful education events. This program awards funds for registration and hotel costs for educational cattle industry events across the country via reimbursement. To receive funds, you can head to NCBA.org, under the “Producers” tab and click “Rancher Resilience Grant”. There is a short application and some additional steps to complete. We hope it’s an opportunity you take advantage of!

the health and status of an operation’s herd.

“We went through all our cattle on feed at our background lot on the ranch and selected 45 that we took genomic tissues samples of. We sent them down to Neogen’s office in Lincoln, and they tested all of them,” Wilson explained. “We then selected 20 steers based off the tenderness gene.”

Consumers have already responded to these continued food price increases, as foodservice performance is expected to suffer.3 Dining out (and other leisure activities) was the number one choice to be cut by consumers in the face of household budget shortages.4 Throughout the second quarter of 2022, online and in-person restaurant visits decreased by 2% compared to the second quarter of 2021 and are currently down 6% from the second quarter in 2019.3 Throughout the first 28 weeks of 2022 ending Aug. 13, 2022, $20.1 billion worth of beef was sold in retail markets, up 4.6% from the same period last year.5 However, that $20.1 billion purchased 3.3 billion pounds of beef, which is 5.7% less pounds of beef purchased during the same period last year.5 Additionally, these 3.3 billion pounds of beef are also 12.1% less than the pounds of beef consumers purchased during the same period in 2020.5 These contradictory retail sales statistics indicate that consumers are purchasing less pounds of beef than they were last year but are spending more per pound on that beef.

Figure 2. Market Share of Animal Proteins vs. Meat Alternatives5

Before diving into specifics, it is important to understand the current consumer mindset. For many, current economic conditions have caused a good deal of apprehension when it comes to purchasing decisions for various goods and services. According to the University of Michigan’s Index of Consumer Sentiment, consumers are especially concerned about their current financial situations, and are feeling apprehensive for the trajectory of the U.S. economy. Sentiment levels nose-dived from 2020 to 2022, eventually hitting their lowest level recorded since data collection began in 1952.1 While sentiment has appeared to have increased slightly from June 2022 to August 2022, there is still a large gap between the index scores of 2022 and previous years.


Much of this apprehension can be attributed to inflation rates not seen since 1981.2 While energy price increases have been the main driver behind the recent levels of inflation, food prices have also increased 11% from July 2021 to July 2022.2 While this level of inflation is still alarming, price levels do appear to be curbing slightly. From June 2022 to July 2022, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) level for all items remained virtually constant (decreasing by 0.02%). Likewise, three out of the five major protein sources (beef, pork, chicken, fish/seafood and eggs) saw decreases from June to July. While food prices saw an overall increase of 1% from June to July, this increase was counterbalanced by a decrease in energy prices (mainly gasoline).2

The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA), as a contractor to the Beef Checkoff, is continually tracking trends, monitoring issues, and surveying the general landscape that has the potential to impact the beef industry. NCBA does this through a variety of tools, most notably by conducting consumer and market analysis, funded by the Beef Checkoff, while also scanning secondary research resources. Across the food landscape, it appears that increased prices for domestic goods, notably food products, continue to play a major role in consumer sentiment and purchasing habits. While some recent optimism has been noted regarding the U.S. economic situation, consumers are still showing signs of worry. This article will touch on a variety of topics including the current state of consumers and beef, e-commerce, meat substitutes and sustainability.

While these increased price levels likely strained household food budgets, willingness to pay for beef remains strong. As Figure 1 shows, willingness to pay for steak has topped the average price per pound between April to June 2022.5,6 Willingness to pay for steak has not exceeded the average price per pound since April to June 2021, indicating that consumers still find value in purchasing beef, despite uncertainties within the broader economy.


An area that continues to see tremendous opportunity and growth in the marketplace is e-commerce. Throughout the grocery shopping space, the e-commerce compound annual growth rate has been projected to continually increase and account for 20% of total grocery sales by 2026.7 Online retail sales for the first quarter of 2022 totaled $231.4 billion, which is 14.3% of the total quarterly retail sales, an increase of 7% from the first quarter of 2021, and a 2.4% increase from the fourth quarter of 2021.8 Consumers began shifting their grocery shopping preferences largely during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Figure 1. Willingness to Pay for Steak compared to Average Steak Price per Pound5,6

Today’s Beef Consumer

During the pandemic, consumers began to favor online forms of shopping (both click and collect, and scheduled delivery). Net intent* of consumers shifting to online forms of shopping increased by 42%, while decreasing by 14% for physical stores or food markets.9 Additionally, consumers are increasingly

The Current State of Consumers and Beef


1. Index of Consumer Sentiment, University of Michigan, July 2022, Processed August 2022

Beef Perceptions

Most consumers who choose to eat meat alternatives do not cut out other protein sources from their diets.6 According to The Consumer Beef Tracker, an ongoing consumer survey managed by NCBA, as a contractor of the Beef Checkoff, people who consume meat alternatives on a weekly-or-more basis also consume beef and other proteins as much as the average consumer.6 Additionally, the current share of consumers entirely avoiding ground meat and only purchasing meat alternatives was estimated at around 3% between November 2018 to November 2020.11 Out of all households that purchased meat alternatives, 86% also purchased ground meat.11

a positive perception of beef production, with 37% claiming neutral perceptions of beef production, and 21% claiming a negative perception.6 These two pie charts indicate that many consumers view beef in a positive light, but that some have concerns over cattle production.

3. NPD, Inflation and Rising Menu Prices in Second Quarter Keep U.S. Restaurant Visits Below a Year Ago, July 2022

Meat Substitutes

When asked to describe any concerns related to beef cattle production, of the 51% of respondents who claimed to have a concern, animal welfare was mentioned most.6 Only 5% of respondents mentioned the environment as causing a concern, which suggests that consumers are more concerned with animal welfare than environmental concerns related to cattle production. These concerns can potentially be explained by a lack of knowledge consumers may have regarding cattle production methods and the various regulations in place to ensure animals are treated with respect and care. Currently, only 27% of consumers claimed to be familiar with how cattle are raised for food.6 Consumers have also claimed that they believe veterinarians and producers to be a highly credible source of information when it comes to production practices.6 This highlights the importance of industry programs such as Beef Quality Assurance and the emphasis producers place on animal care and welfare.

NCBA, on behalf of the Beef Checkoff, seeks to better understand consumer perceptions of how beef is raised as a driver of consumer demand. As Figure 3 shows, overall beef perceptions are strong, with 68% of respondents claiming a positive view on beef. Of those positive responses, 41% claimed to have strongly positive perceptions, with 27% citing some positive perceptions.6 Additionally, only 13% of respondents claimed to have a negative perception of beef.6 Looking specifically at beef production perceptions, nearly half of the respondents (42%) claimed to have

5. NielsonIQ, Discover, Yearly Volume Data Ending December 2021 and Half-Year Beef Volume Sales, Data Ending July 2022, Processed August 2022

2. Consumer Price Index, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Processed August 2022

4. Mintel, Inc., Consumers and the Economic Outlook, Summer 2022

8. U.S. Census Bureau, Quarterly U.S. Retail E-Commerce Sales, May 2022

9. McKinsey & Company, Navigating the market headwinds: The state of grocery retail 2022, May 2022

10. State of the Consumer Survey, Dynata Platforms, analyzed and summarized by NCBA, on behalf of the Beef Checkoff., August 2022


6. Consumer Beef Tracker; Directions Research, analyzed and summarized by NCBA, on behalf of the Beef Checkoff, August 2022

choosing home delivery as their preferred mode of shopping when compared to click-collect in September of 2020. Fast forward to December 2021, and 63% of surveyed consumers preferred home delivery, while 37% preferred click and collect methods.9

The protein landscape, including meat alternatives, is continually monitored by NCBA, a contractor of the Beef Checkoff. As Figure 2 shows, fresh meat alternatives represented less than 1% of both the entire fresh protein retail market (0.34%) and the fresh beef retail market specifically (0.54%) as of Aug. 13, 2022.5 For comparison, beef currently occupies 54% of the fresh protein market, and occupied almost 56% of the fresh protein market during the same timeframe in 2021.5 Market share for alternative proteins has also been declining for the past two years, declining more than 20% from 2021 to 2022 and declining almost 8% from 2020 to 2021.5

7. Mercatus and Incisiv, eGrocery Transformed, 2021

11. Neuhofer, Z.T., Lusk, J.L. Most plant-based meat alternative buyers also buy meat: an analysis of household demographics, habit formation, and buying behavior among meat alternative buyers. Sci Rep 12, 13062 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41598-022-16996-5

*Net intent is calculated by subtracting the percent of respondents stating decrease from the percent of respondents stating increase.

Beef is a big part of the success in this area, with 44% of consumers including beef in their online carts, and 25% of these consumers including beef within the last month.10 This increased 7% since July 2021.10 As consumers continue to shift their preferences towards online-based grocery shopping, retail businesses will continue to invest in hopes to fulfill these needs. Currently, grocery executives are expecting a continued interest in online shopping and have projected e-commerce penetration to more than double in the next three to five years.9

Figure 3. Consumer Perceptions on Cattle Production


As we continue through 2022, it is critical to monitor both opportunities and challenges consumers have in the marketplace. Consumers continue to enjoy beef in both retail and foodservice with high satisfaction ratings and have embraced convenient technologies like e-commerce. Sharing the industry’s commitment to animal welfare will continue to be important to consumers. Additionally, positive perceptions about the nutrition proposition that beef offers and the cooling of the meat alternative market means beef is set for strong consumer demand as a top protein.

Presently, nearly 50% of the U.S. beef-cow herd is in drought conditions, and 30% are in extreme or exceptional drought

Liquidation of the nation’s beef-cow herd seen in 2019 through 2021 continues. The July 1, 2022, USDA Cattle Inventory report showed the current U.S. beef-cow herd is 750,000 head smaller compared to July 1, 2021. The La Niña weather pattern, which developed in mid-2020, continued through 2021 and into mid-2022 and is forecast to extend into late 2022. It is the major reason why the beef-cow herd continues to experience liquidation. This is especially true in the western half of the U.S. where the drought is most severe.


is continuing even though calf values are trading $20/cwt higher moving into the fall run compared to last year and $40/cwt higher compared to two years ago, and for the average cow-calf producer, would offer some level of profitability. Unfortunately, if you are in a region with limited moisture, the lack of feed and the high price for roughage is more than offsetting the stronger calf values as the decisionmaker for keeping or culling females. Year-to-date in 2022, beef-cow slaughter is running 15% above last year’s high numbers and well above the five-year average. Elevated cow slaughter is noted in not only the drought-affected regions but also in regions like the Southeast that had adequate moisture. This would suggest that factors other than drought have played a role in producers’ decisions to cull more cows through the first half of the year. Producers could be motivated by the highest summer cull-cow values since 2015. Utility-cow prices are averaging near $85/cwt this summer. Furthermore, inflation in input costs such as feedstuffs, fertilizer, energy and labor are all headwinds. In addition, the pandemic challenges and market volatility have exhausted some Year-to-dateproducers.(January-July),

conditions. Historically, these percentages are some of the highest noted over the last 40 years and would indicate that the cow herd will continue to liquidate until weather conditions Liquidationimprove.

Despite Sharply Higher Prices, Drought Conditions Continue to Drive Liquidation

the implied U.S. beef-cow culling rate is at 13%, substantially higher than last year’s 11.2%, and the highest year-to-date percentage in the last 50 years. By comparison, in 2010 to 2012, those three years were in the middle of a massive cow herd contraction and drought cycle that was nearing its end; the cull rate was at 10.9% for January through July.

By Kevin CattleFaxGoodVice President of Industry Relations


All these factors would suggest that massive beef-cow herd liquidation will continue through 2022. In addition, with the current weather forecast for La Niña to continue and with the number of heifers that have already moved from the county into feedyards, it is very likely that more beef-cow herd liquidation is in store for 2023. This will be primarily in regions of the country that are being adversely affected by drought. At the same time, due to greatly improved calf values, producers in some regions of the country with adequate feed resources are expected to keep back heifers and start expanding in response to profitability.

Moreover, the number of heifers moving in the country through auctions and video sales is also elevated. Many of these heifers were intended to be bred this year, but as adverse weather conditions continued, producers had to make the tough decision and send replacement-quality heifers to sale to preserve their dwindling supply of feed resources.


The number of heifers in feedyards and the number of heifers in the slaughter mix are elevated. Year-to-date the number of heifers in the fed slaughter mix is approaching 39%. Historically, a percentage of 36 or higher indicates liquidation of the cow herd due to lack of heifer replacements, below those numbers indicate some expansion.

Let us look at the regional weather outlook for the cold season, the six months from November through April:

West: Remain hopeful that we can squeeze out some good brief precipitation, as we saw in December of 2021, because we will want to offset the overall dryness with that short-term period of wetness. Temperatures will be warmer than normal. I expect the drought numbers to increase here through early 2023.

had one of the strongest La Niñas on record. In April, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI - one of many measures of La Niña strength) was the second strongest observed since 1951, and the history-setting pattern continued into May and June as they recorded the strongest La Niñas since 1950. If I average April through July, 2022 is at the top of the list. Although there has been some warming of the tropical Pacific since early August, we are not doing away with La Niña’s influence through the end of the year.

For the incoming cold season, we will likely start with a warm fall, followed by some potentially extreme cold through the winter and early spring for the central U.S. Precipitation patterns will continue in a La Niña fashion, meaning drier for the Southwest and South with only isolated moisture, mostly focusing on the Northern Rockies.

For the U.S., conditions in the Northern Plains improved thanks to a wet end to the 2021/2022 snow season, and the country as a whole saw some temporary relief this summer; the monsoonal moisture from June through early September provided drought relief to parts of the Southwest and Southern Plains. However, overall dryness is still considered "long-term" because of a continued La Niña and how persistent the global pattern has remained the past 20 years.


For now, the basis of this forecast is created by comparing our La Niña and drought situation to years in the past that showed similar patterns. Of the five years selected, only one remained in a La Niña pattern; all others transitioned away from La Niña the following year. With that said, I want to focus on the six-month "cold season" of November through April, which remains under the La Niña regime.


Throughout the summer, we heard about the issues across Europe, from extreme temperatures to the lack of moisture. Andrea Toreti, a senior researcher at the European Drought Observatory, said a drought in 2018 was so extreme that there have been no similar events in the last 500 years. Across South America, the Chilean megadrought is one of the longest in 1,000 years. There have been noteworthy droughts in parts of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina that led to the crop loss headlines of early 2022. It is also worth mentioning that the drought in the Horn of Africa is the worst in 40 years, with substantial animal loss. Across North America, Canada's drought conditions improved from the start of the year to summer. Mexico's drought had only some improvement with the year's monsoon.

I have discussed the megadrought in previous National Cattlemen articles. La Niña is a factor in that, obviously, but La Niña and El Niño are short-term variations that bring us these periods of “short-term” drought, and this will be the focus

Of the substantial impact areas, California and the West do not look favorable for receiving their usual moisture, and it will be warmer than average. The Plains' growing conditions will be impacted by dryness and potential cold outbreaks. Yet, producers in the Northern Rockies to the Pacific Northwest are the most likely ones to pick up some moisture — in the fall for the Pacific Northwest, shifting eastward to the Northern Rockies for the winter.

Through August, the ocean conditions in the tropical Pacific remained colder than average. The atmosphere responds to that ocean being cold, and the global pattern remains in a La Niña phase. This La Niña has made a historic "long-term" drought much worse in the "short-term."

La Niña Marches on Into Winter

Northwest: The precipitation pattern will shift throughout the period, most likely giving the best chances for moisture in the fall and early winter before the moisture moves eastward for the Northern Rockies and Northern Plains. Temperatures in the fall will be quite warm but will moderate after that. The cold season has equal chances of above- and below-average temperatures.


The "short-term" pattern will potentially change toward the spring and summer of 2023. Should we see a transition away from La Niña, it begins this winter in the ocean, and then the question becomes how quickly the atmosphere and our local weather patterns shift.

La Niña is the leading reason for the weather pattern delivering much of the country’s significant drought over the past couple of years. La Niña will continue through the fall and into winter before we may see the ocean temperatures change, which could initiate a pattern shift. La Niña typically means drought across the Southwest and South and wetness for the Northern Rockies. The months ahead are to follow that

By Matt AtmosphericMakensScientist

for us in this piece. What goes into the megadrought is much more involved and covers weather patterns lasting decades, not a couple/few years at a time.

To beat the "short-term" drought levels we see currently, we will need to shift away from La Niña to start. However, a "long-term" change to get out of the decadal drought pattern we have been in for more than 20 years is not likely until the Atlantic Ocean cools — and that is a topic worthy of its own article and does not change the outlook provided now.


Ohio Valley: The fall and winter transition from warmer to colder than normal temperatures. Regarding precipitation, some of the higher elevations getting closer to the Appalachians and the Tennessee Valley will get moisture, but the six-month average leans toward the dry side overall. Temperatures will also have the potential to be cold later in the winter and early spring, particularly along the Mississippi.

Southeast: Barring late-season hurricanes in 2022, which would increase moisture greatly, the region has a dry outlook for most, although Florida may break even for precipitation. Temperatures will be warmest for southern Florida, elsewhere within a normal range unless the cold is much more pronounced in the Central U.S., in which case we will see the cold move into this region as well.

Northeast: Moisture will be limited until later in the season.

Upper Midwest: After a mild fall, we open the door to cold for the winter and early spring, particularly later in the winter. Snowpack may be able to develop for northern areas as they are most likely to catch moisture, and that snowfield will reinforce the cold across the region.


Northern Rockies: Storm systems will spread the best moisture to the west and to the north. Elsewhere, the outlook is drier than average and also colder than average. Some of the cold will depend on snowpack that may build toward the spring months, but the outlook is drier than average, so developing a snow field may be difficult. The coldest weather will focus on later winter and early spring following a warm fall.

South: Drought remains, despite short-term moisture moving through. The fall will be the warmest, with potential for cold temperatures into the winter and early spring. Through April, it will be drier than average and also colder than average.

The six-month average is warmer than average, but we will see increased chances for cold and precipitation late in the period. 539-9300

Southwest: The region favored the monsoon during the summer, but the cold months look drier than average, allowing drought numbers to increase again. Temperatures will be quite warm, especially in Arizona. The northern mountains of the region have the best chance of breaking even for the cold season.





375 DOWN 370 TOTAL 10,611 DOWN 10,4152021 TREND 2022 REGION III 15.6% 15.9% ILLINOIS 1,050 DOWN 1,000 IOWA 3,700 UP 3,850 MINNESOTA 2,150 UP 2,200 MISSOURI 4,310 DOWN 4,040 WISCONSIN 3,450 UP 3,500 TOTAL 14,660 DOWN 14,590 2021 TREND 2022 REGION VII 20.6% 20.6% KANSAS 6,550 DOWN 6,500 NEBRASKA 6,850 DOWN 6,800 NORTH DAKOTA 1,950 DOWN 1,850 SOUTH DAKOTA 4,000 DOWN 3,800 TOTAL 19,350 DOWN 18,950 2021 TREND 2022 REGION V 12.1% 12.0% ALASKA 17 UP 18 COLORADO 2,700 DOWN 2,650 IDAHO 2,500 UP 2,550 MONTANA 2,450 DOWN 2,200 OREGON 1,250 FLAT 1,250 WASHINGTON 1,140 DOWN 1,130 WYOMING 1,300 DOWN 1,250 TOTAL 11,357 DOWN 11,048 2021 TREND 2022 REGION VI 9.5% 9.6% ARIZONA 980 DOWN 960 CALIFORNIA 5,150 UP 5,200 HAWAII 142 UP 144 NEVADA 470 DOWN 445 NEW MEXICO 1,390 DOWN 1,300 UTAH 800 DOWN 790 TOTAL 8,932 DOWN 8,839 2021 TREND 2022 REGION IV 21.5% 21.3% ARKANSAS 1,780 DOWN 1,690 OKLAHOMA 5,300 DOWN 5,200 TEXAS 13,100 DOWN 12,700 TOTAL 20,180 DOWN 19,590 2021 TREND 2022 REGION II 9.3% 8.9% ALABAMA 1,295 DOWN 1,260 FLORIDA 1,700 DOWN 1,630 GEORGIA 1,090 DOWN 1,050 LOUISIANA 775 FLAT 775 MISSISSIPPI 920 DOWN 910 NORTH CAROLINA 800 DOWN 785 SOUTH CAROLINA 330 DOWN TENNESSEE 1,790 DOWN 1,750 TOTAL 8,700 DOWN 8,160

KENTUCKY 2,090 2,020 1,140 1,120 1,420 1,420 1,260 1,300 1,430 1,340 1,390 1,390 VIRGINIA


Cattle and calf numbers were down from the previous year at 91.9 million head, down from 93.8 million head on Jan. 1, 2021. According to the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service, cattle numbers decreased in all regions from the previous year.

V lV ll Vl l Vll lll Hampshire,*Connecticut,Delaware,Maine,Massachusetts,NewNewJersey,RhodeIslandandVermont Region V Region Vll Region lll RegionRegionl ll Region lV Region Vl 2021 TREND 2022 REGION I 11.3% 11.3% INDIANA 850 DOWN 810



The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association is pleased to present the 28th annual edition of Directions. This special edition of National Cattlemen includes useful beef industry trends and statistics, as well as information about NCBA and current priorities. The information included in this section is compiled each year by the analysts at CattleFax over the course of several months. The information comes from open, voluntary and proprietary sources. While every effort is made to ensure the information contained within is accurate, some individual operations may have been overlooked and others may have chosen not to be included. If you would like to participate in next year’s listings, please contact NCBA at 866-BEEF-USA and request to be included in the 2023 survey. Please note that all listings must meet the rankings criteria to be considered.









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Owner: Farmland Reserve, Inc. CEO/Manager: Clint Richardson States of Operation: FL

Silver Spur Land and Cattle LLC Encampment, WY

Breeds: Red Angus, Brangus, Angus, Charolais,Nelore,Hereford


CEO/Manager: Alex Carone, President States of Operation: NM, CA

Owner: True Family CEO/Manager: David L. True States of Operation: WY, CO, SD

Deseret Cattle & Citrus St. Cloud, FL


Breeds: Brangus, Simbrah, Angus

True Ranches LLC Casper, WY

Owner: N/A

CEO/Manager: N/A States of Operation: FL, GA, TX

CEO/Manager: Thad York States of Operation: CO, NE, NM, WY

Breeds: Angus, Hereford

2 3 4 65 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1514 18 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25


Owner: N/A

Owner: Simplot Family CEO/Manager: Thomas J. Basabe States of Operation: ID, OR, NV, UT

Breeds: N/A


Padlock CompanyRanch

9 Rollins Ranches, LLC Atlanta, GA

Breeds: Brangus, Beefmaster, Angus

King Ranch, Inc. Kingsville, TX

Owner: Lykes Family CEO/Manager: Johnnie P. James States of Operation: FL, TX

Breeds: Santa Gertrudis, American Red, Red Angus



CEO/Manager: Robert J. Underbrink States of Operation: TX

Breeds: Stabilizer SimAngusComposite,

CEO/Manager: Cary & Layne Lightsey States of Operation: FL, GA

J.R. Simplot Co. Boise, ID

Owner: Scott Family CEO/Manager: Dr. Trey Patterson States of Operation: WY, MT

Lightsey Cattle Co. Lake Wales, FL

Breeds: Braford, BrahmanCharolais,

Breeds: Angus, CharolaisHereford,

6 7 8

4 Lykes Bros. Inc. Tampa, FL

Owner: Singleton Properties LLC

Breeds: Angus, Hereford

Singleton Ranches Lamy, NM


Owner: Descendants of Captain King

Owner: LOR, Inc.

Ranchester, WY

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Okeechobee, FL

Ranches,Spade LTD Lubbock, TX

CEO/Manager: Neil "Dutch" Kuyper States of Operation: HI


Owner: Chappell and Bassham Families

Immokalee Ranch Immokalee, FL

Riverbend Ranch Idaho Falls, ID


Owner: Optimum Agriculture FL, LLC

Owner: IX Ranch Co.

CEO/Manager: Richard W. Roth States of Operation: MT

Ellison Ranching Co. Tuscarora, NV

Owner: Williamson Family CEO/Manager: Frank W. Williamson III States of Operation: FL

CEO/Manager: N/A States of Operation: ID, NV

Breeds: Angus-Hereford

Breeds: Angus, WangusWagyu,


Owner: von Holt Family CEO/Manager: Sabrina English States of Operation: HI

24 IX Ranch Co. Big Sandy, MT

States of Operation: TX, KS

Owner: Frank and VanderSlootBelinda

Breeds: Angus, CharolaisSimAngus,

Breeds: Brangus, Beefmaster, Angus, Charolais

Owner: Collier Corporations CEO/Manager: C. W. "Buzz" Stoner, Jr. States of Operation: FL


Owner: N/A

Breeds: Leachmans of Colorado Circle A Ranch Iberia, MO



Winecup Gamble Ranch Montello, NV

Owner: McCan-Cannon Family CEO/Manager: Bob McCan States of Operation: TX


CEO/Manager: Wesley Welch States of Operation: TX Breeds: Balancer, SimAngus



Breeds: Beefmaster, Brangus

Breeds: Angus, TarentaiseCharolais,

Owner: 100% Employee Owned CEO/Manager: Paul Defoor & Bradley W. Hastings

CEO/Manager: Dave Gust Sr. States of Operation: MO


Adams Ranch Ft. Pierce, FL


Owner: Parker FoundationRanchTrust

Owner: Adams Family CEO/Manager: Mike Adams States of Operation: FL Breeds: Braford, CompositeAbeef

Breeds: Angus, SimAngusCharolais,

El Maximo Ranch Miami, FL

Owner: N/A CEO/Manager: N/A States of Operation: NV

Owner: The Gust Family

McFaddin Enterprises Victoria, TX

Owner: Descendants of Williams Family CEO/Manager: Mary Randolph Ballinger States of Operation: TX, OK Breeds: Angus



Parker Ranch Inc. Kamuela, HI

Ponoholo Ranch, LTD Kohala, HI

12 13

Breeds: Black Angus, Red Angus, HerefordBeefmaster,

CEO/Manager: Rhett Jacobs States of Operation: ID, MT, TX, UT Breeds: Angus

Pitchfork Land & Cattle Co. Guthrie, TX


Breeds: Brangus

CEO/Manager: N/A States of Operation: FL


Breeds: Victoria - Brafords

14 Cactus Feeders Amarillo, TX

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Breeds Utilized: Red Angus, Red SimAngus

Breeds Utilized: Angus

Total Marketings: 4,695

Total Marketings: 2,500

5 6

Owner: The Ludvigson and Newberry Families Mgr./CEO: Ryan Ludvigson Subsidiaries: LN Cattle Company, Orion Beef Group # Registered Females: 61

Breeds Utilized: Angus

Owner: Jason & Denny Hoffman Mgr./CEO: Jason Hoffman Subsidiaries: N/A

Owner: The Henry Gardiner Family Mgr./CEO: Mark Gardiner Subsidiaries: N/A

Owner: Lee Leachman, Mike Browning, Tim Watts Family Mgr./CEO: Lee Leachman Subsidiaries: N/A

3 Leachman Cattle of Colorado Fort Collins, CO

# Registered Females: 12,500

Breeds Utilized: Angus, Hereford

44 Farms Cameron, TX

Owner: Bob McClaren Mgr./CEO: Tracy Woods

Breeds Utilized: Angus, Red Angus, Charolais, Stabilizer


# Registered Females: 3,350



Subsidiaries: N/A

Breeds Utilized: Angus, Charolais, Red Angus, Hereford

Total Marketings: 1,617

# Registered Females: 1,056

Total Marketings: 2,742

Breeds Utilized: Angus

Breeds Utilized: Angus

Owner: Robert A. Funk Mgr./CEO: Jarold Callahan

Connealy Angus Ranch Whitman, NE


Total Marketings: 2,635

# Registered Females: 1,500

Subsidiaries: 44 Steaks - Prime Pursuits

7 8

Vermilion Ranch Billings, MT

Owner: Bob & Jim Sitz and Family Mgr./CEO: Bob & Jim Sitz

Sitz Angus Ranch

# Registered Females: N/A


Total Marketings: 4,521

Express Ranches Yukon, OK

# Registered Females: 1,550

Subsidiaries: N/A

Total Marketings: 2,130

Mead Farms Barnett, MO

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 232524


Owner: Alan Mead Mgr./CEO: Alan Mead

9 10 9 1 2 3 4 5 6

Breeds Utilized: Hereford, Angus, SimAngus

Total Marketings: 1,150

# Registered Females: 2,380

Hoffman Ranch, LLC Thedford, NE

Owner: Connealy Family Mgr./CEO: Jerry Connealy Subsidiaries: N/A

Total Marketings: 2,960


Owner: Pat Goggins Family Mgr./CEO: Joe Goggins Subsidiaries: N/A

# Registered Females: 1,400

Subsidiaries: N/A

# Registered Females: 4,190

Ludvigson Stock Farms Billings, MT

Total Marketings: 1,150 Breeds Utilized: Angus

Gardiner Angus Ranch, Inc. Ashland, KS

Harrison/Dillon, MT

2. Verify breed with DNA. Verify parentage with the American Akaushi Association.


3. Follow management standards. No hormone implants and finished with no growth promotants.

6. HeartBrand sells Akaushi beef. Above-market price on superior beef = higher premiums for ranchers.

IT’S TIME TO RAISE YOUR GRADE. AND YOUR PREMIUMS. Visit heartbrandcattle.com or call 830-540-3955 to source Akaushi genetics for your herd.CATTLE


5. Improve USDA quality grade. The past 120,000 head of HeartBrand Akaushi cattle harvested graded: 53% USDA prime, 45% USDA choice and 2% USDA select and no roll.

4. Earn your buyback bonus. $100 to $150 premium for weaned calves and yearlings. $0.30/lb and up premium for finished fed cattle.

1. Raise HeartBrand-sired cattle. Use fullblood Akaushi bulls crossed with your cow-herd (live coverage or semen).

Breeds Utilized: Akaushi

Total Marketings: 1,075


# Registered Females: 2,050 Total Marketings: 665

Breeds Utilized: Angus, Simmental, South Devon


Three Forks, MT

Breeds Utilized: Hereford, Black Angus, Red Angus


Breeds Utilized: Angus



Owner: Eaton Family Mgr./CEO: Scott Eaton Subsidiaries: N/A

Breeds Utilized: Angus

Yon Family Farms Ridge Spring, SC

# Registered Females: 1,850


Breeds Utilized: Angus

# Registered Females: 2,040 Total Marketings: 857

Owner: Clint Stevenson Family Mgr./CEO: Clint Stevenson Subsidiaries: N/A


Owner: Sam Tucker & Greg Shaw Mgr./CEO: Sam Shaw/Tucker Shaw Subsidiaries: N/A

Breeds Utilized: Limousin, LimFlex, Angus

Eaton Charolais Ranch Lindsay, MT

17 HeartBrand Cattle Co. Harwood, TX

Schiefelbein Farms LLC Kimball, MN

Shaw Cattle Co., Inc Caldwell, ID

# Registered Females: 1,780

Owner: Kevin Yon Family Mgr./CEO: Kevin Yon Subsidiaries: N/A

Thomas Angus Ranch Baker City, OR

# Registered Females: 2,200

Total Marketings: 933

Owner: Craig & Peggy Bieber Mgr./CEO: Craig Bieber Subsidiaries: Bieber Holdings # Registered Females: 1,075

Owner: The Thomas Family Mgr./CEO: Robert E. Thomas Subsidiaries: N/A

# Registered Females: 825 Total Marketings: 1,018 Breeds Utilized: Angus

# Registered Females: 2,500


23 24 25

Wulf Cattle Morris, MN Owner: Riverview LLP Mgr./CEO: Mitch Fehr Subsidiaries: N/A

Stevenson's Diamond Dot Cattle Co. Hobson, MT

DeBruycker Charolais Dutton, MT

Bieber Red Angus Ranch Leola, SD

Total Marketings: 948

21KG Ranch

Owner: Paul Doddridge Mgr./CEO: Cody Jackson Subsidiaries: N/A


Owner: Galen & Lori Fink Family Mgr./CEO: Galen Fink/Megan Larson Subsidiaries: Larson Cattle Co.

Langford Cattle Okmulgee, OK

Owner: Schiefelbein Family Mgr./CEO: Don Schiefelbein Subsidiaries: Schiefelbein Feeders LLC

Owner: Kelly & Martie Jo Schaff Mgr./CEO: Kelly Schaff Subsidiaries: N/A

Total Marketings: 1,146

# Registered Females: N/A

11 12

Owner: DeBruycker Family Mgr./CEO: Brett DeBruycker Subsidiaries: N/A

# Registered Females: 1,156

Owner: Beeman Family Mgr./CEO: Jojo Carrales Subsidiaries: N/A

Schaff Angus Valley St. Anthony, ND

# Registered Females: 1,200 Total Marketings: 667

Breeds Utilized: Angus, Simmental

Total Marketings: 730


Owner: Watson Langford & Family Mgr./CEO: Watson Langford Subsidiaries: N/A

Total Marketings: 961

Breeds Utilized: Charolais

# Registered Females: 700 Total Marketings: 825

# Registered Females: 2,800


Fink Beef Genetics Randolph, KS

Breeds Utilized: Red Angus

Owner: Family Ownership Mgr./CEO: J. David Nichols Subsidiaries: Ayers Stock Farm, Havens Cattle Co, Lincoln Center Partnership # Registered Females: 2,000

# Registered Females: 800 Total Marketings: 924

Nichols Farms LTD Bridgewater, IA

Total Marketings: 620

Breeds Utilized: Angus, Charolais, Red Angus

Total Marketings: 1,125

Breeds Utilized: Charolais

Breeds Utilized: Hereford, Angus, Maine Anjou, Simmental, Chianina, Black Hereford

Total Marketings: 937

Breeds Utilized: Angus, SimAngus, Ultrablack

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Innovative Livestock Services Inc.

Great Bend, KS

Owner: Privately Held Mgr./CEO: Jerry Kuckelman Capacity: 235,000

Irsik & Doll Feed Services, Inc Cimarron, KS


Number of Yards: 7 States of Operation: KS, NE

Owner: Pinnacle Arcadia Mgr./CEO: Mike Thoren Capacity: 870,000

2 Cactus Feeders


Gottsch Cattle Co. Elkhorn, NE

Amarillo, TX

Number of Yards: 5 States of Operation: KS, NE

Owner: Bob Foote Family Mgr./CEO: Scott, Brad and Greg Foote Capacity: 280,000


Number of Yards: 6 States of Operation: TX, NE, NM

J. R. Simplot Co. Boise, ID

Number of Yards: 10 States of Operation: TX, KS

Number of Yards: 2 States of Operation: ID, WA

Foote Cattle Co. Bucyrus, KS


Garden City, KS Owner: Privately Held Mgr./CEO: Joel Jarnagin Capacity: 355,000 Number of Yards: 6 States of Operation: TX, KS, CO

1 Industries,Friona L.P.

Owner: Privately Held Mgr./CEO: Donald Gales Capacity: 589,000 Number of Yards: 8 States of Operation: TX, KS

7 Feedyard,Oppliger Inc.

Owner: Brett and Bill Gottsch Mgr./CEO: Brett Gottsch Capacity: 195,500 Number of Yards: 3 States of Operation: NE

Owner: Privately Held Mgr./CEO: Scott Shill Capacity: 280,000 Number of Yards: 7 States of Operation: KS

Five Rivers Cattle Feeding, LLC Johnstown, CO



10 TIE TIE TIE 8 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 14 161717 19 20

Amarillo, TX


States of Operation: AZ, TX, OK, KS, CO, ID

Number of Yards: 11

Owner: Simplot Family Mgr./CEO: Thomas J. Basabe Capacity: 230,000

Amarillo, TX

Cobalt CompanyCattleLLC

Owner: Don Oppliger Family Mgr./CEO: Ben Oppliger Capacity: 230,000

Owner: 100% Employee Owned Mgr./CEO: Paul Defoor and Brad Hastings Capacity: 603,000


“Bank of America” and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC. Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., both of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

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Tejas Feeding Group Amarillo, TX


Owner: Stockholders Mgr./CEO: Dave Latta Capacity: 139,000


Number of Yards: 4 States of Operation: KS, OK

TIE20 8 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 10 11 12 TIE 13 14 14 161717 19 20


Number of Yards: 4 States of Operation: TX


Owner: Northside Hay Company Mgr./CEO: Earl Petznick Jr. Capacity: 150,000

Number of Yards: 3 States of Operation: AZ

Owner: Bill & Jerry Adams Mgr./CEO: Jerry Adams Capacity: 132,000

Mgr./CEO: Robert Barrett Capacity: 135,000


Pinal Feeding Co. Laveen, AZ


AB Livestock LLC Boise, ID


Hitch Enterprises, Inc. Guymon, OK

Owner: Hitch Family Mgr./CEO: Chris and Jason Hitch Capacity: 111,000

Number of Yards: 2 States of Operation: OK

Pratt Feeders Pratt, KS

Dinklage Feed Yard, Inc. Sidney, NE

Number of Yards: 5 States of Operation: WA, ID

Number of Yards: 3 States of Operation: NE

Owner: Shareholders Mgr./CEO: Rex Trumbull Capacity: 125,000 Number of Yards: 4 States of Operation: NE, WY, CO

Harris Feeding Co. Coalinga, CA

Owner: Central Vally Meat Holding Company Mgr./CEO: Brian Coelho Capacity: 135,000 Number of Yards: 2 States of Operation: CA, NV


Owner: Rebholtz Family Mgr./CEO: Robert Rebholtz Jr. Capacity: 110,000

Barrett Crofoot Hereford, TX

Number of Yards: 2 States of Operation: TX


Owner: Mike Smith Mgr./CEO: Mike Smith Capacity: 155,000

Bar -G Feedyard Hereford, TX

Adams Land & Cattle, LLC

Owner: Barrett and Weishaar Families

Owner: Livestock Investors LTD Mgr./CEO: Johnny Trotter Capacity: 125,000

Broken Bow, NE

Number of Yards: 2 States of Operation: TX

NATIONAL CATTLEMEN 53DIRECTIONS 2022 CATTLE HERD INVENTORY 200920082010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022 CalfTotalCowsCattleCrop 39.5 91.934.640.29 93.7935.0940.68 93.7935.5041.04 94.835.5940.90 94.3036.3140.54 93.3035.7639.48 91.8935.0638.64 89.1734.0938.17 88.2433.52Head38.85(million) 90.1033.6339.52 91.1634.4740.07 92.8935.3640.53 94.0835.7441.13 94.7235.9341.69 96.03 36.16


Slaughter Total: N/A


Number of Beef Plants:36 Wichita,Cargill KS

Daily Slaughter Capacity: 27,000



National Beef Packing Company, LLC Kansas City, MO

Owner: Rosen's Diversified Inc.

Caviness and CS Beef Kuna, ID

Owner: Privately Owned CEO: Henry Davis


Daily Slaughter Capacity: 2,900

Number of Beef Plants:

Number of Beef Plants:

2021 Sales: $14 Billion Slaughter Total: 7,000,000

Owner: Cargill Family CEO: David W. Maclennan


Daily Slaughter Capacity: 2,500


Owner: Brian Coelho

Number of Beef Plants: 6

CEO: Robert Rebholtz, Jr.

Subsidiaries: N/A

2021 Sales: $1.7 Billion Slaughter Total: 1,095,000

CEO: Donnie King, President & CEO

2021 Sales: $15.4 Billion Slaughter Total: 6,000,000

2021 Sales: $14.4 Billion Slaughter Total: N/A

2021 Sales: $11.7 Billion Slaughter Total: N/A

Harris Ranch Beef Selma, CA

CEO: Steven W. VanLannen

CEO: William Hughes

Subsidiaries: N/A

Owner: Corporation

Owner: Caviness Beef, JR Simplot Co.

1 JBS Greeley,U.S.ACOTOP

Greater Omaha Packing Omaha, NE

Owner: JBS CEO: Tim Schelpeper

Owner: Rebholtz Family

Slaughter Total: N/A

Owner: Marfrig Global Foods S.A., U.S. Premium Beef, LLC CEO: Tim Klein

Daily Slaughter Capacity: 13,200

Daily Slaughter Capacity: N/A

Subsidiaries: N/A

Daily Slaughter Capacity: 23,000

CEO: Terry Caviness

2021 Sales: N/A

Number of Beef Plants: 1

2021 Sales: $1,8 Million

Subsidiaries: N/A

Slaughter Total: 650,000

Nebraska Beef Omaha, NE


2021 Sales: N/A

Daily Slaughter Capacity: 2,500


Subsidiaries: N/A

Number of Beef Plants:

Subsidiaries: National Carriers, Inc., National Beef Leathers LLC, Kansas City Steak Company, LLC, National Beef Ohio, LLC, Iowa Premium, LLC

Number of Beef Plants: 9


Number of Beef Plants: 2

Subsidiaries: N/A

Daily Slaughter Capacity: N/A

Slaughter Total: N/A

American Foods Group, LLC Green Bay, WI

Slaughter Total: N/A

Subsidiaries: Central Valley Meats

Number of Beef Plants: 1

CEO: Brian Coelho

Daily Slaughter Capacity: 4,650

2021 Sales: N/A

Subsidiaries: N/A

2 Tyson Foods, Inc. Springdale, AR

Owner: Tyson Foods, Inc. (Publically Traded on NYSE)

2021 Sales: $3.9 Billion

Subsidiaries: Washington Beef, LLC, Daily Slaughter Capacity: 1,500

Number of Beef Plants: 3

Agri Beef Co. Boise, ID

NATIONAL CATTLEMEN 55DIRECTIONS 2022 IMPORTSEXPORTSpoundsofMillions 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 50075010001250150017502000225025002750300032503500 Million2,956 Pounds Million3447 Pounds Million1,996 Pounds Million1,935 Pounds Million2,300 Pounds Million2,785 Pounds Million2,453 Pounds Million2,588 Pounds Million2,574 Pounds Million2,267 Pounds Million2,557 Pounds Million2,860 Pounds Million3,156 Pounds Million3,022 Pounds poundsofMillions Million3,348 Pounds Million2,538 Pounds Million2,626 Pounds Million2,298 Pounds Million2,057 Pounds Million2,220 Pounds Million2,250 Pounds Million2,947 Pounds Million3,368 Pounds Million3,012 Pounds Million2,993 Pounds Million2,999 Pounds Million3,057 Pounds 20203,342MillionPounds 2021 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 50075010001250150017502000225025002750300032503500 — Mexico — Canada — Japan — S. Korea — Others — Canada — Nicaragua — Australia — Mexico — —ZealandNewOthers

56 NATIONAL CATTLEMEN DIRECTIONS 2022 TOTAL RETAIL MEAT SUPPLY TOP 10 CATTLE NUMBERS U.S. BEEF*30,125TotalCOWS U.S. TOTAL*91,902TotalCATTLE U.S.DAIRY*9,375Total U.S. CATTLE*14,693TotalONFEED (*Thousands) CAPITAPERPOUNDS REDCHICKENTURKEYBEEFLAMBPOULTRYMEAT 214.8 209.7 207.5 203.2 201.1 202.2 200.1 209.5 213.5 215.9 217.8 222.4 223.0 222.0 Total Meat Supply 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 PORKVEAL1001257550250

Born Of TheBond.com The bond between us is not a yoke. It’s a commitment, a ten-thousand-year-old promise to provide for our cattle as they provide for us. We are today’s advanced answer to that ancient pact. We are All trademarks are the property of Zoetis Services LLC or a related company or a licensor unless otherwise noted. © 2021 Zoetis Services LLC. All rights reserved. GCA-00507

Beef Cows That Have Calved

Colorado 659 638 97% 201 202 100%

Nevada 245 244 100% 30 31 103%

New Mexico 463 453 98% 337 292 87%

Georgia 499 487 98% 81 83 102%

Vermont 14 15 107% 120 120 100%

New Jersey 8.6 7.8 91% 4.4 4.2 95%

California 660 680 103% 1,720 1,720 100%

Utah 345 331 96% 95 94 99%

Indiana 184 184 100% 191 186 97%

New York 95 100 105% 625 620 99%

Nebraska 1,880 1,832 97% 60 58 97%

Pennsylvania 215 190 88% 475 470 99%

Wisconsin 290 295 102% 1,260 1,275 101%

Rhode Island 1 1.1 110% 0.5 0.5 100%

South Dakota 1,799 1,610 89% 141 170 121%

Maine 10 10 100% 27 26 96%

Ohio 292 312 107% 258 248 96%

Washington 211 224 106% 279 261 94%

North Dakota 965 945 98% 15 15 100%

Alaska 7.3 7.8 107% 0.2 0.2 100%

Oregon 525 505 96% 125 125 100%

Kansas 1,457 1,422 98% 173 168 97%

Arkansas 925 905 98% 5 5 100%

Arizona 192 171 89% 198 194 98%

Florida 929 895 96% 111 105 95%

Kentucky 973 966 99% 47 44 94%

Michigan 100 96 96% 440 434 99%

West Virginia 190 188 99% 5 5 100%

Massachusetts 7 8 114% 10 9.5 95%


South Carolina 166 158 95% 10 9 90%

Iowa 860 925 108% 220 225 102%

Louisiana 445 451 101% 10 9 90%

Missouri 2,035 1,941 95% 75 69 92%


(1,0002021Head) (1,0002022Head)

Wyoming 702 681 97% 8 9 113%

Montana 1,389 1,299 94% 11 11 100%

Milk Cows That Have Calved


Alabama 697 677 97% 3 3 100%

Virginia 585 599 102% 75 71 95%

United States 30,843.6 30,125.1 98% 9,442.4 9,375 99%

Delaware 1.8 1.7 94% 3.7 2.8 76%

Year (1,0002021Head) (1,0002022Head)


Tennessee 900 893 99% 30 27 90%

Idaho 464 498 107% 646 652 101%

Illinois 346 339 98% 84 81 96%

Texas 4,635 4,475 97% 615 625 102%

Oklahoma 2,159 2,131 99% 41 39 95%

Perecent of Previous

Mississippi 482 478 99% 8 7 88%


Hawaii 76.4 79.2 104% 0.6 0.8 133%

Minnesota 335 360 107% 455 460 101%

North Carolina 370 366 99% 40 39 98%

Maryland 45 42 93% 43 41 95%

Connecticut 5 4.5 90% 19 18.5 97%

Perecent of Previous

New Hampshire 4.5 4 89% 11 10.5 95%

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60 NATIONAL CATTLEMEN DIRECTIONS 2022 CANADATotalAllOther States U.S. TotalTotal Featured States Washington Idaho Montana North FEEDERDakota IMPORTS CaliforniaMEXICOhadnoimports.Arizona New Mexico U.S. TotalTexas 19,14221,17441,07851,441 132,835 2,143 134,978 14,63937,45231,829 225,689 309,609 1,741 311,350 19,69932,78560,858 326,870 440,212 917 441,129 17,88641,21234,736 186,810 280,644 7,104 287,748 10,13713,95429,225 119,168 172,484 6,561 179,045 9,81134,42526,893 110,999 182,128 11,786 193,814 8,98126,74832,650 103,939 172,318 12,757 185,075 307,797 485,132 655,313 1,448,242 282,859294,495398,556 975,910 285,099 333,695466,189 1,084,983 264,604 404,311484,878 1,153,793 275,008 427,820 232,310 935,138 333,336 541,626 290,763 1,165,725 307,264 622,893 374,449 1,304,606 6,11625,47012,51660,038 104,140 14,041 118,181 # of cattle # of cattle 0100,000200,000300,000400,000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 10,46912,03811,626 78,341 112,474 6,070 118,544 1,73022,92014,782 79,678 119,110 24,580 143,690 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 291,601 625,644 204,151 1,121,685 379,282 705,387 343,552 1,434,452 329,023 590,118 336,043 1,255,184

Look for the REGISTRATION NUMBER. Bring the Power of Angus to your herd. Angus.org/PBA.

You can’t tell by looking.

One is backed by the power of programs.

One is supported by the power of data.

One is validated by the power of a pedigree.

One is not.

Not all “Angus” bulls are REGISTERED Angus bulls.


62 NATIONAL CATTLEMEN DIRECTIONS 2022 BEEF PRODUCTION COLD CARCASS WEIGHTS PER CAPITA SPENDING 800820830840810790780770760750740 STEER PRICES 2019200920102011 450 lb 650 lb Fed Steer % Change from Previous Year 2008 2015201420162013 100 TotalBroilersPorkBeef $840.49 % Beef 2012 2017 2018 Bil. lbs.2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 600550500350300250200150400450650700 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 $409.27$230.34$200.87 20192018 2019 26.0026.5027.0025.5025.0024.5024.0023.5023.00 2019 46.34% 46.18% 45.84% 45.12% 45.03% 45.55% 46.31% 45.69% 46.73% 47.21% 47.11% 47.17% 47.27% 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 $83.23$92.71$105.61$122.86$115.93$100.66$130.77$113.43$95.42$157.42$137.76$114.91$183.79$155.46$122.93 $125.86$156.13$185.23 $223.24$271.42 $154.37 $227.41$282.93 $120.74$148.00$177.32$151.01$178.55$153.95$121.29 $116.66$116.89$160.30$186.39$176.17$152.67-10%0%-5%-6%-6%-5%+13%+13%+15% +21%+20% +20% +17% +13% +7% +1% 0% +2% +47% +43% +23% +4% +2% -4% -37% -34% -18% +1% +2% +0.5% +4% +4% -3.6% -5% -5% -0.2% Dollars 2020 2020 2020 800 47.10% $108.71$146.622020$172.70 -2% -4% -6.8% lbs 2021 2021 2021 48.18% 48.70% $122.48$156.692021$183.56 +6% +12.7%+7%


64 NATIONAL CATTLEMEN DIRECTIONS 2022 FEED AND GRAIN LIVE CANADIAN IMPORTS 20092008201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021 BarleySorghumCornWheat IMPORT OF TOTAL SLAUGHTER CATTLE Barley CornSorghum$5.03$5.35$5.40Wheat$$6.84$/Bushel0. 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 836,286 723,181750,522 514,434 515,723573,809 427,688 531,075528,157 675,521 597,285 839,256 724,315 2020 487,677 2021

You do it for the cattle. Now do it for your road ahead. BQA www.BQA.orgonlinebeef.consumercertificationtransportationhelpsincreaseconfidenceinGetBQATcertifiedtoday.

BYPRODUCTS 38% of Total Hides --- $3.63 Total Byproducts --- $9.59 41% of Total Hides --- $4.66 Total Byproducts --- $11.28 46% of Total Hides --- $5.17 Total Byproducts --- $11.23 48% of Total Hides --- $6.14 Total Byproducts --- $12.92 50% of Total Hides --- $7.92 Total Byproducts --- $15.88 51% of Total Hides --- $7.20 Total Byproducts --- $14.20 48% of Total Hides --- $6.34 Total Byproducts --- $13.17 47% of Total Hides --- $6.16 Total Byproducts --- $13.19 50% of Total Hides --- $5.37 Total Byproducts --- $10.73 43% of Total Hides --- $3.30Total Byproducts --- $7.61 48% of Total Hides --- $5.00 Total Byproducts --- $10.49 56% of Total Hides --- $5.56Total Byproducts --- $9.94 27% of Total Hides --- $3.49 Total Byproducts --- $12.90 20192009200620072008201020112012201320142015201620172018 29% of Total Hides --- $2.59 Total Byproducts --- $8.88 64% of TotalTotal Byproducts --- $8.32 Hides --- $5.31 2020 26% of Total Hides --- $2.08 Total Byproducts --- $7.99 2021 For over thirty years cattlemen and women have used the IRM Redbook to enhance profitability by keeping better records, and to track the productivity of their cow-calf operations. 2023 REDBOOK Customize your Redbooks in quantities of 100 books or more. Contact gwebb@beef.org for more information. Non-customized redbooks will be available for purchase online starting October 5th at store.ncba.org. Features of the Redbook include: Beef Quality Assurance Best Practices Injection Site Quality Control CalfHealthInformationRecords

Nominate Your Neighbor FOR THE 2023 STEWARDSHIPENVIRONMENTALAWARD The Environmental Stewardship Award showcases cattle producers’ commitment to protecting the environment and improving fish and wildlife habitats while operating profitable cattle operations. Help us highlight the great work being done on cattle farms and ranches across the country by nominating your neighbor. NOMINATIONS ARE DUE MARCH 10, 2023 Nominations can be submitted by any organization, group, or individual on behalf of a U.S. cattle producer. Contact your state affiliate, ESAP sponsor representative, or NCBA staff member for more information on submitting an application. For more information on how to get started, contact esap@beef.org or visit environmentalstewardship.org


From options like a new premium cab with more comfort and controls at your fingertips to a true 3rd-function mid-valve for easier loader installation and operation, the new 5E Series gives you more choices than ever. That includes choices that better connect you to your tractor, helping you plan for maintenance and even order parts from your mobile device. The new 5E 3-Cylinder tractor also features no regen, helping to simplify maintenance, bringing peace of mind to the ownership experience. It all leads to more confidence with every job.


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