No. 1 May 2022 COOPERATION & ENERGY
Offshore Energy Magazine CONNECTING THE MARITIME & OFFSHORE WORLD FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
ARTICLE What lies ahead for U.S. offshore wind
ARTICLE Ocean energy is back on track
ARTICLE War in Ukraine and the energy transition
ARTICLE Green ammonia terminal in Rotterdam
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table of contents United Heavy Lift sets sights on methanol-powered dual-fuel ships page 20
Ocean energy is back on track page 16
New investments in dredging fleet Boskalis page 12
Heerema's crane vessels use green shore power page 6
3 Editor’s note 5 Guest Column: Kirsty Curry 6 Heerema’s crane vessels use green shore power 8 What lies ahead for U.S. offshore wind 12 New investments in dredging fleet Boskalis 14 ‘Answers lie in energy transition’
16 Ocean energy is back on track 18 War in Ukraine and the energy transition 20 Methanol powered dual fuel ships 24 Need for balance in climate change and energy security 28 First dual-fuel 23,500+ TEU ships in 2023 32 Green ammonia terminal in Rotterdam
34 Norway awards CCS license 36 Funds to advance offshore floating solar sector 38 The next generation of offshore crew change 41 What Is Happening 60 Colofon 60 Advertisers Index
Editor's note Energy is grabbing the headlines daily. When it comes to fighting climate change or from the viewpoint of foreign dependency, energy plays a pivotal role. The offshore energy sector is in the middle of all these developments. In this magazine we give an overview on what is going in this sector. Since the war in the Ukraine, energy independency is high on the political agenda. In an article in this magazine the classification society DNV is stating that the war in Ukraine will not derail Europe’s energy transition. Instead, it is expected to speed it up as countries pivot towards renewables in a bid to become independent from Russian gas more quickly, leading to faster decarbonisation. With the phasing out of fossil fuel, the shipping industry is looking for alternatives. Shipowners are choosing methanol as marine fuel for the future fleet of vessels. The first quarter of 2022 already suggests that methanol will dominate the shipping discourse in the months and even years ahead. Since the beginning of the year, numerous projects have been launched focusing on methanol as a promising future fuel for ships. Read more about it in this magazine. Next to this, you will find articles about the latest developments in offshore wind, floating solar and marine energy and sustainable shipping. Enjoy!
The editorial team
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COP26’s Aims of Greener Wind Supply Chains Are Achievable, but Odds Need Shifting in Favour of Developers The RenewableUK Global Offshore Wind (GOW) event in London, organised by RenewableUK last September, heralded the return of in-person events for the industry. Alok Sharma, president of COP26, was a keynote speaker at GOW. He rightly encouraged the industry to help “support wider COP26 efforts”, something which, of course, everyone working in wind is highly motivated to do.
But there was one thing that Mr Sharma said which caught my eye in particular. He encouraged the industry to begin “driving action across your supply chains, encouraging your suppliers to commit to net zero and working with them to reduce emissions” and “use your purchasing power to drive change across the global economy, just as you’re using your inventiveness and acumen to drive the clean energy transition across the world”. His emphasis on cross-company collaboration and working together to boost our renewable energy capacity while reducing the sector’s carbon footprint, is one that, as an industry, we should welcome. A united goal of zero-emissions calls for a united effort to achieve it. However, there is an argument to be made that renewables market conditions currently dictate that most businesses in the industry have little leverage when it comes to purchasing power. A key challenge confronting businesses in wind is the red-tape they must cut through to bring a project to fruition. Currently, developers are facing a tangled list of permits and tenders to get their project started. The contemporary offshore marine and planning licensing regime does not suit the up-scaling ambitions of today, acting as a hindrance
at all levels. From local council planning permissions to central government regulations and sign off, there are a number of regulatory obligations which continuously stall development. This in turn erodes the purchasing power of developers since they are consistently faced with delays to consenting, meaning they are unable to provide efficient timelines for suppliers. A lack of time-scale certainty makes for a struggle to commit suppliers to projects after completing tender processes. And with few suppliers in the market, this removes the procurement initiative away from developers, and gives sellers the upper-hand. The opportunities, then, of using purchasing power to reduce emissions across the supply chain become narrow. The challenge of immense demand from project developers, coupled with a limited supply base, is felt acutely in the UK. Manufacturers in the wind industry are almost entirely located abroad. And given the demand to develop wind projects in territories across the world, purchasing power does not reside with the developers, operators or power producers.We need more competition amongst a larger number of OEMs in order to give different stakeholders in the market more power. The lack of competition makes for a market that
cannot grow at a rate matching its potential, since, if a business cannot afford the prices or timings dictated to it, the project will not get off the ground. In essence, for Mr Sharma’s commendable vision to be realised, the UK needs to address two key areas. Firstly, hindrances to permitting need streamlining and simplifying to facilitate the required pace of development in the wind industry. This will not only continually attract investment in a burgeoning sector, but also provide greater certainty to developers, which in turn will help them secure better, greener deals with their suppliers. Secondly, conditions that encourage businesses to base their supply chain operations in the UK need to be enhanced, and the big OEMs need to be incentivised to set up manufacturing bases in the UK. We have seen glimmers of this, with recent announcements on the Siemens Gamesa blade factory in Hull, but more can be done if the UK Government’s ambitious target of 100% of electricity coming from renewable sources is to be achieved. And more yet, if we are all going to work towards a greener wind-energy supply chain.
Kirsty Curry Senior Consultant at K2 Management
Heerema’s two giant crane vessels switch to green shore power in Rotterdam Dutch offshore contractor Heerema Marine Contractors has connected its two giant heavy-lift vessels to, what the company says, is the largest shore power installation of Europe, located in Rotterdam. Heerema Marine Contractors revealed that its largest crane vessels, Sleipnir and Thialf, have officially switched from using their engines to using shore power.
As explained by the company, the successful commissioning of the Shore Power project is the result of a partnership between Eneco, the Port of Rotterdam Authority, and Heerema with the support of the Gemeente Rotterdam. The project initiative, which started in 2017, was driven by a global demand to reduce the impact on the planet with the partners involved all dedicated to supporting the energy transition.
Electrical grid Shore power enables vessels to switch off their engines and plug into the electrical grid for their energy supply. The connection built by Heerema, Eneco, and the Port of Rotterdam will supply Sleipnir and Thialf with sustainable energy that will originate from wind turbines located on the headland nearby or from another renewable source should it be required.
Koos-Jan van Brouwershaven, Heerema’s CEO, said: “Heerema is committed to sustainability and we demonstrated this dedication by becoming Carbon Neutral in 2020. Each year from now to 2026 we have outlined our targeted emission reductions, and by plugging-in shore power, we reduce our overall impact by 5 per cent, equivalent to 5,000 diesel cars, which fulfils our first year’s target! We are
'The shore power connection has a 20 MW capacity'
these vessels when moored in the Port of Rotterdam for repair and maintenance saves 15,000 metric tons of CO2,
Thialf and Sleipnir on Shore Power at the Calandkanaal. Photo by Heerema Marine Contractors
looking forward to introducing more sustainability measures to continue this journey.” The Shore Power connection has a 20 MW capacity, which is the energy equivalent of around 15,000 homes. As the vessels turn off their engines when connected to shore power, virtually all emissions and particulate matter is prevented because no more marine gas oil or LNG in Sleipnir’s case will be used. Reductions This also contributes to emissions reduction as turning off the engines on
20 metric tons of particulate matter, 5 metric tons of sulfur, and a significant amount of nitrogen. This is comparable to the annual emissions of 5,000 diesel cars, according to Heerema. The Port of Rotterdam has almost 30,000 ships visiting it every year, many of which run on diesel engines. By using shore power, vessels can switch off their diesel generators, saving up to 25,000 litres of diesel per day per ship, improving air quality and reducing noise significantly. Arno Bonte, Vice Mayor for Sustainability, Clean Air and Energy Transition of the City of Rotterdam, stated: “I am very proud, that after providing inland vessels with shore power, now both offshore vessels of Heerema are successfully plugged in at the largest shore power installation of Europe, here in Rotterdam. It means a major step towards a cleaner and future-proof port of Rotterdam.” Energy Transition Budget The installation at Heerema’s moor-
ing location at the Calandkanaal was supported by the municipality of Rotterdam using the Energy Transition Budget. When it comes to the Port of Rotterdam and inland vessels, the port informed earlier that free shore-based power is available at Maaskade in Rotterdam for large inland vessels that participate in a trial with shore-based power from a battery system. Dutch green energy supplier Skoon Energy has installed a battery system there on behalf of the Port of Rotterdam Authority to strengthen the local shore-based power supply for inland shipping. Speaking of green shore power, Denmark’s offshore drilling contractor Maersk Drilling and the country’s Port Esbjerg last January announced that rigs could connect to green shoreto-ship power, enabling them to shun fossil-fuel power altogether when docked. The plant, which is the first of its kind in Denmark, has a capacity of 1,300 Amp/1.5 MW and can supply green power to up to three drilling rigs. By Nermina Kulovic
2022 to provide sneak peek into what lies ahead for U.S. offshore wind
Offshore wind activities that will be taking place in the United States throughout this year could provide early insight into what lies ahead for the country in terms of offshore wind deployment volume, reuse of oil and gas infrastructure, Power-to-X opportunities and, most importantly, readiness and capabilities of the domestic supply chain, according to the latest report from the Business Network for Offshore Wind.
As the first two utility-scale U.S. offshore wind farms, Vineyard Wind 1 and South Fork, are starting offshore construction this year, 2022 will provide “the first indicators as to whether the capacity of the domestic and global supply chain will be able to manage the volume”, the report reads. This is in relation to the country having multiple projects going through federal permit-
ting process and moving towards having multiple large-scale offshore wind farms entering construction during the next several years. Furthermore, this year will bring a bet-
Bight, Carolina Long Bay, Northern and Central California, to Gulf of Mexico, with the latter viewed as an ideal location to reuse oil and gas infrastructure and to tap into Power-to-X possibilities, primarily green hydrogen.
ter view of new developers, projects, project capacities, and economic impacts that await the country after its upcoming lease sales, from New York
With the 132 MW South Fork already having started export cable work last month and the 800 MW Vineyard Wind
'Will the global supply chain be able to manage the volume?'
MW wind farm, located in federal waters offshore Massachusetts, will bring some important insights about logistics coordination and project execution while complying with US protocols and regulations, the U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report & Insights report states.
investments in upgrades or new production lines without a clearly defined and well-understood revenue stream, which currently leads to the manu-
When it comes to the matter of supply chain readiness, the Network empha-
The U.S. is set to hold four offshore wind lease sales this year, starting with New York Bight, its largest ever offshore wind auction. In the New York Bight lease sale, developers will be able to bid on six offshore wind lease areas, which the Business Network for Offshore Wind expects to result in an influx of new market participants and cascading positive effects through the emerging domestic offshore wind supply chain, as well as in creating market conditions that can lead to reduction of project electricity prices.
sised a lack of domestic capacity to meet the heavy manufacturing needs of offshore wind projects in U.S. waters, which the report attributes to the approach in offshore wind procurement that focuses on the lowest-cost criterion, among other things. This affects the U.S. supply chain as the effect of lowest-cost-based procurement turns out to be making participation by domestic businesses almost impossible, according to the report, while the economic impact the offshore wind industry can bring should be delivered by “enabling robust participation of small business and mid-sized firms”.
1 set to commence offshore works this year, the U.S. market “will begin to gain significant data points and practical understanding of commercial scale offshore wind construction and installation in federal waters”, according to Business Network for Offshore Wind (the Network), whose report also points out that supply chain readiness for the country’s offshore wind industry remains a challenge. Building two projects at the same time, and especially the large-scale 800
The Network also pointed to the need for more planning, concrete timelines, clarity of permitting responsibilities, and clear and consistent governmental support, on both federal and state levels, to boost certainty and investor confidence, and industry planning and readiness. This will, among other things, help domestic manufacturers to reshuffle and upgrade to be able to meet the offshore wind component manufacturing needs, which they currently cannot as they are reluctant to make significant
facturing needs for U.S. offshore wind projects being fulfilled by suppliers outside the country.
Next to that wind energy areas in the Carolina Long Bay will be auctioned, which is set to drive additional economic development opportunities further to the south, the report says, highlighting the need for a rapid expansion of North Carolina’s offshore wind supply chain as the supply chain hubs now emerging in Maryland and Virginia could take on meeting the state’s projects’ demands. Later this year, the U.S. government will also organise lease sales offshore Northern and Central California. According to the Network’s report, these will “highly influence the shaping of California’s offshore wind goals and its offshore wind program”. For the state that last year enacted its first offshore wind legislation which will
10 bring its targets for 2030 and 2045 by this June, the number of leases that the federal government will offer in the upcoming auctions and the successful bidders it yields will affect the level of competition in California’s solicitations seeking offshore wind generation. In late 2022, the first offshore wind leasing is expected to take place for areas in the Gulf of Mexico, for which the report stressed that electricity market conditions are different as Southeast utilities are vertically integrated. The Network also pointed out opportunities for oil and gas infrastructure repurposing and the potential for this U.S. region to drive the offshore wind-to-hydrogen industry. When it comes to the electricity market in the Gulf of Mexico region, the utilities’ model requires any investments they make to be rate-based which leads to price often being the main factor in power generation procurement. Here, the Network again emphasised
that “a purely lowest-cost approach does not necessarily generate the economic development opportunities that a more holistic approach to offshore wind can deliver”. On the opportunities Gulf of Mexico could offer, the report said there was an ongoing discussion regarding repurposing existing offshore oil and gas infrastructure for offshore wind deployment, which is most likely to result in using already-disturbed areas of the seabed for export cable routes while not interfering with the large amount of existing infrastructure in the region. This existing oil and gas infrastructure also positions the region to be a driver in scaling up the synergies between offshore wind and hydrogen, according to the report.
ico state that had publicly expressed an interest in offshore wind in any official capacity. To remind, the state recently set a target of 5 GW of installed offshore wind capacity by 2035 in its first-ever Climate Action Plan. The Plan proposes enactment of the offshore wind power generation goal of 5 GW by 2035, which requires strategic collaboration across Louisiana’s state agencies and the federal government, transmission planning agencies, energy regulators, utilities, and the private sector to take additional steps to advance the development of offshore wind power generation.
Yet, the Gulf of Mexico’s offshore wind market will depend on the decisions and targets of the region’s state gov-
“This clear signal of interest, in the form of a secure revenue stream and likelihood of return on investment, will help drive deployment of offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Mexico”, the Business Network for Offshore Wind said in the report.
ernments, the Network said and added that Louisiana was the only Gulf of Mex-
By Adrijana Buljan
Block Island Offshore Wind Farm. Photo by Ionna2
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Boskalis announces new investments in dredging fleet
Royal Boskalis Westminster, a Papendrecht based company operating in the dredging, maritime infrastructure and maritime services sectors, is making new capital investments in its fleet – centered around strengthening their position in the large and jumbo hopper segment.
Under the plan, Boskalis will modify and lengthen two large trailing suction hopper dredgers (TSHDs) this year. The TSHD Prins der Nederlanden will be lengthened in the first half of 2022, followed by the TSHD Oranje. The process involves cutting the vessel in half and the insertion of a new 45 meter middle section, resulting in a capacity increase to 21,000 cubic meters. Boskalis already has previous experience in ‘extending’ hoppers with the
successful lengthening of the Queen of the Netherlands and the Fairway many years ago. During the lengthening, an overhaul and life extension program of each vessel is conducted. Also, Boskalis will order two new jumbo trailing suction hopper dredgers. Future generation fuels The vessels are being designed to be ready to operate on future generation fuels such as methanol and will be more energy efficient than comparable cur-
rent generation vessels. The dredgers are expected to have a hopper capacity of approximately 25,000 cubic meters with a specific emphasis on a shallow-draught. Most of these dredging vessels are co-designed by Boskalis in consultation with shipyards. The first new vessel is expected to be delivered in 2024. According to Boskalis, market developments are expected to increasingly require larger dredging vessels to op-
'Creating sustainable new horizons'
assessment of market developments during the next decade, the global dredging market for hopper and cutter dredger projects will have a contract value in the order of EUR 57 billion, with the bulk of the identified projects expected in the next five years, said Boskalis.
Trailing suction hopper dredger Oranje. Photo by Boskalis
erate in relatively shallow waters for port-related activities and for coastal protection purposes. Based on a recent
Outlook This outlook is slightly more positive compared to the market assessment conducted two years ago, which is also reflected in a higher cumulative order book of the industry, particularly providing an improved level of near-term visibility for the hopper vessels. “I am optimistic and confident about the
Trailing suction hopper dredger Prins der Nederlanden. Photo by Boskalis
mid- to longer term period that lies ahead of us,” said Peter Berdowski, Boskalis CEO. “The near-term market outlook is generally positive, albeit that the impact of current geopolitical developments in Eastern Europe are difficult to read.” “We have a substantial role to play in the energy transition and providing sustainable solutions to many of the challenges facing today’s world. Together with the best talent in our industry, we are creating sustainable new horizons,” concluded Berdowski. By Eldin Ganic
‘Answers to energy security and climate change concerns lie in energy 'transition’ The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), an intergovernmental organisation aiming to promote renewable energy, has released its energy transition outlook, detailing priority actions to be taken until 2030 to keep the hopes of 1.5°C alive. The organisation believes that the energy transition holds the key to tackling global energy and climate crisis. IRENA’s World Energy Transitions Outlook outlines priority actions till 2030 to keep 1.5°C alive; calls on governments to fast-track energy transition for more energy security, resilience, and affordable energy for all.
Net-zero emissions The outlook was launched late March at the Berlin Energy Transition Dialogue, setting out priority areas and actions based on available technologies that must be realised by 2030 to achieve net-zero emissions by mid-century. It also takes stock of progress across all energy uses to date, clearly showing the inadequate pace and scale of the renewables-based transition. The Ukrainian crisis has pushed the energy market into the limelight, bringing new levels of concern over the security of supply in Europe and wider due to massive amounts of fossil fuels being supplied by Russia.
While the European Union is working to figure out how to reduce its dependence on Russian energy, reduce its overall dependence on gas, and accelerate the energy transition, the U.S. has banned Russian oil, coal, and LNG imports, believing that the way to avoid high gas prices is to speed up – not slow down – the transition to a clean energy future. As part of efforts to cut its Russian energy ties, the EU has also recently agreed with the U.S. for additional LNG supplies for 2022. In the outlook, IRENA said that high fossil fuel prices, energy security concerns, and the urgency of climate
change underscore the pressing need to move faster to a clean energy system. Francesco La Camera, Director-General of IRENA, commented: “The energy transition is far from being on track and anything short of radical action in the coming years will diminish, even eliminate chances to meet our climate goals.” La Camera pointed out that many answers to challenges of energy security, economic recovery and the affordability of energy bills lie in the accelerated transition, adding that investing in new fossil fuel infrastructure will only lock in uneconomic practices, perpetuate ex-
1) significant increases in generation and direct uses of renewables-based electricity; 2) substantial improvements in energy efficiency; 3) the electrification of end-use sectors (e.g. electric vehicles and heat pumps); 4) clean hydrogen and its derivatives; 5) bioenergy coupled with carbon capture and storage; and 6) last-mile use of carbon capture and storage (see Figure ES.1).
isting risks, and increase the threats of climate change. “It is high time to act”, La Camera added.
Reducing emissions by 2050 through six technological avenues
RE based CO2 removals (BECCS)
Benefits The outlook sees investment needs of $.7 trillion per year until 2030 including the imperative to redirect $0.7 trillion annually away from fossil fuels to avoid stranded assets. But investing in the transition would bring concrete socioeconomic and welfare benefits, adding 85 million jobs worldwide in renewables and other transition-related technologies between today and 2030. These job gains would largely surpass the losses of 12 million jobs in fossil fuel industries. Overall, more countries would experience greater benefits on the energy transition path than under WORLD ENERGY business as usual, according TRANSITIONS OUTLOOKto IRENA’s outlook.
FF based CO2 capture and storage (CCS)
Note: Abatement estimates include energy and process-related CO2 emissions along with emissions from non-energy use. Renewables include renewable electricity generation sources and direct use of renewable heat and biomass. Energy efficiency includes measures related to reduced demand and efficiency improvements. Structural changes replaced, fossil fuel assets phased out will take centre stage with many solu(e.g. relocation of steel production with direct reduced iron) and circular economy practices are part of energy and infrastructure upgraded. tions available electrification, efficiency. Electrification includes direct use of clean electricity in transport andthrough heat applications. Hydrogen and its derivatives include synthetic fuels and feedstocks. CCS describes carbon capture and the storage from use point-source green hydrogen, and direct of fossil fuel-based and other emitting processes, mainly in industry. BECCS and other carbon removal measures include Electrification renewables. Notably, electromobility bioenergy coupled with CCS in electricity, heat generation, and industry.
For this to happen, according to the outlook, renewables havejobs to results in 2030 at the 3.4.1 Energywould sector scale up massively across all sectors global level from 14 per cent of total energy today Furthermore, the outlook sees electriis seen as a driver of energy transition CCSsector = carbon capture andrise storage; BECCS = bioenergy with carbon capture and storage; GtCO2 = gigatonnes of The number of people working in the global energy by 2030 could from 106 million under to around per cent 2030. Global(Figure fication asenergy key progress, growing the sales of electric carbon dioxide; RE =efficiency renewable energy; FF =drivers fossil(i.e. fuel. PES to 40 139 million underinthe 1.5°C Scenario 3.10). Job and losses in conventional jobs annual additions of renewable power energy transition, enabled by vehicles (EV) to a global EV fleet twenfossil fuels and nuclear) are more than offset by of gainsthe in renewables and other energy transitionwould tripletechnologies by 2030. (i.e. At the same time,power renewables, hydrogen, sustainaty times bigger than today. However, related energy efficiency, grids and flexibility, hydrogen). and By 2030, the total number would of renewable jobs morebe than doubles 17.4 million in PES to 38.2 million in the coal power haveenergy to resolutely ble from biomass. End-use decarbonisation a comprehensive set of cross-cutting, 1.5°C Scenario, while other energy transition-related sectors rise from 45.8 million to 74.2 million. structural policies covering all techno16 logical avenues and just transition objectives is needed to achieve the necessary deployment levels by 2030. Global energy sector jobs (2019) and under the 1.5°C Scenario and PES (2030) IRENA emphasised that the world’s Jobs (in Million) largest energy consumers and carbon 140 emitters from the G20 and G7 must show leadership and implement am120 Conventional energy bitious plans and investments domesOther transition-related sectors tically and abroad. They would need 100 Renewable energy to support the global supply of 65 per cent renewables in power generation 80 by 2030. 60 40 20 0 2019
Planned Energy 1.5°C Scenario Scenario 2030
Finally, enabling a rapid transition that complies with climate and development goals requires political commitment to support the highest level of international cooperation. A holistic global policy framework can bring countries together to enable the international flow of finance, capacity and technologies.
By Nermina Kulovic
Ocean energy is back on track
Ocean energy deployments are back to pre-pandemic levels, with Europe installing over ten times as much tidal energy capacity and three times as much wave energy compared to 2020, according to a new report released by Ocean Energy Europe (OEE).
Both the wave and tidal energy sectors installed significantly more capacity in 2021 than the previous year, adding 1.39MW and 3.12MW respectively worldwide, according to the statistics report published on March 10, 2022. While Europe still dominates global tidal stream activity, more and more wave capacity is being installed outside Europe, often driven by significant government support. Aside from increase in deployments, investment interest in the sector also
rose, with a slew of announcements by large industrial players and public authorities. The statistics report has also shown that ocean energy is back on track, despite Covid-19 restrictions still affecting activity last year. Private investment An increase in private investment and the entrance of important industrial players into the sector reflect the growing appeal of ocean energy to investors, power producers and manufacturers, the industry body OEE said.
In 2021, the sector signed deals with GE Renewable Energy, Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha (K-Line), Chubu Electric Power, TechnipFMC and Schneider Electric. Governments in the UK, Italy, Spain and the USA also committed significant new funding to ocean energy and innovative renewables. Machines hit the water across all European sea basins, as well as in Asia, Australasia, and North and South America, bringing global cumulative capacity additions to nearly 65MW since 2010.
'Ocean energy is proving itself'
ergy Strategy is still not accelerating large-scale deployments as anticipated, OEE has warned. Commenting on the report, Rémi Gruet, CEO of OEE, said: “Developing new decarbonized, indigenous and affordable energy sources is not a luxury – it is a necessity. The EU must kickstart its offshore renewables strategy now, and empower ocean energy to deliver energy independence and decarbonization as part of a diverse set of renewables.
Nova Innovation’s tidal turbine. Photo by Nova Innovation
New capacity projections for Europe in 2022 remain steady, but conspicuously muted when compared to the EU’s objectives for ocean energy. Despite having set a clear target for 2025, the EU Offshore Renewable En-
Mocean Energy’s Blue X in operation at EMEC. Photo by Colin Keldie
Adaptable sector “The figures from 2021 reflect a strong, adaptable sector, and show that ocean energy is proving itself, both technologically and as an investment.” According to the report, tidal stream sector in 2022 will be focused on expanding pilot farms, and deploying new prototypes, while wave energy will be dominated by full-scale device developments. For tidal stream, deployments in Europe are set to continue at a steady pace in 2022, with at least 1.4MW of capacity is slated for installation. While total installed capacity might be lower
than in 2022, more devices should be deployed next year, OEE states. Following the precedent set by deployments in 2021, most new devices will find a home in British and Dutch waters. Outside of Europe, installations in 2021 could add at least 1MW of tidal energy capacity. Canada will lead deployments with the progress of Nova Scotia’s pilot farms, while China is set to install at least one device, according to the report. Wave energy For wave energy, up to 2.8MW of wave energy capacity is lined up for deployment in Europe, the bulk of which will come from full-scale devices. Most of these deployments will take place in the UK, Spain and Portugal. Four new full-scale devices – made by CorPower Ocean, Eni, Bombora and Wavepiston – should hit European waters in 2022. Outside Europe, installations could add 1.1MW of wave energy capacity to the global total. Several devices are expected to be deployed – in the USA, Oscilla Power’s Triton-C, and in China, GIEC’s second full-scale device. By Amir Garanovic
Russia’s war in Ukraine will not hinder Europe’s energy transition, DNV says
Norway-based classification society DNV has revealed within its new analysis that the war in Ukraine will not derail Europe’s energy transition. Instead, it is expected to speed it up as countries pivot towards renewables in a bid to become independent from Russian gas more quickly, leading to faster decarbonisation.
Turning away from Russian gas will accelerate Europe’s energy transition due to fewer fossil fuels in the energy mix and lower greenhouse gas emissions, DNV says. A new analysis from its Energy Transition Research shows that 34 per cent of the energy mix in Europe – two percentage points more than the pre-war forecast – will come from non-fossil fuels in 2024. Pre-war model Moreover, overall gas use will drop 9 per cent in 2024 compared with DNV’s pre-war model run. As explained by DNV, the biggest percentage increase is in solar, which by 2026 is up 20 per cent while the delayed retirement of some of the continent’s nuclear power
plants is also an important component of filling the gap. While DNV recognizes that some coal is needed in the very short term to meet Europe’s energy demand, its report and analysis anticipate that postponed retirements and higher nuclear utilization will be important to cover the shortfall of natural gas by 2024. DNV presumed Europe would cut Russian gas imports by 80 per cent in 2023 and 100 per cent in 2025 for this analysis. Remi Eriksen, Group President and CEO of DNV, remarked: “As they did during the COVID-19 pandemic, Europe’s leaders have applied clarity of thought during a crisis to accelerate
the continent’s energy transition. This time Europe is increasing energy security whilst reducing emissions.” Emissions from energy Furthermore, emissions from energy will be 580Mt or 2.3 per cent lower in Europe in the period 2022-2030, compared to a pathway without the Ukraine war, based on this analysis. According to DNV, this is due to the increased prominence of low carbon energy – renewables and nuclear – more energy efficiency and, in the short to medium term, lower economic growth. DNV believes that Russia’s pivot East will not fully compensate for reduced gas exports to Europe because of lim-
Photo by DNV
ited infrastructure, as the Asian market cannot compensate for the loss of the European market. However, the analysis estimates that Europe itself will produce 12 per cent more gas in 2030, as a reflection of the industry’s reaction to higher oil and gas prices in the short term and in response to the pledge from the EU to deliver more gas. While DNV’s analysis sees the role of imported LNG as limited by regasification capacity – with extra infrastructure expected to take two to five years to build – it still shows that imported LNG will form a strand of the continent’s overall energy security strategy. In line with this, the European Union inked a deal with the U.S. in March 2022 to get 15 billion cubic meters of LNG this year. Sverre Alvik, Director of Energy Transition Research at DNV, commented:
“The war in Ukraine has shaken the energy markets but decarbonisation remains the central theme. Energy companies will have to strike a careful balance between meeting the shortterm supply gap for oil and gas whilst avoiding stranded assets in the longer term.” DNV further elaborated that there is a risk of overcapacity in the oil and gas sector towards the end of the decade as companies look to capitalize on the high prices and supply gap. As consequences of the conflict – such as the reduced GDP growth and slower globalization – are likely to further dampen demand, DNV forecasts that the long-term trend remains bearish for oil. Forecasts After looking at the changes to the energy transition forecasts following the
war in Ukraine, including Europe’s decision on Russian imports, DNV reported that the increased oil and gas capacity towards 2030 will lead to lower prices which will likely increase global use in the 2030s by a small amount. According to DNV, there is no immediate end in sight to high electricity prices for consumers. The analysis anticipates that electricity prices will be 12 per cent higher in Europe in 2024 than if the continent did not transition away from Russian energy. Additionally, the rise in commodity costs will also impinge on the take-up of electric vehicles as battery costs rise. In line with this, half of new car sales in Europe will be electric in 2028 instead of 2027, although, DNV thinks that this could be overcome by policy incentives. By Melisa Cavcic
United Heavy Lift sets sights on methanolpowered dualfuel ships
Germany-based multipurpose shipping company United Heavy Lift (UHL) prefers methanol as marine fuel for its future fleet of vessels, Andreas Rolner, Managing Director of the company revealed. The company is currently working on various newbuilding projects in an effort “to become the most sustainable player in its market segment”.
UHL has already developed designs for its next-gen vessels that will comply with the latest environmental regulations. The innovative ship concepts are larger than the current units in the UHL fleet, in line with the new market requirements, according to Rolner. “New ships will certainly be IMO Tier III compliant but we are also looking at dual-fuel engines,” Rolner said. Alternative fuel “It is now the question which path one
should take — green methanol, ammonia and hydrogen. It is still difficult to say which one.” Rolner added that UHL is in ongoing contact with engine manufacturers to explore what will be the most suitable technology of the future. He further explained that the problem is that United Heavy Lift operates worldwide and therefore needs to have a guarantee that a certain alternative fuel will be available in enough quantities. Therefore, dual-fuel propulsion is the right option for the
company. When asked about preferences regarding alternative future fuels, UHL Managing Director said it is methanol. “I think that we go in the direction of methanol… The product is not yet available on the market but we are confident that it will change in the coming years,” Rolner pointed out. Future proof In order to make its existing ships fu-
“I think that we go in the direction of methanol. The product is not yet available on the market but we are confident that it will change in the coming years,” says Andreas Rolner, Managing Director of United Heavy Lift.
ture-proof, UHL is considering fleet optimization to further reduce emissions. Moreover, the company wants to convert its ships to Tier III, however, it says that this will require a huge investment. UHL provides ocean transportation services for heavy lift, breakbulk and project cargo. It currently has a fleet of 22 vessels, including 17 F900 ECO-Lifter type units, three 19,000 dwt vessels and two 12,000 dwt ships. In addition, UHL’s sister companies United Heavy Transport (UHT) com-
pany and United Wind Logistic (UWL) operate deck carriers and semi-submersibles, respectively. Methanol (CH3OH) is water-soluble and readily biodegradable, comprising four parts hydrogen, one part oxygen, and one part carbon, and is the simplest member of a group of organic chemicals called alcohols. Its benefits such as fungibility, availability, energy density and most importantly, the ability to significantly reduce emissions
immediately put it in the spotlight of maritime decarbonisation, according to a recent report published by clean energy financial services firm Longspur Research. Emissions Shipping is said to generate over one billion tons of emissions through carbon dioxide (CO2) and airborne pollutants such as sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx) and particulate matter, and methanol is said to be able
'CCUS necessary for achieving climate goals'
to cut these emissions by over 60% thanks to its clean-burning qualities. Moreover, methanol produced from natural gas offers an initial 10-15% CO2 saving, rising to over 90% when using renewable methanol. Between 2020 and 2021, methanol as a marine fuel has become one of the frontrunners instead of being just one of the obscure alternative fuel options. The first quarter of 2022 already suggests that methanol will dominate the shipping discourse in the months and even years ahead. Since the beginning of the year, numerous projects have been launched focusing on methanol as a promising future fuel for ships.
Industry Engine manufacturers, shipbuilders, shipping companies, class societies, fuel suppliers are all working together to accelerate the development of methanol-powered ships, infrastructure and enable methanol’s wider commercial application. On 10 March 2022, Danish shipping and logistics giant Maersk hit the headlines as it entered six separate strategic partnerships to secure green fuel supply for its fleet of twelve new 16,000 TEU methanol-powered boxships. The company intends to source at least 730,000 tonnes/year by end of 2025.
Danish shipping and logistics giant Maersk is investing in methanol-powered boxships
Recently, another significant methanol ship project was announced when six Japanese companies decided to form a strategic alliance aimed at reducing environmental impact through the development of Japan’s first methanol-fueled tanker. The alliance partners are Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL), MOL Coastal Shipping, Tabuchi Kaiun, Niihama Kaiun, Murakami Hide Shipbuilding, and The Hanshin Diesel Works. The newbuild is slated for delivery in 2024. By Naida Hakirevic Prevljak
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Shell highlights need for balance in addressing climate change and security of supply Oil and gas giant Shell has filed an appeal against a ruling made by a Dutch court less than a year ago, ordering the major to speed up its emission cuts. Shell believes that recent challenges with energy supply show that the energy transition is more than just reducing carbon emissions, but is a “political balancing act, requiring government-led policies.”
The case against Shell was filed in 2019 by Dutch environmental organisation Milieudefensie, other NGOs, and a group of private individuals. In a ruling described as first-of-its-kind, the District Court in The Hague in May 2021 ordered Shell to reduce its worldwide aggregate carbon emissions by 45 per cent by 2030, compared to 2019 levels. The court
said that Shell was also responsible for emissions from customers and suppliers and that the company must comply with the judgment immediately. Ruling After the ruling came in, the environmentalists cheered the court’s decision but Shell said it was
disappointed and that it would appeal against it. However, before going into details about the recently announced appeal against the ruling, it is important to provide a more in-depth overview of Shell’s net-zero plans and how they changed since the company first made the pledge to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.
Shell believes that recent challenges with energy supply show that the energy transition is more than just reducing carbon emissions, but is a “political balancing act, requiring government-led policies.” Photo by Shell / James Goldman
'Energy transition requires government-led policies'
2030, 45 per cent by 2035 and 100 per cent by 2050, using a baseline of 2016. Shell then also confirmed that its total carbon emissions peaked in 2018 at 1.7 gigatonnes per annum and that its total oil production peaked in 2019. The company’s Energy Transition Plan was put up for an advisory vote to shareholders, becoming the first in the sector to do so. After the vote, Shell won the support of 89 per cent of shareholders.
Shell first announced its plan to become a net-zero emissions energy business by 2050 or sooner back in April 2020. The initial steps toward a net-zero future also included plans for reducing the Net Carbon Footprint of the energy products it sells to its customers by around 65 per cent by 2050, and by around 30 per cent by 2035. Come February 2021 and Shell mapped out its strategy to accelerate its drive toward net-zero under its Powering Progress strategy. A new set of targets was revealed, including a target to reduce net carbon intensity: 6-8 per cent by 2023, 20 per cent by
The court ruling came in May 2021 and then, in June 2021, Shell CEO, Ben van Beurden, set out how he believes Shell should rise to the challenge. Voicing his disappointment, van Beurden questioned the court’s decision to single out an energy company to reduce its carbon emissions as well as the implications of the ruling. Nevertheless, he said that he feels a determination to rise to the challenge. The CEO explained that the court’s decision did not mean a change for Shell, but rather the acceleration of its already published strategy to become a net-zero company by 2050. “Society needs to take urgent action on climate change. But a court ordering one energy company to reduce its emissions – and the emissions of its customers – is not the answer,” van Beurden stated at the time, adding that, for companies to invest successfully, they also need bold, clear, and consistent government policies and regulations.
Several months later, Shell announced an absolute emissions reduction target of 50 per cent by 2030, compared to 2016 levels on a net basis. This new target covered all scope 1 and 2 emissions under the company’s operational control. The firm also committed to bringing forward its target to eliminate routine gas flaring from its upstream operated assets from 2030 to 2025. Earlier this year, it also came to light that Shell’s board is facing legal action over what was described as “mismanaging climate risk.” An environmental law charity and a shareholder in Shell, ClientEarth, took the first step in legal action against the board of directors of Shell, seeking to hold it liable for failing to properly prepare for the energy transition, claiming it to be the first-ever case of its kind. ClientEarth is arguing that the board’s failure to properly manage climate risk to Shell means that it is breaching its legal duties. Appeal Now comes the appeal. In a LinkedIn post, Shell’s Marjan van Loon, President-Directeur Shell Nederland, revealed that the company had filed the appeal against the ruling made by the District Court of The Hague. Van Loon emphasised that, in addition to targeted emission cuts, the energy major is also investing in lowercarbon energy to help customers reduce emissions, including investing in offshore wind and solar parks to
help more homes and businesses run on renewable energy; building an extensive network of charging points for customers with electric vehicles; and investing in low-carbon fuels for sectors that cannot easily switch to electricity such as aviation and heavyduty transport. This also applies to the Netherlands, where in the last two years alone, Shell decided to invest €2 billion or about $2.2 billion a year in energy transition projects. According to van Loon, these actions support the Paris Agreement and position Shell well towards meeting the obligations of the District Court. However, she explained that the company is moving ahead with the appeal “because we believe we have good grounds for doing so.” Namely, Shell is questioning how the company can have a legal obligation to reduce carbon emissions it does not control from customers who are not under a similar legal obligation to reduce their emissions. “Focusing on one company, as the District Court has done, results in others meeting the needs of that company’s customers, not in a reduction in demand. The world needs a shift in demand to low-
carbon products to achieve a net-zero energy system,” she explained. She pointed out that, while Shell develops and supplies these products, the choice is up to the customer. Therefore, Shell believes that it is for governments to determine the right trade-offs for society and put in place the policies that bring about fundamental changes in the way society consumes energy. Lower carbon energy When it comes to Shell’s investments in lower carbon energy, over in the UK, where Shell is headquartered now, the company is investing up to £25 billion or about $32.8 billion in the country’s energy system over the next ten years. Under these plans, Shell will pour more than 75 per cent of the total investment in the UK into low and zero-carbon products and services, including offshore wind, hydrogen, and electric mobility. Shell’s aim is to propel the UK closer to net-zero and help ensure the security of supply. The major is already a part of three offshore wind projects in Scotland. It is also involved in projects in the U.S.,
including the Mayflower Wind project in Massachusetts and part of a joint venture which secured an offshore wind lease in the New York Bight. Furthermore, the company revealed it aims to install up to 17 GW of offshore wind capacity across six areas in Brazil. Supply of energy Pointing out recent challenges in energy supply and spikes in energy prices, exacerbated by the Ukrainian crisis, van Loon said they underscore the role of governments in balancing the need to address climate change and ensuring a secure, reliable, and affordable supply of energy. Shell underlined that the energy transition must focus on more than reducing carbon emissions. “This is a political balancing act, requiring effective, government-led policies. These challenges cannot be solved by litigation between private parties and judgments against individual companies,” Shell said. “It is for these reasons that we are appealing the District Court’s ruling,” Shell concluded. By Nermina Kulovic
In the Netherlands Shell decided to invest €2 billion year in energy transition projects. Photo by Shell / Stuart Conway
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Hapag-Lloyd to deploy first dual-fuel 23,500+ TEU ships in 2023
German container shipping company Hapag-Lloyd plans to deploy the first of its twelve new 23,500+ TEU vessels in 2023, Lutz-Michael Dyck, Senior Director Strategic Asset Projects at Hapag-Lloyd, confirmed. In late 2020 and mid-2021, the European ocean carrier ordered a dozen of new ultra large container vessels (ULCVs) from South Korean shipyard Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME).
Once completed, the 400-meter-long and 61-meter-wide newbuilds will be among the largest ships in the world. Recently, the company published an interview with Dyck who provided more details on the process of building the giant ships. “The ships are currently being built in South Korea, and we expect the first ships to already be ready for deployment in 2023,” Dyck said. “The
first ship is scheduled for delivery on 30 April 2023, and the last of the 12 vessels will be delivered to us on 31 December 2024.” As informed by Lutz-Michael, the first steel plate for building the first ship was cut on 27 December 2021, and work has already started on building the so-called “blocks” that will later be used to assemble the ship. The keel-laying of the first unit in the dry dock is planned for 22 August 2022.
The company has already chosen names for the first six units, Dyck said. They will be the Singapore Express, the Manila Express, the Bangkok Express, the Mumbai Express, the Busan Express and the Hanoi Express. The remaining six vessels are yet to be named. LNG-powered With this order, Hapag-Lloyd joined its counterparts in ordering dual-fuel, en-
Photo by Hapag-Lloyd
vironmentally friendly ULCVs. The investment followed the company’s first conversion project of an LNG-ready ultra-large containership to LNG. Speaking about the vessels dual-fuel capability, Dyck said: “The ships are Hapag-Lloyd’s first newbuildings to be designed from the outset as dual-fuel vessels, meaning they can be operated with both conventional fuel oil and liquified natural gas (LNG). LNG can be used to operate not only
the main engine, but also the auxiliary machinery and boilers. Compared to conventional fuels, LNG places completely new demands on storage and handling, and we will need a lot of additional equipment. For example, the storage temperature of LNG in the tank is around -160°C (-256°C). The LNG must be vaporised to operate the machinery, and a high pressure of 300 bar is also required for the main engine.”
“There are also other safety-related issues, as the requirements are much higher for LNG systems. All of this is still new for us. However, thanks to the retrofitting of the “Brussels Express”, we have already gained some valuable experience with engines featuring dual-fuel technology. Even though the tank on that ship is different, its main engine is more or less the same: a MAN engine with a high-pressure system. We chose this type of engine because
'200 welders needed special training'
its so-called “methane slip” – meaning the unburned methane that escapes from engines into the atmosphere – is lower than with a low-pressure system. This will also enable us to meet the tightened environment-protection requirements better. This is already a step in the right direction. In the future, however, we want to operate our ships increasingly with CO2-neutral SNG or bio gas,” Dyck revealed. Newbuilds Unlike standard fuel tanks, the LNG tank isn’t part of the block method of construction. Instead, it is built in another location. According to Dyck, more time was allotted for building the tanks of the first ship. “This is a pilot project – and one that is the first of its kind in the world – because the Type B tank will be made of steel with
Photo by Hapag-Lloyd
a particularly high manganese content. This is why the welders will need special training. So 200 welders had to be trained first, which naturally required a certain amount of advance preparation.” Despite this, the construction was able to start earlier than predicted. Moreover, progress on building the ships for Hapag-Lloyd hasn’t been impacted by the pandemic yet. This is a result of South Korea’s low infection rate. “The only thing that could present a hurdle is the delayed arrival of equipment from outside the country, but we haven’t had any problems with that yet, either.” “What’s more, owing to the large number of deliveries that we will receive for several ships, we always have the
possibility to react and reschedule – because they are all structurally identical. If the construction of the first ship goes smoothly, I’m very confident that there shouldn’t be any delays with the other ones, either,” the company’s Senior Director Strategic Asset Projects concluded. Hapag-Lloyd has two other orders for 13,000 TEU ships, one for three and one for two, in South Korea and China. These units will not be equipped with dual-fuel engines. Instead, these will be five containerships with scrubbers. The first unit, under construction in South Korea, is slated for delivery on 31 August 2023. By Naida Hakirevic Prevljak
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in cooperation with
Gasunie, HES, Vopak to develop green ammonia terminal in Rotterdam Gasunie, HES International (HES), and Vopak have joined forces to develop an import terminal for green ammonia as a hydrogen carrier in the Port of Rotterdam. The parties have signed a cooperation agreement to that effect.
Their cooperation is a response to the growing global demand for the import and storage of green energy. An import terminal for green ammonia will make a major contribution to the import of hydrogen. This is an essential link in the hydrogen chain, alongside hydrogen production, transport, and storage. Moreover, a reliable logistic chain is essential for developing the market for green hydrogen and for
achieving the climate goals for 2030 and 2050. This quarter, the companies will start working on the basic design of the import terminal. The terminal, which will operate under the name ACE Terminal, will come online in 2026. At the location on Maasvlakte, Rotterdam, vessels can moor to discharge green ammonia, and in the initial phase possibly
also blue ammonia. Use can be made of the existing infrastructure and facilities of the Port of Rotterdam. The site also offers space for the development of an installation for converting ammonia into hydrogen. In the future, this installation will be connected to the national hydrogen network of Gasunie, which can serve the future hydrogen market in Northwestern Europe.
The Maasvlakte, photo by Port of Rotterdam. Photo by Danny Cornelissen
Ammonia as hydrogen carrier In addition to the production of green hydrogen in the Netherlands, there will also be demand in Northwestern Europe for the large-scale import of green hydrogen, in order to meet future demand. Green ammonia as a hydrogen carrier will play a vital role, the companies say. Reacting green hydrogen with nitrogen forms green ammonia, allowing the hydrogen to be efficiently and safely transported in large volumes. It can then be stored and converted again to green hydrogen. Green ammonia is also immedi-
ately usable as CO2-free fuel for example for shipping or as a raw material. On the Maasvlakte, HES operates a strategic location with quayside capacity and direct access from the sea. Gasunie has at this location infrastructure of existing storage tanks and a system of pipelines. Vopak, with six ammonia terminals around the world, has experience in the safe storage of the fuel. The eventual investment decision is still pending. It will be based among
others on customer contracts and the necessary permits, including the EIA procedure. The service proposition will entail an independent open-access terminal infrastructure, in which the partners will not own the green ammonia. The parties will soon launch a market consultation procedure, in which interested parties can announce their interest in the supply, storage, and transshipment of green ammonia and hydrogen. By Sanja Pekic
Norway awards CCS licenses to Equinor, Horisont Energi, Vår Energi The Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy has awarded carbon capture and storage (CCUS) licenses to Equinor, Horisont Energi, and Vår Energi. CCUS is necessary for achieving the climate goals. Carbon transport and storage infrastructure (CCS) is crucial for providing CO2 solutions on a commercial basis.
Safe capture and storage of CO2 is also an enabler for developing blue hydrogen and ammonia. With CCS, blue hydrogen and ammonia can eliminate emissions from the use of gas, thus ensuring access to large amounts of low-carbon energy. With the use of CCS, emissions can also be significantly reduced from gas-fired power plants.
Applications In December, Norway’s government received applications from Shell, Equinor, Horisont Energi, Northern Lights JV, and Vår Energi related to two areas on the Norwegian continental shelf to be allocated for the injection and storage of CO2. After that, the ministry moved on to processing the received applications with plans to al-
locate the areas during the first half of 2022. On 5 April, Norway’s energy ministry announced the award of CO2 licenses. One of the two exploration permits under the storage regulations is located in the North Sea and one in the Barents Sea. The North Sea one is offered to Equinor, while the license in
'CCUS necessary for achieving climate goals'
tial expansions. Additional storage capacity will be offered to third parties in Norway and Europe.
Photo by Horisont Energi
the Barents Sea is offered to a group consisting of Equinor, Horisont Energi, and Vår Energi. Specifically, the ministry awarded Equinor the operatorships for the two licenses referred to by the company as “Smeaheia” and “Polaris”. In its application, Equinor has submitted plans to develop the CO2 storage capacity in Smeaheia at 20 million tonnes annually. Northern Lights, the CO2 storage facility in the Longship project, has a planned injection capacity of 1.5 million tonnes a year in Phase 1 available from 2024. Further plans include developing the capacity to 5-6 million tonnes a year from around 2026.
Barents Sea Polaris CCS is located in the Barents Sea. The storage is a key part of the Barents Blue project which Equinor, Vår Energi, and Horisont Energi are developing. The project is developing an ammonia production facility at Markoppneset in Hammerfest that will reform natural gas from the Barents Sea to clean, blue ammonia using CCUS. The first stage of the development includes the capture, transport, and storage of 2 million tonnes of CO2 each year. The Polaris license is to provide the necessary storage capacity for Barents Blue, including all poten-
“The CO2 quota price almost tripled in 2021, and the number of available quotas will continue to decline in the coming years to meet the 2030 climate goals in the EU. This trend makes CO2 storage commercially attractive for several industries. We firmly believe that Polaris will meet a shortage in the carbon storage market,” said Haukelidsæter Eidesen, CEO of Horisont Energi. With these two projects, Equinor aims to contribute to CO2 reductions equivalent to half of Norway’s annual emissions. Equinor also has ambitions to develop further storage licenses in the North Sea in the coming years. In October 2021, Equinor launched Norway energy hub, with a goal to further develop Norway as an energy nation. Norway energy hub consists of four building blocks: decarbonisation of oil and gas, industrialisation of offshore wind, commercialisation of CCS, and large-scale hydrogen production. Equinor says it has the ambition to develop value chains for CO2 transport and storage with an annual capacity of 15-30 million tonnes of CO2 within 2035. Collaboration between industries, governments, and organisations is crucial to success. By Sanja Pekic
Three projects to share €300K to advance offshore floating solar sector Three project consortia in the Netherlands – involving technology developers Oceans of Energy and SolarDuck – have been selected to receive €100,000 each to further advance offshore floating solar industry in the Netherlands. The announcement follows innovation call, launched by TKI Wind op Zee together with TKI Urban Energy back in October 2021, to support organizations in exploring research and innovations in floating solar energy.
Three project consortia have been selected to receive €100,000 each, bringing together SolarDuck and TNO in the BOC project, Deltares and Oceans of Energy for the CeFlar project, and MARIN and SolarDuck in the WindForce project. SolarDuck has recently successfully commissioned its first offshore floating solar prototype. However,
large OFPV assemblies of more than 10MWp is the target and this requires an upgrade of the connections to cope with the high waves and high winds. TNO and SolarDuck will therefore jointly develop a robust coupling in this research that has both resilient and damping properties. During the research, the spring/ damper characteristics will be deter-
mined under various conditions on the basis of really large tests at TNO. The calculation method to be developed will be validated on the basis of this. This is expected to result in a significant reduction in peak loads and vibration levels. This can be beneficial in reducing the mass and costs of the coupling and construction of offshore floating solar installations.
to the transformer station must be strong and flexible enough to withstand different wave and current conditions. In the Delta Flume, a nearly 300-metre long Deltares wave facility, a prototype cable will be tested under various wave and current conditions. This research is expected to provide more insight into the forces on the cables. The results of this research can then be applied to theoretical concepts about the effect of North Sea conditions on cable infrastructure and translated into realistic solutions. The results can also be used to optimize the design of cable protection systems. Since offshore floating solar plants preferably consists of large areas with low construction weight, in order to reduce the associated costs, it is inherently sensitive to wind loads. The combination of wind dynamics with waves and coupled structures is at the current end of what is possible in modern modelling techniques. SolarDuck’s floating solar systems. Photo by SolarDuck
Cables Oceans of Energy’s offshore floating solar panels have withstood many storms on the high seas in the past two years. In the CeFlar project, Deltares and Oceans of Energy will investigate the effect of waves and currents on the electricity cables of a solar park in typical North Sea conditions. The cables that carry the electricity from the floating solar farm
This study aims to take modelling techniques and knowledge about the phenomena of wind wave and lightweight construction interaction to the next level. In a collaboration, MARIN and SolarDuck will investigate the interaction between wind,
wave and offshore floating solar systems. For this research, CFD simulations will be made of the combination of waves, wind, anchorage and linked platforms. The obtained simulation results will be validated with integrated wind and wave testing in the wave basin at MARIN, the developers said. With their research, SolarDuck and MARIN want to further position the Netherlands as an expert knowledge center, developer and ultimately exporter of offshore floating solar systems. In addition, the improved understanding of the interaction with the wind wave structure will help to save costs and create a competitive advantage for all offshore floating solar developers. According to the roadmap for floating solar energy, released by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate, large-scale application of offshore floating solar in the North Sea could be possible in the next 10 to 20 years. However, the market is currently still facing challenges such as costs, the demanding maritime environment and integration into the energy system. By Amir Garanovic
Oceans of Solar’s floating solar systems. Photo by Oceans of Solar
The Next Generation of Offshore Crew Change
Damen FCS 7011 ‘Aqua Helix’ leaving Port of Rotterdam for sea trials
New modes of fast, reliable and fuel efficient transport for offshore crew and provisions promise to boost offshore energy operations. Vessels that sail at high speed even in the roughest conditions and that are able to provide safe and easy transfer from ship to offshore stations offer crew welfare at increased passenger capacity with a comfortable ride.
The range of Fast Crew Suppliers (FCS) from Damen Shipyards offers crew transfer vessels that are able to sail at speeds up to 40 knots and conquer waves at significant wave heights up to 3 meters, typically the North Sea conditions at the more windy days. It is the Axe Bow that enables the largest crew supply vessel to date, the FCS 7011, to power up the waterjets to reach such impressive speed in waves. Likewise, the twin axe bow design of the FCS2710 ensures seaworthiness at speed in rough conditions. Both vessels are purpose designed to offer very comfortable crew transport at impressively modest fuel consumption and emissions. Proof of concept By the end of March 2022, the all new FCS7011 ‘Aqua Helix’ completed the first actual transfer of offshore crew to an
offshore substation in the North Sea. The final testing to demonstrate the proof of concept of the 120 passenger vessel follows extensive sea trials and testing of the onboard Ampelmann stabilized gangway. The fast monohull FCS7011 (length over all = 73.6 meters, beam = 11.2 meters) is built in aluminium. The weight reduction achieved by choosing this lightweight metal makes it possible to sail at the high speed required with acceptable fuel consumption. The axe bow greatly reduces slamming and pitching. The slender hull tends to roll when the boat is stopped or sails slowly. The biggest gyro stabilizer in the world reduces rolling at zero speed down to 10 per cent of the motions that would occur without stabilization. When the FCS7011 positions itself along a platform or station at sea where the transported offshore workers need to
step on to, the Ampelmann gangway can swing out over a 180 degree scope. This allows the vessel to position itself with a favorable heading regarding the incoming wind and waves. The gangway extends to a length of 26 meter. Gyroscope-fed computer technology enables the Ampelmann S-type stabilized gangway to be completely motionless in front of the platform balcony, so the offshore workers can step over with great ease, even in harsh and remote offshore locations. Major offshore energy players like Shell and Exxon provided input that inspired Damen engineers to develop the FCS7011. Damen and Ampelmann join forces to operate this game changer in offshore crew transport in-house. The passenger capacity of 120 persons is bigger than the typical crew change at North Sea platforms. Thanks to it’s
speed and big capacity, ‘Aqua Helix’ can make a tour along multiple platforms for crew changes and still offer competitive transfer time and comfort as compared to helicopters. Larger numbers of crew within one transfer are often at stations off the Western African coast, Australia, Guyana and Brazil in South America and the Gulf of Mexico, where offshore platforms are often further off the coast. The FCS7011 is ideally suited to bring these larger numbers of energy professionals to their working stations and back to shore. Hybrid Keen industry appeal is invoked by the twin axe bow FCS2710, a catamaran that offers capabilities that fit offshore supply at a bit smaller scale. In particular, the offshore wind industry embraces the possibilities offered by this vessel. Also on this vessel, the axe bow design enables fast sailing on rough seas. As any catamaran, the hull offers good stability. In their commitment towards sustainability, in line with the objectives of the global offshore wind domain, Damen Shipyards have developed next to the fuel efficient diesel powered FCS2710, the FCS2710 Hybrid. (26.8 meters length over all, 10.5 m. beam) The vessel can take 26 passengers, offers additional 90 square meters of deck area and can reach speeds up to 25 knots. A 232 kWh battery pack allows sailing with zero emissions in port and within the offshore wind farm.
The twin ax bow Fast Crew Supplier 2710 'Farra Lark' has space for 24 people and a 90 m² deck space
The generators and main engines are quite fuel efficient even without the electric support and all comply to IMO tier III emission standards. While a fleet of FCS2710’s is already in operation, Damen Shipyards have started construction of three more of these hybrid vessels at the Damen Antalya yard to be built in stock. The shipbuilder is convinced these vessels offer such superior capacities for offshore operators, they will be sold at short hand. For clients, getting the vessels from stock means extremely short delivery times. Customisation with cranes, additional battery packs or other deck equipment is also available at short notice. Change Damen Shipyards Group sets to revolutionise the offshore crew transfer
market with their fleet of fast vessels. This fleet offers a viable alternative for helicopters. Improvement of safety, reduction of cost and increased efficiency are the pillars of how Damen together with its partners will change this market with the ‘flagship’ FCS 7011 soon demonstrating her potential to the offshore energy market.
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Fugro to survey new Dutch offshore wind zones Fugro Netherlands Marine has won the contract to carry out geophysical investigations at the IJmuiden Ver V and VI offshore wind sites in the Dutch North Sea. The IJmuiden Ver V and VI areas are located in the northern part of the IJmuiden Ver wind farm zone, and the investigation area covers approximately 250 square kilometres.
BP entering Japanese offshore wind market BP has entered into an agreement with Marubeni to form a strategic partnership for offshore wind and potentially other decarbonisation projects, including hydrogen, in Japan. The new partnership will see BP acquiring a stake in Marubeni’s proposed offshore wind project in the country. Under the agreement, BP will join with Marubeni on a proposed offshore wind project by purchasing a 49 per cent stake. In connection with the agreement, the oil and gas major will also establish a local offshore wind development team in Tokyo. The companies see teaming up on the offshore wind project as a first step towards building a market-leading offshore wind position in Japan, according to a press release issued by BP on 23 March. “We are unlocking new regions and new opportunities for BP. Combining our international energy expertise and technical capabilities with Marubeni’s track record of wind and energy development and first-class regional relationships, we can together build important new clean energy resources for Japan and Asia”, said Anja-Isabel Dotzenrath, BP’s executive vice president of gas & low carbon energy. The oil and gas company, which has offshore wind projects in the UK and the US, wants to continue to build on its offshore wind portfolio, according to Anja-Isabel Dotzenrath. BP already has a net offshore wind development pipeline of more than 5 GW, with the 2.5 GW Empire Wind 2 and Beacon Wind 1 projects in the US and the Morgan and Mona projects in the UK that could have up to 3 GW of installed capacity. The company has also joined the consortium between Statkraft and Aker Offshore Wind which is preparing a bid for the offshore wind auction in Norway. Both BP and Marubeni have also won development rights in the recently closed ScotWind leasing round in Scotland, BP in partnership with EnBW and Marubeni in a consortium with SSE Renewables and Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners (CIP). Japan is aiming to be carbon neutral by 2050 and has set a target of deploying 10 GW of offshore wind capacity by 2030 and 30-45 GW by 2040.
The two areas will be able to accommodate around 2 GW of offshore wind capacity, on top of the 4 GW of capacity already planned in the IJmuiden Ver zone. According to the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO), the intention is to carry out the field work in the second and third quarter of 2022. The objective of the geophysical soil investigation is to improve the bathymetrical, morphological, and geological understanding and to identify objects in the designated wind farm sites. A second objective is to obtain geophysical information on these locations, which is suitable for the preparation of geotechnical investigations and for the design and installation requirements of offshore wind farms. The Dutch government is set to issue two tenders for the permits to develop the IJmuiden Ver I, II, III, and IV zones. In 2023, developers will bid for IJmuiden Ver I and II sites, and in 2025 a tender will be launched for IJmuiden Ver III and IV. Fugro has previously worked on the development of an integrated ground model and a geotechnical interpretative report for the first four zones, as well as on geotechnical investigations for the sites.
pioneers of steerable propulsion www.hydromasterpropulsion.com
What is happening
Hydromaster designs new thruster In the early part of 2021, Hydromaster Propulsion received a contract from Damen Shipyards for the supply of 12 units of High-Speed Azimuth Propulsion thrusters for the new Hybrid Waterbus project with Blue Amigo. An event preceded by extensive studies and thorough research & development which led to the birth of this new thruster. A period in which Hydromaster worked closely together with Damen to match the requirements and implement exactly what was essential for the new Waterbus. The thruster design is revolutionary, pushing the boundaries of Azimuth propulsion with its ability to drive a vessel beyond 28 knots. The thrust-
ers are controlled by a Single Joystick system from the wheelhouse, making it an easy task for the captain to control this highly manoeuvrable vessel. The thruster features a vertical positioned electric propulsion motor mounted on top of the thruster, driving the propeller shaft through a bevel gearset. A preferred solution ready for future full electric emission free transport over water. Another example of the Company’s contribution to emission free transport over water is the delivery of Two 300 kW Electric driven Hydromaster Series 4 Azimuth thrusters for Kotug’s new inland pusher barge. A full elec-
tric pusher tug which is set to operate later this year, transporting cocoa beans from Amsterdam to the Cargill factory in Zaandam.
LNG-fueled PCTC design wins DNV approval AuthoritiesFrench containment specialist GTT and the Finnish ship designer Deltamarin have been awarded approval in principle from the Norwegian classification society DNV for a new LNG-fueled PCTC design. GTT and Deltamarin jointly developed a new dual-fuel pure car and truck carrier (PCTC) design, able to carry 8000 cars. This design incorporates GTT’s
Mark III membrane LNG fuel tank and Deltamarin’s expertise in developing vessels. The AiP from DNV confirms that the design of the LNG-fueled PCTC is feasible. In addition, it affirms that no obstacles exist to prevent the concept from being constructed and operated. GTT and Deltamarin have a compact
LNG system that optimizes cargo capacity and energy consumption. It does so while providing maximal vessel LNG autonomy, GTT says. The two bar gauge (barg) design pressure of the LNG fuel tank enables improved pressure holding capabilities and increased operational flexibility. This is especially the case during bunkering operations.
ABB provides power from shore for North Sea electrification project Switzerland-headquartered technology company ABB has secured a deal with Norway’s Aibel for the provision of power from shore technology to the Equinor-operated North Sea field, which is expected to curb CO2 emissions.
Back in November 2021, on behalf of the Oseberg licence partners, the Norwegian state-owned giant, Equinor, awarded Aibel a contract for engineering, procurement, construction, and installation (EPCI) for part-electrification of the field, including an upgrade of the processing capacity. This follows a portfolio agreement for the Oseberg area – covering the period 2020-2026 – which Equinor awarded to compatriot Aibel back in July 2020. At the time, Equinor said that the portfolio agreement aimed to ensure a holistic approach to the planning and execution of projects at Oseberg.In a statement last Friday, ABB revealed that it had been awarded a contract by Aibel to supply part-electrification of the Oseberg oil and gas field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, located 140 km – 87 miles – Northwest of the city of Bergen. Based on the terms of the deal, the Swiss player will supply the complete power from shore system for electrification of this field.
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China and US to create green shipping corridor Los Angeles and Shanghai have announced a partnership of cities, ports, shipping companies and a network of cargo owners to create a first-of-its-kind green shipping corridor on one of the world’s busiest container shipping routes. The partnership has agreed to work on an initiatives to decarbonize goods movement between the largest ports in the United States and China.
using this international trade corridor. Reducing supply chain emissions from port operations, improving air quality in the ports of Shanghai and Los Angeles and adjacent communities.
Specifically, key decarbonisation goals for the Green Shipping Corridor partnership include: The phasing in of low, ultra-low, and zero-carbon fuelled ships through the 2020s, with the world’s first zero-carbon trans-Pacific containerships introduced by 2030 by qualified and willing shipping lines. The development of best management practices to help reduce emissions and improve efficiency for all ships
Offshore wind, hydrogen part of Shell’s £25 billion UK investment plan Shell plans to invest up to £25 billion (approximately €30 billion) in the UK energy system over the next ten years, with offshore wind being one
of the main areas the oil and gas giant has set its sights on in the UK.The company said via a social media post it planned to pour more than 75 per cent of the total investment in the UK into low and zero-carbon products and services, including offshore wind, hydrogen and electric mobility. “These investments, subject to board approval, aim to propel the UK closer to net zero and help to ensure security
of supply whilst stimulating economic growth and jobs”, Shell said. In November last year, Shell and RWE unveiled plans to explore the possibilities of establishing integrated projects for the production of green hydrogen using offshore wind power on a gigawatt scale in the industrial regions in the north-east of England such as Teesside and/or Humberside.
HYDROGENi H2 research center to push energy transition Norway invests 207 million euro in HYDROGENi, a new center for energy research dedicated to hydrogen and ammonia, that is to help the energy transition.
sector. Therefore, hydrogen is now considered to be one of the main drivers of the green shift.
On 11 March 2022, the Norwegian minister of energy announced this Research Council of Norway’s investment. This eight-year center has over 50 industrial and academic Norwegian and European partners. In addition, innovation from the center’s research is to be a key driver of the green shift in Norway. Nils Røkke of SINTEF, one of Europe's largest independent research organisations, will lead the center.
However, in order to realise its full potential, there are numerous knowledge and technical gaps that need to be filled. That is precisely the goal of HYDROGENi. “We are establishing the largest ever academic research program in an FME by educating 35 PhD/postdoc students and over 100 MSc/BSc candidates. Their expertise will contribute to the industry, the government and academic, enhancing the HYDROGENi’s lasting impact,” said Røkke.
The industry comprises a significant part of HYDROGENi’s consortium, and their support indicates both the center’s significance and its potential. Previously, hydrogen’s role in the energy transition was as a clean alternative to fossil fuels in heat and electricity production. However, due to its versatility, it can also replace fossil fuels in both other industrial processes and in transport, such as the maritime
“The strong support from industry demonstrates the relevance of the centre’s thematic activities, with its unparalleled international network and links. We aim to establish HYDROGENi as a lighthouse for European research within the area of hydrogen, building upon our sizeable portfolio of EU-funded programmes and initiatives that create true added value,” added Røkke.
A perfect fit for performance The outstanding Volvo Penta D8 combines high performance with low emissions, fuel consumption and noise levels. The D8 offers a very high power-to-weight ratio, designed for planing craft that require fast acceleration and high speeds. The D8 comes in two strong versions. Inboard, with four power outputs – 450, 510, 550 and 600 hp – and Volvo Penta IPS, featuring new robust controls, developed to work as a totally and seamlessly integrated system, from prop to helm. www.volvopenta.com
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Alewijnse and SEAFAR join forces for autonomous shipping Alewijnse and SEAFAR have joined forces to contribute to the development of autonomous shipping. In a new partnership, Alewijnse will work with SEAFAR on the integration of its innovative on-board remote control systems and the optimisation of technical maintenance and support. This will help ensure that the maritime industry is ready for SEAFAR as its ground-breaking technology gains momentum.
direct ships remotely from a control room. They steer up to three ships at a time, 80 per cent goes autonomous, with only a few crew remaining on board. The major advantage, according to CEO and founder Louis-Robert Cool, is that: "The captain can do his job in eight hours, and then another captain takes over his shift, and so on.
Also, the navigation and maneuvering can be done in a very efficient way through the application of innovative techniques such as artificial intelligence, which can predict behavior using algorithms, and machine learning, which can identify objects and the surrounding environment using sensors, in order to optimise sailing behavior.
In the future, captains will work ashore instead of on board the vessels they command. From a control center, each captain will direct several ships at once, which may be sailing on different inland waterways and coastal areas Only a few sailors will be on board, for maintenance, docking, loading and unloading. Should an emergency arise, a helmsman on the bridge can take temporary control of the ship. Technology and services company SEAFAR is a pioneer in semi-autonomous shipping. Their captains
Carbon capture technology onboard new tugs Dutch maritime technology company Value Maritime and compatriot CO2 collecting firm Carbon Collectors will together perform a conceptual design study for a new fleet of tugs to be built by Carbon Collectors. As informed, Value Maritime will work together with Carbon Collectors to investigate the feasibility of capturing carbon onboard the latter’s new marine gasoil- (MGO) fuelled tug vessels, using Value Maritime’s technology to ultimately ensure that Carbon Collectors’ fleet is CO2 neutral from the start. Jointly, the two teams will investigate and determine the required installed power of the diesel generators, the estimated CAPEX / OPEX, the best discharge options for the captured CO2 as well as the optimal solution for unloading and underground storage.
Once the design is proven, Carbon Collectors aims to use Value Maritime’s carbon capture module “to the fullest extent”. The company is currently designing a custom fleet of power-efficient tugs with the construction of the first vessels scheduled to start in the first quarter of 2024. Once operational by 2026, the MGO fuelled tugs could be effectively capturing all of their CO2 emissions onboard, according to Carbon Collectors.
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Aker Carbon Capture and Microsoft to scale up CCUS value-chain Norwegian company focused on capturing CO2 emissions, Aker Carbon Capture, has joined forces with Microsoft to combine their expertise in technology to support the industry’s transition to a net-zero future while pursuing opportunities to accelerate the deployment of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and speed up the development of its marketplace. Aker Carbon Capture has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Microsoft to pursue joint innovation and explore opportunities to offer services in the CCUS market, which is seen as a critical solution to achieve the large carbon reductions and removals needed for the world to reach net-zero emissions. Valborg Lundegaard, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Aker Carbon Capture, remarked: “Collaboration is the key to success and a pre-requisite for reaching net-zero. By fully using the digital capabilities and domain expertise of our two companies we can support industrial emitters to take action and accelerate the deployment of carbon capture.” The agreement – signed by Aker Carbon Capture CEO and CVP of Energy Industry at Microsoft – demonstrates the companies’ shared goal of accelerating the development of a functioning marketplace for CCUS. The two parties hope that their combined technical expertise will further strengthen these efforts. Since Aker believes that new and innovative business models – covering both physical and digital value chains – are required, the Norwegian firm agreed with Microsoft to explore ways of using the combined strength of the two companies’ technology expertise. The two players intend to demonstrate the full value chain of carbon reduction and removal utilizing Aker Carbon Capture’s CCUS technology and Microsoft’s digital capabilities to enable the ecosystem for the voluntary carbon market – with traceability and data – to ensure high-quality carbon credits.
Avenir LNG and Achema in LNG ship delivery to Klaipeda UK–based small-scale LNG company Avenir LNG and Lithuanian gas supplier Achema have organised the first LNG ship delivery to the small-scale Klaipeda LNG terminal in Lithuania. On 1 April, Avenir’s 7,500 cubic metres LNG transport vessel Avenir Aspiration loaded the molecules on behalf of Achema at the FSRU Independence and delivered the cargo to the LNG reloading station. Polish gas supplier PGNiG bought the LNG. It will distribute it to various customers in the Baltics to secure the energy supply. The start of the cooperation between the two companies marks an important milestone. It is, furthermore, the start of operations for the vessel in Northwest Europe. In addition to transport services, the vessel will provide LNG and LBG to various marine bunker customers in the region. As of April, Lithuania has completely abandoned Russian gas, satisfying all its gas demand through the Klaipeda LNG terminal.
CorPower Ocean joins hands with Diab for wave device Swedish company CorPower Ocean has partnered with compatriot subsea composite specialist Diab for the construction of its first commercial-scale wave energy converter. The ocean eergy developer is currently fabricating its next generation C4 wave energy converter (WEC), with dual build-out operations in Sweden and Portugal. Part of the flagship HiWave-5 Project, the WEC will ultimately join a four-system wave energy array, located off the coast of Aguçadoura in Portugal, forming one of the world’s first grid-connected wave farms. Following several months of process characterization on quarter-scale models, CorPower Ocean is now nearing
completion of the first commercial scale hull at its Portuguese base in Viana do Castelo. The site is also demonstrating the firm’s ‘mobile factory’ concept designed to enable rapid roll-out of WEC hulls in port facilities near wave energy sites across the globe. A key element to the hull’s sandwich structure involves the core material which provides strength and stiffness.
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importance of the import terminal in Brunsbüttel,” said Michael Kleemiß, managing director of German LNG Terminal. “The terminal will not only contribute to energy supply security in Germany but also, to the necessary climate-neutral energy supply.”
Shell joins German LNG for Brunsbüttel import Shell and the German LNG Terminal joint venture have signed a memorandum of understanding on the import of LNG through the planned terminal in Brunsbüttel.
minal in Brunsbüttel. Under the MoU, Shell will make a long-term booking of a substantial part of the terminal’s capacity for the LNG import. Both Shell and German LNG are currently working towards a binding agreement on the scope and duration of their partnership. The hope is to complete it as soon as possible.
The parties signed the deal following the latest developments in relation to the construction of an energy ter-
“The signed MoU with Shell, as well as the noticeable increase in interest from the market, demonstrates the
Denmark accelerates power-to-x push Denmark has launched a €161 million subsidy scheme to support the Power-to-X projects towards the goal of reaching between 4 and 6 GW of electrolysis capacity by 2030. The strategy will push for the production and use of green hydrogen in hard-to-abate sectors like shipping and aviation, as well as heavy road transport and industry. Denmark has very good conditions for the production of green hydrogen due to the large wind resources and the massive expansion of offshore wind capacity in the coming years, the Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy, and Utilities said. The strategy further aims to promote energy export in the form of green hydrogen and e-fuels. The Power-to-X strategy includes four objectives. Firstly, Power-to-X must be able to contribute to the realisation of the objectives in the Danish Climate Act.
Secondly, the regulatory framework and infrastructure must be in place to allow Denmark’s strengths to be utilised and for the Power-to-X industry
The terminal will have two LNG tanks with a capacity of 165,000 cubic metres each and an LNG regasification plant. The plans foresee an annual throughput capacity of 8 billion cubic metres (natural gas). It will specifically feature a jetty with two berths for LNG carriers (up to size QMax) and smaller LNG ships. Also, it will have facilities for unloading and loading the ships. In early March, the German stateowned bank KfW, Gasunie, and RWE signed an MoU on the joint promotion of the construction and operation of the terminal. In the light of Germany’s efforts to not be dependent on Russian gas, Gasunie revealed the talks with the German government about the construction are in the final stages.
to operate on market terms in the long run. Thirdly, the interaction between Power-to-X and the Danish energy system must be improved; and finally, Denmark must be able to export Power-to-X products and technologies.
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New floating wind-to-hydrogen project proposed in UK Environmental Resources Management’s (ERM) ERM Dolphyn and Source Energie have entered into a partnership to jointly develop projects in the Celtic Sea that incorporate floating wind and green hydrogen production, with an aim to participate in the Crown Estate’s planned floating wind leasing round. Source Energie has been working for some time to identify both mediumand long-term sites for development of floating offshore wind before partnering with ERM Dolphyn. The first site under development is located approximately 60 kilometres off the Pembrokeshire coast, west of Milford Haven, and has a target deployment date of 2027/2028. The new partners state that the site, called “Dylan”, has an ideal location as it offers good energy generating conditions, strong expansion potential, and has a number of viable low-impact pipeline routes to areas of existing and growing hydrogen demand.
Future expansion could provide more than 2 GW of energy, which would provide enough hydrogen to make a material impact on local and national decarbonisation targets, Source Energie and ERM said. ERM Dolphyn is technology developed by ERM, which combines electrolysis,
desalination and hydrogen production on a floating wind platform. Last year, the company signed a memorandum of understanding with Simply Blue Energy and Subsea 7 for the potential use of the ERM Dolphyn hydrogen technology on the 200 MW Salamander floating wind project.
Digital marine data toolbox to support ocean energy expansion A consortium of research organizations and marine renewable energy specialists has created a marine data toolbox for ocean energy project developers as part of the EU-backed ResourceCODE project. The digital ResourceCODE toolbox integrates 27 years of hindcast and metocean data from across Northwest Europe with analysis tools, offering free access
to developers and stakeholders of ocean energy projects. The toolbox was created with the primary purpose of opening up for developers, a wide scope of simple to use and freely available marine datasets, which enable improved engineering designs, optimized operations in demanding marine
environments, and reduced barriers to growth of wave and tidal energy technologies. Ultimately, the toolbox supports investment, expansion and the validation of ocean energy projects in the region, according to ResourceCODE team. Though developed with wave and tidal energy in mind, the tool is also applicable and configurable to support the modelling and validation of other marine renewable energies, such as offshore wind. ResourceCODE has been developed by a consortium led by Ifremer - the French Institute of Ocean Science, and the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) along with other project partners, including Innosea – the R&D, engineering and advisory specialist in marine renewable energies.
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Environment, Climate, Energy and Agriculture (BUKEA) has been examining in close cooperation with the BMWK, the Hamburger Energiewerke, Gasnetz Hamburg, and the Hamburg Port Authority whether and how such chartering gas terminals could be used in Hamburg in the near term.
Hamburg examining locations for floating LNG terminal Authorities in Hamburg are intensively examining locations for a floating LNG terminal in an effort
to reduce dependence on Russian energy imports as quickly as possible. At the beginning of March, Robert Habeck, Germany’s Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Climate Action placed the topic of LNG terminals high on the agenda. Since then, the Authority for the
Liquefied gas is stored on these mobile platforms, known as floating storage and regasification units (FSRUs), and can then be converted into gas when required. These platforms could help maintain the security of the energy supply in Germany during a transitional period and replace gas from Russia to a large extent, the authorities believe. The leasing of three floating LNG terminals in Germany is currently planned, which should provide additional capacities as early as winter 2022/2023.
E.ON and TES to import green hydrogen into Germany European energy company E.ON and Belgian hydrogen company Tree Energy Solutions (TES) have agreed on a strategic partnership to import green hydrogen at scale into Germany. Under the partnership, the companies will look into potential joint engagements along the entire hydrogen value chain. The goal is to build a source for a secure, longterm green hydrogen supply. E.ON says it is ready to actively support the development of a hydrogen economy in Germany and Europe. It wants to significantly expand the plans to engage in electrolysers, grid infrastructure, and renewable energies to produce green H2. In addition, it will engage in investments along the entire H2 value chain. Because of this, it established a new E.ON Hydrogen unit at the end of 2021.
TES is developing a green energy hub in the German port of Wilhelmshaven. The energy hub will feature a receiving terminal, storage facilities, and a clean, zero-emissions oxy-fuel combustion power plant. It is also developing the production of green hydrogen in solar belt countries and
investing in the supply chain and infrastructure. TES will transport green hydrogen from solar electricity, in the form of fossil-free green gas (CH4) to Europe. Moreover, it is planning to invest in infrastructure to transport the CO2.
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Multi-use wind and wave offshore platform ends sea trials Authorities in Hamburg are intenThe multi-use wind and wave offshore platform prototype, dubbed Aurora, has been decommissioned after one year of sea trials as part of the EU-backed Blue Growth Farm project. In February 2022, the 1:15 Aurora prototype was fully decommissioned after more than six months of assessments, following its deployment off Reggio Calabria in the Mediterranean. The platform is part of the Horizon 2020-funded project the Blue Growth Farm, which brings together 13 European partners, and aims to develop and demonstrate an automated, modular and environmentally friendly multi-functional platform for open sea farm installations.
Thanks to Aurora platform trials, the project consortium said it gained valuable insights on platform complexity in terms of stability, aero-hydrodynamic interaction with the scaled wind turbine and coupling induced by the wave energy converter chambers.
The ‘world’s first’ green fuel service operation vessel Danish companies Ørsted and Esvagt have decided to invest in what the companies describe as the world’s first service operation vessel (SOV) that can operate on green fuels.
CoolCo buys 5th and 6th LNG carrier from Golar LNG The newly formed shipping firm CoolCo has completed acquisition of fifth and sixth out of eight LNG carriers from Bermuda-based shipper Golar LNG. Cool Company completed the acquisition on 4 April 2022. These completions covered all of the shares in the following of Golar’s subsidiaries: Golar Hull M2047 (the owner of Golar Snow) and Golar LNG NB10 Corporation (the owner of Golar Glacier). Therefore, the company has purchased six out of the planned eight LNG carriers from Golar so far. The total purchase price for the shares in these subsidiaries was financed by a drawing under CoolCo’s senior secured bank facility, a cash payment to Golar, and the subscription by Golar
of 3,125,000 new common shares of $1 par value in CoolCo at a subscription price of $10. Hence, there are now 36,885,000 shares in issue in CoolCo, each of which represents one vote in the company. In total, the new share capital of the company is $36,885,000. The shares in the company are fully paid and validly issued under Bermuda law. To remind, at the end of 2021 Golar said it will separate eight of its LNGCs into a new company. In addition to Golar, Eastern Pacific Shipping also took on an active role in the further development of CoolCo. The parties agreed on the final terms for the first acquisition in January 2022. The first completions took place In March. They covered LNGCs Golar Crystal, Golar Frost, Golar Seal, and Golar Bear.
The SOV will be powered by batteries and dual-fuel engines, capable of sailing on renewable e-methanol, produced from wind energy and biogenic carbon, which will lead to a yearly emission reduction of approximately 4,500 tonnes of CO2, the companies said. Esvagt will start building the vessel in the second quarter of 2022. Once commissioned by the end of 2024, the SOV will start servicing the world’s largest offshore wind farm, Hornsea 2, off the UK’s east coast.
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No. 1 May 2022 COOPERATION & ENERGY
Offshore Energy Magazine CONNECTING THE MARITIME & OFFSHORE WORLD FOR SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
Cover Photo DEME Offshore Van der Kloet Fotografie & Videoproducties
ARTICLE What lies ahead for U.S. offshore wind
ARTICLE Ocean energy is back on track
ARTICLE War in Ukraine and the energy transition
ARTICLE Green ammonia terminal in Rotterdam
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Next edition OUT AUGUST 2022 • Innovation - Hydrogen - Floating Wind
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