A STUDY ON AUDITORIUM STANDARDS
CONTENTS i. ii. iii.
Ancient Shapes Revival of Ancient Shapes Different Types of Contemporary Theatres Parts
4 5 6
The Auditorium a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
Seating – Typology Seating – Handicapped Aisle Arrangement Aisle Balcony Viewing Angles Sight Line Slope
The Services a. b. c. d.
Backstage Layout of Green Rooms Rehearsal Hall – Music Facilities Workshop and Others
18 19 22 23 24 25 28 30 31
32 33 34 35 37
CONTENTS e. f. g. h. i. j.
Toilets Considerations for Physically Challenged Reception/ Entry Exits Fire Safety Guidelines Sprinkler System
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.
Acoustic Environment Lighting Electrical Installation Substation HVAC/AHU Water Consumption Site Level Landscape Street Furniture Parking
Services â€“ Outlay
38 40 43 44 45 47
50 53 57 59 61 62 63 64 66
67 68 3
4 Theatre Design, McGraw-Hill Book Coampny, EE, UU
Revival of Ancient Shapes
AT THE TURN OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
5 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTEMPORARY THEATRES THRUST STAGE A theatre in which the stage is extended so that the audience surrounds it on three sides.
ARENA STAGE Any theatre space in which the audience surrounds the stage area
END STAGE The audience seating and stage occupy the same architectural space, with the stage at one end and the audience seated in front facing the stage.
6 The Theatre Projects
BLACK BOX PROMENADE A theatre without fixed seating in the main part of the auditorium – this allows the standing audience to intermingle with the performance and to follow the focal point of the action to different parts of the room
A flexible theatre usually without character or embellishment—a “void” space that may indeed be black, but isn’t always.
STUDIO THEATRE A flexible theatre with one or more audience galleries on three or four sides of a rectangular room.
7 The Theatre Projects
SHOE BOX CONCERT HALL RECITAL HALL A space designed for soloists and small ensembles (up to chamber orchestra size), with a seat count typically in the range of 150 to 800. This form is a descendant of the court music rooms of the Renaissance.
The shoebox form has high volume, limited width, and multiple audience levels, usually with relatively narrow side seating ledges.
VINEYARD CONCERT HALL Some modern concert halls have audience seating in terraces reminiscent of a vineyard. The seating may completely or partially encircle the concert platform.
8 The Theatre Projects
OPERA HOUSE An opera house is a proscenium theatre in form. Seat count ranges from 1,200 to 2,000 with an upper limit of about 2,400 seats. The auditorium is almost always multilevel with side tiers or boxes to enhance visual and aural intimacy..
The auditorium form is heavily influenced by the acoustic requirements for symphony, while the stage house is designed to meet the needs of opera and musicals. These rooms are designed with the ability to change configurations
MULTI FORM THEATRES A multiform theatre can be reconfigured to change the actoraudience relationship and the seat count. By moving large architectural elements, the one-room form of the concert hall can be transformed into a two-room theatre
9 The Theatre Projects
MULTI USE THEATRE This is a proscenium theatre designed primarily for amplified sound. The room acoustics are usually â€œdryâ€? with little adjustment available, making these rooms unsuitable for un-amplified acoustic music.
The term showroom usually implies an entertainment venue connected with a casino, hotel, or resort. A showroom may be designed to accommodate variety or headliner acts, or it may be purpose-built for a specific production
ENVIRONMENTAL THEATRE The audience space and performance space are sometimes intermingled, and the action may be singlefocus or multiple-focus. In environmental theatre, the physical space is an essential part of the performance
10 The Theatre Projects
PROSCENIUM In a proscenium theatre, the stage is located at one end of the auditorium and is physically separated from the audience space by a proscenium wall.
COURTYARD STAGE central area is flexible, and can be configured into arena, thrust, end stage, and flat floor configurations.
THRUST AND OPEN STAGE Some larger drama theatres take the form of a thrust stage, with the audience surrounding three sides of the performance platform..
11 The Theatre Projects
PARTS OF AN AUDITORIUM
STAGE The stage roof of every theatre using movable scenery or having a motion picture screen of highly combustible construction shall have a ventilator or ventilators in or above it equal to at least one-eighth the area of the floor of the stage, openable from the stage floor.
The size of the stage and its proportions is governed by the lines of vision of auditorium. 14
STAGE SPACE 15 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
LICHFIELD GARRICK AUDITORIUM 16 A Handbook Of Sustainable Building Design And Engineering
THE CONTACT THEATRE, MANCHESTER REF: A HANDBOOK OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING 17 A Handbook Of Sustainable Building Design And Engineering
SEATING - Typology Genexis Theatre
19 Independent Cinema Office
The Stratford, Ontario, Shakespeare Festival Theatre
ARENA STAGE IN WASHINGTON, D.C
20 Independent Cinema Office
Rows of seats between aisles shall have not more than 14 seats. (except continental) Rows of seats opening on to an aisle at one end only shall have not more than 7seats. (except continental) Seats without dividing arms must allow 450 mm per person. The spacing of rows of seats from back to back: > 850 mm or nto less than 700 mm + sum of the thickness of the back and inclination of the back. There shall be a space of not less than 350 mm between the back of one seat and the front of the seat behind. 21 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
SEATING: HANDICAPPED •
At least 1 percent of seats designated for wheelchairs users, with a minimum of two.
Preferable if armrests lift up (to allow transfer for wheelchair to seat)
Some seats should be wider in order to allow larger size people to sit properly.
22 NBC 2016 and Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
23 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
AISLES A. B. C. D.
Clear aisles >1.2 m The width of cross-aisles: minimum of 1 m. The common path of travel: 30 m. Width of aisle in balcony > 1.2m.
Exits shall be provided waiting spaces on the basis of 1 person for each 0.3 m2 of waiting area.
A. Railings on balcony 1000m B. Cross-aisles, except where the backs of seats on the front of the aisle project 600 mm, railings > 900 mm high.
Pockets generated not generated
24 NBC 2016
BALCONY Depth of balcony Overhang (h)
Sight line to front one-third of ceiling Height of balcony Opening (h) Sloped soffit (performers on stage should have line-ofsight to soffit
In some instances in which a large seating capacity is desired, it is necessary to resort to a balcony in order to avoid the excessive viewing distance that would otherwise develop. Balconies may be introduced in small theatres as well to bring the audience closer to the actors.
25 Architectural Acoustics, M. David Egan
‘Flying Balcony’ (can have D>H because reverberant sound energy will be directed towards rear seats underneath)
The cantilevered balcony is open at the rear, allowing reverberant sound energy to surround the audience seated underneath.
Seats in ‘shadow’ of balcony overhang (no line of sight)
Balconies should be provided considering that the sight lines (max 30 degree from horizontal) does not get hampered and also reflected sound path which can create a dead spot. FAULTS IN BALCONIES 26 Architectural Acoustics, M. David Egan
I want my money back
becomes substantially intolerable is 60' measured to the far side of the projected image.
28 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
falls off very rapidly is approximately 30'
29 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
30 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
• • •
Steps shall not be placed in aisles to overcome differences in levels, unless the gradient exceeds 1 in 10. Generally slope should not be less than 8 deg., lecture halls 15 deg. The slope of the main-floor seating would also be increased for one-row vision. Two-row vision though not ideal is made more acceptable by staggering the seats to permit a view between the heads of the persons in the row immediately in front.
TWO-ROW VISION. 31 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
BACKSTAGE In the wings: •
There must be adequate space for o Property tables o Storing and sheltering of portable scenery units o Space for temporary handling and drying of scenery, sets etc.
There should be proper drainage in every part.
Permanent wiring should be run under ground where it cannot trip the actors or interfere with the movement of scenery and properties.
Illumination for backstage work
33 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
LAYOUTS OF BACKSTAGE ELEMENTS: GREEN ROOMS
34 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
REHEARSAL HALLS â€“ MUSICAL FACILITIES FUNCTION
Rehearsal HallsInstrumental Rooms
20 to 24 Sq ft per student
This average will be in the neighborhood of 14 to 18 ft.
Rehearsal HallsChoral Rooms
6 sq ft per pupil will suffice. The use of fixed chairs on risers will require more space; at least 10 sq ft is necessary
Rehearsal HallsCombined VocalInstrumental Facilities
8 sq ft per student
RISERS A 60-in. step will be wide enough for a single row of instrumentalists or two rows of singers. The top riser should be wider (up to 120 in.) since the back of the room ordinarily accommodates the larger percussion and bass instruments. Ordinarily, an elevation of 6 to 8 in An elevation of 6 to 10 in. and a width of 40 in. are adequate
35 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
REHEARSAL ROOMS â€“ ACTING FACLITIES
Rehearsal rooms should be in the same proportion and somewhat larger than the acting area of the stage; and, acoustically, should reproduce stage conditions as closely as possible
REHEARSAL ROOM HONG KONG CULTURAL CENTRE,LEISURE AND CULTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT 36
WORKSHOPS & OTHERS To serve as the main construction center it should contain space for a large cutting table (about 3 by 6 ft) and at least four sewing machines, sewing tables, and chairs . Large enough to house one or more washing machines. Space for the storing of materials and accessories. The shop should be at least 30 by 30 ft.
Size of scene shop at least 30ft long by 30ft wide by 20ft high. Must be long and wide enough for the construction of a big two-or three-fold flat. High enough to allow a 18-ft flat to be moved round easily in an erect position. 2 doors, at least 12 ft wide by 9 ft high. Each tower should be high enough to let the light fall on the near side stage at an angle of about 45Â° If the side stage extends 30ft out from the proscenium wall and the tower is placed about 15 or 20ft up the hill from this that is, 45 or 50 ft from the proscenium wall the tower may have to rise 30or 35 ft above the level of the main stage 48 sq ft for the first projection machine 24 sq ft for each additional projector.
38 NBC 2016
• • •
Shall be located as close as possible to the entrance/ reception/ waiting area of the building. The clear manoeuvring space at floor level in front of the water-closet and the washbasin shall be 1 800 mm × 1 800 mm The minimum dimensions for an accessible toilet room are 2200 mm width and 2300 mm depth, or 1 700 mm width and 2 200 mm depth for Type B.
39 NBC 2016
Considerations for Physically Challenged • • •
Grab bars and handrails in appropriate areas. Unisex accessible toilets allow the greatest flexibility for people who require assistance. Passageways: Turning radius for wheelchair: 1800mm Walking aid: 900mm • Their designated accessible parking within 30 m of entrance. • There shall be no thresholds (doorsills). If unavoidable, within 12 mm.
Signage shall be clearly visible and in contrasting colours, in Braille and at 1000 mm to 1200 mm above ground level. Easy to read font at least 15cm high.
40 NBC 2016
41 NBC 2016
42 NBC 2016
RECEPTION/ TICKET COUNTER/ ENTRY • • •
Counters and reception desks: clearly identified and easily recognizable from a building entrance. Information reception areas should be positioned near the main entrance. Fire command centre shall be on the entrance floor of the building having direct external access.
• Allow lines to form without obstruction • Preferably two ticket windows, one for reserved seats and one for current seats
Ticket counter signage should be prominent and contrasting to aid those with visual disability. 43 NBC 2016
EXITS • • • •
Minimum staircase width: 2.00 m The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 300 mm. All the exits and exit passageways shall have a clear ceiling height of at least 2.4 m. In no case shall there be less than two independent basement exits. The dead end corridor length in exit access shall not exceed 6 m for assembly occupancies. Door width shall be not less than 2000 mm Doorways shall be not less than 2000 mm in height.
Each revolving door shall be provided with a hinged door in the same wall within 3 m thereof, with same exiting capacity.
No. of reqd. exits can be obtained by dividing the width of the door in mm by the width per person from table 4.
For fully sprinklered building, the travel distance may be increased by 50 percent of the values specified.
44 NBC 2016
Fire Safety Guidelines • •
Follows guidelines for fire zone 1, construction type 1 Non-combustible materials should be used for construction of buildings, and the internal walls of staircase enclosures should be of brick work or reinforced concrete or any other material of construction with minimum of 120 min rating. Doorway or opening in a fire resistant wall on any floor shall be limited to 5.6 m2 in area with a maximum height/width of 2.75 m. Every wall opening shall be protected with fire-resisting doors, having the fire rating of not less than 120 min. For escalator openings, the smoke spill shall be avoided by provision of smoke barrier (of 450-600 mm) thereby creating smoke compartment. For fully sprinklered buildings, it shall be ensured that sprinklers are located within 600 mm of the glass facade providing full coverage to the glass. Openable panels shall be provided on each floor and shall be spaced not more than 10 m apart measured along the external wall from centre-to-centre of the access openings. 45 NBC 2016
46 NBC 2016
Sprinkler System Section
47 IFSEC Global
48 NBC 2016
ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT • • • •
Acoustic lining in equipment room Acoustic lining of duct. Acoustical treatment of ceilings, side and rear walls. The impact noise of footsteps on marble, terrazzo or wood block flooring, and especially on hardwood strip and batten flooring, can be disturbing. On solid floors, resilient floor finishes, such as rubber, cork and linoleum on an underlay, are highly desirable.
Vibrator Isolator Pad
Cork Flooring 50 NBC 2016
Ceiling coffers to enhance diffusion
Example of orchestra shells
Suspended, adjustable sound - reflecting panels (short ITDG) Steeply sloped wall panels to provide lateral sound & diffusion Stage risers to enhance direct sound of orchestra
• Transondent scrim curtain to allow sound energy to flow into auditorium
Articulating orchestra shell panels with adjustable orientation and height to control mix of reflected sound
Stage hangings (remove and tie) Slot to absorb energy from brass and tympani intruments
Ceiling should be 1/3rd to 2/3rd of room width Lower ratio used for large rooms and higher ratio for small rooms. To avoid flutter, a smooth ceiling must not be parallel to floor Rear wall must avoid large unbroken concave geometry 51
Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
Fiberboard attached to ceiling to control reverberation Panels direct sound towards audience
Fabric and fiberboard behind balcony wall
Woodruff Health Sciences Centre administration building The sound reflecting oak ceiling panels Were oriented to evenly distribute the sound throughout the auditorium.
52 Timesavers Standards for Building Types 2nd Edition
Lighting The lighting of a cinema auditorium serves three separate functions: (1) Emergency exit and mood lighting, used during screen presentation; (2) Lighting needed during intermissions; and (3) Lighting of sufficient intensity for clearing the house, or other rare occasions.
During ongoing performance <<
During intermission >>
• Lighting fixtures not exceeding a height of 4 m from ground level should be provided. • White lighting at average 35 to 40 lux is recommended to ensure colour contrast of tactile blocks and to ensure visibility at night to persons with low vision. • Every 20 m to 30m.
53 NBC 2016
Step Lighting – 0.36W/ 0.2fc avg. intensity
House Lights – used before, after and during intermission
•30 lux when projection screen in use • 50 lux for working plane • Illuminance of all working areas within a building should generally be 150 lux. • Use of dimmer though expensive gives better optimised energy use. Emergency Lights 54
55 NBC 2016
Electrical Installations •
All plots having size 500 m2 and above shall install solar photovoltaic power generation system as per:
Any 230 V wiring for lighting or other services, above false ceiling, shall have 660 V grade insulation. The electric distribution cables/wiring shall be laid in a separate shaft and fire insula High, medium and low voltage wiring in separate shafts.
57 NBC 2016
Emergency Power Supplying Distribution System Emergency power supplying distribution system for critical requirement for functioning of fire and life safety system and equipment shall be planned for efficient and reliable power and control supply to the following systems and equipment where provided: a) Fire pumps. b) Pressurization and smoke venting; including its ancillary systems such as dampers and actuators. c) Firemanâ€™s lifts (including all lifts). d) Exit signage lighting. e) Emergency lighting. f) Fire alarm system. g) Public address (PA) system (relating to emergency voice evacuation and annunciation). h) Magnetic door hold open devices. j) Lighting in fire command centre and security room. 58 NBC 2016
SUBSTATION • •
Basement should be avoided. Ideal location: electrical load centre. Generally the load centre will be somewhere between the geometrical centre and the air conditioning plant room. Shall not be located immediately above or below plumbing water tanks or sewage treatment plant (STP) water tanks 59 NBC 2016
60 NBC 2016
HVAC/ AHU •
Separate air handling units (AHU) for each floor to avoid the hazards arising from spread of fire and smoke through the air conditioning ducts. (if possible) The air ducts shall be separate from each AHU to its floor and in no way shall interconnect with the duct of any other floor. Metallic ducts used even for the return air instead of space above the false ceiling.
The cooling tower shall be mounted on a set of four or six numbers of reinforced cement concrete pillars (structural foundation) as per manufacturers' recommendations. Height of these pillars shall be not less than 1000 mm. Cooling tower should be located at a well-ventilated place, preferably on the terrace of the building. 61 NBC 2016 and Clean Rooms International
Water Consumption â€˘
Buildings having central air conditioning plants requiring water for cooling purposes may not be allowed to use fresh water for the purpose. Commercial complexes may use recycled water for flushing of toilets, horticulture and fire fighting purposes.
A satisfactory supply of water for the purpose of fire fighting shall always be available(Table 7, discussed before)
62 NBC 2016
Land Use • Music, dance and drama centre (1 for every 100000 population) • Socio-cultural centre/Exhibition cum fair ground (1 for every 1000000 population)
Minimum Land Area 1000 m2 15.00 Ha
Assembly buildings — The open space at front shall be not less than 12 m and the other open spaces around the building shall be not less than 6 m. Space should be provided for passenger dropoff points for taxis, public transport and also for large vehicles such as vans, etc, as near as possible to the main accessible entrance. Vehicle drop-off areas should be a minimum of 9000 mm in length, have a minimum width of 3600 mm and be served by a 63 kerb ramp. NBC 2016
Landscape • • • •
Only thick belts of planting (greater that 30 m) are of real value. Strong leafy trees may be planted to act as noise baffles. Shrubs or creepers may also be planted for additional protection between tree trunks; artificial mounds and banks should be formed where practicable. As little hard paving and as much grass as possible may be used.
64 Timesavers Standards for Landscape Architecture
Use of wall and greenery as noise barrier
Use of the faรงade itself as a noise barrier
Street Furniture Street furniture is a collective term for objects and pieces of equipment installed along streets and roads for various purposes. It includes benches, traffic barriers, bollards, streetlamps, signs, bus stops, public lavatories, fountains, memorials, public sculptures, and waste receptacles.
Street furniture can reflect local culture or famous aspects of where they are located, as here at Lyme Regis, where the ammonite-design streetlamps reflect the town's location on the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage site. 66 Whale Tail Rest Pavilion became an identifier
For car, the minimum parking space to be 3 m × 6 m when individual parking space is required and 2.75 m × 5 m when common parking space is required. Space for scooter/two wheeler and bicycle to be not less than 1.25 m2 and 1.00 m2, respectively.
• • •
The minimum size of the parking space for a car shall be 3900 mm x 5400 mm. Transfer area 1500 mm. If two parking spaces share a transfer area: 6300 mm 67 NBC 2016
SERVICES - Layout
68 Literature Study of Krantiveer Vasudev Balvanta Phadke Auditorium Panvel
69 Literature Study of Krantiveer Vasudev Balvanta Phadke Auditorium Panvel
70 Literature Study of Krantiveer Vasudev Balvanta Phadke Auditorium Panvel
REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Principal Western Theatre Forms and Chronology (McGraw-Hill Book Company) Proscenium Widths for Various Usages (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Furniture Dimensions (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Handicapped Seating (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Seating and Aisle Arrangements (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Balcony (Architectural Acoustics, M. David Egan) Viewing Angles and Sightlines (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Viewing Distance (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Gradient Curve and its Modifications (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Backstage Areas (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Position of Backstage Elements (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Greenroom Layouts (Timesavers Standard for Building Types 2nd Edition) Toilet Standards (National Building Code 2016) Handicapped Toilet Standards (National Building Code 2016) Handicapped Toilet Standards (National Building Code 2016) Surfaces for Traffic (National Building Code 2016) Protection against Falling (National Building Code 2016) Minimum Headroom Measurement (National Building Code 2016) Capacity Factors (National Building Code 2016) Fire Resistance Rating (National Building Code 2016) Sprinkler System Section (National Building Code 2016) Min. req. for Fire Fighting Installation (National Building Code 2016) Maximum Sound Pressure due to External and Mechanical Equip. Noise (National Building Code 2016) Acoustic Treatment (National Building Code 2016) Table for Recommended Value for Illuminance (National Building Code 2016) Stage Lighting () Area Req. for Transformer Room and Substation (National Building Code 2016) Min. Recommended Spacing between Transformer and Walls (National Building Code 2016) Table for Water Requirement (National Building Code 2016) Req. Width of Footpath (National Building Code 2016) Acoustic Treatment via Landscape (Timesavers Standards for Landscape Architecture) Off-Street Shared Handicapped Parking (National Building Code 2016) Auditorium Services Outlay (Literature Study of Krantiveer Vasudev Balvanta Phadke Auditorium Panve)
A 6th semester Academic project detailing the standards of an auditorium - done by Soura Manna and Nayanika Dey, IIEST, Shibpur
Published on Mar 17, 2019
A 6th semester Academic project detailing the standards of an auditorium - done by Soura Manna and Nayanika Dey, IIEST, Shibpur