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SINGLE SPECIES ACTION PLAN FOR CONSERVATION OF THE SAGALLA CAECILIAN

(BOULENGERULA NIEDENI) 2015-2020


SINGLE SPECIES ACTION PLAN FOR CONSERVATION OF THE SAGALLA CAECILIAN

(BOULENGERULA NIEDENI) 2015-2020

NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF KENYA where heritage lives on


Contributors (Stakeholder Workshop and Inputs to Document): Andrew Lomba (Dawida Biodiversity Conservation Organization (DABICO) Site Support Group); Basil Mashanga (Taita Taveta Wildlife Forum); Benson Mwakachola (DABICO Site Support Group); Bigvai Karingo (Community Representative); Charles Musyoki (Kenya Wildlife Service); Dawson Mwanyumba (TTWF); Felvin Otieno (Kenya Forest Service); Fred Barasa (Nature Kenya); Gift Mwandoe (DABICO Site Support Group); Gilbey Obunga (Nature Kenya – Taita); J. O. Mbori (KFS); Kariuki Ndang’ang’a (BirdLife International-Africa Secretariat); Mwadime Mjomba (Taita Research Station of University of Helsinki); Mwangi Githiru (Wildlife Works); Nathaniel Mwaumba (DABICO Site Support Group); Pamella Dio (Taita Taveta County Government Representative); Patrick K. Malonza (National Museums of Kenya); Paul Muoria (Nature Kenya/Kenyatta University); Philista Malaki (National Museums of Kenya); Sammy Muya (KWS); Silvester Mwang’ombe (DABICO Site Support Group); Victoria Njumwa ( DABICO Site Support Group); Vincent Muchai (National Museums of Kenya); and Wilson Mwalisha (Community Representative). Facilitator of Stakeholder Workshop: Charles Musyoki (KWS) Compilers: Kariuki Ndang’ang’a, Charles Musyoki, Fred Barasa, Philista Malaki, Paul Muoria, Paul Gacheru, Patrick Malonza and Vincent Muchai. Design and Layout: John Mwacharo Acknowledgments: The process of developing this action plan was financed by a Darwin Initiative-funded project to Durrell Institute of Conservation & Ecology (DICE) in partnership with Taita Taveta Wildlife Forum (TWF) and Nature Kenya. © Kenya Wildlife Service 2015 Recommended Citation: Nature Kenya, National Museums of Kenya, Kenya Wildlife Service & Kenya Forest Service. 2015. Single Species Action Plan for Conservation of Sagalla Caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni): 2015-2020. Nairobi: Kenya Wildlife Service. Cover Photo Credits: Sagalla Caecilian - Patrick K. Malonza Taita Hills background - John Mwacharo

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FOREWORD

Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) is a state corporation established by an Act of Parliament, CAP 376, with a mandate to conserve wildlife in Kenya and to enforce related laws and regulations. KWS identified the need for national species-specific action plans to ensure special attention is focused on threatened species. Consequently, KWS in collaboration with conservation partners developed this action plan for the conservation and management of the Endangered Sagalla Caecilian. The Sagalla Caecilian is an Endangered amphibian endemic to the Sagalla Hill in Taita Hills, southeastern Kenya. This unusual animal looks like a small snake or fat earthworm, but is related to the frogs and toads. It spends most of its life in the soil. Survival of this rare amphibian is threatened by climate change, loss of indigenous forest vegetation, plantations of non-indigenous trees, incompatible farming practices that lead to loss of organic matter and drying, compacting and erosion of the soil. All these factors coupled with the fact that the species is not legally protected by the national and county legislation threaten the survival of this amphibian. To address these threats and identify enabling conditions for the Sagalla Caecilian to survive, a national stakeholder workshop for the formulation of the Sagalla Caecilian Action Plan was convened. It was attended by species specialists, managers from governmental and non-governmental conservation organizations, local communities representatives and community based conservation organizations. The workshop participants developed four key components in the action plan that will guide its implementation – the vision, goal, objectives and activities. KWS recognizes and appreciates the input and efforts of all stakeholders in the conservation and management of the Sagalla Caecilian. Successful implementation of the action plan will ensure that the species’ populations and habitats are conserved and managed. This will require the participation and collaboration of all stakeholders (the national and county governments, donors, private sector, non-governmental organizations and the community). We appreciate the financial support provided by a Darwin Initiative-funded project to DICE in partnership with Taita Taveta Wildlife Forum (TTWF) and Nature Kenya. The implementation of this action plan will require resources. Hence we call upon donor organizations and stakeholders for support in actualizing its implementation.

Richard Leakey Chairman of the Board of Trustees Kenya Wildlife Service

v


PREFACE

Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) conserves and manages Kenya’s wildlife for the Kenyan people and the world. KWS is a is a state corporation established by an Act of Parliament, CAP 376, with a mandate for wildlife conservation in Kenya, and to enforce related laws and regulations. KWS takes all necessary measures to ensure that Kenya’s wildlife and habitats are properly managed and protected. In line with the mission of KWS to ‘’Sustainably conserve, manage and enhance Kenya’s wildlife and its habitats and provide a wide range of public uses in collaboration with stakeholders for posterity”, this action plan also aims to have a well-managed Sagalla Caecilian population and habitat, providing ecosystem services for the benefit of local people. The Sagalla Caecilian is an unusual amphibian that looks like a small snake and lives in the soil. It is listed as globally Endangered under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red list of Threatened Species. There are several ecological threats as well as gaps in scientific knowledge that limit conservation of this species. The Sagalla Caecilian is endemic to the Sagalla Hill in Taita Taveta County, where it is restricted to an altitude of 1,000 to 1,504 metres asl. The total species range is estimated at less than 20 km², comprising indigenous forest fragments and small-holder farms. The Sagalla Caecilian is valuable for agriculture since it is an indicator of organically rich and moist soil. It also feeds on termites that are pests and destroy farm crops and helps in decomposition of organic manure and soil aeration (Malonza, 2012). However, this species is not currently listed as one of the protected species in the Kenya Wildlife Act. Therefore, this action plan calls for the protection of the species in the national Wildlife Act and county legislation. The preparation of this action plan has truly been a team effort. We are indeed grateful to the entire team, who provided tremendous support, active participation and contribution throughout the process of developing the action plan. We appreciate the financial support provided by a Darwin Initiativefunded project to DICE in partnership with Taita Taveta Wildlife Forum (TTWF) and Nature Kenya. The implementation of this action plan will require resources. Hence, we call upon donor organizations and stakeholders to support implementation of this action plan.

Julius Kimani Ag. Director General Kenya Wildlife Service

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................... v PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................... vi ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................................................ viii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... ix 1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ...................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Taxonomy and Species Description ............................................................................................. 1 1.2 Population Size and Trend ............................................................................................................ 1 1.3 Status and Distribution .................................................................................................................. 1 1.4 Micro-habitat Requirements ........................................................................................................ 2 1.5 Breeding Ecology, Survival and Productivity ........................................................................... 3 1.6 Economic Importance ................................................................................................................... 3 1.6 Protection ........................................................................................................................................ 3 2.0 THREATS AND GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE ....................................................................................... 4 2.1 Threats ............................................................................................................................................. 4 2.1.1 Habitat Loss and Degradation .................................................................................................. 4 2.1.2 Poor Legislation and Awareness ............................................................................................. 4 2.1.3 Climate Change .......................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Gaps in Knowledge ....................................................................................................................... 4 3.0 ACTION PROGRAMME ................................................................................................................... 3.1 Vision ............................................................................................................................................... 3.2 Goal ................................................................................................................................................. 3.3 Objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 3.4 Activity Table ................................................................................................................................

6 6 6 6 6

4.0 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION AND .................................................................................................... 8 5.0 MONITORING AND EVALUATION ............................................................................................... 10 6.0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................. 11

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ACRONYMS

DABICO CFA IUCN KFS KWS NMK TTWF ZSL

Dawida Biodiversity Community Organization Community Forest Association International Union for Conservation of Nature Kenya Forest Service Kenya Wildlife Service National Museums of Kenya Taita Taveta Wildlife Forum Zoological Society of London

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This action plan has been developed to guide conservation of the Sagalla Caecilian Boulengerula niedeni, an Endangered amphibian endemic to the Sagalla Hill in Taita Hills, Taita-Taveta County in southeastern Kenya. Caecilians are unusual amphibians; although related to frogs and toads, caecilians look like small snakes, and spend most of their life in moist soil. As a result they are little-known and several of them are endangered. They feed on insects and other invertebrates in the soil. The Sagalla Caecilian is valuable for agriculture since it is an indicator of organically rich and moist soil. It also feeds on termites that are pests and destroy farm crops and helps in decomposition of organic manure and soil aeration. The Sagalla Caecilian prefers moist or wet, loose, organically rich soil, and is therefore threatened by any factor that makes the soil dry or compacted. This species may originally have been present in montane forest soils, as well as that covered by bushy shrub vegetation, but this habitat has now been transformed into small-holder farms. The Sagalla Caecilian is thus threatened by loss of indigenous forest vegetation, plantations of non-indigenous Eucalyptus and pine trees, and incompatible farming practices that lead to loss of organic matter and drying, compacting and erosion of the soil. Since the species’ distribution is limited by altitude, climate change is also a threat to this rare amphibian. Currently the Sagalla Caecilian is not legally protected by the national and county legislation. There are a number of scientific knowledge gaps that limit conservation of the species. These include unknown exact population size and trend, lack of proper monitoring methods for the species, uncertainty as to whether it is affected by the Chytrid fungus, unstudied physiological aspects, and need for more information for updating of its IUCN Red List status. ‘A well managed Sagalla Caecilian population and habitat providing ecosystem services for the benefit of local people’ is the long term vision of this Action Plan. Its goal is to mitigate the threats and reverse the declining trend in Sagalla Caecilian habitat quality. This will be achieved through undertaking a set of activities outlined under each of the following strategic objectives: 1. Promote habitat conservation and restoration practices; 2. Support implementation of policy and legal protection; 3. Increase knowledge and promote education and awareness; 4. Promote appropriate livelihood practices; and 5. Promote appropriate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. The lifespan of the action plan is five years and it will be implemented in close collaboration with various stakeholders as outlined in a detailed action framework.

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View from Sagalla Hills. PHOTO: H. FEIBIG


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1 1.1. Taxonomy and Species Description

b

Amphibians include the familiar frogs and toads, the salamanders found north of the Sahara, and an unusual group called the Caecilians. Caecilians look like small burrowing snakes or earthworms. They do not live in water like most amphibians, but burrow in moist soil. Species: Boulengerula niedeni (Authors: Müller, Measey, Loader & Malonza, 2005) The Sagalla Caecilian Boulengerula niedeni was only recently discovered as a new species in 2005. It was collected from Sagalla Hill, an isolated mountain block of the Taita Hills, the northernmost outlier of the Eastern Arc Mountains. In the local Ki-Sagalla language, its new local name is Kilima-mrota, which means ‘burrowing and slender’ (Wojnowski and Malonza, 2009). This species differs substantially from its closest relative, the Taita Caecilian Boulengerula taitana, which is also found in the Taita Hills (on Dawida massif, Mt. Mbololo, Mt. Kasigau), and from all other members of Boulengerula in its colouration and other morphological features.

Figure 1: Sagalla Caecilian: (a) at lower altitude of about 1200m asl, and (b) at higher altitude of about 1450 m asl. ©P.K. Malonza

1.2 Population Size and Trend The population of the Sagalla Caecilian is low and patchy. It is locally common in suitable habitats within its small range, but less abundant than Boulengerula taitana of the other Taita Hills blocks (Malonza and Measey, 2005). Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented. No population data are currently available for this species. However, within its extremely restricted range, the Sagalla Caecilian is considered to be common in a small number of suitable habitats. It is currently (2015) listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red List, having been recently been down-listed from ‘Critically Endangered’ owing to increased knowledge.

The Sagalla Caecilian has bones and blood, but looks like an earthworm or a blind snake, with a moist brownish skin. It is segmented, and has a pointed head and invisible eyes (Figure 1). Unlike blind or worm snakes, it lacks scales and has a moist skin. It differs from earthworms as it moves like a snake and has blood and a backbone. Its total body length is about 30cm long.

1.3 Status and Distribution

a

The Sagalla Caecilian is endemic to the Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills forests located in southeastern Kenya (Figure 2) where it is restricted to between 1,000-1,504 m asl (Malonza et al. 2010). The total species range is estimated at less than 20 km² within two threat-defined locations, one above and one below the eucalyptus plantation (P. Malonza and J. Measey pers. comm. May 2012). It thus occurs in the two known indigenous forest fragments in the area (Malonza et al. 2010) and in small-holder farms, usually in soil underneath banana plants, terrace bases, edges of streams, under Ficus trees or under decomposing organic debris.

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Figure 2: Distribution of Sagalla Caecilian (source : http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=61920)

It is found in low densities in indigenous forest and farmland, and is more common in farms than in forests during the wet season. It is absent in Eucalyptus and Pine plantations. It is also absent in dry natural forest on the lower side of the Sagalla ridge.

Mghange area (3o 29.403’S, 38o 35.649’ E, 1,260m) Sagalla Primary School, Kishamba area valley (3o 29.770’S, 38o 35.698 E, 1,387m) Marie Primary School (3o 31.064’S, 38o 35.553’ E, 1,418m) Dambi area (3o 31.063’S, 38o 34.968 E, 1,249m)

Representative outer limit localities of the species include: the indigenous forest patch at Kishamba area, Mwalangi Shopping Centre, Kanyanga shops, Lata dam, Talio Primary School, Kizumanzi Primary School, Marie Primary in Ndambi area (Malonza, 2012).

1.4 Micro-habitat Requirements The Sagalla Caecilian prefers moist or wet, loose, organically fertile soil. In Sagalla, this is found for example at the bases of banana plants and Ficus trees, in terraces, near cattle sheds, on wetland/stream edges and in indigenous forest debris including decomposing logs (Malonza, 2008; Malonza et al. 2010). There the caecilians feed on insects and other small invertebrates.

Some notable localities for the Sagalla Caecilian include: Kwen-Tole area near the plantation forest (3o 30.514’S, 38o 34.952’ E, 1,200m) Mwalangi market area (3o 30.657’S, 38o 34.593’ E, 1,095m), Talio Primary School (3o 31.641’S, 38o 34.841 E, 1,080m) Kanyanga market area, (3o 28.937’S, 38o 34.974’ E, 1,098m) Kizumanzi Primary School, Serengi valley (3o 28.579’S, 38o 34.213’ E, 1,137m)

Although Sagalla Caecilians require moist soils, their reproductive mode (direct development of terrestrial eggs) has liberated them from a dependence on open waters in streams or other water bodies for their reproduction. This species is thought to have originally been

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION

present in montane forest soils, as well as that covered by bushy shrub vegetation, but this habitat has now been transformed into smallholder farms. The Sagalla Caecilian therefore seems to be tolerant of small-scale farming activities. However, their density is much higher near streams than in farms away from streams, due to moisture dependence and horizontal migration. Therefore the proportion of the area of potentially preferred habitat within the possible range of the Sagalla Caecilian is very small.

1.5 Breeding Ecology, Survival and Productivity All caecilians are thought to have internal fertilisation, in that the eggs are fertilised by the male’s sperm inside the female and not when they are being laid. Virtually nothing is known of caecilian mate recognition or courtship, although some aquatic species have been observed performing an undulating dance before mating. During mating, the male everts and inserts his phallus into the cloaca (or reproductive opening) of the female for up to several hours. The Sagalla Caecilian is egg-laying (or “oviparous”), and in caecilians this means that the female lays her eggs in an underground chamber and then guards them until they hatch. This species is presumed to resemble its close relatives in having direct development, so the young hatch out from the eggs without first passing through a free-living larval stage. Its close relative, the Taita Caecilian Boulengerula taitana lays a clutch of 5 eggs.

The species has not been found in the Eucalyptus or Pine plantations that cover much of the highland Sagalla Hill area, except at indigenous tree patches like at Mwajika water intake (Malonza, 2008). This is due to soil desiccation and hardening in the plantation, toxic accumulations of Eucalyptus leaf litter, and resultant limited prey. The Sagalla Caecilian is only found in very low abundance in the small remaining area of natural forest on the ridge of Sagalla Hill. This is probably because the remnant forest is at a higher elevation than that apparently favoured by the species, or it could be due to the absence of suitable soil conditions.

1.6 Economic Importance

Currently, little substantial information is known about what constitutes suitable or optimal habitat for caecilians. For example, specimens of the Taita Caecilian observed in small-holder farms have been found to be significantly smaller but more abundant than those inhabiting naturally forested areas of the Taita Hills. It is therefore difficult to determine whether the human alteration of the Sagalla Caecilian’s habitat is having a long-term effect upon this species. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous trees, a collaborative project between Taita-Taveta Wildlife Forum has been done and is on-going (Malonza and Mlamba, 2013).

The Sagalla Caecilian is valuable for agriculture since it is an indicator of organically rich and moist soil. It also feeds on termites that are pests and destroy farm crops and helps in decomposition of organic manure and soil aeration (Malonza, 2012).

1.7 Protection The Sagalla Caecilian is not currently listed as one of the protected species in the Kenya Wildlife Act.

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THREATS AND GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE

2 2.1 Threats to Sagalla Caecilian

Below is a description of threats facing the Sagalla Caecilian as identified and analysed during the stakeholder workshop held on 24th and 25th March 2015 . These threats are illustrated in Figure 3.

Degradation of water catchment areas and water sources, as well as over-abstraction of water, is thought to affect the species. E.g. removal of streamside vegetation causes flooding and an increase in the erosion of river banks. The loss of earth washed away in these floods has removed soil where the Sagalla Caecilian is known to breed and occurs at its highest densities.

2.1.2 Poor Legislation and Awareness • The Kenya Wildlife Act 2013 does not outline protective legislation for amphibians • There is lack of awareness on guidelines for eucalyptus/exotic tree planting and replacement.

2.1.1 Habitat Loss and Degradation • Incompatible land use practices that promote soil erosion and the hardening, compaction and drying of soil threaten the species’ survival. These include poor farming practices, poor selection of trees for planting and chemicals used in farming. • Deforestation or felling of indigenous trees, which has led to only a small amount of natural forest remaining within the range of the Sagalla Caecilian. • Removal of native vegetation, leading to cultivation of steep slopes and the resultant erosion of good, organic rich soils suitable for the Sagalla Caecilian. Vegetation removal has also caused the drying out of soils in many areas of this species’ range, rendering the soil uninhabitable for the Sagalla Caecilian • Plantation and regeneration of the exotic/non-indigenous Eucalyptus trees. Eucalyptus trees probably affect the Sagalla Caecilian in two main ways: (1) the trees desiccate their surrounding, leading to compaction of the soil, and (2) the presence of the trees has led to a thick accumulation of toxic leaf litter which decomposes very slowly and does not allow for the build up of communities of local insects and other soil invertebrates. • Fires which destroy the native vegetation. These are caused by slash and burn farming practices, arson or accidents. • Collection of firewood in indigenous forest leading to the removal of decomposing logs, which are known to be preferred by the species.

2.1.3 Climate Change Since the Sagalla Caecilian’s habitat is limited by altitude, climate change is likely to significantly reduce suitable habitat for the species.

2.2 Gaps in Knowledge The following were identified as the key gaps in knowledge for the Sagalla Caecilian: • The population size and trend of the species is not known • Monitoring methods and protocols for the species have not been fully developed • Habitat requirements for the species are not fully understood, e.g. requirements in terms of soil pH, organic matter content, soil temperatures, and compatibility of farming methods effects. • Physiological aspects of the species have not been studied • Though suspected, the effects of the Chytrid fungus, if any, on the species have not been investigated • Accurate and up to date information on the status of the species that could be used in updating the IUCN Red List status of the species is lacking • The ecosystem services/value of the species have not been quantified.

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THREATS AND GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE

Removal of indigenous trees/ vegetation

Firewood

Timber/poles

Arson Habitat loss and degradation

Fire

Slash and burn

Population size and trend

Accidental fires Habitat preference (pH, temperature, compartible farming practices etc.)

Soil erosion

Sagalla Caecilian threatened

Inadequate protection and policy implementation

Limited scientific knowledge

Soil complication Incompartible land use/ agricultural practices

Monitoring method not developed

Use of fertilisers and agro-chemicals

Climate change

Physiological aspects Poor tree selection Ecosystem value Planted

Limited scientific knowledge

Increased cover of exotic tree Regenerating naturally Over - abstraction of water from catchment and sources

Figure 3: Problem/Threat Analysis for Sagalla Caecilian

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ACTION PROGRAMME

3 3.1 Vision

3.3 Objectives

A well managed Sagalla Caecilian population and habitat providing ecosystem services for the benefit of local people.

1. 2. 3.

3.2 Goal To mitigate the threats and reverse the declining trend in Sagalla Caecilian habitat quality.

4. 5.

Promote habitat conservation and restoration practices Support implementation of policy and legal protection Increase knowledge and promote education and awareness Promote appropriate livelihood practices Promote appropriate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures

Table 2: Activity Table Objective

Target

Activities

Priority

Time scale

Actors

1.0 Promote habitat conservation and restoration practices

1.1 Increased indigenous forest cover

Identify degraded and open patches

High

1 month

KFS; County Govt; CFA

Raise and acquire suitable indigenous tree seedlings Carry out enrichment planting on degraded and open patches

Continuous

3-5 years

Provide incentives for on farm indigenous tree growing

Continuous

1.2 Forest cover/type gradually changed from exotic to indigenous trees

Develop exotic tree felling plan

Low

6 months

Implement the tree felling plan

Modera te High

3-5 years

1.3 Appropriate farming methods applied

Train local community on organic farming methods

Low

3-5 years

Plant Vetiver grass along contours

Modera te High

3-5 years

Implement soil erosion control programme

High

3-5 years

Ministry of Agriculture; local community; organic farming specialists

KWS; NMK; local community; County govt; TTWF

Grow suitable indigenous tree species

Promote growing of bananas on farms

KFS; County Government; CFA

3-5 years

3-5 years

2.0 Support implementation of policy and legal protection

2.1 Sagalla Caecilian protected in the national Wildlife Act and county legislation

Forward the endangered amphibian species names to KWS

Low

1 year

Sensitize County government and lobby for the enactment of laws to protect the endemic and endangered species

Low

1 year

3.1 Increased scientific knowledge about the Sagalla Caecilian

Determine population size

Modera te Low

3-5 years

NMK; TTWF; ZSL; Local community

Low

3-5 years

Low

3-5 years

Low

3-5 years

3.0 Increase knowledge and promote education and awareness

Develop monitoring method for the species and monitor its population Study habitat requirements, including soil pH, organic matter, temperatures, 6 compatible farming methods Study physiological characteristics of the species Study the effects of Chytrid fungus on

3-5 years


2.0 Support implementation of policy and legal protection

2.1 Sagalla Caecilian protected in the national Wildlife Act and county Target legislation

Objective 3.0 Increase 1.0 Promote habitat knowledge and conservation and promote education restoration practices and awareness

3.1 Increased 1.1 Increased scientific indigenous knowledge forest cover about the Sagalla Caecilian

1.2 Forest cover/type gradually changed from exotic to indigenous trees 3.2 Public

Objective

sensitized on 1.3 Appropriate importance and farming conservation methods applied needs of Sagalla Target Caecilian

ACTION Forward the endangered amphibian species names to KWS

High

3-5 years

specialists

PROGRAMME Low 1 year

Sensitize County government and lobby for the enactment of laws to protect the Activities endemic and endangered species

Low

1 year

Priority

Time scale

KWS; NMK; local community; County govt; TTWF Actors

Determine population size Identify degraded and open patches

Modera High te Low

3-5 years 1 month

NMK; TTWF; KFS; County ZSL; Local Govt; CFA community

Low

3-5 years 3-5 years

Low

3-5 years Continuous

Low Low Low Modera te High

3-5 years 6 months 1 year 3-5 years

KFS; County Government; CFA

3-5 years

Modera te Low Modera te Priority Modera te High Modera High te

2 years

Time scale 3-5 years

NMK; TTWF; County govt; Ministry of local Agriculture; community local Actors community;

3-5 years 2 years 3-5 years

organic farming specialists

TTWF; KFS; KWS; NMK; Nature Kenya; local local community; community County govt; TTWF

Develop monitoring method for the species and monitor its population Raise and acquire suitable indigenous tree seedlings Study habitat requirements, including Carry out enrichment planting on soil pH, organic matter, temperatures, degraded and open patches compatible farming methods Study physiological characteristics of the Provide incentives for on farm species indigenous tree growing Study the effects of Chytrid fungus on Develop exotic tree felling plan the species Avail up to date information on status of Implement the tree felling plan species for updating IUCN Red List status Grow suitable indigenous tree species Develop education curriculum Train local community on organic farming methods Develop and disseminate communication materials e.g. brochures Activities Plant Vetiver grass along contours Promote growing of bananas on farms Train local research assistants and Implement soil erosion control educators programme

3-5 years Continuous

3-5 years 5 years

4.0 Promote 2.0 Support appropriate implementation of livelihood practices policy and legal protection

4.1 Pressure 2.1 Sagalla from destructive Caecilian harvesting of protected in the forest products national Wildlife reduced Act and county legislation

Train and equip community with Forward the endangered amphibian alternative fuel sources e.g. biogas species names to KWS

Modera Low te

3-5 years 1 year

Sensitize County government and lobby Promote the establishment of wellfor the enactment of laws to protect the fenced woodlots endemic and endangered species

Low High

1 year 3-5 years

Promote energy saving jikos (stoves)

3-5 years

3.1 Increased scientific knowledge 4.2 Alternative about the income Sagalla Caecilian generating activities promoted

Determine population size

Modera te Modera te

3-5 years

Low

3-5 years 1 year

Low

3-5 years

Low

5 years

NMK; TTWF; ZSL; Local community NMK; Nature Kenya; TTWF; Wildlife Works

Low

3-5 years

Low

3-5 years

High Low

5 years 1 year

Train local monitoring officers Develop education curriculum

High Modera te

2 years 2 years

Develop and disseminate communication materials e.g. brochures

Modera te

5 years

3.0 Increase knowledge and promote education and awareness

5.0 Promote appropriate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures

Implement soil erosion control programme

5.1 A monitoring programme in place for effects of climate 3.2 Public change on sensitized on Sagalla Caecilian importance and

conservation needs of Sagalla Caecilian

Develop monitoring method for the Consultatively identify appropriate species and monitor its population alternative income generating activities Study habitat requirements, including soil pH, organic matter, temperatures, Provide training on the implementation compatible farming methods of alternative Income generating Study physiological characteristics of the activities species Study the effects of Chytrid fungus on the species Develop and implement monitoring Avail up to date information on status of programme species for updating IUCN Red List status

7

NMK; Nature Kenya; Wildlife Works; TTWF

NMK; TTWF; County govt; local community


4

PLAN IMPLEMENTATION AND COORDINATION National Sagalla Caecilian Management Committee • Monitor and review implementation of the Species Action Plan (SAP) and make appropriate recommendations to the appropriate stakeholders based on advice from the technical committee • Prioritise funding needs and advise the technical committee and donors • Update the Taita Endemics and Sagalla Caecilian population status and distribution • Report on progress of strategy implementation at site levels

Multiple stakeholders will be involved in the implementation of this Action Plan. A coordination framework (Figure 4) is therefore necessary in order to avoid duplication of effort, optimize resource use and synergies between different efforts. The Taita Taveta County Government, KWS, KFS and the other implementing agencies will mainstream their implementation of this Action Plan in their work plans. The functions of the various committees are as follows: Executive Committee • Ratify all decisions concerned with conservation and management • Develop and implement Taita endemics and Sagalla Caecilian conservation policy • Ensure successful implementation of all required actions • Advise on sourcing of funds • Monitor funding expenditure and effectiveness

National Sagalla Caecilian Technical Committee • Provide technical inputs to Species Management Committee • Evaluate implications of technical recommendations before implementation • Develop intervention protocols • Set monitoring standards and procedures, and evaluate their implementation and effectiveness

Executive Committee

§ § § § § § §

KWS Director (Chair) KWS Deputy Director KWS Head of Security KWS Head of Wildlife & Community Service KWS Head of Species Conservation Head of Herpetology, National Museums of Kenya Representative from community & private sector x4

National Sagalla Caecilian Management Committee § § § § § §

Chaired by KWS x3 Implementing Agencies x4 Site Committee Chairs x5 Local authority representatives x5 Wardens x5 NGO’s x6

Site Committee

Site Committee

Coordination Office/Liaison Office/Focal Point

Site Committee

National Sagalla Caecilian Technical Committee Scientist drawn from: § § §

KWS Implementation agencies IUCN/SSC

Site Committee

Figure 4: Sagalla Caecelian Action Plan Implementation Framework

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Site Committee


PLAN IMPLEMENTATION AND COORDINATION

• •

Coordination/Liaison Office • Be the central information depository for Sagalla Caecelian and other amphibians of conservation concern through assembly of reports, data and other relevant information from collaborating agencies • Monitor all collaborating agencies’ implementation of work plans as outlined in the SAP. • Disseminate information to, and liaise with, all stakeholders as identified in the Species Action plan: Government of Kenya, County Government, Communities, NGOs & Trusts, Research & Academic Institutions and Donors. • Coordinate meetings for management and executive committees • Promote and publish the outputs of the SAP

Review all conservation, management and research proposals Fund-raise for the conservation and management of the Taita endemics and Sagalla Caecilian, and implementation of the strategy Review and report on the implementation of the strategy

Site Committees • Ensure cost effective implementation of site work plans • Ensure adequate allocation of monitoring resources • Report site specific species population status and distribution • Coordinate linkages and working relations between research, security and management at site level • Engage with local community groups

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MONITORING AND EVALUATION

5 The implementation table (section 3.4) prioritizes the activities, identifies the activity implementers and the expected completion time. The liaison officer will work with the technical and management committees to draw annual work plans to guide implementation of

the Action Plan at the national level and with the site committees to ensure implementation at the site level. The progress in the plan implementation at the national and site levels will be reviewed annually.

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REFERENCES

6 1. IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Boulengerula niedeni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.1. <www. iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 June 2015 2. Malonza P. K. and J. Mlamba. 2013. Community participation in habitat restoration for the Critically Endangered Sagalla Caecilian Boulengerula niedeni Müller, Measey, Loader & Malonza, 2005 in Sagalla Hill, Kenya. Progress report submitted to US Fish & Wildlife Service. 10pp. 3. Malonza P. K. 2012. Conservation education for the critically endangered Sagalla caecilian Boulengerula niedeni Müller, Measey, Loader & Malonza, 2005 in Sagalla hill, Kenya. Report submitted to the Mohammed Bin Zayed species conservation fund. 14pp. 4. Malonza P. K. and G. J. Measey. 2005. Life history of an African caecilian: Boulengerula taitanus Loveridge 1935 (Amphibia Gymnophiona Caeciilidae). Tropical Zoology 18: 49-66 5. Malonza, P. K., S. Lötters, G.J. Measey. 2010. The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills, Kenya. 99(1): 4763.

6. Malonza, P.K. 2008. Amphibian biodiversity in Taita Hills, Kenya. PhD Thesis JohannesGutenberg University, Mainz Germany 158 pp. 7. Müller, H., G. J. Measey, S. P. Loader and P. K. Malonza. 2005. A new species of Boulengerula Tornier (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from an isolated mountain block of the Taita Hills, Kenya. Zootaxa 1004:37-50 8. Wojnowski, D. and P.K. Malonza, 2009. Kilima-mrota is not a worm: The effect of conservation education and a local naming contest on the perspectives held by the peoples of Sagalla Hill, Kenya toward the Sagalla caecilian Boulengerula niedeni. Journal of East African Natural History. 98(2): 2241–248. 9. Zoological Society of London. 2015. Sagalla Caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni). Downloaded from http://www. edgeofexistence.org/amphibians/species_ info.php?id=548

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Single Species Action Plan for Conservation of the Sagalla Caecilian (Boulengerula Niedeni) 2015 - 2  
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