Journal of Singing, May-June 2022

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Volume 70 78 | No. 2 5

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November/December 2013 May/June 2022

JOURNAL OF

S I NG I NG The T H E Official O F F I C I AJournal L JO U R NA L of the National Association O F T H E N A T I O N A L A S S O C IA T I O N of Teachers of Singing, Inc. OF TEACHERS OF SINGING, INC.


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The Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, Inc.


Journal of Singing The Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, Inc. Volume 78, No. 5

PRINT ISSN: 1086-7732 | ONLINE ISSN: 2769-4046 | USPS 890-380

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Richard Dale Sjoerdsma 221 26th Avenue Racine, WI 53403 (262) 883-4041 (H) (262) 551-5868 (Fax) E-mail: rsjoerdsma@carthage.edu ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Care of the Professional Voice Robert T. Sataloff 219 N. Broad St., 10th Floor Philadelphia, PA 19107 The Independent Teacher Brian Manternach 508 Steep Mountain Dr. Draper, UT 84020 bmantern@gmail.com Language and Diction Leslie De’Ath 37 Chisholm St. Cambridge, ONT Canada N1R 4E3 (519) 622-7049 lbdkbd@gmail.com

Music Reviews Kathleen Roland-Silverstein 6228 Royal Birkdale Jamesville, NJ 13078 Recorded Music Reviews Gregory Berg 5631 Hillside Drive Racine, WI 53406-0750 gberg@carthage.edu THE EDITORIAL BOARD

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Limited quantities of issues since October 1996 are available from the Executive Office. All full issues since 1944 are also archived on nats.org for subscribers and NATS members. The National Association of Teachers of Singing, Inc., is a member of the National Music Council. The Journal of Singing is indexed in the Music Index, the Music Article Guide, and Cinahl Information Systems. Periodical postage paid at Jacksonville, FL, and at additional mailing offices. The Journal of Singing is published bimonthly except July/August by the National Association of Teachers of Singing, Inc., at 9957 Moorings Drive #401, Jacksonville, FL 32257. The annual subscription rate is $50.00 for members (included in the membership fee) and $60.00 for nonmembers. Copyright © 2022 by the National Association of Teachers of Singing, Inc., 9957 Moorings Drive #401, Jacksonville, FL 32257. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, without prior written permission. PUBLICATION OFFICE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ���������������������� FEATURES Gregory Zavracky Christian Bester Ajhriahna Henshaw and Sarah Collyer Denise Bernardini and Lauren DiMaio

559 Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope 569 A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People

583 Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres

591 Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Lesson Time

���������������������� DEPARTMENTS Carole Blankenship Richard Dale Sjoerdsma Justin Moniz Jessica Kandl and Jaime Moore Ingo Titze Mikhail Smigelski Robert Edwin Brian Manternach,

553 From the President: Citizens of NATS 555 Editor’s Commentary: A Time to . . . 601 Voice Pedagogy: Regulating Vocal Load in High Impact Production 609 Care of the Professional Voice: Parkinson Disease 613 Voice Research and Technology: The Acoustic Characteristics of Vocal Twang 615 Language and Diction: Phonetics of Unstressed Russian Vowels in Singing 625 Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Revisiting Stage Fright 629 The Independent Teacher: Time Spent: The Forty-Hour Workweek 635 Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP),

Lynn Helding and Kari Ragan Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives Kimberly Broadwater William Browning Leslie Holmes Donald Simonson

641 Provenance: Leone Giraldoni and the “Method, Analytical, Philosophical, and Physiological Method for Voice Education”

645 Collab Corner: The Art of Accompanying [Part 2] 649 The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Jerold Siena, Part 1 655 Recent Research in Singing

���������������������� REVIEWS Debra Greschner Kathleen Roland-Silverstein Gregory Berg

657 663 667

Bookshelf Music Reviews The Listener’s Gallery

���������������������� INFORMATION iv Publication Deadlines 554 NATS Membership Information 673 Author Index to Volume 78 677 Subject Index to Volume 78 686 NATS Association Page 687 Index to Advertisers 687 Nonmember Subscription Information 688 Guidelines for Contributors May/June 2022

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The Online Journal Index An online annotated index of ­articles published in The Bulletin, The NATS Bulletin, The NATS Journal, and the Journal of Singing, was created by former NATS President and author of Teaching Singing John Burgin. From the first issue to the present, seventy-five years of publication yield more than 5,000 individual entries. The index also represents the contributions of hundreds of authors. An important research tool, now managed by Dr. Kristine Hurst-Wajszczuk, the index includes those articles considered to be contributions to voice pedagogy, technique, performance, medical science and practice, and the literature on singing. New entries are added with the publication of each issue. The index provides a searchable online bibliography, information, and helpful annotations of articles published. The index also provides a means of quickly finding what articles have been written on specific topics and by what authors. In addition, active NATS members and Journal of Singing subscribers are able to download printable copies of articles previously published in the Journal, as well as complete issues. Readers may access the index via the nats.org homepage at http://www.nats.org

PUBLICATION DEADLINES Vol. 79 No. 1 Sept/Oct 2022

Vol. 79 No. 2 Nov/Dec 2022

Vol. 79 No. 3 Jan/Feb 2023

Vol. 79 No. 4 Mar/Apr 2023

Vol. 79 No. 5 May/June 2023

Article manuscripts should be submitted directly to the Editor-in-Chief. All manuscripts are evaluated by the Editorial Board. Decision to publish rests with the Editor-in-Chief. The deadlines published here refer to articles that have already been accepted for publication. Features and Reviews by Continuing Contributors 1 May 2022 1 July 2022 1 Sep 2022

1 Nov 2022

1 Jan 2023

Submission of Advertisements 23 Jun 2022 24 Aug 2022

25 Oct 2022

27 Dec 2022

22 Feb 2023

Issue to be placed in mail approximately 23 Aug 2022 24 Oct 2022

29 Dec 2022

23 Feb 2023

21 April 20223

(We can no longer estimate the date of delivery.)


FROM THE PRESIDENT

Citizens of NATS Carole Blankenship

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Carole Blankenship

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 553–554 https://doi.org/10.53830/KYYT3733 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

hat does it mean to be a citizen of the National Association of Teachers of Singing? How can we shape what NATS members experience? What protocols help NATS leaders ensure that all are treated equitably? How does your NATS chapter create belonging? Does the job of the NATS adjudicator extend out beyond the audition? These are only a few of the challenging questions with which NATS leaders and members of the NATS Diversity and Inclusion Focus Group have been grappling. NATS has recently made huge strides in Diversity and Inclusion efforts. The leadership has been working together on the NATS Strategic Plan for more than three years. The NATS Diversity and Inclusion statement and initiatives are vital parts of that plan. These developments begin to prepare NATS for change! That includes open and honest conversations with members and leaders that diverge in perspectives and views. Within these discussions, all voices must be heard equally, leading to better results for NATS members and their students, including, of course, their experiences with NATS programs and services. In early 2021, the NATS D&I Task Force assisted the leadership in engaging professional consultants. The Task Force noted that the NATS Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion work will continue to change and shape this association for many years. We are so pleased to be working with Diversity and Inclusion professionals, Theresa Ruth Howard and Alejandra Valarino Boyer, both accomplished performers as well as experts in the work of Inclusivity, Diversity, Equity, and Antiracism in Arts organizations. For Phase I of the NATS plan, Theresa and Alejandra traveled to Jacksonville to lead in-person training with the NATS Board members and with the NATS Office staff. At the summer 2021 NATS Board meeting, the leadership voted unanimously to move to Phase II with the work on modules to train NATS members and leaders. Region governors recommended region and chapter officers with experience or interest in Diversity and Inclusion work to the president, who then invited them to serve. This large group of 40 NATS members is the NATS Diversity and Inclusion Focus Group. Four meetings were held together with the NATS D&I consultants to discuss Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Antiracism (IDEA) within the Association. Theresa and Alejandra have taken information from those meetings to create training modules specifically for NATS. Module 1 includes videos and slideshows that explain the language of IDEA and define culture and race as a construct. This module also addresses institutional racism and clarifies antiracism. There are members of NATS testing the modules as they are created. Other qualified and trained BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Carole Blankenship members are preparing to facilitate discussions among those who complete the modules. What is the goal of the training modules? As stated by several experts in antiracism, the goal is for NATS to become a fully inclusive antiracist multicultural organization in a transformed society. In the process, many of us will be personally transformed. That is the hard part. NATS is asking you to be open to change personally for the better solutions for all NATS members and those who aspire to be NATS members, including our students and young voice professionals. The original NATS D&I Toolkit assembled in 2020 to accompany the NATS Strategic Plan has been renamed the NATS IDEA Best Practices Guide. The opening statement of that document now reads, “NATS takes the equitable treatment for all within our organization very seriously. Equitable treatment involves learning about IDEA: Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Antiracism. This NATS IDEA Best Practices Guide has been created to identify ways to promote IDEA within NATS. It provides guidelines for fostering and maintaining a welcoming and supportive community and culture of diversity and inclusion, strategies for communicating across cultures, strategies for demonstrating that we value and validate each other and educating ourselves, and identifying ways to build an inclusive NATS leadership team” (https://www. nats.org/_Library/docs/NATS_IDEA_Best_Practices_ Guide_Final_1_17_22_rev.pdf). NATS must make great changes, but transformation begins with members. The goals of this work may seem challenging, but if we each take on the training, we will make the changes. The NATS training modules will open us to change through new ways of thinking, discussing issues, and being open to listening. It is my hope that we learn new ways of listening to and communicating with other NATS members and with those who want to be members. There are many wonderful resources to help us with the urgent and critical work of Inclusivity, Diversity, Equity, and Antiracism. Look for the resources and know that we can all change and do our best to create a sense of belonging for anyone and everyone who wishes to be part of this association. NATS will be changing for the better!

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National Association of Teachers of Singing Membership: Membership in the National Association of Teachers of Sing­ ing is open to any citizen of any country whose professional train­ing and experience qualify­ing him or her as a teacher of singing. Associate Membership is available for voice teachers and advanced students who have not as yet completed the require­ ments for full membership. Affiliate Membership is open to persons or groups that are interested in vocal pursuits but are not actually involved in the teach­ing of singing, such as speech therapists, laryn­gologists, schools, publishers, and music stores. Publications: Membership includes a sub­scription to the Journal of Singing, the official journal of NATS, and to Inter Nos, the NATS Newsletter. Information: Applications for membership may be completed online at www.nats.org. The website contains detailed information about the qualifications for membership and the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Teachers of Singing. Visit the Membership section of nats.org to learn more.

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Journal of Singing


EDITOR’S COMMENTARY

A Time To . . . Richard Dale Sjoerdsma

To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven . . .

Richard Dale Sjoerdsma

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 555–558 https://doi.org/10.53830/EDIP3439 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

A

Ecclesiastes 3:1

nswer: Stephen Breyer, Tom Brady, and Richard Dale Sjoerdsma. Question: What three public personages announced their retirement during the same week in late January? Any Jeopardy contestant would be able immediately to identify two-thirds of the correct response, but assuredly would puzzle over the missing piece, perhaps frantically hurling wildly erroneous guesses before the buzzer sounded. Justice Breyer’s decision had an immediate seismic impact on American politics and the judicial system that will reverberate far into the future. Star football quarterback Tom Brady’s retirement jarred the arena of professional sports (and apparently has recently been retracted). The (not so public) Journal of Singing Editor in Chief’s announcement may have caused a ripple in a household or two. The first two announcements were widely publicized in national headlines; the latter one was quietly expressed in a letter to the Executive Director of the association that publishes the periodical and of which the editor is a member. I trust that readers will forgive a lighthearted lead-in to a most serious matter: I announce my decision to relinquish my position as Editor in Chief of the Journal of Singing. I do so with some regret, having greatly enjoyed what will have been a term of 22 years at the helm of a distinguished journal. Yet, in view of both advancing age and expanding technological challenges, it appears to be the right time to step aside. It was a difficult, even painful decision, although one that is, in fact, somewhat anticlimactic. You may recall from previous editions of this column the challenges I encountered resulting from an aggressive radiation therapy undertaken to address a malignant lymph node with expansion that was removed from my neck. Although the radiation oncologist did his best to minimize laryngeal damage, my singing voice was compromised to some degree, and I have not sung professionally since 2013.1 Other complications were less permanent, but nevertheless contributed to the despair that caused me to consider it to be a contradiction to lead a scholarly journal for professional voice practitioners. I discussed relinquishing the position with Executive Director Allen Henderson and a few close friends and family members, but ultimately I concluded that it was essentially an emotional response and BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Richard Dale Sjoerdsma didn’t act upon it. Now, however, my decision is more deliberate, but assuredly not dispassionate. In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Act IV, Scene 3, Brutus, conversing with fellow conspirator Cassius, offers an early expression of carpe diem. There is a tide in the affairs of men, Which, when taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; Omitted, all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries. On such a full sea we are now afloat, And we must take the current when it serves, Or lose our ventures.

I think that, in late 2000, I took the tide of opportunity at its flood. Upon return from the 2000 NATS Philadelphia Conference, I found a communication from NATS President-Elect Bill McIver suggesting that I consider applying for the position of Journal of Singing editor vacated by its current holder. A few years earlier, following the death of editor James McKinney, I had been asked to enter candidacy for his position, but expanding responsibilities at Carthage College rendered that inadvisable. Second opportunities present themselves only infrequently, third opportunities almost never; consequently, I threw my proverbial hat in the ring and was eventually appointed. The result was a career change that has brought huge satisfaction and rewards at many levels personal and professional. Ah, but it’s important to remember that tides ebb as well as flood, which I note particularly in two areas that affect my decision: biological and technological. In contemplative moments, I often think of the text to Gerald Finzi’s song, “The Sigh.” The last verse of Thomas Hardy’s poem I have found particularly ­poignant, inspiring personal retrospection. It was in our May, remember; And though now I near November, And abide Till my appointed change, unfretting . . . Thomas Hardy, from “The Sigh”

Having recently attained the status of octogenarian, I probably am in the December of my allotted life span and am increasingly aware of certain life events and changes that may accrue. Currently I am in good health, but that condition cannot be taken for granted, and the unanticipated can occur. A debilitating illness, incapac-

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ity, or worse would have significantly negative effects on the journal and NATS. Although I was not directly involved, I remember when editor McKinney suddenly died in 1998 and the chaos that ensued. Carol Kimball stepped in as editor pro tem for a short time, while the Association scrambled to search for a new editor, ultimately engaging my immediate predecessor, Kathleen Wilson. Under the current circumstances, NATS will be able to launch a process that will be deliberative, methodic, free from undue pressures or constraints. A second reason, equal in importance, is technological. As you may have read in a previous “Editor’s Commentary,” the Journal of Singing is moving ahead with a number of technological initiatives to modernize journal editorial and production procedures and to make our periodical more accessible to the wider scholastic community.2 Through membership in CrossRef, all materials now are assigned a DOI (digital object identifier), a more accurate citation method that increases the reach and impact of the journal and brings it in line with other scholarly publications. The other leg of this initiative, ScholarOne Manu­ scripts™, is not yet in place and is considerably more complicated and time consuming than we had initially thought. While I still consider myself educable and cognitively facile, the extensive training involved for the editor would be better applied to a younger person who would be in place for a longer time, a “digital native” or one of greater technological expertise than I possess. So here is the plan as we go forward. I intend to stay in position through the next publication cycle, that is, until approximately May 2023. Executive Director Henderson will create a search committee (of which I should not be a member), announce and advertise the position, launch a national search, vet and interview applicants, and subsequently appoint the next editor of the Journal of Singing. I would hope to have a few months to mentor that person in order to ensure a smooth transition and acquaint them with the intricacies and idiosyncracies of editorship. Meanwhile, I have a new publication cycle to prepare, and five more “Editor’s Commentary” columns to write, a couple of which are certain to be valedictory in nature and content.

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*** Journal of Singing


Editor’s Commentary I am delighted to share with you the appointment of Dr. Matthew Hoch as Associate Editor of the Journal of Singing in charge of the “Voice Pedagogy” column, effective with the beginning of the next publication cycle. He succeeds Scott McCoy, who, as you are aware, stepped away from the position last fall. In more than two decades as editor of the journal, having made a number of staffing decisions, changes, and appointments, I can say unhesitatingly that this was the most difficult decision of them all. I was privileged to have a slate of high profile and extraordinarily qualified candidates, several of whom would have served with distinction. Matt is currently associate professor of voice at Auburn University, as well as choirmaster and minister of music at Holy Trinity Episcopal Church in Auburn, Alabama. He maintains a multifaceted career as prolific

author, teacher of singing, performer, conductor, and scholar. His name will be familiar to many in the vocal arts community as editor of the NATS sponsored So You Want to Sing series, as well as author and co-author of books in that series. The reader is invited to more fully explore his impressive credentials on the nats.org website. I welcome Matt to my editorial staff and look forward to his valued contributions to NATS and the Journal of Singing.

NOTES 1. Richard Dale Sjoerdsma, “Not to Sing?,” Journal of Singing 70, no. 2 (November/December 2013): 145–146. 2. Richard Dale Sjoerdsma, “Plus ça change . . . ,” Journal of Singing 78, no. 1 (September/October 2021): 3–5; https:// doi.org/10.53830/NBPC5444.

Undergraduate Studies in Voice with majors in: Composition Jazz Studies Music Education Music Industry Music Performance Music Theatre Graduate Studies in Voice Performance, Choral Conducting, & Music Education

https://j.mu/music

May/June 2022

music_admit@jmu.edu

540.568.3851

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Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope Gregory Zavracky

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Gregory Zavracky

ritten in 1915, Five Songs of Laurence Hope are considered by many to be Harry T. Burleigh’s greatest achievement. The songs are fervent tales of love, rife with sexual desire and consummation; they warn of love’s dangers, while celebrating lifelong companionship and grieving its loss. In contrast with the more straightforward style of Burleigh’s familiar spiritual arrangements, the Hope songs are harmonically adventurous and Romantic, lush musical settings that match the sensuousness of the poetry. Elements of exoticism pervade the music, creating an Eastern flair that complements the poetry’s Indian setting and would have quenched the early twentieth century audience’s thirst for fantasies of distant lands. This article provides information relevant to the performance and teaching of Five Songs of Laurence Hope. Included are short biographies of composer Harry T. Burleigh and poet Adela Cory Nicolson, details about the premiere and its reception, technical considerations, poem synopses, and thorough analysis of each song.

BIOGRAPHY OF COMPOSER HARRY T. BURLEIGH

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 559–568 https://doi.org/10.53830/NHHB5331 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Harry Thacker Burleigh (1866–1949) was born in Erie, Pennsylvania to a college educated mother and Union navy veteran who served during the Civil War. His earliest musical influence was his maternal grandfather, a freed slave named Hamilton Waters, who taught Burleigh the spirituals that would be so important to his popularity as a composer. In his teens, Burleigh worked as a lamplighter and newspaper deliverer, singing songs as he traveled his routes. Burleigh’s formal musical training began in 1892 when he enrolled at the National Conservatory of Music in New York. Among his teachers were Max Spicker, Victor Herbert, and most notably Antonín Dvořák, with whom Burleigh developed a mutually beneficial relationship. Dvořák employed Burleigh as his librarian and copyist, and Burleigh sang to Dvořák the slave songs his grandfather had passed down to him. According to Dvořák’s biographer, H. C. Colles, Burleigh’s voice was the inspiration for the cor anglais solo in the second movement of Symphony no. 9 (“New World”).1 The spirit of the music Burleigh sang to Dvořák can be heard throughout the piece. In 1894, Burleigh won a coveted church position at St. George’s Protestant Episcopal Church, where he would remain for more than fifty years. He later added another longstanding singing position at the synagogue, Temple BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Gregory Zavracky Emanu-el. Over the course of his career, Burleigh attracted considerable attention for his high baritone, singing in recitals for international audiences, including King Edward VII of England. Burleigh developed a strong relationship with Black British composer, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, and many of Burleigh’s recitals featured both his own music and that of Coleridge-Taylor. As a composer, Burleigh gained fame as an arranger of spirituals. His arrangement of “Deep River” in 1917 brought him widespread recognition and respect. Among the singers who performed his music were Marian Anderson, Paul Robeson, Marcella Sembrich, Nellie Melba, John McCormack, Alma Gluck, and Oscar Seagle. Yet, according to Anne Key Simpson, “Burleigh’s chief regret as a composer was this very situation, the ‘too-little known art-songs.’ In later life, he preferred to be remembered foremost as a composer in this genre, rather than as an arranger of spirituals alone.”2 His art song output includes numerous stand-alone songs and three song cycles in quick succession, Saracen Songs (1914), Passionale (1915), and Five Songs of Laurence Hope (1915). In 1917, Burleigh was awarded the Spingarn Medal, given by the NAACP for outstanding achievement. An honorary doctorate followed from Howard University in 1920. His impact upon Black music and American music in general was substantial. As George R. Weintraub noted, through Harry T. Burleigh, “the sufferings and aspirations of a whole race expressed themselves in profoundly moving fashion.”3

BIOGRAPHY OF POET ADELA CORY NICOLSON Adela Cory Nicolson was born in England in 1865. When her father became the editor of the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, sixteen year old Adela moved to India, where she would remain for most of her adult life.4 At 23, she wedded Colonel Malcolm Hassels Nicolson, who was stationed at various posts throughout northwest India during their marriage. From 1901 to 1903, the couple lived in north Africa and London, before traveling back to India for the final year of their life. In August of 1904, Colonel Nicolson died unexpectedly following surgery, and a depressed Adela Nicolson committed suicide two months later.

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Nicolson published all of her works under the pseudonym Laurence Hope. Her first book of poetry, Garden of Kama (1901), was falsely published as translations of Indian poetry in an attempt, along with her male pen name, to legitimize her work. The book garnered praise. Thomas Hardy, for example, called her a “poetess who specialized in ‘tropical luxuriance and Sapphic fervour’” and praised her “impassioned effusions.” 5 Musical settings of four of her songs by Amy WoodfordeFinden brought to Nicolson an even wider audience.6 In an era where sensual writings and exotica were being “consumed with unprecedented eagerness,” Nicolson’s poetry became a best seller.7 Two books followed in the same style: Stars of the Desert (1903) and the posthumous Indian Love (1905). In their lyricism and sexual themes, her works show the influence of Algernon Charles Swinburne and the Pre-Raphaelites.

PREMIERE AND RECEPTION The Five Songs of Laurence Hope were given their premiere by the great Irish tenor John McCormack along with pianist Edwin Schneider on March 19, 1916. Ten days prior, an announcement for the recital appeared in the Musical Courier magazine, alongside a review of the American premiere of Mahler’s massive Eighth Symphony with the Philadelphia Orchestra and a report that famed dancer, Warslav Nijinksy, would be joining the Ballet Russe for their residency at the Met.8 Despite being sick, McCormack sang the recital, adding “many encores without apparent difficulty.”9 The enthusiastic response from the audience required the last of the Hope songs, “Till I Wake,” to be repeated. Two weeks later, McCormack and company were in Boston’s Symphony Hall for a program that contained three of the Hope songs, “Till I Wake,” “Worth While,” and “The Jungle Flower,” before another avid audience. Reviews for the Burleigh premiere were largely positive. A Musical America review, reprinted in the June 1916 issue of the NAACP magazine, The Crisis, noted that Burleigh “handled cleverly the exotic Eastern themes . . . and his gift of melody is strikingly apparent in the ‘Jungle Flower.’”10 The Opera Magazine mentioned the songs’ “successful suggestion of the oriental atmosphere.”11 H. T. Parker of the Boston Transcript enjoyed Burleigh’s “vein of fresh melody that is individual, fra-

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Journal of Singing


Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope grant . . . he has sensibility, humor and even imagination; and he shuns our molasseslike sentimentality as though it were the plague upon our songs that it really is.”12 A New York Times review from the day after the concert was mixed. Though the critic considered the songs “well-made” by a “practiced hand,” he opined that the piece was “not a strongly individual product that goes into the highest class.”13 A later review of Burleigh’s works by Hiram K. Moderwell in the Boston Evening Transcript included a flattering description of the Hope songs: “The ‘Five Songs of Laurence Hope’ probably represent Mr. Burleigh’s best work. Here are haunting melodies, accompaniments rich in detail, yet not overwritten, striking bits of delineation, and much skill in the wedding of music to words. In sheer emotional effectiveness these songs must receive high rank.”14 In the prefatory note for the Hope songs score, musical editor for the New York Tribune, H. E. Krehbiel, praised their “artistic distinction,” noting that “we have had occasion to learn how adept Mr. Burleigh is in imbuing music with his own national voice, and it is a pleasure to observe that the idiom of the East is also at his command.” 15 Indeed, Burleigh had created a powerful and evocative song cycle.

VOCAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FIVE SONGS OF LAURENCE HOPE Since Burleigh himself was a singer and adept at writing for voices, it is no surprise that Five Songs of Laurence Hope fits the tenor voice remarkably well. With an overall range of D3–B b4, the cycle as a whole is suitable for a graduate level singer or higher. Individual songs, particularly “The Jungle Flower” and “Kashmiri Song,” are appropriate for the advanced college-aged singer. Nothing precludes a soprano from singing the cycle. Since the poet was a woman—even if she were writing from a male perspective—a female voice could also be appropriate, and sopranos will find no more difficulty in the range or tessitura than would a tenor. Baritones and mezzo sopranos capable of sustaining a higher tessitura could consider singing individual songs, as well. For example, “The Jungle Flower” peaks at F4, and with its alternate lower notes, “Kashmiri Song” reaches only F#4, within the range of many mezzos and baritones. May/June 2022

Sections with fortissimo high notes may be the most difficult technical moments in the cycle. Singers should be careful not to oversing, especially given the highly Romantic style of the music. Notably, climactic phrases in “Worth While,” “Kashmiri Song,” and “Among the Fuchsias” lend themselves to pushing. Conversely, the piano B b4 in “Till I Wake” is quite challenging, requiring an ability to float high notes. The general delicacy of this song, especially after so many strong moments earlier in the cycle, requires technical proficiency. The cycle provides ample opportunities to work on the technique of legato singing. Long, flowing lines require appropriate phrasing and direction, as well as a properly metered release of air. The cycle’s medium tessitura can facilitate range extension without overtiring in the lead-up to high notes. Additionally, with both fortissimo and pianissimo moments, the cycle challenges the singer to manage a well produced tone over a wide dynamic range. Lastly, due to the impassioned poetry, the songs can be a valuable tool for working on dramatic presentation in an art song setting.

SONG ANALYSIS “Worth While”

“Worth While” affirms Tennyson’s adage, “’Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.” The singer is lonely and destroyed after the death of their lover, but the memory of their past love comforts them. The melody of the two-measure introduction, with its minor seconds and an ascending leap to a dissonance, evokes the yearning the singer feels for their lost love. The first harmony, an F# dominant chord in m. 2, sets up a cadence in B minor. Burleigh instead launches into four measures of stormy diminished chords, conveying the “desolate, shipwreck’d soul” of the singer. The unrest is deepened by a poco agitato marking and syncopated rhythms in the piano, and the expected cadence in B minor never comes (Example 1). The listener will have to wait until the golden section of the song, m. 28, when an authentic cadence in the relative major firmly establishes the key of D. On the downbeat of m. 4, Burleigh employs a halfdiminished seventh chord built on the raised sixth scale degree, adding dissonance to a moment where a tonic triad might be expected. As chords in a minor key are

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Gregory Zavracky

Example 1. “Worth While,” mm. 1–7.

a)

b)

Example 2. A comparison of a) mm. 16–17 of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde prelude and b) mm. 20–21 of

“Worth While.”

much more commonly built on the lowered sixth scale degree, this chord’s frequency throughout the cycle is noteworthy. For simplicity’s sake, I will refer to it going forward as the “Burleigh” chord. Another of Burleigh’s favorite chords occurs in m. 7, a ninth chord. The E dominant ninth chord in this measure is the first of many ninth chords that Burleigh uses throughout the cycle to create a plush sound matching the exoticism and sensuality of the text. In the following measures, both the syncopation and the diminished chords relent, easing the tension of the preceding measures. Burleigh employs less chromaticism and a more functional chord progression en route to a cadence in C major in m. 14 on the word, “lovedst.” The dominant to tonic motion of mm. 12–15 is the most settled moment of the song yet, as the memory of the beloved eases the singer’s pain.

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In mm. 20–23, the vocal line’s appassionato marking and downward resolving dissonances on the downbeat create a swooning effect as the answer to the question, “wouldst thou rather never have met the one thou lovedst beyond control and whom thou adorest yet” comes “back from the senses.” The melody of the piano seems to be borrowed—consciously or not—from Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde prelude (Example 2). While the earlier avoidance of cadences, the chromatic motion of the piano, and the abundance of half-diminished chords are reminiscent of the prelude, Burleigh is even more direct here, likening the spellbound singer’s connection to their dead lover as equal to the intensity of the love between the ill fated lovers in Tristan. In mm. 24–27, the music builds toward a climax. Accented A naturals dominate the piano and vocal lines on “swiftly thrown,” and the dominant chord in m. 27

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Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope a)

b)

Example 3. “The Jungle Flower,” a) mm. 7–8, with the main motive in the first four notes of the voice part,

b) developed in the piano in mm. 29–31.

prepares the song’s first tonic cadence. The voice soars to its highest note of the song, an A4, and the piano texture fills out to four notes in each hand. The answer finally comes: “What matter the price? We would pay it again.” In contrast with the whirlwind of diminished chords that begins the song, Burleigh ends with relative tonal stability. There are some surprising chords, like the German augmented sixth chord in m. 29 and the G minor chord with a major seventh in m. 33 that add lushness, but the consonance of D major is never far away. The music in this section stays forte and frequently accented, building to a climactic cadence on the words, “we have known.” In the second half of m. 37, Burleigh substitutes an F# for an E, turning the anticipated V7 chord into a iii6 chord with an added ninth—a gentler and perhaps more nostalgic-sounding chord. After crashing, jubilant fortissimo chords in mm. 37–41, Burleigh ends the song with a soft three-measure postlude. The stepwise descending motion of the piano part is reminiscent of the opening measures, but Burleigh writes major chords instead of the diminished and minor chords so prevalent at the beginning. A contentedness pervades the postlude, as the singer’s torment abates, at least for the time being. “The Jungle Flower”

The poem details an affair with a woman likened to a rare and beautiful jungle flower, who smells like the sweet champa, a flower native to India. Yet, another lover haunts the singer, and their previous encounter May/June 2022

leaves them longing for a return to this “too-brief hour.” Burleigh chooses to exclude the two-line introductory and closing stanzas, which solidify the idea that the current lover is an “inn on the traveler’s road” and that their past, true lover is their “spirit’s home” and “soul’s abode.” 16 The shortened two-stanza poem is more direct and easily allows for the composition to be in a ternary form. The song’s introduction immediately transports the listener to a faraway place. With open fifths repeating in drone-like fashion and grace notes conjuring the sliding notes of Indian string instruments, the opening measures are vaguely evocative of Indian music.17 The introduction stays mostly in F minor, but modal motion to subtonic chords in m. 3 and m. 5 sound exotic. In contrast to “Worth While,” harmonies in “The Jungle Flower” proceed more logically, with motion to the tonic or the relative major. Still, unexpected harmonies contribute to the song’s exotic flair. Neighboring motion in mm. 10–12 creates more modality and signature “Burleigh” chords. Measures 22–35 are a musical depiction of a tryst in the jungle. Extended harmonies with sevenths and ninths sound sensuous, and the con abbandono and rubato tempo markings give the section a swooning push and pull. In m. 29, Burleigh uses the song’s main motive in sequence to build to a climax (Example 3). Fully diminished chords and cross-relations—B bs against Bs and E bs against Es—in mm. 30–32 heighten the tension. The music suggests the torment of desiring a past love

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Gregory Zavracky while in the midst of an affair with another love. It is passionate, yet painful. The texture of the interlude thins out quickly leading into the B section. The tryst is only temporary relief for the distraught lover. The B section begins m. 36, as the main motive in the piano provides counterpoint to a new vocal melody, underscoring the idea that the lover’s thoughts are elsewhere, flying “far to another breast.” As in “Worth While,” downward stepwise-resolving dissonances in the piano melody evoke the singer’s longing. At m. 44, the A section returns, this time with the drone and grace notes of the introduction underneath the vocal line. A full measure of rest in m. 53 suggests a loss of words from frustration, and the dominant ninth chord that follows it, with its two sets of tritones, underlies the singer’s torment. The final vocal line is one last disgruntled forte, which dissipates to a whimpering piano. The piece ends with a surprising Piccardy third, providing a glimmer of hope to the forlorn singer. “Kashmiri Song”

This song is an ode to an ex-lover’s “pale hands,” which had the power to move the singer to joy or to sorrow. Wracked with grief and still obsessed with their past love, the singer regrets that those hands did not strangle them instead of waving them farewell. The ominous low range of the introduction sets the stage for the darkest of the Five Songs of Laurence Hope. A pentatonic melody is not harmonized; instead, only a low F# tolls like a death knell. Lacking a third, a stark and foreboding dominant chord ends the introduction. As the voice enters for the first line, the piano part repeats a similar pattern to that used in “The Jungle Flower,” with fifths in drone in the left hand embellished with grace notes. The voice repeats the melody of the introduction. In m. 9, the piano plays an exotic countermelody to the vocal line above a series of foreboding diminished chords. The faster rhythms create a pressing forward that illustrates the singer’s agitated mind, still fixated on the departed lover. In m. 20, a turn to B major invokes happier thoughts of the singer’s relationship with their past love, but the use of chromaticism and diminished chords underscores the relationship’s toxicity. Now matching the disjunct intervals of the piano in m. 28, the vocal melody conveys the reckless abandon that characterized the singer in

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their past relationship, especially as the accelerando in m. 29 brings a wilder tempo. Burleigh modulates to the mediant, a bright E b major, as the singer is lost in the memory of the touch of their lover’s pale hands. The B section ends with planed dominant ninth chords. Exotic and sensual, these extended harmonies highlight the singer’s obsession over their ex-lover’s touch. Downward leaping grace notes and open fifths at the top of the treble staff conjure the sound of tinkling bells, evoking Eastern instruments. In m. 41, continued bell tones accompanying the drone and modal countermelody in the A′ section conjure the lotus buds and cool waters of the Shalimar in Kashmir mentioned in the poem. With the graphic image of the lover’s hands “round my throat, crushing out life,” Burleigh builds to a climax, repeating the text for emphasis and pressing forward to a fortissimo high A4 in m. 54 (Example 4). But the singer’s angst is short lived: the song ends with a slackening of tempo and a diminuendo, first to piano and finally to triple piano. The singer may still be alive, but their will to live is fading. “Among the Fuchsias”

The singer ponders, “ah, why is a thing so sweet so wrong . . . ?” Their lover tempts them to a secret meeting, promising even to bear them children. Yet the singer resists, aware that a clandestine relationship will only result in trouble. The introduction begins with a simple pentatonic melody, embellished with grace notes in a style similar to “The Jungle Flower.” But a new sound world opens in m. 2, with luscious, planed seventh chords leading to a French augmented sixth chord. The melody arcs downward to end on a B-natural, a blue note that becomes a central pitch focus in the song. The first instance of the song’s main rhythmic motive—four sixteenth notes followed by a longer note—appears on the downbeat of m. 3. Parallel motion results in more planed chords, and the employment of the whole-tone scale creates augmented triads reminiscent of Debussy’s piano prelude “Voiles,” written just five years before the Five Songs of Laurence Hope (Example 5). Using impressionistic techniques, Burleigh continues to reveal a fresh and enchanting world. On the last beat of m. 3, he returns to his signature “Burleigh” chord.

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Journal of Singing


Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope

Example 4. “Kashmiri Song,” mm. 52–56.

a)

b)

Example 5. A comparison of a) mm. 1–2 of Debussy’s Prelude No. 2 (“Voiles”) and b) mm. 3–4 of

Burleigh’s “Among the Fuchsias”

After the introduction, repeated parallel fifths in the bass create an earthy drone, and Burleigh uses the lowered seventh scale degree to build minor dominant chords in modal fashion. The beginning vocal line recalls “The Jungle Flower,” but surprises the listener with a B natural—a blue note—to end the phrase (Example 6). The move from A b to B also creates an augmented second in the melody, a common and characteristic interval in many Eastern scales. The raised fourth scale degree hints at the dangers of the temptation mentioned in the text. Starting in m. 15, a dominant pedal and an accelerando underline the angst of the singer, who is allured by the promise of adding “a link to the line,” even if it be with the wrong woman. Dissonances on the downbeat echoed in the left hand add even more tension, building to a forte climax in m. 19, as the voice rises to its highest note in the song, an A b4. Burleigh fills out the harmonies May/June 2022

with octaves and three- and four-note voicings in the right hand and increased activity in the left hand. The half-step ascending bass line leads to a colorful German augmented sixth chord supporting the blue note in the voice in m. 22. In m. 26, Burleigh returns to using grace notes on the piano to begin the second verse. As in “Kashmiri Song,” the grace notes sound bell-like and suggest the idea of being summoned, coinciding with the text, “call me not to the lotus lake.”18 As mm. 36–39 press forward, the voice is suddenly tacet, and the piano plays a twomeasure melody, softening to piano instead of cresting to the expected forte. The blue note is again the highlight of the end of the phrase, supported by a tense enharmonic half diminished chord. The voice returns in m. 42, and a languido marking belies the singer’s fatigue at being constantly conflicted. Measures 45–49 proceed in a similar manner to the

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Gregory Zavracky a)

b)

Example 6. A comparison of a) “The Jungle Flower,” mm. 7–8 and b) “Among the Fuchsias,” mm. 7–8.

parallel measures of the first verse, but note values for the words “sweet” in m. 48 and “wrong” in m. 49 are augmented, highlighting the singer’s protracted conflict. In m. 49, the piano plays a surprising and sumptuous F b eleventh chord. Perhaps the singer derives some feeling of enjoyment from the illicit nature of the relationship. Curiously, the piece ends on a major tonic chord with an added sixth. Has the singer found relief by giving into temptation? Have they sworn off their lover once and for all? Any dramatic interpretation of the four-measure postlude must take this surprisingly sweet final chord into account. “Till I Wake”

“Till I Wake” is a brief and touching poem about the desire to remember a lover’s kiss in the afterlife. The song returns to the more Romantic style of “Worth While,” making little use of the exoticism so frequently employed in the prior three songs. The dark introduction recalls the first song’s half-step descent and abundant diminished chords, even starting with a “Burleigh” chord instead of a tonic chord. A surprising major tonic chord appears in m. 3, only to transform to minor through a half-step slip of the third. The chord on the downbeat of m. 6 contains both raised and lowered thirds before moving to a dominant chord on the second beat. The overall chromaticism, and particularly the major/minor clashes, creates a sense of the uncertainty and uneasiness as death nears. A simpler approach begins the A section. Arpeggiated triads in the piano support a sweeping vocal melody that

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repeats the four-measure motive of the introduction (Example 7). Alternating dominant and tonic triads in mm. 7–17 direct focus to the singer’s lament. A modulation to C major begins in m. 18 as the singer becomes more excited by the thought of their lover’s farewell kiss. In m. 24, Burleigh begins a fifteen-measure stepwise descent in the bass, thickening the texture first by tying over final arpeggiated eighth notes to the next measure and then by adding the motive in countermelody to the right hand of the piano. In m. 37, the countermelody blooms to three- and four-note chords, driving the music to a forte climax in mm. 39–40 as the voice soars to an A4 for the singer’s vision of resurrection after death. Burleigh cadences with a plush D major ninth chord, as hope replaces uncertainty. However, the hopefulness is short lived. A surprising trill in m. 40 catalyzes an interlude that recalls the descending motion of the introduction, as Burleigh planes a series of crunchy French augmented sixth chords illuminating the singer’s fixation on death. The final chord of the interlude pits a D major triad against an A b major triad a tritone above. Feelings of hope for an “awakening” bloom again with the C major chord that begins the next section. A secondary diminished chord in m. 51 seems to set up a return to D minor, but rather than the anticipated tonic chord, Burleigh again employs his signature “Burleigh” chord. Instead of a vocal climax, a maestoso, fortissimo interlude erupts in the piano with filled out harmonies sounding the song’s melodic motive in triumphant fashion. Again, a stepwise bass is present, but instead of

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Journal of Singing


Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope

Example 7. “Till I Wake,” mm. 7–12.

representing the descent to the grave as it did in earlier instances, here it evokes the lover leaning over to kiss the dying singer. When the voice re-enters in m. 61, it is on a delicate piano dynamic, again supported by a “Burleigh” chord. “The touch of your lips” is repeated four times in the A′ section, reinforcing the singer’s longing to remember their loved one’s kiss after death. A syncopated pedal in the bass adds anticipation, and the dynamic builds from pianissimo in m. 65 to a climax in m. 74 on the third repetition of the text. The voice climbs to A4 and is supported again by a “Burleigh” chord in the piano. The last instance of the repeated text ascends to a treacherous piano B b4 before resolving to D major for the last vocal note of the song. The singer’s joyous thoughts of reunion with their loved one prevail. Yet, the postlude contains moments of uneasiness. The melodic motive is buried in the middle of the right hand. As in the introduction, there is tension between major and minor hinting at the singer’s doubt. In the end, the pianissimo D major chords symbolize the singer’s weary mind coming to rest.

community and the country at large, a re-evaluation of Black composers’ underperformed and undervalued music is necessary. Burleigh’s talent for art song should be recognized alongside more frequently performed white composers from the first half of the twentieth century, like Samuel Barber, John Duke, and Charles Ives. Contemporary Black composers need to be heard and commissioned, but we also need to celebrate and study the wonderful and rich repertoire of Black composers and poets that already exist in the repertoire. G. Ricordi published the original score for the song cycle in 1915, and a reprinted edition is available through Classical Vocal Reprints. Dreams of a New Day, a 2021 recording by baritone Will Liverman and pianist Paul Sánchez, contains the cycle in its entirety. Two other recordings contain three Hope songs each: a 2006 Decca recording with soprano Cynthia Hayman and pianist Warren Jones entitled Where the Music Comes From, and roots // wurzeln, a 2017 Ars-Vobiscum recording with baritone Thomas Stimmel and pianist Philipp Vogler. Additionally, Marques L. A. Garrett arranged the entire cycle for SATB choir in 2021.

CONCLUSION

NOTES

The combination of Nicolson’s passionate and universal poetry and Burleigh’s superb and accessible music should place Five Songs of Laurence Hope in the canon of American art song. As the desire for more inclusive and diverse programming strengthens within the art song

1. Jean E. Snyder, Harry T. Burleigh: From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2017), 109.

May/June 2022

2. Anne Key Simpson, Hard Trials: The Life and Music of Harry T. Burleigh (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990), 56.

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Gregory Zavracky 3. Ibid., 117. 4. Now part of Pakistan, Lahore was part of British India at the time of Nicolson’s writings. 5. Thomas Hardy and Harold Orel, Thomas Hardy’s Personal Writings: Prefaces, Literary Opinions, Reminisences (London: Macmillan, 1967), 256. 6. Woodforde-Finden also sets “Kashmiri Song” and “Till I Wake.” Her restrained Victorian style seems antithetical to Nicolson’s provocative poetry and as such, is not nearly as effective as Burleigh’s music. 7. Anindyo Roy, “‘Gold and Bracelet, Water and Wave’: Signature and Translation in the Indian Poetry of Adela Cory Nicolson,” Women: A Cultural Review 13, no. 2 (April 2002): 140–160. 8. “Two More McCormack Bookings,” Musical Courier (March 9, 1916): 37. 9. “John McCormack’s recital,” New York Times (March 20, 1916): 9. 10. “Along the Color Line,” The Crisis (June 1916). 11. “The Concert Stage,” The Opera Magazine (April 1916): 28. 12. H. T. Parker, “A Loyal, Self Respecting, and Ambitious Musician,” Musical Courier (April 13, 1916): 30. 13. New York Times, 9.

and Burleigh’s access to Eastern music paled in comparison to that of the modern day composer. 18. Patrick O’Halloran, “A Graduate Recital in Voice” (Masters thesis, Pittsburg State University, 2018), 25. Dr. Gregory Zavracky is a teaching associate at Brown University and an instructor of voice at the University of Connecticut. For the past eleven summers, he has been on voice faculty at Boston University Tanglewood Institute. Gregory received his DMA in Voice Performance from Boston University in 2014, in addition to Master of Music degrees in both Voice and Opera studies from New England Conservatory and a Bachelor of Arts from Emory University. He has been inducted into both the Phi Beta Kappa and Pi Kappa Lambda honors societies. A lyric tenor, Dr. Zavracky maintains an active performance schedule on concert, recital and opera stages. Recent highlights include La Belle Hélène with Odyssey Opera, the premiere of Matthew Aucoin’s Crossing with the American Repertory Theater at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, recitals with the Five Borough Music Festival (NY) and Highland Center for the Arts (VT), Messiah with the Rhode Island Philharmonic, and Count Almaviva in Barber of Seville with Townsend Opera (CA). He is a frequent soloist with a variety of symphonies and choral groups in the Boston area and has also sung with Boston Lyric Opera, Utah Symphony and Opera, Chautauqua Symphony and Opera, Opera Saratoga, Opera North, Opera in the Heights, and Cape Cod Opera.

14. Hiram K. Moderwell, “Deep River Popularizes a Composer,” Previous articles examining LibbyNational Larsen’s My Ántonia and Tom Cipullo’s The Black Perspective in MusicNATSCast (Spring, 1974): 75–79. is the official podcast network of the Association Late Summer have appeared in the Journal of Singing. 15. Harry T. Burleigh, Five Songs of of Laurence Hope York: NATS is pleased to present this group of Gregory is the Teachers of(New Singing. American art song editor for the online database, SongHelix. As a comG. Ricordi & Co, 1915). podcasts offering quality resources and singers. poser, Gregoryfor has voice received teachers commissions and awards for his music and 16. Laurence Hope, Last Poems, Translations from the Book of has been a finalist for the NATS Art Song Composition Award for his song These NATSCast podcasts are produced by NATS members. See Love (New York: John Lane, 1912); http://www.gutenberg. cycles Sea Garden and Slabs of the Sunburnt West. more at nats.org/NATSCast and check out the following podcasts: org/cache/epub/5125/pg5125-images.html. Further about his career may be accessed at www. 17. The authenticity of Burleigh’sThe exoticism be debated. To Full can Voice, The Holistic Voice,information New York Vocal Coaching, VocalFri, audiences of his time, authenticity was likely of little concern, gregoryzavracky.com. Too Many Frocks, and The Business Savvy Singer with Greta Pope.

NATSCast is the official podcast network of the National Association of Teachers of Singing. NATS is pleased to present this group of podcasts offering quality resources for voice teachers and singers. These NATSCast podcasts are produced by NATS members. See more at nats.org/NATSCast and check out the following podcasts: The Full Voice, The Holistic Voice, New York Vocal Coaching, VocalFri, Too Many Frocks, and The Business Savvy Singer with Greta Pope.

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A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People Christian Bester

I am an animal of nature, I want people to see me and know who I am. The only way our tradition and way of life can survive is to live in the memory of the people who see us.1 Hylton White

Christian Bester

N

INTRODUCTION

iel van der Watt (b. 1962) is one of South Africa’s most prominent contemporary composers. Twenty-five internationally acclaimed recordings of art songs, chamber, choral, and orchestral compositions, most of which are published by Prospect Verlag–Germany, attest to the importance of his stature. He has received numerous commissions for his works, including from SAMRO (South African Music Rights Organization), UNISA (University of South Africa), and the ATKV (Afrikaans Language and Cultural Federation). Van der Watt’s output encompasses one of the largest collections of Afrikaans art songs by a single composer. His cycle, Liedwerk van Klip (Stone Work Song Cycle), with text by N. P. van Wyk Louw (1906–1970), is the largest setting of a single poet by any South African composer. Although firmly rooted in twenty-first century compositional techniques, it is his ability to fuse these techniques within an African syntax that distinguishes him. The present author has conducted many interviews with Niel van der Watt, coached the song cycle Die wind dreun soos n Ghoera, ‘n siklus Boesman mites (The wind drones like a Ghoera, a Bushmen myth cycle), and performed various songs of the composer.

BACKGROUND ON THE COMPOSER

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 569–582 https://doi.org/10.53830/FCEC7886 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Gerhardus Daniel (Niel) van der Watt was born in Pretoria in 1962. He spent his early childhood in Musina or erstwhile Messina, a border town between South Africa and Zimbabwe. His grandfather was a missionary minister, and Niel often visited the missionary church where he “heard the amazing African singing.”2 This inadvertent influence of the surroundings and exposure to native vocal and musical styles early in life played a significant role in shaping Niel’s musical outlook. The artistic inclinations of his parents BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Christian Bester further contributed to his diverse musical development. Niel’s mother had four decades of experience as a musical educator and organist and his father was an amateur tenor, making music at home, in church, and in the community. Growing up in an isolated environment during the apartheid years in South Africa, as was customary for most whites, van der Watt was painfully conscious of the social injustice and cultural ghettoization. He took it upon himself to change the situation, using his art as a vehicle for reconciliation. Van der Watt is a deeply spiritual individual and his musical compositions are concrete expressions of his profound spirituality. Like J. S. Bach, van der Watt often concludes compositions, such as Speelmaats (text by Antjie Krog), Stil Aand (text by W.E.G. Louw), and O, Nag der Nagte Suiderlik (text by Hennie Aucamp) with Soli Deo Glora! The composer perceives music and its creative dimensions as a vehicle to humanize, establish culture, and to subtly communicate.3

TONAL LANGUAGE AND STYLE Although van der Watt is often referred to as a polystylist, a term first applied rather pejoratively according to the artist, the German term Gebrauchsmusik is perhaps more appropriate to reveal the composer’s intent of using his art for a specific purpose.4 A chameleon-like ability to adapt and reflect his multicultural environment and challenges presented by each genre and style seems only natural to van der Watt. Van der Watt’s work is mostly tonal or extendedly tonal with clear form dictated by the text, and the atmosphere and purpose are closely linked. He believes that music based on serialism is “arbitrarily dissonant, structurally incoherent, rhythmically non-sensible and tonally arbitrary.”5 For van der Watt, this technique amounts to music that is ineffective and hollow if it stands only for technical coherence. Van der Watt’s curiosity for diverse musical styles and genres led him to study and be influenced by a wide array of artists, including Palestrina (1525–1594), Bach (1685–1750), Hindemith (1895–1963), Barber (1910–1981), Schubert (1797–1828), and Shostakovich (1906–1975), among others. Integration of text and melody is central to van der Watt’s compositional style. As a first step, van der Watt first writes the poem out by hand.6 Once he establishes the text rhythm, speech inflections, tonal climaxes,

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and general atmosphere of the text, he proceeds to integrate the ambiance in the accompaniment. For example, in his Bushmen cycle the accompaniment reflects the atmosphere through the use of chords (“Die Sterre”), patterns (“Die Son”), or melody (“Die Melkweg”). He employs time signatures, descriptive musical terms (often in Afrikaans), and word painting to reflect the text or general atmosphere of the composition. Although van der Watt was not familiar with jazz during the formative years, he later embraced much of jazz and popular music in his tonal language. Artists such as Ella Fitzgerald, Miles Davis, The Beatles, The Carpenters, ABBA, Neil Diamond, and Billy Joel all significantly influenced van der Watt’s tonal palette.7 Examples of his compositions that strongly reflect the influence of jazz are “Leaving School Blues” and “Punini’s Kwela.” General traits, often applied but not limited to his Bushmen cycle, include imitation, modulation to third-related keys, predominant use of extended tertian harmony, prominent use of a fourth interval, quartal harmony, generous but not dominating prevalence of dissonance, and the application of rests and rhythmic figures.8

BACKGROUND ON THE POET Hennie Aucamp (1934–2014) enjoyed a career spanning over five decades. Aucamp’s literary accomplishments include several awards, including the Hertzog Prize (1982), the Gustav Preller Prize for Literary Sciences (2006) and the South African Literary Award in 2010—a lifetime literary achievement that represents his invaluable contribution to the genre.9 Hennie Aucamp demonstrated a fascination in penning stories and prose that reflected his childhood experience with rural tribal communities of the Cape Province. His debut prose from 1963 Een Somermiddag: Landelike Sketse en Vertellings (One Summer Afternoon: Regional Drawings and Stories) as well as Teen die Lig (Against the Light) reflected this style.10

ORIGINS OF THE CYCLE In Song of the Broken String (1991), Stephen Watson (1954–2011) translates into poetic form selections from the transcription of the German linguist, W. H. I. Bleek (1827–1875) and his sister-in-law, Lucy Lloyd (1834–1914). 11 In the late 1860s, Bleek and Lloyd

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Journal of Singing


A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People painstakingly recorded in 138 notebooks the oral traditions of the /Xams, oldest of all South African cultures. Aucamp’s inspiration for Ghoera: Afrika-verse vir kinders (2011) (African verses for Children), comes not only from Watson’s translation, but also from various other sources.12 These include stories of indigenous tribes of South Africa such as the Xhosa, Zulu, Venda, and Sotho that he read while growing up with South African publications. 13 Aucamp’s strategy to relate African stories through poems settled on an age-old technique utilized by poets, namely, a four-verse rhyme scheme. Aucamp’s collection of children’s poems first appeared as a production for the University of Stellenbosch’s Woordfees (Word Feast) in 2011. Having grown up in a similar diverse ethnic environment, van der Watt was profoundly moved by the natural lyricism of Aucamp’s poetry. This formed the fount of inspiration for van der Watt’s Bushmen myth song cycle.14

BACKGROUND ON THE BUSHMEN OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Prior to the Dutch settlement at Table Bay in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in 1652, a vast number of native peoples inhabited sub-Saharan Africa.15 According to cultural, racial, and linguistic distinctions, these native inhabitants fall under four groups: the Bushmen, the Hottentots, the Bergdama, and the Bantu.16 The Bushmen are short in stature, and are neither pastoral nor agrarian;17 instead, they lead a purely hunting and collecting way of life. A closer affinity to some northern races, especially some branches of the Mongolian race, is evidenced through the Bushmen’s distinctive artistic talents, their great prevalence of “click” consonants, and their physical appearance and linguistic usage.18 Invasion of ancient hunting grounds by European settlers in pursuit of fresh pastures for growing herds, as well as encroachment from other war-like tribes, led to violent confrontations with the Bushmen. These conflicts had a severe impact on the Bushmen people, driving them to the point of extinction. Relentless persecution along with diseases and racial intermixture left little room for Bushmen to maintain their distinct cultural identity or co-exist with their neighbors. Deprived of their traditional hunting-gathering livelihood, many Bushmen now work May/June 2022

as casual labors, herdsmen, and farmers. Fortunately, not all is lost for the Bushmen race. The government of Botswana in the last thirty years established several settlements including Grootlaagte, Hanahai, Jakkalspits, and D’Kar. D’Kar is home of the Kuru Development Trust, the first institute owned and controlled solely by Bushmen.

BUSHMEN MUSIC Prior to renowned scholar and musical expert on Bushmen music Percival R. Kirby’s (1887–1970) expedition in 1936 to the southwestern Kalahari Desert, few attempts had been made to record Bushmen music.19 Kirby’s research focused on seventy Bushmen of the ≠khomani and /auni tribes. Kirby’s musical findings include: 1) The Bushmen have adapted to recognize and apply certain partials of the harmonic series.20 By applying these partials in a consecutive order they reveal two types of scales, the first comprised of partials up to and including No. 7 of the series and the second scale up to and including No. 9 of the series. With the addition of the 9th partial a pentatonic scale emerges. Kirby states that all their indigenous music appears to be based on these two scales.21 2) Most indigenous songs are based on rudimentary structural elements. For instance, African songs often consist of a single recurring motive or sentence.22 3) Syncopation occurs frequently in both vocal and hand clapping accompaniments.23 4) A pedal point or drone emerges on the /khou (a bow-like string instrument), since the fundamental tone of the overtone series remains unchanged and pervasive.24 5) The ability to imitate European harmonies and scale system indicates their adaptability to an ever changing soundscape, especially by the women and children.25 From the perspective of intercultural conversation and exchange, these entries hold great significance. As Kirby explains, “they show how readily Bushmen adopted foreign musical practices when brought into contact with them.”26 While narrowly intercultural music often suffers from a prejudice that fails to appreciate the music of the “other,” the Bushmen’s experimentation with and ready adaptation of Western instruments offer a refreshing experience. The author

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Christian Bester

Example 1. “Die Son,” mm. 1–3; pentatonic scale in accompaniment. © Niel van der Watt, Private

Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

highlights these musical findings to showcase van der Watt’s application of these traditional elements.

BUSHMEN MUSIC ELEMENTS IN VAN DER WATT’S SONG CYCLE DIE WIND DREUN SOOS N GHOERA, ‘N SIKLUS BOESMAN MITES “Die Son” (The Sun)

The first poem tells of a “Light Man,” a slightly selfish individual, who wanted to keep a coal, that is, the sun, for himself. Along came a young man, who stole it from him while he was asleep. Unfortunately, the coal was flaming hot and he tossed it into the sky; and so, the sun was formed. The opening pentatonic chord (G b, D b, A b, E b, B b) immediately establishes a link to African musical traditions and could possibly be seen as underscoring simplicity and innocence (Example 1). The use of the open perfect fifth further suggests this primitivism. Van der Watt’s choice of time signature (6/4) is a clear reference to the mbira or thumb piano.27 The thumb piano is a frequent accompaniment to Bushmen singing, although the norm is to play it as a solo instrument.28 The keys of the thumb piano are arranged in pairs, usually an octave apart to allow them to be played simultaneously. Van der Watt’s arrangement of the accompaniment allows the left hand to outline the chords, while the right hand adds mostly color tones. Reminiscent of traditional African

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singing, Van der Watt further incorporates glissandi over a minor third in the vocal line (Example 2). The G b in the right hand of the accompaniment, starting in m. 1, may be heard as a suspended fourth, finally resolving in m. 14. This continued suspension suggests the secretiveness, as stated in the poetry, of the “Light Man” as he tries to hide the light ball. The climax of the song (m. 25) correlates with the text, “en hy smyt dit in die lug” (he flung it into the sky). The arpeggiated figures in mm. 26–27, built on quartal harmony is an effective means of tone painting by spanning over four octaves in ascending motion (Example 3). “Die Sterre” (The Stars)

The second song describes the birth of the stars. The sun is sleeping under a thick blanket, yet the blanket has little holes through which the sunlight falls; these rays we call stars. Quartal harmony, a staple of van der Watt’s harmonic palette, effectively portrays in “Die Sterre” a floating, ambiguous atmosphere to illustrate the cosmic expansion in the piano accompaniment (Example 4). It is reminiscent of Debussy’s Préludes, vol. I, no. 10, “La cathédrale engloutie” (The cathedral in water), where Debussy illustrates a similar linear quartal progression and uses an ascending double parallelism in measures 1, 3, and 5 to demonstrate the gentle expanding ripples of water (Example 5). Superimposed over the quartal harmonies, the melody is not based on the outlines

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A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People

Example 2. “Die Son,” vocal glissando, mm. 4–6. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by

permission.

Example 3. “Die Son,” arpeggiated figure built on quartal harmony, mm. 26–27. © Niel van der

Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

of seventh/ninth chords or quartal harmonies, but is diatonic and triadic in character, with some pentatonic flavor. For the artist, “the voice carries the story, linking with the other songs where the bard, narrator, or even shaman sings.”29 Van der Watt frequently utilizes pedal points that act as drones throughout his song cycle. “Die Sterre” commences with a six-measure (dominant) G b pedal point, moving to the tonic, C b major, in m. 7. Kirby states that while playing on the /khou, the fundamental tone acts as a drone due to its prolongation. Van der Watt maintains that the functionality of pedal points varies according to its purpose; for instance, pedal points can stabilize the key or tonal area (Example 4, mm. 1–7), May/June 2022

or destabilize it and create dissonance (Example 6).30 Again the basic chord progression I-V-I underscores the vocal line throughout “to expose the grand scheme of the cosmos, to communicate its primitiveness.”31 As observed by Kirby, a simplistic recurring musical phrase or sentence is characteristic of indigenous Bushmen instrumental and vocal music. A “harmonic ostinato pattern” might allude to this “primal” progression. The ambiguous atmosphere, reflected in the text and harmonic progression, is enhanced by an unexpected deceptive cadence to the key of A b major (Example 7). Due to the frequency of V-I-V progressions, as well as the long G b preceding pedal tone, we expect a modulation to C b

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Example 4. “Die Sterre,” mm. 1–12. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

Example 5. Debussy’s Préludes, vol. I, no. 10, “La cathédrale engloutie,” mm. 1–3.

major in m. 29, but van der Watt surprises his listener, as he himself was often surprised, “staring at the stars and suddenly seeing something you have never seen before.”32

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Measure 42 reveals an F major triad over a F7 chord. Van der Watt refers to this use of chordal structure as a “harmonic emphasis,” a frequent device in his composi-

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Journal of Singing


A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People

Example 6. “Die Sterre,” Ab pedal tone, mm. 43–49. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract

reproduced by permission.

Example 7. “Die Sterre,” deceptive cadence of A b major mm. 25–29. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections;

musical extract reproduced by permission.

tional output.33 This “harmonic emphasis” accentuates Pleiades as an important constellation (“Sewe Susters,” or Seven Sisters) mentioned in the poetic line. Similar examples of this compositional technique can be found in van der Watt’s composition Lady Ann Liederboek (1990). Through the use of counterpoint van der Watt effectively portrays the stars on the word skyn (to shine) by utilizing the upper register of the piano (Example 6). Van der Watt deliberately utilizes counterpoint as a tone painting technique, a timeless tradition of the Baroque period, to emphasize the timelessness (as in the word oud (old)) of the constellations in the sky. May/June 2022

“Die Maan” (The Moon)

The poet tells of a young boy called Kaggan. Kaggan kicks his shoe high into the air, which became the moon that warily walks from cloud to cloud at night. Van der Watt utilizes a less ambiguous tonal setting (E b major) for “Die Maan,” creating a “nocturne” accompaniment, that captures the simplicity and beauty of the moon. In creating various layers in the accompaniment, he deftly portrays the emotional context of the text. Piano Bass—always a whole note, reflects stability, peace and tranquility; Piano Tenor—fills in the harmony, chord

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Example 8. “Die Maan,” mm. 1–8. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

color but also introduces a lower auxiliary note motive, which continues throughout (except measure 15, 24 and 25); Piano Soprano—melody of nocturne character, to link with the night-time atmosphere of the song, again doggedly consistent to reinforce stability and security.34

Van der Watt’s consistent use of pedal points continues in the third song. The use of tertian harmony, mostly 7th and 9th chords, is made more interesting by juxtaposing them over long passages of pedal points. Again, a simple harmonic progression (m. 1–8) underscores the primitiveness of the music over an E b pedal point (Example 8).

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“Die Son en die Maan” (The Sun and the Moon)

The poem describes the sun as healthy and persistently round throughout the year; in contrast the moon is a sickly figure that is just sometimes round. The sun is a jealous child and it scoops out the moon, but the moon pleads, “Oh, let just one rib piece remain!”35 The sun agrees and the moon begins a new cycle. The juxtaposed sonorities and opposing rhythmic ostinato schemes for the two protagonists of the fable, the sun and the moon, display the artist’s idiomatic use of the piano in creating a mysterious atmosphere (Example 9). The “struggle” between the two constellations is further enhanced by

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A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People

Example 9. “Die Son en die Maan,” opposing rhythm schemes in accompaniment, mm. 1–2.

© Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

the frequent use of suspensions. The sun is assigned a major sonority, alternating between D b and G b major, ending the first phrase on C b major. In contrast, the moon is assigned a minor sonority, alternating between B b and E b minor, concluding the second phrase again on C b major. Similarly, the third vocal phrase with slight alterations in melodic contour to the first phrase alternates between F b major and G b major, ending with a movement from E b major to A b major. By avoiding a return to C b major, van der Watt demonstrates the triumph of the sun over the moon. However, van der Watt interprets this triumph differently, maintaining that, “it is part of a greater, inevitable cycle. It is not so much one dominating the other but the natural order of things, each (sun and moon) playing its appointed role in a cosmic dance. This dance is the basis for the Bushmen myth, but takes on a universal meaning because it is true in all cultures.”36 To represent the slowly disappearing moon, the artist employs syncopation in the vocal line as well as chromaticism to evoke the moon’s anguish. To represent the moon outmaneuvering the sun, a descending circle of fifths motion in the bass secures a return to the opening accompaniment material that alternates now between D b and G b major. “Die Melkweg” (The Milky Way)

This fascinating poem presents a tribal woman waiting by the fire for the hunters to return. Because it is too May/June 2022

dark, the hunters fail to return home. The woman comes up with a clever plan: she seizes a handful of ash and throws it high into the sky. The nebulous streak now lies across the firmament, becoming the Milky Way. J. S. Bach’s (1685–1750) subtle influence can be seen in the piano prelude. Van der Watt constructs the piano introduction in an overtly linear part writing texture, dividing the accompaniment into four independent voice parts with moving statements and episodes. The voice part can be viewed as an additional fifth line to the accompanimental fabric, intertwining with the soprano line in imitative patterns and comments. With the entrance of the vocal line, the accompaniment can be viewed as a response or countermelody. With the introduction of each statement, van der Watt employs a linear progression and a rapid harmonic rhythm over a descending chromatic bass line. A long introduction with an intentional absence of accidentals foreshadows the “trouble” in the story. The composer stresses that a lack of accidentals is part of the organic process of creating a song, “as ideas in the story develop, so, the music material develops.”37 It is important to note van der Watt’s use of the leading tone in m. 10. The leading tone not only resolves but simultaneously stays suspended (Example 10). This can be viewed as a reflection of the women’s anxiety for the hunters to return. In mm. 45–49 van der Watt adds octaves in the right hand, a compositional influence he attributes to Erroll Garner

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Christian Bester

Example: 10. “Die Melkweg,” use of leading tone, m. 10.

Example 11. “Die Wind,” G minor to D minor 7th

(1923–1977).38 As a result the thickened accompaniment texture provides an increase in the structural dynamic.39 Again, the melodic fourth permeates the vocal line, appearing nine times.

Melkweg.” A short postlude concludes “Die Wolke” in which van der Watt applies tritone substitution and a chromatic resolution to E b Major.

“Die Wolke” (The Clouds)

The wind is transformed as a bird and the poet echoes a friendly warning: Do not mock it, for it’s the wind that can make the sky tremble. The key of G minor is frequently employed for folk poetry, and the aesthetic value of this key often represents an uneasiness and sadness, yet with a touch of grace.41 Although van der Watt includes brief modulations to E b major and B b major to perhaps reflect hope or resolution, “Die Wind” appropriately centers on G minor tonality, a fitting key to reflect the melancholic mood. The continued simulation of the “birth of the cosmos” is yet again represented by van der Watt in the simple harmonic progression i–v (G minor–D minor 7th). The wind is depicted by an arpeggiated figure, G minor, followed by a D minor 7th resolving suspension chord in the accompaniment in mm. 1–2 (Example 11). To reflect the building tension in the text, “dis hy wat die blou lug laat sidder, en takke soos sprokkelhoud breek!” (it is he who lets the bluesky trembles and break branches like gathered wood) the accompaniment changes. The left hand introduces moving quarter notes above dotted half notes. At the approach of the textual climax, these quarter notes get

© Niel van der Watt; Private Collections, musical extract reproduced by permission.

The poet underlines the importance and anticipation of rain as well as the harmony that resides between nature and man. The poet views the deceased as part of the mystic cycle of life, transforming into a necessity for sustainable life. A linear three-part song texture in the accompaniment of “Die Wolke” displays a similar technique used in “Die Melkweg.” The prelude is followed by an abrupt entrance of the vocal line suggesting the surprising death of a person. The prelude concludes with a circle of fifths motion in the bass: G, C, F, B b, E b, ending in an ii-V-I harmonic progression. Similarly, each of the four vocal phrases concludes with the same harmonic progression. For van der Watt, this harmonic pattern reflects safety and inevitability.40 To foreshadow the pain mirrored in the forthcoming text, “maar reën bring hierdie wolke nie, die dooies het gekantel” (but these clouds do not bring rain, the dead has toppled over), van der Watt applies chromaticism and stepwise descending voice leading in nearly every voice. Van der Watt concludes the vocal statement, although slightly altered, with the opening soprano piano motive of “Die

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arpeggiated figure, mm. 1–2. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

“Die Wind” (The Wind)

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A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People

Example 12. “Die Wind,” mm. 13–22. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced by permission.

“broken” into eighth notes. Further, ascending eighth notes in the right hand suggest the growing intensity of the wind. This intensity is even further enhanced by neighboring and leading tones (C#s, F#s). To imitate the wind violently tearing through or breaking (from breek implying breaking) the woods, van der Watt skillfully applies appoggiaturas (F#s) on each beat in m. 17 and outlines in mm. 19–20 a G minor harmony in the left hand versus the D major 7th harmony in the right hand of the accompaniment (Example 12). “Wieglied” (Cradle Song)

The final song is a lullaby that describes the fragile balance between man and nature. If someone dies, the May/June 2022

gentle crescent moon scoops the deceased and cradles him in her arms. Van der Watt lists Samuel Barber’s Excursions, op. 20, III and Dimitri Shostakovich’s Fugue no. 1 from 24 Preludes and Fugues as subtle influences on his compositional process for “Wieglied.”42 For van der Watt, Shostakovich’s procedure creates “sustained tension . . . just like life.”43 Both van der Watt’s and Barber’s compositions are marked by an absence of accidentals and the use of nontertian sonorities. As with the first song Wieglied commences with a pentatonic scale (D b, E b, F, A b, B b), ending with a V-I progression in D b major. There is a purposeful misalignment of cadential points between the vocal line and the accompaniment. Van der Watt clarifies his objective in these measures, stating

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Example 13. “Wieglied,” pandiatonicism, mm. 21–27. © Niel van der Watt, Private Collections; musical extract reproduced

by permission.

that, “the piano symbolize[s] the continuation of life on a cosmic scale, while the voice (us), appears and disappears in our little struggle[s] with life.”44 Additionally, the composer incorporates a “catch-up” phrase for the accompaniment to unite with the vocal line again. To text paint the word “half” (m. 17, partial) a slightly altered G b pentatonic scale F–G b–A b–B b–D b is introduced. In mm. 22–27 the composer applies the technique of pandiatonicism. This technique allows van der Watt . . . [t]o simulate the cradling “en wieg hom in haar arms, tot aan sy mooiste wens” (and cradles him in her arm up to his fairest wish) the rhythmic movement

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changes completely, the chords become static, the tempo changes, becomes much slower (a piacere) and the chord progression with melody is quite dissonant. Together these elements create the tender moment which suggests that the moon cradles and gently rocks the deceased [Example 13].45

By “cradling” quintal, quartal, and pentatonic harmony in the above measures, van der Watt is able to apply harmonic “comfort” to the deceased. The composer concludes the song with two chord clusters in the right-hand accompaniment and a stack of quintal harmony in the left, without the E b (B b, F, C). He communicates that this represents “life, these myths, all

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A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People we think we know, remains a mystery: pregnant with possibility to be fulfilled in the next phase, cycle, song, meal, performance, conversation, study, investigation, etc.”46 Although van der Watt does not employ any explicit leitmotivic structure for the cycle, he does use some cyclic techniques to unify the text, beginning with the “birth” of the sun and concluding with the moon cradling the “dead” at the end. To represent death, he skillfully disguises the beat in syncopation, “because the heart doesn’t beat anymore.”47 He then concludes the cycle with the prominent use of pentatonicism. Van der Watt remarks that this application not only unifies the cycle but also comes full circle, “back to African roots, back to the earth, [and] burial.”48

7. Van der Watt, email message to author. 8. Okkie Vermeulen, “Die rol van die Orrel in selekteerde liturgiese en instrumentale musiek van Niel van der Watt,” Vir die Musiekleier 30 (2010): 46–56. 9. Hennie Aucamp; http://www.stellenboschwriters.com (accessed January 15, 2020). Known also as the father of South African cabaret, Aucamp’s work include sixteen short story collections, eight volumes of poetry, ten cabarets and plays, and two travel books, among others. 10. Ibid. 11. Stephen Watson, Song of the Broken String: After the /Xam Bushmen—Poems from a Lost Oral Tradition (Syracuse: University Press, 1991). 12. Hennie Aucamp, Ghoera: Afrika-Verse Vir Kinders, 1st ed. (Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis, 2011). 13. Ibid.

CONCLUSION Van der Watt’s awareness of and respect for his sociocultural environment has resulted in a unique compositional aesthetic empowering the artist to portray music in a purposeful and coherent way. This clear purpose enshrined in his musical expressions and coupled with an intensely personal compositional voice is an apt vehicle that foments interest in and awareness about a culture that is verging on extinction. Although geographically and culturally distant, van der Watt’s unique composition unravels for one as performer or casual listener the wonders and mysteries of the Bushmen. It is the author’s hopes that Hennie Aucamp’s poetry and Niel van der Watt’s song cycle represent a reconciling vehicle for cross-cultural understanding, generating awareness, and a greater appreciation of the life, myths, oral traditions, and the music of the Bushmen.

NOTES 1. Hylton White, In the Tradition of the Forefathers: Bushman Traditionality at Kagga Kamma: the politics and history of a performative identity (South Africa: UCT Press (Pty) Ltd., 1995), 17.

14. Ghoera in Nama, a traditional rural tribe of Southern Africa, means kraai, (crow) or spel van Koi met veer (Koi music making with a feather). The Ghoera is a traditional musical instrument that consists of a bended wooden stick, with a sinew attached at opposite ends, forming a bow. Attached to one side is a feather. When the player blows air over the feather a fundamental tone or pedal tone emerges from the harmonic series with consecutive harmonics. 15. The Western Cape Province, previously part of the Cape Province, was established in 1994. 16. I. Schapera, The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa (London: Lowe and Brydone Printers Ltd., 1930), 3. 17. The San or Bushmen communities speak many mutually unintelligible languages, thus there is no single indigenous word to cover all groups. San, a Nama word, is preferred by some scholars, as many view the word Bushmen as pejorative. However, in using the word Bushmen, no pejorative connotation is implied by the author. 18. George W. Stow, The Native Races of South Africa (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., Ltd, 1905), 2. 19. Percival R. Kirby, “The Musical Practices of the /Auni and ≠Khomani Bushmen,” in J. D. R. Jones et al., eds., Bushmen of the Southern Kalahari (Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand Press, 1937), 1. 20. Ibid., 9.

2. Niel van der Watt, email message to author (July 26, 2013).

21. Ibid., 57.

3. Ibid.

22. Ibid., 20.

4. Ibid.

23. Ibid., 38.

5. Ibid.

24. Ibid., 50.

6. P.L. Loots, “Die betekenis van Niel van der Watt se vokale komposisies: ‘n gevallestudie” (M.M. dissertation, Noordwes-Universiteit, 2018), 9.

25. Ibid., 57.

May/June 2022

26. Percival R. Kirby, “A Study of Bushmen Music,” Bantu Studies 10 (1936): 207.

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Christian Bester 27. The lamellaphone or “thumb piano” is an instrument widely popular in Central and Southern Africa. It is known by a great many different names, based on geography and tribal traditions. 28. John Brearkey, “A Musical Tour of Botswana, 1982,” Botswana Notes and Records 16 (1984): 46.

42. Van der Watt, email message to author. 43. Ibid. 44. Ibid. 45. Ibid. 46. Ibid.

29. Van der Watt, email message to author.

47. Ibid.

30. Ibid.

48. Ibid.

31. Ibid. 32. Ibid. 33. Ibid. 34. Ibid. 35. In a beautiful image evoked in the poetry, the sun hollows out the moon bit by bit, and crescent moon that remains in the “rib piece.” The moon pleads with the sun that this one piece must still remain. 36. Ibid. 37. Ibid. 38. Ibid. 39. Ibid. 40. Ibid. 41. Rita Steblin, A History of Key Characteristics in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries, 2nd ed. (New York: University of Rochester Press, 2002), 275.

Dr. Christian Bester, baritone, is an Assistant Professor of Voice at Northeastern State University. Dr. Bester previously served as Lecture of Voice at Lawrence University, and Visiting Professor of Voice at University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh and Baylor University. Dr. Bester received the DM in Vocal Performance as well as the Graduate Artist Certificate from the University of North Texas, under the guidance of Dr. Linda di Fiore, and a MM in Vocal Performance from Southern Methodist University, studying under Prof. Barbara Hill Moore. Christian has presented at NATS, TEXOMA NATS, PAVA, CMS, and ACAHS conferences, respectively. A native of South Africa, Christian made his professional debut as Schaunard for Pro Musica Theater in Johannesburg. Recent orchestra engagements include: Fort Worth Symphony, Kwazulu Natal Philharmonic, Manitowoc Symphony, Lone Star Wind Orchestra, Allen Philharmonic, and Dallas Symphony Orchestra League. Christian is a sought-after performer and pedagogue with regular engagements and lectures throughout the United States, Australia, Wales, and South Africa.

Intermezzo is a weekly compilation of news clips about the singing profession, in addition to NATS news, that is delivered to each member’s inbox. Intermezzo tackles today’s most relevant issues, gathered from sources like The Associated Press, The New York Times, Financial Times and the leading industry publications. It is delivered to the inboxes of teachers of singing in the United States, Canada and more than 35 other countries.

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Journal of Singing


Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres Ajhriahna Henshaw and Sarah Collyer

M Ajhriahna Henshaw

Sarah Collyer

INTRODUCTION

usic Performance Anxiety (MPA) is the experience of heightened stress levels in musicians before, during, and after music performance.1 It has been reported that between 15 and 25% of musicians will experience MPA in their career; however, because many musicians do not seek treatment, it is possible that the actual occurrence of MPA is much higher.2 Since a shaky voice and difficulty breathing are common symptoms, singers may be particularly vulnerable to performance disturbances from MPA.3 Currently, singers are underrepresented in the literature on MPA and more research is required to understand their unique experience.4 Although they share a reliance on the voice as their instrument, each separate field of singing, contemporary commercial music (CCM), music theatre (MT) and classical, has its own unique culture and expectations.5 It would be advantageous for educators and researchers to understand the common and unique experiences of singers within these three fields, in order to design and implement appropriate MPA management strategies. To this end, a lecture presentation and panel discussion involving emic representatives from each field, was held at the Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University. Panellists were Ajhriahna Henshaw (CCM), Joel Curtis (MT), and Laura Fanshawe (Classical). The discussion was moderated by Dr. Irene Bartlett and Dr. Ron Morris.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 583–590 https://doi.org/10.53830/JETA7812 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Juslin and Sloboda define MPA as “the experience of marked and persistent anxious apprehension related to musical performance which is manifested through combinations of affective, cognitive, somatic and behavioural symptoms.”6 MPA is often used interchangeably with the term, “stage fright”;7 however, the two states are distinct from one another. MPA affects not only the performance itself but the performer’s behavior leading up to performance, while stage fright is a profoundly negative experience occurring only at the time of performance.8 MPA affects a performer’s ability to coordinate body and mind in a manner conducive to optimal performance.9 While it is a widely accepted view that a certain level of preperformance arousal is desired to feel “performance ready,”10 and that feelings of excitement can foster an energy BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Ajhriahna Henshaw and Sarah Collyer that allows for individual spontaneity, 11 MPA occurs when arousal escalates to a level that causes physical, cognitive and behavioral interference to performance quality.12 As singing requires the complex and simultaneous coordination of biological and psychological systems,13 the occurrence of MPA in singers, makes singing particularly difficult. MPA may occur within individuals who have a preexisting propensity for general (trait) anxiety, or it may be an isolated reaction to a specific circumstance (state anxiety).14 Factors that are more likely to induce a state of MPA may include personality or disposition and introversion,15 teacher driven perfectionism,16 pressure of conforming to style conventions, performance environment, perceived pressures, negative self-perception and poor mental health, early attachment ruptures in childhood,17 pressure to maintain vocal fitness, general health problems, lack of preparation time, difficult parts, exhaustion from touring and travel, and problems with colleagues.18 Researchers frequently have found correlations between MPA and trait anxiety, as well as social phobia and perfectionism among musicians. In a sample of 73 jazz music students, Martin-Gagnon and Creech not only found significant levels of MPA, but also found MPA was strongly related to trait anxiety among these musicians,19 while in a study of 100 Hungarian musicians, Dobos et al. found perfectionism and social phobia significantly correlated with MPA.20 Conversely, self-efficacy—the belief in one’s ability to handle a given task or situation21—has been negatively associated with MPA.22 Sinden found that low general self-efficacy, low self-esteem, perfectionism, and emotional coping styles were significant predictors of performance anxiety.23 Similarly, in a sample of 65 child and teen musicians, Dempsey found that students with high levels of perfectionism and low levels of self-efficacy were more likely to have high levels of MPA.24 Dempsey concluded that a tendency toward perfectionism may make musicians more vulnerable to MPA, while selfefficacy may provide an important buffer against MPA. In line with this finding, McPherson and McCormick found that self-efficacy was the leading predictor of achievement in music examinations.25 McPherson and McCormick recommend self-efficacy be given more attention in music research, as the pursuit of music, especially as a career, requires self-regulation and mental discipline.

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As noted, there is a lack of research examining MPA in singers. While some studies have included singers among their participants, these have primarily been classical singers. In a study of 32 professional opera chorus singers, Kenny et al. found opera singers had higher trait anxiety, occupational role concerns, and occupational personal strain than normative samples, concluding that trait anxiety and MPA are positively associated.26 Also, in a study of 49 professional opera singers in Sweden, Sandgren found health anxiety was a major concern that significantly correlated with MPA.27 It has been suggested that the almost exclusive focus on classical singers is because they are likely to experience MPA in greater numbers than their jazz, popular, or folk musician colleagues.28 However, a lack of research examining MPA in nonclassical singers makes this claim difficult to support. Overall, larger samples and studies including singers from CCM and MT are needed to better understand the prevalence of MPA among singers. What follows is a synthesis of a lecture presentation and panel discussion held at Griffith University, exploring the experiences of singers in CCM, MT, and classical fields, along with recommendations for approaches that voice teachers might implement in the studio to help students with MPA.

VOCAL DEMANDS ACROSS CCM, MT, AND CLASSICAL What makes musical theatre different from CCM in terms of performance practice? Musical theatre is a different genre to the other two . . . It has different performance practices and different technique sets as well. These differences shape how we think, how we contextualise performance and how we experience our performance practice. It also affects how the research is contextualised.29

The separate stylistic concerns of CCM, MT, and classical singing determine what is considered acceptable vocal technique in each field. Beauty of tone is the central stylistic concern in classical singing. Classical voice training is therefore primarily focused on developing perfect, infallible technique.30 McHenry et al. write, “the performance expectations of vocal clarity, resonance, endurance and resilience required in an unamplified theatre with full orchestra are more robust that in other genres that routinely use amplification in performance.”31 Physical symptoms of MPA therefore

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Journal of Singing


Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres directly affect the classical singer’s ability to produce a clear and stable sound, audibly compromising the singer’s performance. Relying on healthy functioning of the voice has been found to be a significant source of stress for some opera singers and has been positively correlated with MPA.32 Additionally, the traditions and norms of classical pieces are well known to audiences, who have typically heard (if only on recordings) the most accomplished, well known singers perform the same repertoire. Knowledge that their performance will be compared with these famous performances can be an added source of pressure for classical singers.33 For them, having to maintain a consistently superior level of performance over a long career can be a major source of stress. CCM styles of singing, including pop, jazz, folk, and blues, typically prioritize individuality of timbre,34 and it is accepted that within this style, scratchy, shaky, underarticulated, or overly breathy sounds can add character and emotional weight to a performance.35 While tongue root tension, breathiness, or shakiness are considered unacceptable vocal faults in classical singing, they can be suitable stylistic choices in CCM. It would be interesting to investigate whether CCM’s greater acceptance of a multitude of vocal qualities and techniques, in comparison to classical singing, has any significant impact on CCM singers’ tendency to experience MPA. MT singers are required to be skilled at incorporating both classical and contemporary techniques in service of character and story.36 The MT singer is therefore required to be highly adaptable, crossing genres vocally, while also maintaining a high level of acting and dancing skill in what is becoming an increasingly vocally challenging field.37 Currently, there are no known studies that investigate how, if at all, these differences in vocal demands across the genres of CCM, MT, and classical singing affect singers’ experiences of MPA.

VULNERABILITY THROUGH MUSICAL EXPOSURE A common risk factor for MPA is the feeling of being musically exposed. Stothert notes that people often feel vulnerable when singing; as the voice is part of the singer’s physiological and emotional being, singing can feel May/June 2022

like exposing one’s inner being.38 This feeling may occur if the singer is performing on their own with minimal backing or is the lead singer in an ensemble. It is common for CCM singers to perform solo, accompanying themselves or singing with backing tracks, or singing in a duo. Henshaw shares some of her own performance experience. Most of the performing that I have done has been in a small duo with just a piano player. As a jazz singer, those are the bread and butter gigs. Sometimes the size of the ensemble comes down to what the venue is willing to pay for. Sometimes they ask for a small group and when I give them a quote that exceeds their expectations, they request a duo or solo performer. I definitely feel more at ease when I’m singing with a bigger band.39

When singing in a band situation, CCM singers are typically the lead vocalist. Bartlett, for example, surveyed 102 professional gig singers and found 75% of CCM singers categorized themselves as lead singers in ensembles of various sizes.40 There is a palpable amount of pressure on singers that fill this role. As Bartlett notes, “As the lead singer, they front the band acting as a conduit between the instrumentalists and the audience while managing a range of complex activities.”41 The CCM singer therefore has both the pressure and exposure of being the lead or solo singer and the task of connecting with both band and audience simultaneously. Feelings of exposure and vulnerability are also experienced by classical singers. In a study of classical choral singers, Stothert found that the singers experienced less MPA if they felt they had a trusting relationship with their conductor and fellow group members. Stothert concluded that cultivating feelings of trust and support in the singing environment may help singers to feel less vulnerable and less exposed when singing.42 Little is known about MT singers’ experience of exposure and vulnerability and whether it is similar to CCM and classical singers. It is possible that MT singers may feel less exposed in their performance, by virtue of their character and the story being the central focus; however, investigation into this area is needed in order to fully understand MT singers’ experience and how it differs from the experience of singers in CCM and classical styles.

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Ajhriahna Henshaw and Sarah Collyer

SECURING EMPLOYMENT In order to secure employment, classical and MT singers need to participate in a demanding and competitive audition process. As Morris describes, You’ve got to remember the peril of the audition in the Classical voice world. Music Theatre have it in auditions too but as a CCM singer your next job comes because someone heard you and they thought you were great. Whereas in Classical you join the list of 20 people who’ve all come with their arias in their bag . . . you can hear the singer before you singing your aria and you think, how dare you!43

The audition process is a source of stress for many singers. As Morris suggests, the process of securing work is notably different for CCM singers. As band leaders or solo performers, CCM singers are often responsible for getting gigs (by approaching venues, for example), and then promoting these gigs. Bartlett explains, It’s all self-driven, you’ve got to create the gig. You’ve got to create the audience for the gig. None of that is laid on for you. So it’s a difficulty from another perspective; having to believe in yourself enough that you’ve got something that people want to hear and then you’ve got to go and sell it to a venue and then you’ve got to go and sell it to an audience. Recording companies won’t even look at you unless you’ve got thousands of followers so that they know they’re going to sell your stuff.44

As MPA has been negatively correlated with selfefficacy,45 it is possible that performers experiencing MPA will find quite challenging engaging in the activities Bartlett describes. During the panel discussion one audience member notes that he often delayed advertising a performance until he was certain that it would go well, by which time, it was often too late to attract a reasonably sized assemblage. Social interaction and likeability also play a role in singers’ careers. Henshaw notes that unlike other styles, for CCM singers, being the most accomplished, experienced or virtuosic performer does not necessarily mean that you will get the gig.46 When forming new musical groups, members often seek out participants who are a good social and aesthetic match rather than prioritizing virtuosity. It is not uncommon to hear that “so and so

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is a fantastic musician but I could never play in a group with him.”47 Social relationships and likeability also play a role in the lives of classical singers. In classical music we are very rarely a one woman, one man show. We have conductors, pianists, orchestras to work with. A whole range of people. And what we’ve found is that performance anxiety complicates those relationships to a very great degree in that it’s hard not to take direction and criticism very personally.48

Fanshawe explains that, as a classical singer, an individual’s identity is entwined with the idea that they are a good singer. It seems imperative to one’s career success that the whole cast of people involved in the production like you and think of you that way. It is unclear, however, how social relationships and likeability affect MT singers. From the panel presentation and discussion, it is evident that each field of singing has its own specific challenges and sources of stress. However, it is unclear how these stressors correlate with MPA or whether MPA is experienced to different degrees across the three fields. Assuming that MPA may affect all singers, regardless of genre, it is important for voice teachers to be aware of effective treatments for MPA. These are discussed below.

MPA TREATMENT Research aimed at finding effective treatments for MPA has explored the implementation of a range of techniques, including psychodynamic therapy,49 virtual reality training (a form of exposure therapy),50 mindful meditation,51 eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR),52 biofeedback training,53 cognitive behavioral therapy,54 acceptance and commitment therapy,55 and psychological skills training.56 Though few studies have focused specifically on singers, the findings from general MPA research may tentatively indicate effective treatment approaches for singers. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is currently the gold standard approach in psychology for treating anxiety and depressive disorders.57 In a sample of 62 adolescent music students, Braden et al. found significant reductions in students’ self-rated MPA following participation in a CBT program. The program included

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Journal of Singing


Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres psychoeducation, imagery and visualization techniques, strengths identification, goal setting, cognitive restructuring, and relaxation techniques. Similarly, Kenny and Halls implemented a CBT model with 68 community musicians and found moderate significant reductions in state anxiety as well as improved performance quality. Like Braden et al., Kenny and Hall’s model included psychoeducation about MPA, motivation, goal setting, and cognitive restructuring. Interestingly, many of these skills and techniques also are included in psychological skills training programs.58 Psychological skills training (PST) is an approach adopted from sports psychology. Based on the premise that an athlete’s psychological state affects physical performance, PST involves learning and practicing a selection of psychological techniques that help athletes regulate their psychological state.59 Typical PST skills include the use of goal setting, imagery, relaxation, and self-talk. Several studies have explored the application of PST for musicians. In a study of 24 classical music undergraduates, Cohen and Bodner found that after a semester of a music performance skills course, which taught mental skills training, physiological awareness, enhancing musical communication, and participating in simulated performances, students showed significant reductions in self-reported MPA and significant improvements in performance quality compared to waitlist controls.60 Similarly, Hatfield implemented a 15-week PST program with a small sample of two jazz and four classical musicians and found participants experienced greater concentration, self-observation, self-efficacy, and coping in the face of failure.61 Participants experienced reduced worry and anxiety in performance situations and at eight-month follow up, were still actively applying the learned psychological skills, including goal setting, attentional focus, arousal regulation, imagery, and acceptance/self-talk training. Osborne et al. implemented a similar program of PST with 31 conservatorium students.62 Topics included developing confidence, improving self-talk, channelling performance energy, learning and memorizing music, mental rehearsal building courage, recovering from mistakes, dealing with adversity, and cultivating mental toughness. At post-test, students showed significant reductions in self-reported MPA, and improvements in performance preparation, courage, confidence, focus, concentration, and performance May/June 2022

resilience. Though more large scale studies are needed to bolster the argument for the implementation of PST for music students, and even more specifically, for singers, the results from these small samples lend support for the efficacy of PST in decreasing MPA. PST offers an accessible array of practical skills that students can use to decrease the occurrence and severity of MPA. These include building self-efficacy, gaining knowledge and understanding of MPA (psychoeducation), identifying and modifying cognitions/self-talk, preparing effectively for performance, mental rehearsal (imagery/visualisation), and relaxation methods. It is plausible that voice teachers could learn these techniques in order to help their students adaptively cope with the pressures of music performance. Further, these skills could be adapted to meet the specific needs of singers in each field of singing, where, while the vocal demands of each genre differ, the ability to perform under pressure, and maintain a high level of self-belief and self-efficacy are shared. Other ideas that arose from the panel discussion that could be implemented in the studio to decrease the occurrence and intensity of MPA include building trusting relationships with students, so they feel supported in their pursuit of music, encouraging singing “just for fun”—for enjoyment and intrinsic reward rather than extrinsic reward or competition, modelling self-care and self-acceptance to students to help them learn a healthy approach to music, encouraging a growth mindset,63 matching song level and performance opportunities to the students’ current expertise, and identifying, questioning, and modifying unhealthy self-talk or thoughts around singing.

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS When preparing for vocal performance, both amateur and professional, it is important to consider the multifaceted requirements for success. At best, MPA symptoms have been shown to diminish performance quality, and, at worst, will stop a singer from pursuing performance opportunities altogether. The highly debilitating nature of MPA makes it an important phenomenon for teachers and performers to understand. More specifically, it is important to realize that within each genre, there are specific triggers that can exacerbate MPA symptoms.

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Ajhriahna Henshaw and Sarah Collyer Whether it be the self-driven career building required of CCM singers, the quest for perfect adherence to convention found in classical music, or the competitive nature of the musical theatre audition process, it is important that singers are taught to develop appropriate management strategies. The lecture presentation held at the Queensland Conservatorium was an important step in promoting open dialogue between teachers and performers of different styles. An emic understanding of the professional performance climate in CCM, classical, and MT is invaluable for the developing singer. Furthermore, as singers are underrepresented in the literature, it is imperative that more research is directed toward MPA management strategies for all styles of singing. It is not the role of the voice teacher to treat anxiety disorders, and, in some cases, referring to a psychologist is the appropriate action. With that said, however, it is important to remember that singing teachers should prepare their students for real life performance situations, and this involves training more than the voice.

NOTES 1. Katie Zhukov, “Current Approaches for Management of Music Performance Anxiety: An Introductory Overview,” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 34, no. 1 (March 2019): 53–60.

8. McGrath. 9. Boyett. 10. Shirlee Emmons and Alma Thomas, “Understanding Performance Anxiety,” Journal of Singing 64, no. 4 (March/April 2008): 461–465. 11. David Roland, “How Professional Performers Manage Performance Anxiety,” Research Studies in Music Education 2, no. 1 (June 1994): 25–35. 12. Zhukov. 13. Richard Miller, On the Art of Singing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). 14. McGrath. 15. Boyett. 16. Zhukov 17. Dianna T. Kenny, Stephen Arthey, and Allan Abbass, “Identifying Attachment Ruptures Underlying Severe Music Performance Anxiety in a Professional Musician Undertaking an Assessment and Trial Therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP),” SpringerPlus 5, no. 1 (September 2016). 18. Vaike Kiik-Salupere, “Voice Teachers’ Strategies to Overcome Performance Anxiety,” The European Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences 4, no. 1 (May 2012): 54–66. 19. Gabriel Martin-Gagnon and Andrea Creech, “Cool Jazz: Music Performance Anxiety in Jazz Performance Students,” Music Education Research 21, no. 4 (April 2019): 414–425.

2. Casey McGrath, “Music Performance Anxiety Therapies: A Review of the Literature” (PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 2012).

20. Bianka Dobos, Bettina F. Piko, and Dianna T. Kenny, “Music Performance Anxiety and its Relationship with Social Phobia and Dimensions of Perfectionism,” Research Studies in Music Education 41, no. 3 (October 2018): 310–326.

3. Clara Boyett, “Music Performance Anxiety,” MTNA e-Journal 10, no. 3 (February 2019): 2–21.

21. Albert Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1997).

4. Michele Biasutti and Eleonara Concina, “The Rose of Coping Strategy and Experience in Predicting Music Performance Anxiety,” Musicae Scientiae 18, no. 2 (February 2014): 189–202.

22. Antonio González, Patricia Blanco-Piñeiro, and M. Pino Diaz-Pereira, “Music Performance Anxiety: Exploring Structural Relations with Self-Efficacy, Boost, and Self-Related Performance,” Psychology of Music 46, no. 6 (September 2017): 831–847.

5. Graham F. Welch, David M. Howard, and John Nix, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Singing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019). 6. Patrik N. Juslin and John A. Sloboda, Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). 7. Regina Studer, Patrick Gomez, Horst Hildebrandt, Marc Arial, and Brigitta Danuser, “Stage Fright: Its Experience as a Problem and Coping With It,” International Archive of Occupational and Environmental Health 84, no. 7 (October 2011): 761–771.

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23. Lisa Marie Sinden, “Music Performance Anxiety: Contributions of Perfectionism, Coping Style, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem” (PhD dissertation, Arizona State University, 1999). 24. Erin Dempsey, “Music Performance Anxiety in Children and Teenagers: Effects of Perfectionism, Self-Efficacy, and Gender” (Masters thesis, University of Ottawa, 2015). 25. Gary E. McPherson and John McCormick, “Self-Efficacy and Music Performance,” Psychology of Music 34, no. 3 (July 2006): 322–336.

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Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres 26. Dianna T. Kenny, Pamela J. Davis, and Jennifer Oates, “Music Performance Anxiety and Occupational Stress Amongst Opera Chorus Artists and Their Relationship with State and Strait Anxiety and Perfectionism,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders 18, no. 5 (February 2004): 757–777. 27. Maria Sandgren, “Health Anxiety Instead of Performance Anxiety Among Opera Singers,” in Proceedings of the 7th Triennial Conference of European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM 2009), Jyväskylä, 2009 (Sweden: Stockholm University Department of Psychology). 28. Zhukov. 29. J. Curtis, personal communication (September 25, 2019). 30. Keyona Willix-Lynam,”The Crossover Opera Singers: Bridging the Gab Between Opera and Musical Theatre” (PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2015). 31. Monica A. McHenry, Joseph Evans, and Eric Powitzky, “Effects of Bel Canto Training on Acoustic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Singing Voice,” Journal of Voice 30, no. 2 (March 2016): 198–204. 32. Sandgren. 33. L. Fanshawe, personal communication (September 25, 2019). 34. Scott D. Harrison and Jessica O’Bryan, Teaching Singing in the 21st Century (Dordrecht: Springer Verlag, 2014). 35. Christophe E. Jackson, “Acoustical Analysis of Trained and Untrained Singers Onsite Before and After Prolonged Voice Use” (PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2013). 36. Matthew Edwards and Matthew Hoch, “CCM Versus Music Theater: A Comparison,” Journal of Singing 75, no. 2 (November/December 2018): 183–190. 37. Willis-Lynam. 38. Wendy Stothert, “Music Performance Anxiety in Choral Singers” (Masters thesis, Vancouver Island University, 2012). 39. A. Henshaw, personal communication (September 25, 2019). 40. Irene Bartlett, “Sing Out Loud, Sing Out Long: A Profile of Professional Contemporary Gig Singers in the Australian Context” (PhD dissertation, Griffith University, 2011). 41. Irene Bartlett, “Reflections on Contemporary Commercial Singing: An Insider’s Perspective,” Voice and Speech Review 8, no. 1 (March 2014): 27–35. 42. Stothert. 43. R. Morris, personal communication (September 25, 2019). 44. Irene Bartlett, personal communication (September 25, 2019). 45. González, Blanco-Piñeiro, and Diaz-Pereira. McPherson and McCormick. 46. Henshaw. May/June 2022

47. S. Stith Bennett and Howard Becker, “Group Definition and Redefinition,” in H. Stith Bennett, ed., On Becoming a Rock Musician (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017). 48. Fanshawe. 49. Bartlett. 50. Josiane Bissonnette, Francis Dube, Martin D. Provencher, and Maria T. Moreno Sala, “Evolution of Music Performance Anxiety and Quality of Performance During Virtual Reality Exposure Training,” Virtual Reality 20, no. 1 (March 2016): 71–81. 51. Frank M. Diaz, “Relationships Among Meditation, Perfectionism, Mindfulness, and Performance Anxiety Among Collegiate Music Students,” Journal of Research in Music Education 66, no. 2 (January 2018): 150–167. 52. Raymond S. Feener, “EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing a New Method in the Treatment of Performance Anxiety for Singers” (PhD dissertation, Florida State University, 2004). 53. Myron R. Thurber, “Effects of Heart-Rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students” (PhD dissertation, University of North Texas, 2006). 54. Alice M. Braden, Margaret S. Osborne, and Sarah J. Wilson, “Psychological Intervention Reduces Self-Reported Performance Anxiety in High School Music Students,” Frontiers in Psychology 6, no. e195 (March 2015). Diana T. Kenny and Naomi Halls, “Development and Evaluation of Two Brief Group Interventions for Music Performance Anxiety in Community Musicians,” Psychology of Music 46, no. 1 (January 2018): 66–83. 55. Laura K. Clarke, Margaret S. Osborne, and John A. Baranoff, “Examining a Group Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Intervention for Music Performance Anxiety in Student Vocalists,” Frontiers in Psychology 11, no. e1127 (May 2020). David G. Juncos et al., “Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Music Performance Anxiety: A Pilot Study With Student Vocalists,” Frontiers in Psychology 8, no. e986 (June 2017). 56. Susan Cohen and Ehud Bodner, “Music Performance Skills: A Two-Pronged Approach-Facilitating Optimal Music Performance and Reducing Music Performance Anxiety,” Psychology of Music 47, no. 4 (July 2019). Johannes L. Hatfield, “Performing at the Top of One’s Musical Game,” Frontiers in Psychology 7, no. e1356 (September 2016). Margaret S. Osborne, Don J. Greene, and Don T. Immel, “Managing Performance Anxiety and Improving Mental Skills in Conservatoire Students Through Performance Psychology Training: A Pilot Study,” Psychology of Well-Being 4, no. e18 (December 1914).

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Ajhriahna Henshaw and Sarah Collyer 57. Kianna Kenny, The Psychology of Music Performance Anxiety (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). 58. Braden, Osborne, and Wilson. 59. Gershon Tenenbaum and Robert C. Eklund, Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014).

Bachelor of Music with first class honors from James Cook University and a Master of Music Studies from Griffith University Conservatorium of Music. In 2018, Sarah completed her PhD at Queensland University of Technology, which culminated in the thesis, “Yoga for Singers–A Holistic Practice Tool.” Most recently Sarah completed a Bachelor of Psychological Science (Honors) at Central Queensland University and is currently working as a provisional psychologist and researcher in Adelaide, South Australia.

60. Cohen and Bodner. 61. Carol Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (New York: Random House, 2006). 62. Osborne, Greene, and Immel. 63. Dweck. Sarah Collyer, PhD, MMus, BMus (Hons), BPsychSci (Hons), is a musician, educator, provisional psychologist, and researcher. She holds a

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Ajhriahna Henshaw, MMus, BMus, is a contemporary singing voice specialist, researcher, teacher, and performer. She holds a Bachelor of Music and Master of Music Studies (Vocal Pedagogy) from Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University. She is currently a PhD candidate at the same institution, and her research focusses on training strategies and their outcomes for contemporary commercial music (CCM) singers. Ajhriahna primarily performs as a jazz singer but has had extensive experience in many other CCM styles.

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Journal of Singing


Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Lesson Time Denise Bernardini and Lauren DiMaio

M Denise Bernardini

ental disorders plague the young singer. In 2017, the U.S. Census Bureau reported 18 million students were enrolled in college. Nearly three out of four of these students have experienced a sense of “overwhelming anxiety” at some time; just under 30% report having felt overwhelming anxiety in the previous two weeks.1 College students are not the only people suffering; children under the age of 18 also are experiencing increased anxiety. According to the CDC, 4.4 million children aged 3–17 years of age have been diagnosed with anxiety disorders.2

COLLEGE STATISTICS

Lauren DiMaio

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 591–599 https://doi.org/10.53830/GNBX2732 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Universities and colleges report an increase of students with mental health needs who bring these issues into the classroom.3 When surveyed, 2 in 5 college students described being depressed to the point that they “struggled to function,” while 3 in 5 felt “overwhelming anxiety” during the previous year. Reinberg suggests that 1 in 5 college students “are so stressed they consider suicide.”4 The Mayo Clinic describes “college depression” not as a separate clinical diagnosis, but rather as the onset of depression that starts during college.5 Symptoms of “college depression” include persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness, angry outbursts, loss of interest in hobbies and activities, and a sense of worthlessness. Institutional counseling centers and medical clinics are not created equally, and, as a result, some are overrun and too underfunded to handle the growing need for students to navigate the world of mental and physical health.6 Students may not be aware of the resources on campus, nor are they always willing to access them. University life is an adventure—a chance to be challenged, meet new people, and gain exciting opportunities. While these exciting interactions can be part of the college experience, participation in a competitive, high stakes artistic environment can present genuine challenges. Students must navigate campus culture, meet academic expectations, and juggle financial, social, and personal aspirations. Managing these demands can create or trigger mental health matters and jeopardize student well-being. In addition to these general complexities, individuals who hold identities that are marginalized BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Denise Bernardini and Lauren DiMaio in U.S. higher education spaces (e.g., students of color, LGBTQ+ students, undocumented students, students from low income families, international students) face additional burdens: emotional stress and labor arising from daily microaggressions, taunting, harassment, or worse. The causes for the increase in mental health issues are highly debatable. Blame is directed toward cell phone usage, social media, fake news, helicopter parents, or absent parents. However, when students are in a voice studio, the reason for the mental health issues is not relevant. It is now, in part, the voice teacher’s issue, too, and must be addressed ethically.

HIGH SCHOOL STATISTICS High school students experience mental health issues, too. Flannery writes, “By high school and college, many students have run out of steam. Anxiety—the mentalhealth tsunami of their generation—has caught up with them. Today’s teens and young adults are the most anxious ever, according to mental-health surveys”; he further states that 70% of teenagers report anxiety and depression as being a major issue.7 It is important to note that these students don’t always know how to express their feelings. They may use words that they have heard before, such as “anxiety,” without understanding the true definition of the word. Adolescence is a period of time when youth are prone to increased impulsive and risk-taking behavior. Parents, teachers, and pediatricians ask why teenagers are at risk for drug, alcohol, and self-destructive behaviors. Neurological research reveals how some youth partake in these behaviors because of developmental changes and their predispositions.8 People often believe that teens engage in risky behavior because they are not good at evaluating risk. However, research in this area demonstrates that adolescents are just as good as adults at determining the danger of risky behavior.9 It is important to know that the teenage brain is not fully developed. Adolescents place importance on peer perceptions and relationships, and this pressure may be part of mental health concerns. Research demonstrates that a brain region known as the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex might be critical in helping people cope with negative evaluations from peers by reducing distress.

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Adolescents rarely use this brain region.10 Another area of the brain, the lateral prefrontal cortex, is responsible for mature self-regulation that develops gradually over the adolescence period. These brain regions are a factor in students behaviors because they tend to take more risk when around their peers. The differences in adult brains and the ever changing teenage brain may also be why there is an increase in mental health issues. Some mental health issues stem from poor and risky decision making, which can be related to the development of their brains.

SCOPE OF PRACTICE While this article assumes an academic perspective, independent teacher needs are also addressed. However, one significant difference between a university setting and an independent voice studio has to do with the resources available. Independent teachers ordinarily do not have immediate access to a counseling center, administrators who make policies, or other colleagues who can be sources of advice and support. However, independent teachers can create their own policies and resources. Independent teachers must think through this article with a mindset of protecting themselves and their students. Look for places to increase responsibility, hold yourself and students accountable, and be prepared for issues to arise that have not occurred before. Many universities now have reporting offices as resources if a student’s grades are at risk. If there is grave concern, teachers can alert the institution that the student may need support for their mental health. The private studio doesn’t have this luxury; however, the private studio can use aids to create a safe space for both voice teacher and student. Having a response ready to use in challenging situations is useful. For example, if a student begins to monopolize lesson time with personal issues, the teacher may say, “I hear that these issues are important to you. There is support on campus or your school counselor, or perhaps your parents will be able to help you. But right now is lesson time. What can you do to transition back into this lesson?” Giving students the power to change the dialogue is essential; it gives them a feeling of control and not being chastised for their emotions. Using the same response each time allows the student to recognize when a boundary has been crossed and

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Journal of Singing


Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Lesson Time needs to be corrected. Remember, students don’t share personal issues during math classes, and voice time is just as important. Once students come back to the voice studio after seeking external help, they may share information, such as their anxiety disorder. Validate their support and knowledge. One may say, for example, “I am glad you have a name for what you are experiencing,” and then redirect them to class time, “And now let’s begin with our usual breathing exercises.” Students may not choose to obtain counseling or may ask you not to speak to their parents due to stigmas surrounding mental health, or may not want to be a problem. In truth, students do not have to share why they may or may not have accepted mental health support. If students do not receive help and still disrupt instructional time, then the teacher may focus on the disrupting behavior. For example, the voice teacher may state, “I am concerned about you, but I cannot be your therapist. You have the information for support, but this time is for you and your vocal skills. I want the best mental health professional for you and that is not me.” Tone of voice is important and compassion can be expressed in the way the words are said.

CULTURE OF A VOICE STUDIO The voice studio is a place where teachers wear many hats. Right or wrong, voice teachers often touch on roles beyond teaching voice, such as referrals to a laryngologist, medical doctor, and a mental health provider. The uniqueness of the voice teacher and student relationship can quickly build a meaningful bond. Students may feel like they can confide in their voice teachers. How do voice teachers have a healthy relationship with students without seeming cold, unempathetic, or, worse, apathetic? It is challenging to navigate the world in which voice teachers are so often thrust. How can a teacher be supportive and still get to the business at hand, teaching voice? Because the teacher is in the position of power, it is the teacher’s responsibility to establish a learning culture that sets up each student for success. The voice teacher is the expert. Teachers of singing spent countless hours getting to this point in their careers and can lean on this expertise. During the first meeting, educate students about accomplishments, degrees, and years spent honing the craft of teaching. May/June 2022

The students are paying for this expertise and deserve that knowledge. Reviewing the voice teacher’s education may help establish the professional relationship and reinforce that the lesson time is for voice issues only. Establishing Boundaries

Preventing ethical dilemmas is always best. The National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS) Code of Ethics states, “Members should maintain appropriate boundaries in psychological, emotional, and personal contact with students, including insinuations that could be construed as sexual advances, even when a student may encourage or request such interaction.”12 When focusing on “appropriate boundaries” and using this code of ethics, it is the responsibility of the voice teacher to establish the parameters. Subsequently, it is up to each student to follow those boundaries. One means of establishing a professional relationship is through a syllabus or studio policy. Including language on mental health support in a syllabus/policy can help students and establish a tone of empathy. Providing information about course timeline, goals, required repertoire, and expectations can be a tool for student learning and provide clear guidelines. Teachers can use the studio policy to signal their commitment to student well-being, normalize the occurrence of mental health challenges, and introduce students to the range of support services in their community or campus, including the health clinic and counselor office. It is a place where guidelines are documented, goals are clearly expressed, and boundaries are acknowledged. Having materials ready to hand out is essential. For example, distributing a card or flyer with the university’s counseling center’s information, a community resource, or any other expert in the area is proactive. Take time to search the community for resources, print them, and be ready to hand out this information. Having a place on the studio policy that explains a professional relationship with an expert voice teacher is helpful. For example, use the following language under the heading, “Professional Relationships with a Voice Teacher.” Our relationship is important to me, and it is a professional relationship. I care about you, and I am here to help you learn about singing. While I deeply care about

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Denise Bernardini and Lauren DiMaio you, I am not your therapist. Singing music can be a meaningful way to express yourself, and sometimes emotional reactions occur that are intrusive and overwhelming. However, there may come a time when I remind you of the counseling center, their professional services, and redirect the conversation back to the music and your lesson. This does not mean I am angry or disappointed in your behavior. It is a sign that I care about your well-being. If issues are occurring in your life and you need support, I want you to have the best help possible from the counseling center. Their number is: And they are located at: [Here provide location and contact information].

If you have a similar language in your studio policy, then reviewing this with each student will be necessary. If each voice teacher within an academic setting has similar verbiage, then there will be strength in numbers and consistent care. Recognizing the Position of Power

Educators are in a position of power.13 The old-school teacher who wants to break down a person’s voice or psyche to rebuild often does more damage than good. Instructors, especially voice teachers, hold a good deal of power in shaping student experiences. The job alone places the educator in a position of elitism. Voice teachers evaluate work, advise students, write letters of recommendation, and model professional behavior.14 The NATS Code of Ethics states, “Members should offer their best instruction and career advice to every student under their supervision, and should treat each student in a respectful and impartial manner while taking into account individual differences in ability, learning styles and motivation.”15 Treating students respectfully and impartially is difficult. Doing so requires voice teachers to acknowledge unconscious bias and preferences.16 DiMaio and Engen urge music therapy professors to include the following points when addressing ethical dilemmas: • assess positions of power; • explore your adaptability; • assess possible infringement of rights; • consider cultural bias in your responses.17 These same considerations can be followed by voice teachers and align with the aforementioned NATS code of ethics.

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FERPA The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) passed into law in 1974 and is complex. Generally, this law protects the rights and privacy of college students. Under the law, students have the right to request and inspect their records of education.18 Any educational record kept on the student, including applied lessons, is allowed to be reviewed. Any issue related to health and safety threats must be documented. For example, if a student makes a threat toward themselves or others, the voice teacher must not only act on the comment to keep the student and others safe, but must also document the incident. No permission from the student is needed to disclose personal identifiable information in these incidents.19 When personal identifiable information is disclosed to non-school officials, such as police or health care workers, the faculty must follow the school’s policy. Knowing the school’s policy on these matters ahead of time will help faculty not only follow the policy correctly but also how to help faculty document each event. Raising questions of mental health issues with students or other institutional departments must include considerations with FERPA. Legally, parents and guardians do not have an automatic right to know a student’s personal issues when they are not a minor.20 In some cases, the mental health anguish is tied directly to the family; therefore, informing the parents of the student’s behaviors could cause additional harm. As the voice teacher is not a family therapist, it is best practice to leave any communication or family involvement to a licensed therapist. If a family member calls and states concern over a student, the voice teacher cannot disclose any information without the student’s consent. Be honest and reply with, “Sharing any information with you regarding [insert student’s name] would be a FERPA violation. I am sorry, but I cannot disclose anything.” However, there is a process the student can complete that would allow their parent’s access to their education information and communication. This process is usually found on the university’s FERPA policy page. Teaching in an independent voice studio with minors is different, as FERPA does not protect students who are minors. In such cases, it is necessary to notify parents of any significant concerns regarding the student’s

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Journal of Singing


Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Lesson Time emotional or mental health. Tell student and parent at the beginning of the relationship that there is no confidentiality; private voice teachers are accountable to the parents. Educate the parent and student of the policies related to mental health. Let them know it is customary to give information about mental health professionals in their community.

Taking time to follow each step will increase the likelihood of a legal, ethical, and compassionate resolution for the dilemma being faced.

CODE OF ETHICS

CREATING POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTS

Many professions have a code of ethics. Music therapists have an aspirational code of ethics that states, “Kindness, Social Responsibility, Dignity and Respect, Equality, Accountability, Excellence, Integrity, and Courage to be Core Values. These values reflect five ethical principles, which include (1) respecting the dignity and rights of all, (2) acting with compassion, (3) being accountable, (4) demonstrating integrity and veracity, and (5) striving for excellence.”21 The NATS Code of Ethics preamble states, “These ethical guidelines are established by the Association to outline Members’ ethical duties and obligations to students, colleagues and the general public, and to promote professional cooperation and productive relationships among its Members.”22 While NATS addresses boundary issues and the importance of maintaining a professional scope of practice, it does not help the voice teacher process ethical dilemmas. DiMaio and Engen inserted their points for consideration for educators into a well established ethical thinking model from Dileo.

Having occasional conversations about self-care and wellness throughout the learning process normalizes this behavior. Instructors can highlight the benefits of self-care strategies. Discussing strategies for adequate sleep, proper diet, regular exercise, and mindfulness practices allows students to talk to the teacher about their experiences while creating a positive studio culture. Rituals can help transition from the stressors of academic life into the work of a voice studio. For example, it may help the student and teacher take three deep, cleansing breaths together before beginning the instruction time. This breathing technique also can occur at the end of the studio time as the student prepares to face the stressors of life once again. Another example is when the voice teacher asks the student to incorporate a positive word or positive phrase of their choosing to use during warm-ups. Relaxation techniques and singing can be closely related. Both can focus on the singer’s body and breathing. Mindfulness techniques may be another way to help center a student that has trouble focusing. For example, taking three minutes at the beginning of each lesson to address how the student breathes in and when the student breathes out may help the student create a positive mindfulness practice. In this mediation technique, the student would internally (or externally) state, “I am breathing in” when breathing in and “I am breathing out” when breathing out. The student would not change their breathing or make any judgments. Simply notice how each breath feels, the space between each breath, what parts of the body move when breathing in and out while controlling their mind so that thoughts do not wander from the task of breathing. Or using a breath technique such as the 4–7–8 breath (inhale, 4 beats; hold, 7 beats; exhale, 8 beats) may demonstrate the importance of self-care,

1. Identify the problem, issues, and practices involved. 2. Assess the obligations owed and to whom. — Assess your position of power 3. Assess your personal/emotional response. 4. Consult core ethical principles, ethical standards and codes, relevant laws, and institutional policies. — Assess possible infringement of rights 5. Consider the context and setting. — Consider cultural bias in your responses 6. Identify your own beliefs and values and their role in this situation, as well as those of the client. 7. Consult with colleagues, supervisors and all possible resources. 8. Consider how the ideal, virtuous therapist might respond. 9. Generate possible solutions, utilizing the input of the client when feasible. — Explore your adaptability, ensure solutions include possible changes from you. May/June 2022

10. Evaluate each proposed solution in terms of possible consequences and make a decision. 11. Implement the decision. 12. Evaluate the decision.23

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Denise Bernardini and Lauren DiMaio while also addressing breath control. Both examples can be a helpful ritual within the studio environment. Normalize and Validate

While the vocal teacher is not the therapist, it is crucial to normalize academic struggles and promote a growth mindset. It is possible students’ past experiences in music may not have been very challenging before coming to college. Thus, they may see the difficulties of their current situation as not normal, and instead, that there is something wrong with them. Creating a culture where failure is viewed as a growth experience can be helpful. Feeling challenged musically and encountering “failure” on songs or vocal techniques may be new and unsettling. Other students may feel less prepared than their peers, and the rigors of voice lessons, theory, and ear training may be extremely stressful to them. Normalizing their efforts and exploring practice habits and techniques may help students develop a more realistic understanding of the learning and growth process. Instructional choices that emphasize a growth mindset can offset the impulses to be perfect and promote behaviors that are characteristic of hard work and integrity. Intentionally employing instructional practices that strengthen resilience is essential. Small achievements are important in learning vocal skills. Communicating with Students During a Mental Health Challenge.

ROLE FOR TECHNOLOGY The technology industry has many applications (apps) that help students navigate their world and help teachers maintain a professional scope of practice. This article is not suggesting an app can solve all of a student’s issues, nor does it indicate that the list covers all of the disorders experienced by students; instead, it is a suggestion for new ways to help a student navigate a fast paced, ever changing world. Medical and mental health professionals have vetted these applications. Explore these apps personally, know what it is like to use them. The authors of this article compiled the following list and acknowledge that not all students will have a smartphone or unlimited data to use them. However, sharing this list with students may be helpful. Apps for ADHD

If a student discloses thoughts of self-harm or suicidal ideation, the voice teacher must act. Faculty at universities and other schools are mandatory reporters. If a student states, “I want to die,” or “It doesn’t matter if I live,” then the voice teacher must not be silent. The teacher must respond with statements like, “What you just said is serious, and I will not ignore it. I will call the counseling center and give them a heads up that we are coming. I am going to walk you over and sit with you until they see you. You are important to me.” Having the counseling center number handy is important for the students, but also for the teacher. Most counseling center services have a policy for such emergencies. Don’t wait until the first time this emergency happens. Visit the counseling center, meet the staff, and ask them about their policy if a student discloses self-harming.

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In the case of a minor, a voice teacher may say, “I am going to speak with your parent and let them know that you have expressed thoughts of suicide to me. Keeping you safe is the priority right now.” For independent voice teachers, know the resources in your community. There might be a crisis center or an in-patient unit for acute mental health issues at the hospital. If not, find a local licensed therapist and build a relationship with that person. That therapist should know the resources in the area and help you come up with a plan if self-harm is disclosed in a lesson.

Due includes alerts for important deadlines and reminders such as taking medication. When a reminder goes off, it continues to ping you in set intervals (say, every 10 minutes) until you mark the task as done. Don’t Forget The Milk can remind you of upcoming due dates with your choice of mobile notifications, emails, or texts. The app’s map feature is a game changer for running errands, too—it plots your tasks so you can plan the most efficient route for checking items off your list. Reuse Timer helps navigate the time and productivity drain that being on the phone can cause. Mobile notifications alert you when you’re approaching or have exceeded your designated limits, and the “Productivity Pulse” is a daily score that makes it easy to compare and measure improvement in your productivity across time.

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Journal of Singing


Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Lesson Time Brain Focus is a time management app that uses the Pomodoro method of setting time on task and time off task, otherwise known as a break. Use it when you need to focus, and the app will count down your selected time while locking you out of the apps you’ve chosen as distracting. This app is excellent for practicing too! Apps for Eating Disorders

Rise up and Recover is based on self-monitoring homework, a key aspect of cognitive-behavioral therapy. RealifeChange works like a life coach. Use the app to track feelings, emotions, and experiences by type, intensity, and location. Each experience tracked gives you meaningful insights about yourself. Apps for Students with Anxiety

Headspace is a guided meditation app and so much more, with targeted meditations led by a former monk on sleep, happiness, productivity, mindful use of technology, and dozens of other topics. Rootd helps work on improving your panic and anxious mood while supporting a female-led app. In addition to mindfulness exercises and step by step guides to tactics such as deep breathing, the app features an emergency contact button that makes it simple to call a loved one or hotline when you’re in distress. What’s Up? offers different therapy methods to help manage stress, anxiety, depression, and other conditions. Learn simple techniques for overcoming negative thinking patterns, use the diary to track your thoughts and feelings. Apps for Depression

Moodpath asks you in-the-moment questions over a series of 14 days to weigh your emotional well-being. The app is geared toward facilitating conversations with a professional, but you can also find more than 150 exercises and tools to work on your mental health within the app. Talklife offers connection and community support, similar to group therapy. A caring community of thousands of people is waiting to talk, listen, and help you feel a little less lonely. If you’re concerned about privacy, anonymous sharing is an option too. May/June 2022

Youper utilizes AI that becomes your assistant. Chat back and forth with your assistant, who asks prompts that encourage you to think about your thought patterns and behaviors. The app walks you through techniques you may need in the moment based on your responses. Depression CBT is based on the tenets of cognitivebehavioral therapy (CBT). Through informational articles, diary-like mood tracking, and built-in motivational features, the app will help you modify your thought patterns for a better mood. Happify offers games and games make everything a bit more fun. When feeling depressed, fun may be precisely what is needed. With an eye toward improving your mood for now and building resilience for later, Happify’s evidence-based games and activities borrow from positive psychology, CBT, and mindfulness. General Health Apps

Acupressure: Heal Yourself is an illustrated guide to locating the pressure points that can help relieve many symptoms of anxiety, such as muscle tension, headache, and indigestion. Sleeptime is an app that allows placing your phone on your bed to track sleep time and cycles. When used consistently, the app’s automated analysis charts make it easy to notice trends in when you get the most restful sleep and what tends to keep you up. Relax and Rest Meditation walks you through meditations that focus on the breath, the body, and deep relaxation. Depending on your practice, you can choose from a 5-, 13-, or 24-minute session. Stop, Breathe and Think. Select your mood when you open the app, and it will suggest the meditations, yoga sequences, or acupressure that could serve you best at that moment, from deep breathing exercises to body scans to visualizations.

SUMMARY The purpose of this article is to encourage a dialogue around the mental health needs for voice students and to bring awareness of the pervasiveness of mental health issues in the voice studio. Voice teachers are an important part of students’ singing experience and thus have many responsibilities. Addressing mental health issues

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Denise Bernardini and Lauren DiMaio requires the voice teacher to be anchored in the role as a voice expert, to be familiar with a code of ethics, to think through how to prevent ethical dilemmas, and to learn how to address these ethical issues through a process with integrity. It is important to clearly communicate and foster a caring yet professional relationship with students. Voice students will certainly face similar issues on their own; therefore it is imperative that they have a professional and positive experience when they are at the center of one themselves.

NOTES 1. U.S. Census Bureau, “More than 76 Million Students Enrolled in U.S. Schools,” last modified December 11, 2018; https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2018/ school-enrollment.html.

is at Risk?,” Developmental Science 10, no. 2 (March 2007): F8-F14. 9. Ibid. 10. Catherine Sebastian, Essi Viding, Kipling Williams, and Sarah-Jayne Blakmore, “Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence,” Brain Cognition 72, no. 1 (February 2010): 134–145. 11. Jason Chein, Dustin Albert, Lia O’Brien, Kaitlyn Uckert, and Laurence Steinberg, “Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain’s Reward Circuitry,” Developmental Science 14, no. 2 (March 2011): F1-F10. 12. National Association of Teachers of Singing, “Code of Ethics,” last modified June 2018; https://www.nats.org/codeof-ethics.html (accessed January 3, 2020). 13. Cheryl Dileo, Ethical Thinking in Music Therapy (Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 2000).

2. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Anxiety and Depression in Children: Get the Facts”; https://www.cdc. gov/childrensmentalhealth/features/anxiety-depressionchildren.html 2020 (accessed August 22, 2020).

14. Kathy Murphy, “Ethical Issues in Supervision,” in M. Forinash, ed., Music Therapy Supervision, 2nd edition (Dallas TX: Barcelona Publisher, 2019), 128–189.

3. American College Health Association, “Spring 2017 Reference Group Data Report,” last modified October 28, 2017; https://www.acha.org/documents/ncha/NCHA-II_ SPRING_2017_REFERENCE_GROUP_DATA_REPORT. pdf (accessed July17, 2020).

16. Dileo.

4. Steven Reinberg, “1 in 5 College Students so Stressed They Consider Suicide. Health Day: News for Healthier Living,” last modified September 10, 2018; https://consumer. healthday.com/general-health-information-16/suicidehealth-news-646/1-in-5-college-students-so-stressed-theyconsider-suicide-737502.html (accessed March 23, 2020).

18. U.S. Department of Education, “Protecting Student Privacy.” Family Educational Rights and Privacy act (FERPA); https://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/index. html (accessed July 20, 2020).

5. Mayo Clinic Staff, “College Depression: What Parents Need to Know,” last modified February 14, 2020; https://www. mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/ in-depth/college-depression/art-20048327 (accessed July 20, 2020). 6. Rob Danzman, “Counseling and Psychological Services for College Students,” Psychology Today, last modified from August 21, 2019; https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/ blog/campus-crunch/201908/counseling-and-psychologicalservices (accessed March 8, 2020). 7. Mary Ellen Flannery, “The Epidemic of Anxiety Among Today’s Students,” National Education Association, last modified March 28, 2018; http://neatoday.org/2018/03/28/ the-epidemic-of-student-anxiety/ (accessed August 1, 2020). 8. Adriana Galvan, Todd Hare, Henning Voss, Gary Glover, and B. J. Casey, “Risk-Taking and the Adolescent Brain: Who

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15. National Association of Teachers of Singing, Code of Ethics. 17. Lauren DiMaio and Becky Engen, “Ethics in Music Therapy Education: Four Points to Consider,” Music Therapy Perspectives 38, no. 1 (Spring 2020): 42–50; https://doi.org/10.1093/ mtp/miz030.

19. Ibid. 20. Ibid. 21. American Music Therapy Association. “Code of Ethics.” last modified November 2019; https://www.musictherapy.org/ about/ethics/ (accessed January 5, 2020). 22. National Association of Teachers of Singing, Code of Ethics. 23. Dileo. Dr. Denise Ritter Bernardini teaches Voice, Opera, and Voice Anatomy for the Speech Language and Pathology department at Radford University. She has taught on the University level for over 20 years. Places she has taught include Oklahoma City University, University of Oklahoma, Indiana Purdue University, Manchester University, University of Toledo, and Grace College. She has been a performer Internationally and throughout the US with extensive oratorio and stage experience. As a performer, she has enjoyed performing with orchestra and symphonic organizations throughout the United States as well as opera festivals and companies.

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Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Lesson Time Denise has been a soloist in prestigious venues such as Carnegie Hall and has been a recitalist in London, England, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia, and at the Certosa di Garegnano in Milan, Italy. She has also performed her one-woman classical cabaret in Leibnitz, Austria, where she performed for the International University of Global Theater to an audience representing 32 different countries. Denise, an avid social justice advocate, is currently involved in a project focused on bringing awareness to human trafficking. A THOUSAND HANDS A MILLION STARS is an all-female artist collaboration and includes poetry, music, dance, and art. This unique one of a kind performance has been presented at the annual Conference for Human Trafficking in Toledo, Ohio, and at the city’s premier arts showcase, MOMENTUM. The project was recently performed at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, Chapman University in Orange, California, Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California, and Reinhardt University in Waleska, Georgia. Dr. Bernardini is also a sought-after clinician, teacher, presenter, and author and has presented at The Voice Symposium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the International Congress of Voice Teachers in Stockholm, Sweden, the Great Lakes Regional Conference of College Music Society, and Indiana Music Educators Convention, as well as several National

Association of Teachers of Singing regional and state level clinics. She also enjoys creating a weekly podcast entitled “The Mindfulness of Singing” with her co-host Ms. Toni Crowder.

Dr. Lauren DiMaio, MT-BC is an Assistant Music Therapy Professor at Texas Woman’s University. Dr. DiMaio completed her degrees in music therapy from Berklee College of Music and Temple University. Academically, she has published and presented prolifically on her areas of expertise: end of life music therapy, bereavement music therapy, and most currently ethical thinking in music therapy education. Lauren is presently the President-Elect of the Southwestern Region of the American Music Therapy Association. Dr. DiMaio was a music therapy internship director at a hospice for 12 years. She is Co-chair of the American Internship Approval Committee for the American Music Therapy Association. Additionally, she was active on the Task Force Committee for licensure in the states of North Carolina and Virginia. Lauren’s successful career in music therapy has its roots in private music lessons. Without her private voice teachers, and other music teachers, she would not have the same meaningful life.

Volunteers needed for the 57th National Conference

NATIONAL VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES Be an asset to our team! Please make plans now to help support the NATS 57th National Conference, July 1-6, 2022 in Chicago, by giving a gift of time and volunteering to help with registration, session support, ticket staffing, being a Welcome Ambassador, or volunteer support staff member. Any gift of time will be greatly appreciated and will ensure that you are an important part of this wonderful event. For more information, e-mail us or call our office at 904-992-9101.

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VOICE PEDAGOGY

Regulating Vocal Load in High Impact Production Justin John Moniz

T Justin John Moniz

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 601–607 https://doi.org/10.53830/OMOO7954 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

INTRODUCTION

he pop/rock canon is, perhaps, one of the most challenging genres to teach effectively. Despite the fact that so few degree programs formally train teachers and coaches to work within these styles, the world of pop/rock is inclusive of myriad subgenres, including but not limited to motown, 70s folk/rock, disco, 80s pop/rock, hip-hop, r&b, punk rock, country, faerie, and Latin pop. When comparing the vocalisms and stylistic attributes of artists such as Aretha Franklin and Dolly Parton, Aerosmith and Jason Mraz, or The Beatles and Green Day, for instance, it is rather difficult to argue the significant breadth of approaches present. As such, appropriately guiding singers can become particularly overwhelming. One of the greatest hurdles in the field of CCM singing is the absence of a systematic pedagogic approach that accounts for both stylistic considerations and vocal health.1 Unlike the industries of opera and musical theater, the world of popular music places great emphasis on resisting the vocal status quo. Singers are encouraged to embrace their own unique vocal footprint, often with little consideration for the level of balance (or imbalance) in their approach. This creates a great list of challenges in the pedagogic setting, as voice teachers are regularly tasked with deciphering which vocal faults to address and which are a desired and necessary piece of a student’s vocal profile. Adopting assessment tactics that are built upon objective (rather than subjective) measures will enable a more inclusive and open minded approach. “Is what I am hearing efficient?” If so, “Is it sustainable?” In order to ensure optimal efficiency and sustainability through vocal production in any style, it is imperative to consider each genre’s unique stylistic demands and examine the processes by which we guide singers to explore both vulnerability and authenticity in their performances. A primary point of consideration is first to investigate vocal load. In the world of voice pedagogy and voice science, the presence and frequency of “vocal load,” “vocal loading,” “vocal effort,” and “vocal fatigue” often appear to be used interchangeably with blurred distinctions.2 For the purpose of this discussion, we will define vocal load as vocal demand. High impact production can be most easily defined as any technical approach that perpetuates an added and sustained level of stress at the vocal fold level. As such, the adductory pattern of the vocal folds must be carefully BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Justin John Moniz considered. In pop/rock styles, high impact production is easily measured by the infiltration of stylistic attributes that create an imbalance in the mechanism and help to provide the necessary authenticity in a particular style. The presence of rock cries, cracks, pops, growls, glottal onsets, aspirated offsets, excessive breathiness, and fry phonation, are often necessary components of production. Balancing vocal load, however, is heavily dependent upon one’s ability to recognize the impact of each stylistic nuance as well as the potential for sustainability in light of their recurring presence.

FOUNDATIONAL ELEMENTS It is essential to carefully consider the two foundational pillars of production—technique and style. According to voice pedagogue Robert Edwin, technique should serve the genre and function as the foundation which enables style to exist.3 When working within the pop/rock canon, this is an especially important area of consideration due to the vast array of styles present. Simply put, technique functions as a replication of process—a process that we can easily equate to baking. If the ingredients of a recipe are carefully measured, the oven temperature and timing are appropriately calibrated, and each step is thoughtfully executed, the product will, more often than not, result in a consistent and favorable outcome. Without the appropriate foundational elements of production in place, stylistically informed technical alterations may not be easily implemented in order to accommodate the demands of each unique genre. In order to achieve true authenticity in each style, special considerations need to be made in regard to a lowered soft palate, modest pharyngeal space, and an elevated laryngeal position, specifically in those styles that require the utilization of significant belt function. Perhaps the most important area of consideration is that of the larynx. The larynx can be identified by its three divisions: the supraglottis, glottis, and subglottis. Within each of these three divisions, the musculature, neurovascular, and cartilages are intermingled to allow the larynx to function effectively.4 These primary functions of the larynx include protection of the airway, swallowing, and voice production. Voice production is handled by the internal musculature. The lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, interarytenoid, and

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cricoarytenoid all work collaboratively to facilitate the adduction of the vocal folds. The posterior cricoarytenoid is responsible for abduction. A keen sense of laryngeal awareness is necessary in order to achieve both efficiency and sustainability through these processes, especially in those styles with a greater demand for high impact production. Laryngeal elevation and vocal sustainability are inextricably linked and will be informed by both pitch and vowel.

MANIPULATING REGISTRATION It also is necessary to consider the ways in which we guide singers to manipulate various elements of their production. Vowel choices will directly impact a singer’s ability to navigate issues of registration. This is due to the fact that vowels impact the ratio of interplay between the thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. Thyroarytenoid-dominant function will result in a chestdominant approach, whereas cricothyroid-dominant function will produce a head-dominant sound. In pop/ rock styles, the utilization of open vowels in Mode 1 will keep the mechanism in an open posture and result in a delay of the primo passaggio, specifically in AFAB (assigned female at birth) singers. Many AFAB singers can utilize this approach up to and surrounding C5 and D5, at which point the voice seldom will continue to respond to the significant level of openness, pressure, and stress placed upon the thyroarytenoid muscle. Often, this will result in a sudden flip into Mode 2. While this flip can be stylistically appropriate and even desirable in certain instances, it is imperative to consider the ramifications of this extreme vocal loading, particularly in this high tessitura. AMAB (assigned male at birth) singers have a similar experience when approaching the secondo passaggio. The desire to keep vowels open will result in a continuous thyroarytenoid-dominant approach, thus delaying the introduction of any significant level of cricothyroid engagement, as well as the introduction of turn or cover. While it likely is inappropriate to implement the use of cover in most pop/rock styles, a slight turn of the voice by way of a more narrow vowel will allow the instrument to recalibrate by facilitating a slightly tilted laryngeal position. This will also cultivate a more balanced wear of laryngeal muscles. As the vocal load is more evenly

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Journal of Singing


Voice Pedagogy distributed between both the thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles, the duration of production can be extended. This balanced approach will result in a greater sense of efficiency and sustainability. Implementing the use of narrowed vowels in prepassaggi zones will cultivate dual functionality of laryngeal muscular engagement and result in a more efficient and sustainable mix. Table 1 provides a list of commonly utilized open vowels and suggestions for narrowed vowel counterparts. It is worth mentioning that all adjustments must also be carefully considered based on the tessitura, approach, and proximity to passaggi points. In the song, “Barracuda,” as performed by Heart, the vocal line jumps from an E4 to an F#5 with a call for the utilization of a heavy belt mechanism during the end of the chorus. The text includes, “You’d have me down, down, down on my knees” (Example 1). In this example,

TABLE 1. Critical vowel substitutions.

Open Vowels

Narrowed Vowel Substitutions

/ɑ/ = “mop”

/æ/ = “nah” or /ɔ/ = “aww”

/ɛ/ = “bed”

/e/ = “der” (German) or /æ/ = “nah”

/I/ = “sit”

/i/ = “mean” or /æ/ = “nah”

/ʊ/ = “book”

/u/ = “who”

the appropriate modification for the /ɑ/ on the word “down” would be /æ/, as shown in Table 1. This vowel substitution facilitates a greater sense of duality between the thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles at this point in the AFAB voice. This approach cultivates a head or cricothyroid-dominant mix that one would perceive as a full belt as a result of the added boost in acoustic energy.

Example 1. Excerpt from “Barracuda,” by Ann Wilson, Nancy Wilson, Roger Fisher, and Michael Derosier (as performed

by Heart).

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Justin John Moniz

Example 2. Excerpt from “Dream On,” by Steven Tyler (as performed by Aerosmith).

In addition to /æ/, a number of the aforementioned vowel substitutions in Table 1 also provide numerous acoustic advantages. As vowels manipulate the shape of the vocal tract, there is a direct impact on the acoustic properties within the sound due to the alteration of resonance. The traditional musical theater belt sound has been described with considerable reinforcement of the second harmonic by the first resonance of the vocal tract.5 The vowels /a/ and /æ/ allow this reinforcement at pitches in the G4 to E5 range. According to a recent study conducted by voice scientist, Dr. Ingo Titze, the fourth harmonic can be reinforced with the second resonance of the vocal tract on the vowels /i/ and /e/. In the more contemporary pop/rock belt aesthetic, /æ/ provides

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numerous noteworthy benefits, as well, including both the significant boost in acoustic energy as well as a harmonious engagement of laryngeal muscles. A second illustration is “Dream On,” as performed by Aerosmith. As shown in Example 2, the text, “Sing with me, sing for the year, sing for the laughter, sing for the tear,” presents a number of significant challenges for the AMAB voice. First, the text-driven and necessary rhythmic delivery makes it difficult to micromanage vowel shapes at the desired performance tempo. In this instance, implementing a central vowel by which to sing the line would be the most beneficial and efficient choice. As previously discussed, the utilization of /æ/ would provide multiple benefits for those reasons outlined above.

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Voice Pedagogy

NAVIGATING RESONANCE STRATEGIES In order to make appropriately informed technical decisions, one must carefully consider the many factors that have influenced the development of any style. Prior to the birth of rock and roll, African natives used percussion instruments as a means for communicative exchanges.6 Western tribes primarily utilized percussive approaches, while Eastern tribes also employed the use of string instruments in daily communication, formal ceremonies, and entertainment. Arguably the most important detail was that all instruments, including the voice, were intended to serve as rhythmic makers. This ultimately laid the bedrock for the birth of rock ‘n’ roll as we know it today. Different subgenres within the pop/rock canon have a number of unique stylistic implications that may impact the technical approach a singer needs to adopt in order to sound authentic in that style. For instance, r&b calls for a fairly light vocal approach with excessive use of embellishments, melismatic figures, and quick vibrato.7 Rock music, on the other hand, utilizes an approach that engages a heavier mechanism, vocal grit, and sometimes distortion. Rap and reggae generally utilize an exaggerated speech driven approach, broken phrasing, punchy consonants, and hard stops. It may come as no surprise as to why many singers struggle to adopt a technical approach that is both efficient and sustainable in light of the significant presence of percussive elements that often interrupt flow and hinder the implementation of a consistent resonance strategy. In order for the vocal mechanism to function efficiently, a deliberate approach to optimization of resonance must be considered. Preserving the integrity of vowel shapes (however bright, dark, or otherwise) while moving each vowel into a similar internal shape will enable the singer to work smarter, not harder. Figure 1 illustrates the “hot zone,” which serves as the target for prime optimization of resonance.

COUNTERBALANCE AND CONDITIONING In the world of sports medicine, great emphasis is placed on programming models that utilize a systematic and progressive approach to physical training. These methods equip athletes with the means to improve flexibility, endurance, muscular stabilization, strength, and power. May/June 2022

Figure 1. Optimization of resonance.

It is especially important to consider the prioritization of counterbalance. For example, one might incorporate the use of a superset to help achieve efficiency and sustainability through various movement patterns.8 For the purposes of voice training and conditioning, vocal supersets might be explored with antagonistic muscles or opposing muscle groups. Working through a superset circuit of head-dominant and chest-dominant vocalises, for instance, would require the mechanism to quickly respond to varied levels of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscular engagement. While extended periods of rest are minimized in the superset model, this circuit would provide one set of muscles some active rest while the opposite muscles engage, thus facilitating ample counterbalance within the vocal mechanism. Stabilization, strength, and power training can serve as an appropriate and effective framework for long term vocal conditioning. Effective programming and pedagogic instruction will be dependent upon a teacher’s ability to carefully alternate exercises and vocalises that work through a varied model. Exploring each of these three areas will establish the foundation on which to build a systematic and progressive approach to long term vocal conditioning and endurance.

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Justin John Moniz Stabilization work is especially important for beginners as it is crafted to prepare the vocal mechanism for the demands of high impact production. For more advanced singers, this work allows for active recovery from more intense periods of extreme vocal usage. This may include highly concentrated use of rock cries, cracks, pops, growls, glottal onsets, aspirated offsets, excessive breathiness, and fry phonation over a concentrated duration of time. Stabilization work involves lower intensity and higher repetitions. It places an emphasis on the improvement of movement patterns, muscular stabilization, endurance, and mobility. Once a student exhibits adequate flexibility, specifically through register navigation, vocalises should begin to challenge proprioception and control. Strength conditioning is intended to increase muscular endurance and maximal strength.9 As previously mentioned, the use of superset techniques is a way by which to increase flexibility and build strength. Once ample flexibility is learned, a student can focus on incorporating higher levels of volume into their production. This may include singing in more extreme registers for longer periods with minimal rest. Gradually increasing the vocal load will slowly allow for the development of maximal strength capabilities. Power training is designed to increase the rate of force production.10 In order to achieve facility at high levels of power, singers must train with both heavy loads and light loads at high speeds. For example, the implementation and execution of quick riffs and turns in both head and chest registers would increase overall levels of power. This phase of conditioning focuses on both high force and velocity to increase vocal power, efficiency, and sustainability. An additional consideration of effective vocal conditioning might include undulating periodization. This model utilizes changes in volume, intensity, and exercise selection to provide loading differences on a daily or weekly basis.11 Undulating periodization provides mental benefits to singers, as well, as the approaches to conditioning become more varied and less predictable.

injury. The more deconditioned a singer is, the greater the risk of injury. It is important to recognize that being deconditioned does not necessarily mean that a singer is unable to sustain adequate airflow or sing comfortably in the upper register. Being deconditioned is a state in which a singer may have a combination of muscle imbalances, poor flexibility, insufficient endurance, or limited stability. All of these conditions can greatly inhibit the ability of the vocal mechanism to produce proper movement and may ultimately result in a vocal pathology. The pop/rock canon arguably has challenged the ways in which we effectively engage in pedagogic practice within the teaching studio. A heightened awareness and understanding of anatomy, vocal function, and vocal health are essential components of effective teaching.12 Approaching the vast array of subgenres present within the pop/rock canon must be done with great care. A deliberate emphasis should be placed assessing voices with objective measures. Seeking answers to questions of efficiency and sustainability will begin to guide the pedagogic process for even the novice CCM pedagogue.

CONCLUSION

8. A “superset” is two exercises performed back to back in rapid succession with minimal to no rest.

One’s ability to regulate vocal load in high impact production is directly related to the potential risk of vocal

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NOTES 1. Irene Bartlett and Marisa Lee Naismith, “An Investigation of Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) Voice Pedagogy: A Class of its Own?,”Journal of Singing 78, no. 3 (January/ February 2020): 273–282. 2. Eric J. Hunter et al., “Toward a Consensus Description of Vocal Effort, Vocal Load, Vocal Loading, and Vocal Fatigue,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 63, no. 2 (February 2020): 509–532. 3. Matthew Hoch, So You Want to Sing CCM (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2018), 125. 4. Manick Saran, Bianca Georgakopoulos, and Bruno Bordon, “Anatomy, Head and Neck, Larynx Vocal Cords” (Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing, 2021); https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535342/. 5. Ingo Titze, “Why /i/ and /e/ Can Be Effective Belting Vowels,” Journal of Singing 74, no. 5 (May/June 2018): 543–545. 6. Matt Edwards, So You Want to Sing Rock ‘N’ Roll (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), 1–5. 7. Bartlett and Naismith, 278.

9. Micheal A. Clark et al., NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training, 7th edition (Burlington, MA: Jones &

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Journal of Singing


Voice Pedagogy Bartlett Learning, 2021); https://www.nasm.org/products/ CPT7104001. 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid. 12. Scott McCoy, “The Old Dog Learns a New Trick (or Why I Now Teach Belting),” Journal of Singing 73, no. 1 (September/October 2016): 46. At NYU, Dr. Justin John Moniz leads the graduate voice pedagogy program, where he teaches courses in pedagogic theory, practice, and applied voice. In addition, he directs the NYU Pop/Rock Ensemble, a group he founded in 2019. Dr. Moniz was recently awarded Steinhardt’s prestigious Faculty Development & Diversity Innovation Grant for his project, “Paving New Paths: Understanding Trans Identities On-Stage & Off.” Recent graduates of the program have joined the faculties at NYU, Syracuse University, and College of the Ozarks. Under his leadership, the NYU Vocal Pedagogy Outreach Initiative has quickly earned both national and international recognition. His paper, “Assessing the Impact of Vocal Pedagogy Outreach Activities on Geographically, Culturally, and Economically Disadvantaged Communities,” will be presented at the 13th Annual Conference on Visual and Performing Arts, hosted by the Athens Institute for Education Research in Athens, Greece in June 2022. A leading expert on contemporary voice pedagogy, Moniz is regularly engaged as a guest clinician and consultant for organizations including the National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS), National Opera Association (NOA), The Royal Conservatory, New England Conservatory,

Boston University, and Boston Conservatory at Berklee, among others. Dr. Moniz currently serves as a mentor teacher for the NATS National Mentoring Collaborative and the NATS Mentored Teaching Experience. He is also a guest faculty member for the Vocal Pedagogy Professional Workshop at Boston Conservatory at Berklee. Locally, Dr. Moniz is an active member of the NATS-NYC Chapter where he serves as Chair of Student Auditions and as a member of the Board of Directors. For the past four years, he has also served as Co-Chair of the Inclusivity, Diversity, Equity, and Access Committee for NOA. A three-time winner of the American Prize in Vocal Performance, Moniz has sung over 90 roles to date, having recently appeared with Opera Grand Rapids, Utah Festival Opera & Musical Theatre, Sarasota Opera, Florida Grand Opera, The Columbus Philharmonic, Opera Company of Middlebury, Opera New Jersey, DreamCatcher Theatre/Adrienne Arsht Center, Orchestra Miami, Gulfshore Opera, Palm Beach Dramaworks, the Orchestra of Northern New York, and Chicago Symphony Center. His unique style and versatility have afforded him an active career in opera, concert, and music theater. Moniz is a proud member of the American Guild of Musical Artists and the Actors’ Equity Association. He also serves as Executive Director of Hawaii Performing Arts Festival. Dr. Moniz holds four degrees from Florida State University, the University of Miami, and SUNY Potsdam, and certifications from Harvard Business School, Duke University, and the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM). As a voice teacher, researcher, and NASM Certified Personal Trainer, Moniz is particularly passionate about identifying the parallels between the worlds of voice science and sports medicine, more specifically concerning vocal load, efficiency, and sustainability. For more information: www.justinjohnmoniz.com.

Let’s get social! Join and follow NATS on social media for the latest updates, videos, and engaging discussions with your fellow members.

@OfficialNATS

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Studio photo courtesy of VOIX DE VIVRE.

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CARE OF THE PROFESSIONAL VOICE

Parkinson Disease Jessica Kandl and Jaime Moore

P Jessica Kandl

arkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder that affects approximately two million Americans.1 Typically, this disease presents in either sex after the age of 60; however, it can present in individuals as young as 30. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder facing the elderly.2 In addition to affecting movement, 70–90% of patients also experience Parkinson-related voice and speech disturbance, and up to 1/3 of these patients identify the voice and speech symptoms as the most debilitating deficits related to the disease.3 Parkinson disease can be challenging in singers and it is imperative that singing teachers and professional voice users recognize the effects of PD on the voice and speech and be familiar with treatment options.

WHAT IS PARKINSON DISEASE?

Jaime Moore

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 609–612 https://doi.org/10.53830/XAGK4962 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Parkinson disease is a neurologic disease caused by death of neurons in the substantia nigra, a dopamine-producing region of the brain.4 Subsequently, there is a decrease in production of dopamine, an important neurotransmitter. The substantia nigra is part of the basal ganglia, a region of the brain crucial in movement; therefore, changes in the neurotransmitters in this region lead to motor impairment, including difficulty walking resting, speech and voice impairment, tremor, rigidity (stiffness), and bradykinesia (slow movements). In addition to motor symptoms, the disease can cause depression, sleep disturbance, voice changes, and possibly cognitive impairments. Voice changes can be the first sign of PD, and recognizing these changes is important in ensuring that the patient receives the necessary care.5 Parkinson disease should be distinguished from the Parkinson Plus Syndromes such as multisystem atrophy.6 This group of syndromes is defined by Parkinson symptoms, but with additional clinic features such as rapid progression, early dementia, vision changes, and frequent falls. Vocal and speech disturbances in PD include hypokinetic dysarthrias marked by monopitch and slowed speech, reduced stress, imprecise consonants, breathiness, and reduced loudness.7 Patients with PD also have abnormal vocal processing and auditory feedback, which leads to the patient perceiving the voice as normal when it is not.8 Singers might note loss of range, decreased loudness, prolonged warm-up, and increased vocal instability. These speech and voice changes can limit patients’ ability to convey emotions as well as decrease speech intelligibility.9 Decreased intelligibility can lead patients with Parkinson disease to limit social interaction, which may result in isolation and decreased quality of life. BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Jessica Kandl and Jaime Moore

EVALUATION Patients diagnosed with Parkinson dysphonia and/or dysarthria require a multidisciplinary team approach including evaluations by a neurologist, otolaryngologist, speech language pathologist, and other professionals. A complete head and neck exam should be conducted, and additional neurologic signs such as resting tremor, “pill rolling” finger movements, and decreased facial expression should be noted.10 As part of the evaluation, the larynx is visualized typically using videostrobolaryngoscopy. Vocal fold bowing and atrophy are seen commonly, and the vocal fold bowing is associated with glottal incompetence and compensatory muscle tension dysphonia.11 Vocal tremor and vocal paresis and paralysis also have been reported in these patients. Objective voice testing can demonstrate increased shimmer and jitter and decreased harmonic-to-noise ratio. In addition to voice complaints, patients often have difficulty swallowing and reduced sense of smell, and these symptoms may require additional evaluation.12

TREATMENT Typically, medical therapy to increase dopamine is the initial treatment for PD.13 This is done through a combination of medications that prevent degradation of dopamine and increase the supply of dopamine. The regimen requires adjustment as the disease progresses. These medications have been shown to improve motor symptoms of the disease like rigidity, bradykinesia, and resting tremor; however, there are mixed data about the vocal impact.14 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is another treatment option that involves implanting electrodes into specific areas of the brain. These electrodes send electrical impulses that help regulate pathway activity in a more normal pattern. This treatment has been shown to dramatically improve overall motor function of the patient; however, the vocal results are variable, with some studies demonstrate a negative impact on vocal quality.15 As neither option specifically addresses Parkinson dysphonia, additional treatment typically is needed.

VOICE THERAPY Several different forms of voice therapy have been studied in detail in the Parkinson disease patient population.

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More traditional voice therapy approaches are of limited use due to patient inability to carry over improvements to environments outside the treatment room. While patients were participating in therapy and receiving direct feedback from therapist, vocal improvement was noted; however, these improvements were not maintained outside the treatment setting. One explanation for the inability of therapy to carry over was deficits of internal cuing.16 Patients with PD often are unaware of their decreased vocal loudness. When receiving external cues from the therapist to speak louder, loudness improved to normal conversational volume, but this improvement is not sustained during daily life. Multiple studies identified two features that were associated with consistent improvement of speech and voice quality: high dosage of therapy (increased number of sessions) and a focus on improving voice loudness.17 These concepts were incorporated into a treatment called the Lee Silverman Vocal Therapy (LSVT) Loud, now the mainstay of voice therapy for Parkinson patients. LSVT Loud is a form of high intensity voice therapy that has been proven to improve voice production and communication in patients with Parkinson dysphonia. The therapy regimen consists of one hour sessions, four times a week, for four weeks. An extended version of the program also can be delivered with less frequent sessions over a longer period of time. The goal of the treatment is for the patient to focus on vocal loudness. It has been shown that by increasing vocal loudness, other speech parameters including articulation and intonation also improve.18 LSVT Loud involves having patient focus on maximal effort and multiple repetitions of vowel sounds. With time, the complexity of sounds and vocal movements is increased gradually, initially focusing on single words, then phrases, then sentences, followed by reading passages, and finally conversation. Patients are taught to “feel the effort” that is required to produce a voice loud enough for conversation.19 The phrases and sentences used in treatment are chosen specifically for individual and represent phrases the patient uses every day. LSVT Loud has been shown to improve voice quality for at least 6–12 months. Patients are encouraged to return after 6 months for re-evaluation and a few therapy sessions if deemed necessary after re-evaluation. 20 Though LSVT Loud has been proven to be effective and improve communication, as few as 3–4% of people

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Journal of Singing


Care of the Professional Voice with Parkinson dysphonia participate in therapy. Low participation may be due to the time intensiveness of the therapy as well as limited access to LSVT Loud-trained speech-language pathologists, and efforts have been made to find alternative means of therapy that might increase the percentage of the patient population who receive therapy.21 Some research into music therapy has shown success as patients who participate regularly have demonstrated increased vocal intensity and improved speech intelligibility. In an effort to improve social support and sense of community, group therapy via choral therapy has been introduced and studied, as well. However, there yet have been no documented improvements of vocal quality utilizing this line of treatment.22

SURGICAL INTERVENTIONS LSVT Loud is typically the initial treatment for Parkinson dysphonia; however, in some patients, the therapy does not produce or sustain the desired results. In this population, surgical intervention can be considered, specifically vocal fold medialization procedures that reduce the gap between the vocal folds.23 Injection medialization (injecting a bulking agent into the vocal fold) has been reported in the literature. In one study, 60–75% of patients who underwent injection medialization reported significant improvement in vocal quality. Some injections are temporary and require revision procedures, but other injected materials such as fat can be permant.24 Commonly, a medalization thyroplasty is considered. This procedure involves placing an implant in the larynx in order to medialize the membranous portion vocal folds. For Parkinson dysphonia, this procedure usually is performed bilaterally, but has also been reported to be successful with unilateral implantation.25 The procedure is completed in the operating room under local anesthesia. These surgical options should be utilized as an adjunct to LSVT Loud or other voice therapy techniques.

CONCLUSION Parkinson dysphonia and dysarthria can be debilitating for patients because of the functional decline, but also in regard to the quality of life effect. This emotional impact can be even more profound for singers. Although, LSVT May/June 2022

Loud is the most commonly recommended treatment option for Parkinson dysphonia, each patient requires an individualized treatment plan and a combined approach by the neurologist, otolaryngologist, speech language pathologist, singing teacher, and others. Singing teachers should be familiar with the symptoms and signs of Parkinson disease as they may be the first people to recognize the voice dysfunction. Familiarity with PD allows singing teachers to recommend medical evaluation early when prompt diagnosis and treatment may minimize at least the early effects of the disease.

NOTES 1. G. K. Sewall, J. Jiang, and C. N. Ford, “Clinical Evaluation of Parkinson’s-Related Dysphonia,” The Laryngoscope 116, no. 10 (October 2006): 1740–1744. 2. L. Silva, A. Gama, F. Cardoso, C. Reis, and I Bassi, “Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease: Vocal and Quality of Life Analysis,” Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 70, no. 9 (September 2012): 674–679. 3. Sewall, Jiang, and Ford. 4. H. Liu, E. Q. Wang, L. V. Metman, and C. R. Larson, “Vocal Responses to Perturbations in Voice Auditory Feedback in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease,” PLOS One 7, no. 3 (2012). 5. S. Sapir, L. Ramig, and C. Fox, “Intensive voice treatment in Parkinson’s disease: Lee Silverman Voice Treatment,” Expert Review Neurotherapeutics 11, no. 6 (June 2011): 815–830. L. O. Ramig, C. Fox, and S. Sapir, “Parkinson’s disease: speech and voice disorders and their treatment with the Lee Silverman Voice Therapy, Seminars in Speech and Language 25, no. 2 (May 2004): 169–180. 6. A. L. Merati and S. A. Bielamowics, Textbook of Laryngology (San Diego: Plural Publishing, 2007), 239–245. 7. Sapir, Ramig, and Fox. Ramig, Fox, and Sapir. Merati and Bielamowics. 8. Merati and Bielamowics. 9. L. C. Shih, J. Piel, A. Warren, L. Kraics, A. Silver, V. Vanderhorst, D. K. Simon, and D. Tarsy, “Singing in groups for Parkinson’s disease (SING-PD): A pilot study of group singing therapy for PD-related voice/speech disorders,” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 18, no. 5 (June 2012): 548–552. 10. Sapir, Ramig, and Fox. Ramig, Fox, and Sapir. Merati and Bielamowics.

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Jessica Kandl and Jaime Moore 11. Sewall, Jiang, and Ford. 12. Silva, Gama, Cardos, Reis, and Bassi. Merati and Bielamowics. 13. Sewall, Jiang, and Ford. 14. Sapir, Ramig, and Fox. 15. Ibid. Ramig, Fox, and Sapir. 16. Ibid.

Dr. Kandl completed a Surgical Internship at Vanderbilt University in 2016. She then completed her residency in Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery at Virginia Commonwealth University in 2021. She currently practices otolaryngology in Arlington, Virginia.

17. Ramig, Fox, and Sapir. 18. Shih et al. 19. Sapir, Ramig, and Fox. Shih et al. 20. Sapir, Ramig, and Fox. Ramig, Fox, and Sapir. 21. Shih et al. 22. J. A. Russell, M. R. Ciucci, N. P. Connor, and T. Shallert, “Targeted exercise therapy for voice and swallow in persons with Parkinson’s disease,” Brain Research 23, no. 1341 (June 2010): 3–11. 23. B. Roubeau, M. Bruel, O. de Couy Chanel, and S. Périé, “Reduction of Parkinson’s-related dysphonia by thyroplasty,” European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Disease 133, no. 6 (December 2016): 437–439. Merati and Bielamowics. 24. Sewall, Jiang, and Ford. Merati and Bielamowics. 25. Roubeau et al.

Dr. Jessica Kandl graduated magna cum laude with her Bachelor of Science in Biology from Wofford College in 2009. She then received her Doctor of Medicine from the Medical University of South Carolina in 2015. During medical school, she received multiple awards for academic and clinical excellence. She is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society.

Jaime Eaglin Moore, M.D., M.S. is an otolaryngologist and laryngologist, is board certified by the American Board of Otolaryngology. Dr. Moore received her Doctor of Medicine degree from Eastern Virginia Medical School, and she completed a residency in Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia. She was a fellow in laryngology and care of the professional voice at the American Institute for Voice and Ear Research, and complete a master’s degree in Clinical Research and Biostatistics at Virginia Commonwealth University. She has authored numerous publications and is an editor for the Journal of Voice and ENT Journal. She is an associate professor in the Department of Otolaryngology, affiliate professor in the Department of Music, and medical director of speech language pathology at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Do You Know About SNATS? Student NATS (SNATS) Chapters are student organizations that meet, hold events and discussions, participate, practice, and learn more about voice teaching as a profession. Chapters receive the biannual SNATS Newsletter and participate in online SNATS Chats. If you are interested in establishing a new SNATS Chapter at your school, send an email to vpoutreach@nats.org. Having a NATS Student Membership is not a requirement for belonging to a Student NATS (SNATS) Chapter.

For more information log on to nats.org/about_snats.

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VOICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

The Acoustic Characteristics of Vocal Twang Ingo R. Titze

V

Ingo Titze

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 613–614 https://doi.org/10.53830/LKZS7620 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

ocalists are capable of imitating many of the sound qualities of musical instruments. As with impersonation of sounds other humans make, a caricature of the main feature of the instrumental sound is produced. Vocal timbre can be flute-like, brass-like, or percussive. Often the desired sound quality is that of the instruments that accompany the voice. Give the vastly different geometry and material properties of the human airway compared to those of musical instruments, only one or two acoustic features can usually be imitated. The word “twang” comes from the sound of a plucked guitar string. There is little in common between guitar strings transmitting sound to wooden plates and vocal folds transmitting sound through a 17 cm vocal tract, yet a common feature can be the clustering of frequencies produced. Woodhouse published frequency spectra of plucked guitar strings. Regardless of the pitch produced, the dominant harmonics clustered around 1500–2000 Hz. The fundamental frequency was never the dominant one.1 Such a frequency spectrum can be approximated by shaping the vocal tract such that both the epilaryngeal and the pharyngeal airway are narrow. The bottom row of Figure 1 shows this airway configuration in comparison to other shapes that produce different voice qualities, such as neutral, yawn, ring, and call. On the right panel, the input impedance to the vocal tract is shown for each configuration in the 100–2000 Hz region. The thin line is input resistance and the thick line is input reactance. High positive reactance means that harmonics are reinforced by the vocal tract. Note that twang has the highest reactance between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. (The ring configuration has its highest reactance in the 3000–4000 Hz range, not shown in Figure 1). With a variety of tongue and lip configurations, the impedance peaks in the 1000–2000 Hz range can be moved up and down, as well as closer together or farther apart. Saldias et al. have shown midsagittal airway images that clearly show the narrowing in the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal regions in twang phonation. They have also shown that the corresponding spectrum has a broad peak in the 1000–2000 Hz region.2 A second feature of twang is nonsteadiness. The spectrum of a plucked string does not remain constant. It is transient as the sound dies out. A sharp twang drifts to a more mellow twang. A singer can imitate this transient quality by keeping the vowel or vocal fold adduction variable. Country singers often BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Ingo R. Titze

Figure 1. (left) Airway shapes and (right) corresponding vocal tract input impedance over a 100-2000 Hz

frequency range. Thin lines are resistances and thick lines are reactances.

make their vowels more speech-like, drifting from one vowel to another with co-articulation. This is in contrast to classical singers, who often maintain a steady voice quality, thereby mimicking steady tone instruments, such as flutes, brasses, and bowed strings. This author has had multiple conversations with singing teachers about what constitutes “twang” in the industry. In an audition, singers may be asked to produce a twang sound, but it comes out more like a belt or a pressed voice. My advice would be to listen carefully to the sound of a plucked steel string. Imitate

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that sound first in isolation, then embed that quality into running speech, and finally “sang a sawng” with it.

NOTES 1. J. Woodhouse, “Plucked Guitar Transients: Comparison of Measurements and Synthesis,” Acta Acustica united with Acustica 90, no. 5 (September/October 2004): 945–965. 2. Marcelo Saldías, Anne-Maria Laukkanen, Marco Guzmán, Gonzalo, Maranda, Justin, Stoney, Paavo Alku, and Johan Sundberg, “The Vocal Tract in Loud Twang-Like Singing While Producing High and Low Pitches,” Journal of Voice 35, no. 5 (September 2021): 807.e1–807.e23.

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Journal of Singing


LANGUAGE AND DICTION

Phonetics of Unstressed Russian Vowels in Singing Mikhail Smigelski

T Mikhail Smigelski

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 615–624 https://doi.org/10.53830/JHTA6813 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

he main questions and debates in the history of the development of the art of stage diction and the art of singing have always related to the establishment of standards and choice of role models. Traditionally, a living speech developed and refined by “masters of the word”—writers and other educated people—was a source of the language standard. Traditions of folk singing have always been the primary source of formation of vocal aesthetics, but the technical standard of singing was dictated by the excellence of opera and chamber concert singers. Just like Hochdeutsch (or Bühnendeutsch) in Germany and Rhotic northern noncoastal General American Standard in the USA, the Old Moscow Dialect (in some sources, “Central Dialect of Moscow”) has come to be considered exemplary in Russia since the second half of the twentieth century. Listening to the reading of poetry, drama, or opera performances of Russian artists made before or shortly after WWII, one finds that the Old Moscow pronunciation prevails in speech of the actors and in singing of vocalists. Over the years, new pronunciation norms, more closely corresponding to modern conversational Russian, were developed. The most important works in the field of Russian stage orthoepy1 are the monographs Russian Literary Pronunciation (1950) by R.I. Avanesov and Orthoepy in Singing (1958) by V.I. Sadovnikov.2 In these treatises, the authors present central orthoepic norms: rules of vowel pronunciation; rules of pronunciation of consonants and their combinations; pronunciation of some grammatical forms, word stresses, tools for an orthoepical analysis of literary texts, as well as specifics of vowel and consonant formation in singing. One of the most controversial processes discussed in the theory and practice of Russian vocal diction is vowel reduction. In speech, stressed vowels always have a relatively long duration, while the length of unstressed vowels depends on their position in relation to stressed ones. The next syllable after the stressed syllable as well as the second and third syllables before the stressed syllable are usually the most reduced in duration. Reducing the duration of the vowel leads to the diminishing of vowel exposure and turns the vowel into some transitional sound from the previous consonant to the next. The significant reduction of vowels leads to extreme changes in the sound of the word. BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Mikhail Smigelski

STRESSED (PURE) RUSSIAN VOWELS IN COMPARISON WITH WESTERN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. According to Bondarko, the Russian language has six vowel phonemes in stressed syllables: [i], [u], [e], [o], [a], and [ɨ] (Table 1).3 The vowel phoneme [i] is represented by the letter “и” and, when stressed, is pronounced as [i]. Russian [i] is essentially the same as the [i] phoneme of all European languages. In English, its closest equivalent is the stressed vowel in words like “lease” and “keen.” The vowel phoneme [e] can be represented by letters “э” or “е,” and, when stressed, is essentially the same as mid-front [ɛ] in European languages. Closest English equivalents are the words “pet,” “poetic.” When initial, the phoneme includes a glottal stop, as in the English word echo. The vowel phoneme [ɑ] can be represented by letters “а” or “я,” and, when stressed, its formation is similar to the [ɑ] in the English word “father,” but the mid-tongue is slightly higher in the mouth. The IPA symbols used for this Russian vowel are [ɑ] or [a]. The vowel phoneme [o] can be represented by letters “о” or “ё” and is quite controversial in terms of correct IPA and equivalents. The lips are well rounded in the formation, but the phoneme is not the very round (and very closed) [o] of German or French. Russian [o] is also not the open [ɔ] phoneme found in Italian, German, French, and English. It is best described as a combination of two types: [ɔ] and [o]. Russian [o] is formed with the low tongue position of open [ɔ] and the more rounded lips of closed [o], but, again, more relaxed than the German or French version. The vowel phoneme “u” can be represented by letters “у” and “ю,” and, when stressed is pronounced as Italian [u] with highly rounded lips, and a quite high tongue in the back. The Russian allophone [ɨ] is perhaps the most difficult Russian vowel sound for non-Russian speakers to produce. Sometimes called a “dark” or “back” [i] vowel, the allophone [ɨ] is a velarized version of the [i] phoneme.4 It can be represented by letters “ы” or “и” and does not exist in Western European Languages. One of the most common ways to find the correct pronunciation of ы is to try to pronounce [i] with the tongue position of Italian

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TABLE 1.

Front

Central

Back

Close

i

ɨ

u

Mid

e

Open

o ɑ

[u]. In other words, the lip position should remain as in [i] sound, while the back of the tongue raises.

UNSTRESSED RUSSIAN VOWELS IN SPEECH AND IN SINGING Syllables preceding the stressed syllable are called pretonic syllables. Syllables following the stressed syllable are called posttonic syllables. The syllable that is located immediately before the stressed syllable is called the first pretonic syllable, the one before it (to the left), the second pretonic, and so on. The first posttonic syllable is the one immediately following the stressed syllable, the one after it (to the right) is the second posttonic, and so on. In orthoepy, the amount of reduction is usually described as one raised to a certain power according to the position of the unstressed syllable. In speech, the reduction of pretonic and posttonic vowels depends on the surrounding consonants and on the position of the syllable with the unstressed vowel in the word. Depending on the degree of vowel shortening a certain change in its character occurs. Out of this comes the notion of quantitative and qualitative reduction. Qualitative reduction changes the phonetic quality of the vowel; quantitative, the length of its sound. These two concepts are interrelated, that is, the shorter the vowel, the more possible is the change in its quality, and vice versa: the longer the vowel, the less possible is its qualitative change. Not all unstressed vowels are subject to qualitative reduction. Russian vowels “у” [u] and “и” [i] can be reduced only quantitatively, without changing their phonetic character (the same goes to the vowel “ы” [ɨ]). Russian vowels “a” and “э” in speech are reduced quantitatively and qualitatively (the vowel “o” in unstressed syllables is always pronounced as a reduced “a”). The change in the quality of vowels at the moment of reduction depends on the degree of shortening, and

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Journal of Singing


Language and Diction

Example 1. N. Rimsky-Korsakov, The Snow Maiden, Prologue.

the shortening depends on the position of the syllable with a reduced vowel in a word. The vowel in the first pretonic syllable is subjected to the smallest reduction, the second, third, and so on are subjected to a greater reduction accordingly. The same happens to the reduction in the posttonic syllables. Singing is quite different from speech, and therefore it is impossible to transfer all orthoepic speech norms to singing. The length of the sound of vowels in singing is determined by the duration of notes forming one or another melodic pattern and completely excludes the possibility of vowel disappearance. In singing, even the shortest duration of a vowel sounds longer than the longest vowel sound in speaking. This does not mean that the pretonic and posttonic vowels should be pronounced just like stressed vowels: there are certain degrees of reduction determined by the vowel clarity and the strength of its sound.

UNSTRESSED “o” AND “a” ([ɑ ] PHONEME) AFTER HARD (NON-SIBILANT) CONSONANTS In all unstressed syllables, Russian vowels “o” and “a” must be treated and reduced as the vowel “a.” They both represent [ɑ] phoneme. According to Sadovnikov, “in cases when there are more than one pretonic syllables, these vowels should be pronounced as only dynamically weakened in the first pretonic syllable, and in other unstressed syllables as a phonetically “obscure” [ɑ].”5 In some IPA sources for singers, all unstressed “o” and May/June 2022

“a” are indicated as [ə], which can sound about right in some cases in second and third pretonic syllables, but definitely not in the first pretonic syllable. In some IPA sources, those vowels are indicated as [ʌ] or [ɐ]. In my opinion, [ɐ] is closer to the traditional pronunciation in academic singing and thus preferable, but again it suits only the second and third pretonic syllable since the first pretonic syllable is supposed to be reduced only dynamically. Let us look at an excerpt from Snow Maiden’s Aria from N. Rimsky-Korsakov’s opera of the same name (Example 1). Here is the transliteration of this phrase: “Kru-gi vo-dít’, za Lé-lem po-vto-ryát’.” The YouTube source “Russian for Singers” gives the following IPA for the last word повторять (to repeat): [pɐf-tɐ-’ɽaʈ].6 However, most native Russian singers would pronounce the vowels in the second and the third syllables of this word acoustically very similar, with the vowel in the second syllable only dynamically softer than in the third. Thus, the best way to IPA this word would be [pɐf-ta-’’rʲatʲ]. aʈ], where the second vowel would become dynamically weaker without changing its quality. If there is only one pretonic syllable in a word, “o” and “a” can be reduced either qualitatively or dynamically depending on the tempo, tessitura, and taste. Another example is an excerpt from Aleko’s Cavatina from Rachmaninov’s Aleko (Example 2). The transliteration of this excerpt is “v mi-nu-tu ra-zo-gnat’ u-me-la!” The speech IPA for this phase would look like [vmi’nu-tu] [ɾɐ-zɐ-’nat’] [u-’mʲɛ-lɐ]. Due to a relatively slow tempo, most Russian singers would not use qualita-

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Mikhail Smigelski

Example 2. S. Rachmaninoff, Aleko, No. 10.

tive reduction in both pretonic syllables of the word разогнать; however, the vowel in the second pretonic syllable ра is usually reduced dynamically.

UNSTRESSED “a” AND “o” ([ ɑ ] PHONEME) AFTER POST-ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS “ж” [ ʐ   ], “ш” [ ʂ ], PALATAL CONSONANTS “ч” [ t͡ ɕ ], “щ” [ɕː], AND ALVEOLAR “ц” [ t͡ s ] In speech, vowels “a” and “o” after post-alveolar consonants “ж” [ʐ], “ш” [ʂ] in unstressed syllables are often qualitatively reduced to [ɐ] or even [ɨ]. However, if words like жалеть (“to regret,” verb, speech IPA: [ʐɐlʲ’ɛtʲ]), сожаление (“regret,” noun, speech IPA: [sʌʐɐlʲ’ɛnije]), шаловливый (“playful”—adj., speech IPA: [ʂɐɭɐˈvɭɪvɨj]) appear in singing, a clearer [ɑ] sound and less qualitative reduction are preferred. The vowel “a” after palatal consonants “ч” [t͡ɕ] and “щ” [ɕː] in unstressed syllables in speech is often reduced to a closed vowel [e]. In singing, however, it is recommended to mix it toward [ɛ] in the short note values and to leave it phonetically clear in the long note values. The vowel “a” after alveolar consonant “ц” [t͡s] in pretonic syllables in speech is usually reduced to [ɐ]. In academic singing, however, it is not supposed to be reduced, the only exception being posttonic syllables in the numerals ending with “дцать”. A good example is the phrase from Olga’s arioso from Tchaikovsky’s Eugene Onegin (Example 3). The transliteration of this excerpt is “ya bez-za-bot-na I sha-

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lov-liva.” The speech IPA for this phrase would be [ja] [bɪ-ʒɐ-‘bɔtnɐ], [i] [ʂɐlɐvɭʲivɐ]. Although the dynamics of the vowel in the syllable ша is normally softer, its acoustic characteristics are still very close to the first stressed pronoun я [ja]. For singers, the IPA of the word шаловлива should look like [ʂɐlavɭʲiva]. Example 4 is a phrase from Tchaikovsky’s art song “Средь шумного бала” (At the Ball). The transliteration of this excerpt is “V cha-sy o-di-nó-ky-e . . .” The speech IPA for the first preposition and the word would look like [vcçɨ-’sɨ]. In singing, however, the vowel “a” in unstressed syllables after “ч” [cç] is very often left pure, especially in a moderate or slow tempo.

UNSTRESSED “я” (IOTATED “ɑ”) [  jɑ ] In speech, the unstressed vowel “я”, is usually reduced to a mixed sound between [a] and [e]. In singing, Russian singers usually leave it unreduced or mix it towards [jɛ]. The same goes for the unstressed “я” in the beginning of the word. At the end of the word Russian singers usually just reduce the dynamics of the vowel. It is worth mentioning another case of the unstressed “я”. In speech, “я” transforms preceding consonant “c” to its “soft” version [sʲ]. In singing, however, as well as in Russian Literary language, the Old Moscow Pronunciation rules require keeping the “c” consonant hard at the end of the word and thus substitute the final “я” with “a”. Sometimes, when one-syllable words fall on short note values, the vowels in those words are treated as not-

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Language and Diction

Example 3. P. Tchaikovsky, Eugene Onegin, Act I, Scene I, no. 3.

Example 4. P. Tchaikovsky, “At the Ball,” Op. 38, no. 3

stressed and become a subject to dynamic and/or qualitative reduction (Example 5). The transliteration of this excerpt is “Mes-dames! Ya na se-bya vzyal smye-lost’ . . .” Here is the speech IPA for the possible pronunciation of the Russian part of the phrase: [ja] or [je]; [nɐ]; [si-‘bʲa]; [vzʲal] or [vzʲel]; [‘smʲɛ-lɐst’]. When this phase is spoken or sung in a fast tempo, the words я and взял become quasi pretonic syllables to following words, and thus may be qualitatively reduced towards [je]. Another typical example is a phrase from “Trepak” from Mussorgsky’s Songs and Dances of Death (Example 6). The transliteration of this excerpt is “chtob vsyu noch tya-nu-las’ . . .” The speech IPA for last word May/June 2022

тянулась would look like [tʲɛ-’nu-lɐs’]. In singing, the first vowel in the word тянулась is usually also reduced, but mostly toward [e], not [ɛ].

UNSTRESSED “э” [ ɛ ] AND ITS IOTATED VERSION “e” [  jɛ ] In speech, “э” and “e” in unstressed positions are usually reduced to a mixed sound between [i] and [e], or to [ɪ]. It is pronounced the same in all unstressed syllables except the first pretonic one, where it sounds a little longer than in the others. In singing, where the length of the vowel is dictated by the composer, “э” and “e” are in most cases reduced just by the dynamic weakening. Only on very

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Example 5. P. Tchaikovsky, Eugene Onegin, Act I, Scene I, no. 5.

Example 6. M. Mussorgsky, Songs and Dances of Death, “Trepak.”

short note values in the pretonic syllables, those vowels sometimes become a subject of the qualitative reduction and sound close to [ɪ] or [e]. Example 7 is a phrase from Tomsky’s Ballade from Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades. The transliteration of this phrase is “vernula svoe, no kakoyu tsenoy!” The speech IPA would look like [vɪr-’nʊ-lɐ] [svɐ-’jɔ] [nɔ] [kɐ-’kɔ-jʊ] [çɨ-’nɔ-ɪ]. Normally, in speech or in fast singing, both the first vowel “e” in the first word вернула and in the last word ценой would be qualitatively reduced. However, here a composer wrote ritenuto. Since this ritenuto traditionally progresses towards the end of the phrase, most of the native Russian singers will keep the vowel “e” in the last word pure. Another example may be found in Gremin’s aria from Tchaikovsky’s Eugene Onegin (Example 8). The first syl-

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lable of the second word седою falls on a relatively short note value, so we can expect native Russian singers to reduce the “e” in it.

UNSTRESSED “и” [i ] In most of the cases, both in speech and in singing, the vowel “и” [i] in unstressed syllables is reduced only by dynamic weakening. However, there are some exceptions. 1. After post-alveolar consonants “ж” [ʐ], “ш” [ʂ] and after alveolar consonant “ц” [t͡s], both in speech and singing, “и” [i] is pronounced as “ы” [ɨ]. 2. In words starting with the unstressed “и” [i], after the prepositions “к”, “с”, “в”, “от”, “над”, “из”, and “под”, the initial “и” is traditionally pronounced as “ы” [ɨ].

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Example 7. P. Tchaikovsky, The Queen of Spades, Act I, no. 5.

Example 8. P. Tchaikovsky, Eugene Onegin, Act III, Scene I, no. 20.

3. When a word ends in a hard consonant and is followed by the conjunction “и,” this conjunction is also pronounced as “ы” [ɨ]. 4. In adjectives (and family names) ending with “-кий,” “-гий,” “-хий,” the “и” [i] is traditionally reduced to [ɨ] or [ɪ]. Example 9 is an excerpt from Tatiana’s “Letter Scene” from Tchaikovsky’s Eugene Onegin. The transliteration for this excerpt is “pri-nik-nuv ti-ho k iz-go-lo-vyu.” The May/June 2022

preposition “к” is followed by the last word изголовью which starts with “и.” According to the exception No. 2 above, the singing IPA for this phrase should look like this: [pɾi-‘ni-knuf] [‘ti-xɐ] [kɨ-zgɐ-‘lo-vju]. Example 10 is a phrase of Onegin from Tchaikovsky’s Eugene Onegin. The word Чацкий”(Chatskiy) is a family name (a lead character in A. Griboyedov’s play Woe from Wit), thus the vowel “u” in a second, unstressed syllable is often reduced to [ɨ] following the Old Moscow Literary Language tradition.

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Example 9. P. Tchaikovsky, Eugene Onegin, Act I, Scene II, no. 9.

Example 10. P. Tchaikovsky, Eugene Onegin, Act III, Scene I, no. 20.

COMBINATIONS OF UNSTRESSED VOWELS: “ао,” “оо,” “ео,” “еа,” “еи,” AND “ее” Combinations indicated above in unstressed syllables require pronunciation of both vowels with phonetic clarity; however, the combinations of “ао” and “оо” should be pronounced as reduced “aa.” Originally, there are a few words in Russian language with those combinations in the middle of the word, but they appear quite often between the prefix and the root of the word, between the preposition and the word starting with a vowel, and between the negative particles “не” (“ne”), “ни”(“ni”), and the word starting with a vowel. The main question is

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whether one should connect those two vowels or attack the second vowel separately. Joint pronunciation is required in cases where the same vowel appears twice in succession, either inside the word, between a preposition and the word, or between a particle and the word. For example, in Tchaikovsky’s art song “За окном в тени мелькает” (Behind the Window, IPA: Za ɐk-’nom ftʲe-’ni mel’-’ka-et), according to both Old Moscow pronunciation rule and overall legato of the melodic line, first two words should not be divided. Separate pronunciation can be used when the vowel combination appears between two words with both of them having independent stresses. Another cause of a separate pronunciation is when both of the vowels have the same pitch.

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CONCLUSION The pronunciation of unstressed syllables in the Russian stage language and various dialects is very complex in terms of the realization of vowel phonemes (the most distinguished traits of different dialects and accents are exactly the excessive “oh,” “ah,” or “i” sounds in unstressed syllables). Therefore, despite general requirements of clear diction and compliance with orthoepical and accentological norms in regular speech and vocal performance, some questions regarding the quality and the quantity of reduction remain debatable. One should always remember that the ultimate goal in academic singing is producing a beautiful, focused, and clear tone. That is why sometimes the rules and traditions of pronunciation, especially in the upper voice register, have to be sacrificed in favor of better sound. Due to the fact that in the opera and art song literature there are cases when the composer writes equal or longer note duration on the unstressed vowel than on the stressed, it is obvious that for the artistic reproduction of such liberties a specific vocal-orthoepic art is required. This art often means a skillful distribution of the dynamics between stressed and unstressed vowels. The singing reduction can be realized in the decrease of the power of sound and the “dimming” of its phonetic clarity; in other words, the reduced sounds can be pronounced in a somewhat less vocally bright manner. It is also very important to remember that in Russian Orthodox sacred music, unstressed vowels are not reduced qualitatively at all. Regrettably, most of Russian Diction and IPA sources published in the USA and Europe either cover the vowel reduction topic superficially or do not cover it at all. It is very unfortunate, since the correct, natural pronunciation of the unstressed vowels in singing is what actually makes the singer sound “native.” I hope this article will provide diction coaches and voice teachers with necessary guidelines and help them better understand the aspects of singing in Russian.

Bondarko, Lia Vasilyevna. Zvukovoy Stroy Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyka (Sound Formation in the Modern Russian Language). Moscow: Prosveshenie, 1977 [in Russian]. Crosswhite, Katherine Margaret. “Vowel Reduction in Russian: A Unified Account of Standard, Dialectal, and “Dissimilative” Patterns.” University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences, Vol. 1, Spring 2000. Golubin, Gennady Evgenyevich. Korifei Russkoy Opernoy Stseny. Na Volnakh Radioperedach (Corypheauses of Russian Opera Scene. On the Waves of Radio Broadcasting). Moscow: Litres, 2017 [in Russian]. Grayson, Craig M. “Russian Lyric Diction: A practical guide with introduction and annotations and a bibliography with annotations on selected sources.” DMA dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, 2012. Ilyinov, Yury Mikhailovich. “Foneticheskie Kharakteristiki Vokalnoy Rechi (Phonetic Characteristics of the Vocal Speech).” Candidate of Philological Sciences Dissertation, Volgograd State University, Volgograd, Russia, 2007 [in Russian]. Jones, Daniel, and Dennis Ward. The Phonetics of Russian. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1969. Nesterenko, Evgeniy. “Some Questions Regarding Pronunciation in Singing.” Questions of Vocal Pedagogy, no. 6 (1982) [in Russian]. Olin, Emily. Singing in Russian. A Guide to Language and Performance. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2012. Pekarskaya, Elena Maksovna. Vokalny Bukvar (Vocal ABC). E-Book (Moscow: 1996), accessed August 10, 2019 [in Russian]; http:// lib.ru/CULTURE/MUSICACAD/PECERSKAYA/vocal.txt. Pludgett, Jay, and Marija Tabain. “Adaptive Dispersion Theory and Phonological Vowel Reduction in Russian.” Phonetica 62 (2005): 14–54. Sadovnikov, Viktor Ivanovich. Orfoepia v Penii (Orthoepy in Singing). Moscow: Muzgiz, 1958 [in Russian]. Shamanova, Marina Vladimirovna, and Anna Alexandrovna Talitskaya. Fonetika Russkogo Yazyka: Istoricheskiy and Sinkhronicheskiy Aspekty. Uchebnoe Posobie (Phonetics of the Russian Language: Historical and Synchronization Aspects. Textbook). Yaroslavl: YarGU, 2018 [in Russian]. Yakovleva, Antonina Sergeyevna. Russkaya Vokalnaya Shkola (Russian Vocal School), Edition 3. Moscow: InformBuro, 2011 [in Russian].

NOTES

BIBLIOGRAPHY Avanesov, Ruben Ivanovich. Russkoe Literaturnoe Proiznoshenie (Russian Literary Pronunciation), Edition 6. Moscow: Prosveshenie, 1984 [in Russian]. May/June 2022

1. Orthoepy is the study of correct pronunciation. 2. In Russian, one of the meanings of the word “literary” is “related to the classical literature and theater,” so the title of

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Mikhail Smigelski the book can also be translated as Russian Theatrical Pronunciation or Russian Stage Pronunciation. 3. Lia Vasilyevna Bondarko, Zvukovoy Stroy Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyka [Sound Formation in the Modern Russian Language] (Moscow: Prosveshenie, 1977). 4. Velarization (in phonetics), as defined by Encyclopedia Britannica, is secondary articulation in the pronunciation of consonants, in which the tongue is drawn far up and back in the mouth (toward the velum, or soft palate), as if to pronounce a back vowel such as o or u (Encyclopedia Britannica, n. 1). 5. Viktor Ivanovich Sadovnikov, Orfoepia v Penii [Orthoepy in Singing] (Moscow: Muzgiz, 1958), 7. 6. Russian for Singers. “Rimsky-Korsakov “Snow Maiden’s Aria”—RUSSIAN DICTION GUIDE—SLOW—IPA” Filmed January 2019. YouTube Video, Duration 10:41. Posted January 2019. Hailed as “phenomenal” (The Harvard Crimson), “impressively epic” (schwäbische.de), and for his “wine-dark bass ” (The Boston Globe), bass baritone Mikhail Smigelski enjoys a career of vast and various genres, including opera, oratorio, early music, musical theater, and contemporary music. Born in St. Petersburg, Russia, Mikhail has performed on the world’s most prestigious stages, including Carnegie Hall,

Saint Petersburg and Moscow Philharmonics, Berliner Philharmonie, Kölner Philharmonie, and has collaborated with numerous European and American opera and concert companies, such as St. Petersburg Chamber Opera, Theater Aachen, Theater Solingen, Theater Leverkusen, Cohen New Works Festival, New York Ferus Festival, East Coast Contemporary Ensemble, Opera Leggera, Opera in the Heights, Miami Lyric Opera, and The Cleveland Opera. Mikhail Smigelski’s repertoire includes more than 30 opera roles and more than 100 art songs. His operatic portrayals include both Figaro and Bartolo in Le nozze di Figaro, Leporello in Don Giovanni, Don Alfonoso in Così fan tutte, Alidoro in La cenerentola, Don Basilio in Il barbiere di Siviglia, Raimondo in Lucia di Lammermoor, Ferrando in Il trovatore, Nikitich and Varlaam in Boris Godunov, title roles in Falstaff and Eugene Onegin, and others. As a passionate advocate for contemporary classical music, Smigelski performed in a number of world and USA premieres, including Switch by John Aylward with East Coast Contemporary Ensemble, Golden by Michael Zapruder at Cohen New Works Festival, and Orpheus by Evan Lawson with Density 512. Recently, KNS Classical released his first CD album Russian Gems, with rarely performed art songs by P. Chesnokov and A. Grechaninov. Dr. Smigelski began his advanced musical studies at the Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory in St. Petersburg, Russia, where he received the Bachelor of Music degree and, subsequently, Hochschule für Musik und Tanz in Cologne, Germany, where he completed the Master of Music degree in opera performance. Upon moving to the United States, he earned the Master of Music degree in choral conducting at Sam Houston State University and the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in opera performance at the University of Texas at Austin. In addition to his performance career, Dr. Smigelski is a Lecturer in Voice at The University of Texas at Austin, a Director of Music Ministries at The Woodlands Christian Church, and a Music Director at the musical theater company Opera Leggera.

Summer for thee, grant I may be When Summer days are flown! Thy music still, when Whipporwill And Oriole—are done! For thee to bloom, I’ll skip the tomb And row my blossoms o’er! Pray gather me— Anemone— Thy flower—forevermore! Emily Dickinson, “Summer, For Thee”

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SINGING A CAPPELLA TO ZYDECO

Revisiting Stage Fright Robert Edwin

L Robert Edwin

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 625–627 https://doi.org/10.53830/ULOA9767 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

ots of anxiety-producing events have happened in the past few years. They include a global pandemic, major political and social unrest, droughts and floods, wildfires and deep freezes, obesity and mass starvation, and an almost endless list that could fill this column. I plan to address none of the aforementioned. Since this is a journal for singers and teachers of same, let us instead revisit an anxiety producing event ubiquitous in our profession—stage fright. Almost every performer seems to have it to some degree, myself included. We spend so much time and energy trying to avoid it, mask it, or conquer it, that we might come to believe performance anxiety is a dreadful flaw in our human psyche. How do our “nerves” sabotage our best artistic intentions? Where does it come from? Why are we plagued by this curse? What, in heaven’s name, is wrong with us? How about nothing at all? How about the majority of us are fairly normal and stage fright is, too? Take comfort that only about 3% of United States adults have generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a condition of almost constant anxiety and worry. Unless you are a member of that population, that leaves the remaining 97% of us to try to work with and through a fairly controllable problem. In addressing the “nerves” issue, I tell my students that we’ve first got to understand, embrace, and affirm fear before we can work with it. Simply put, fear can be a good thing. Fear is at the core of our survival as a species. In life or death situations, fear kicks in our “fight or flight” response and helps us to battle furiously or run for our lives. A healthy dose of fear can even prevent us from getting into some life threatening situations in the first place. Fear can even motivate us to better prepare for an upcoming audition or performance. Moving forward, we then try to put fear in its proper perspective. Is a singing audition or performance worthy of a life or death response? Logically, most of us will conclude that such a scenerio is indeed not worth the trauma a fight or flight response triggers. In fact, most would agree that the fight or flight response interferes mightily with the act of singing, since it sends blood flow to places in our body that don’t directly aid in the act of singing. Tight stomach and dry throat anyone? Having concluded that singing situations and survival situations are not equal in value, we then ask, “What can we do to keep the fight or flight response in its proper place?” For some, breathing and relaxation exercises help to calm both mind and body. For others, the catch phrase, “I’ll just be myself!” is invoked. That missive, however, can lead to potentially awful consequences: “Be myself? I AM being myself and I’m really nervous!” Legal BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Robert Edwin and illegal drugs are also on the list of options. How many in our profession alone have succumbed to this sometimes tragic choice? For many of us, an effective and healthy solution to stage fright issues lies in the discipline of acting. Most acting techniques say, in essence, that reality is our enemy. If we are in real time (actual reality), we will likely respond to the situation we are in or the people we are with by being our normal and natural selves. Therefore, if the situation or the people are perceived as threatening, the natural response will often be a literal or figurative fight or flight—“Do I hit you or run away from you?” This mind game is played out in many pressure situations, but perhaps no more so than in audition settings. How many of us have gone into an audition feeling, because we are in an unfamiliar place with unfamiliar people, we need to protect ourselves from “harm”? As hard as we try to suppress it, good ol’ fight or flight comes to our perceived rescue. We are on the auditioner’s turf, with their power and their rules. We have no influence! We have no say! We are in danger! We must protect and defend! We get nervous, defensive, self-conscious, walled in. And we blow the audition. Acting encourages altering reality. If, in our minds, we can create a reality that is less personally threatening and more in tune with artistic expression and vulnerability, we can defuse the fight or flight bomb that is ready to go off at the slightest perceived threat, real or imagined. As actors we are, in a sense, being ourselves, but the selves we are being are played out in the context of characters. As actors in character, we are free to be expressive and evocative since our behavior has no consequence in the real world. Then, when the scene is over, we are able go back to being ourselves and continue to live out our lives in actual reality with our defenses appropriately in place. To better clarify this acting dimension called created reality, I ask all my students what they feel the difference is between a performance and an audition. The overwhelming majority of them tell me that they usually feel more in control during a performance, while they feel the casting people are more in control during an audition. This is a perceived reality that confronts many performers. Changing that reality is the job of the teacher and student.

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“What if,” say I, “you never had another ‘audition’ as you define it, but called all subsequent auditions, ‘performances’ and acted accordingly?” “Hmmm,” say they. “That would put me in charge of whatever environment I’m in. I would be on my turf, in my space, and under my control.” “It’s called getting into character,” say I. “It’s your ‘created reality’ where you determine what happens. It’s also proactive. If you are in character, the fight or flight response won’t be triggered.” “But,” say they, “at auditions they often ask me to do different things than what I had initially planned.” “Ah,” say I, “can’t you take their direction, assimilate it, personalize it, and deliver it as if it were your character’s idea?” “Hmmm,” say they. Now we might be able to more fully explore this created reality in the safe confines of the studio with an eye toward trying it out at their next audition/performance. Let’s say, for example, I ask a teenage student singer-actor to find, in herself, her Liesl von Trapp character from The Sound of Music. Liesl is a girl who understands how to play the weaker sex card to the fullest. She sings, “I am sixteen going on seventeen, I know that I’m naïve,” with the intention of stroking Rolf’s male ego and his desire to be protective of her. My wannabe Liesl first sings it sweetly and innocently and she’s right on target. Then, as happens at many auditions, I ask her to radically alter her reading of the character. “Let’s make Liesl very whinny this time—a real complainer.” Finding and employing a different dimension of her personality, the singer-actor now introduces a much more annoying underpinning to her characterization even though she knows if she is cast, she will never be asked to play Liesl that way. It is merely a test to see if she can take direction. Throughout the entire mock audition sequence, the student focuses to stay in the created reality of Liesl rather than the actual reality of my studio and who she and I really are. While the studio needs to be a safe environment where trust and support are nurtured, it should also be a place of challenge where limits are tested, and failure, as a means to a successful end, is also embraced and affirmed. If the teacher can, at times, create some of the unpredictable situations a performer will encounter in the real world, the student will be the better for it. Just as an athlete is exposed to game-like situations in practice,

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Journal of Singing


Singing A Cappella to Zydeco so must the singer-actor be exposed to audition-like scenarios so that the experience of real-life auditions will be less threatening. For example, I make it a point to build into lessons “try-to-sabotage-the-performer” moments, especially when students have upcoming auditions. Since the audition accompanist is often sight reading their music, I’ll assume the role of “bad sight reader” and play the songs slower or faster than practiced and include several wrong notes and chords. Not surprisingly, my studio veterans are very good at handling these challenges, while newcomers tend to fail miserably at first try. A bit of coaching on how to manage audition accompanists usually makes the next “sabotage session” more successful for the student and less for the saboteur. I suggest, “Make sure you tell them your start and stop places in the music, and make sure to set the tempo. If they don’t play at the tempo you set, you can stop and ask them nicely to please play faster or slower. Try to ignore wrong notes and chords. Stay in character and keep going. You should always be in charge!” Another audition/performance anxiety trigger that can be addressed in the studio is the “reading the audience” issue. Most performers want to know how they are doing, especially at auditions, so they frequently try to read the faces and body language of the casting people. Understandably, the auditionees are looking for that smile from the auditioners that the auditionees think means, “Good job!” Of course, they firmly believe a frown always means it’s going poorly. Such unsubstantiated assumptions, however, can be misleading and incorrect. For example, a smile from a casting director could indeed mean, “Good job!” It could also mean, “I can’t believe you had the nerve to come in here and sing that badly. You’re pathetically funny.” Conversely, a frown could, of course, convey the aforementioned negative reaction or it could mean, “I’m now seriously considering you for the part.” Since, without clarification, no one really knows what anyone is thinking at any given time, a sound strategy for the performer might include the following internal monologue: “I’ll do my thing, be in the moment, stay in character, and create my reality free of judgments from within and without. I am the performer and they are the audience, not the other way around. Anyway, they’ll tell me how I did soon enough.” May/June 2022

Unfortunately for some, acting techniques may not do the job. If fear and anxiety are unmanageable, then perhaps more aggressive strategies are called for such as beta blockers or one of the many therapies for the mind. For a large majority of the performing population, however, a clear understanding of and respect for the reality of fear under its many headings (nerves, jitters, stage fright, choking, performance anxiety), followed by acting techniques that alter that reality in favor of the artist may be just what the doctor ordered. No coward soul is mine, No trembler in the world’s storm-troubled sphere: I see Heaven’s glories shine, And faith shines equal, arming me from fear. O God within my breast, Almighty, ever-present Deity! Life—that in me has rest, As I—undying Life—have Power in Thee! Vain are the thousand creeds That move men’s hearts: unutterably vain; Worthless as withered weeds, Or idlest froth amid the boundless main, To waken doubt in one Holding so fast by thine infinity; So surely anchored on The steadfast rock of immortality. With wide-embracing love Thy spirit animates eternal years, Pervades and broods above, Changes, sustains, dissolves, creates and rears, Though earth and man were gone, And suns and universes ceased to be, And Thou wert left alone, Every existence would exist in Thee. There is not room for Death, Nor atom that his might could render void: Thou—Thou are Being and Breath, And what Thou art may never be destroyed.

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Emily Brontë, “No Coward Soul is Mine”

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NATS National Student Auditions are headed for Chicago! The excitement of NATS National Student Auditions continues with a national round of competition and prizes at the NATS 57th National Conference in Chicago, IL.

REGION – PRELIMINARY ROUNDS

TOTAL PRIZES: MORE THAN

$48,500

FIRST PLACE, SECOND PLACE and THIRD PLACE prizes will be awarded in each category.

Audition in YOUR Regional Event. Five singers from each regional category with a national category equivalent will advance to National Online Screening.

NATIONAL ONLINE SCREENING Friday, April 8, 2022 - Deadline for online digital submissions.

SEMIFINAL AND FINAL ROUNDS Top three singers from each category advance to final round. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place winners receive prize money.

ELIGIBILITY All singers ages 14-30 as of your regional audition date. Audition Categories Category*

nats.org

Years of Study

MT 3-A Lower HS Musical Theatre Treble Voice

14-16

9th and 10th Grade

MT 3-B Upper HS Musical Theatre Treble Voice

16-19

11th and 12th Grade

MT 4-A Lower HS Musical Theatre TBB Voice

14-16

9th and 10th Grade

MT 4-B Upper HS Musical Theatre TBB Voice

16-19

11th and 12th Grade

CL 3-A Lower HS Classical Treble Voice

14-16

9th and 10th Grade

CL 3-B Upper HS Classical Treble Voice

16-19

11th and 12th Grade

CL 4-A Lower HS Classical TBB Voice

14-16

9th and 10th Grade

CL 4-B Upper HS Classical TBB Voice

16-19

11th and 12th Grade

22

0-2 post high school

MT 5 Lower Musical Theatre Treble Voice

See complete rules, regulations, and repertoire information at

Age Limit

MT 6 Lower Musical Theatre TBB Voice

22

0-2 post high school

CL 5 Lower Classical Treble Voice

22

0-2 post high school

CL 6 Lower Classical TBB Voice

22

0-2 post high school

MT 7 Upper Musical Theatre Treble Voice

25

3-5 post HS, all undergraduate

MT 8 Upper Musical Theatre TBB Voice

25

3-5 post HS, all undergraduate

CL 7 Upper Classical Treble Voice

25

3-5 post HS, all undergraduate

CL 8 Upper Classical TBB Voice

25

3-5 post HS, all undergraduate

CL 9 Advanced Classical Treble Voice

30

4+ post high school

CL 10 Advanced Classical TBB Voice

30

4+ post high school

HJ 7 Hall Johnson Spirituals Category

no limit; undergrad Treble/TBB

*Treble Voice: Soprano, Mezzo-soprano, Contralto, Countertenor. TBB Voice: Tenor, Baritone, Bass


THE INDEPENDENT TEACHER

Time Spent: The Forty-Hour Workweek Brian Manternach

T Brian Manternach

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 629–634 https://doi.org/10.53830/KUDK7589 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

INTRODUCTION

ime is money, or so goes the cliché. We can spend our time, invest our time, and even donate our time. These monetary terms may serve as reminders that time is a limited resource—none of us is allotted more than 24 hours in a day—which may inspire us to use our time wisely. Or it may cause us to avoid needed rest and relaxation, believing that, unless we are working toward profit, time is wasted. For voice teachers, lines between time spent working and time spent in leisure are sometimes blurred. Activities that are recreational for most of the population can be occupational for us. Am I listening to music for pure enjoyment, or because I am exploring potential repertoire options for my students? Am I attending a show simply to enjoy an evening out, or in order to assess the performance of a client who is in the cast? Am I choosing books for entertainment and escape, or is my reading time consumed by pedagogic materials? Certainly, these do not need to be either/or situations. We can enjoy listening to music while still being mindful of how the songs we hear may fit the voices of our students, for instance. But listening with these considerations at the forefront of our minds can make it difficult to know when, as voice teachers, we are officially “off the clock.” One aspect of our time that we can clearly measure, however, is how many hours each week we dedicate to teaching. Knowing how much energy and focus is required for intentional, engaged, individualized instruction, is there a recommended limit for how many hours we can spend teaching before effectiveness or passion for the work begins to wane? Our culture has an established precedent of a 40-hour workweek. Does that model apply to studio teaching? If so, how many of those working hours can be spent in face to face studio teaching and how many should be reserved for all of the other work required to run a voice studio (bookkeeping, practicing, studio building, etc.)? This column is the first of a series that will consider “time spent” in the independent teaching studio. To begin, I will explore the origin of the 40-hour workweek, how it currently functions in our society, and how applicable it may be to studio teaching. I will also present data on how the number of hours worked each week can impact worker effectiveness, and how many weekly hours teachers in particular tend to dedicate to their profession. Throughout this series, I will examine how traditional approaches to the workweek may or may not be the most useful ways for teachers to spend their time. BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Brian Manternach

“HOW AM I EVER GOING TO DO THAT?” Kari Ragan’s November 2020 NATS Chat featured an interview with author and voice teacher Claudia Friedlander titled, “Academic or Entrepreneur? How to Steer Your Teaching Career.”1 One of the first questions an audience member presented to Friedlander was, “How many hours a week do you teach one on one?” In her response, Friedlander recalls interactions with her own voice teacher, W. Stephen Smith, Professor of Voice and Opera at Northwestern University’s Bienen School of Music and author of The Naked Voice: A Wholistic Approach to Singing. “Steve is a machine,” she says. “He parks himself on his piano bench at 10:00 in the morning [and] doesn’t get up again till 6:00 in the evening, most days.” Although, she adds, “I understand he gets a lunch break now, sometimes.”2 She expresses how continually astounded she is at how he can work a 40-hour week “the way that you would at another job,” seemingly without succumbing to fatigue or any lack of focus. “He was always energetic,” she says. “If he was ever tired, if he was ever like, ‘Oh, God, I can’t do another hour of this,’ I never saw it, because he loves it so much.” She realized, however, that she could not replicate that pace herself, as she wondered aloud, “How am I ever going to do that? I’m supposed to be able to do that?”3 Friedlander took some solace when she discovered the parameters of what constitutes a full time teaching load for voice faculty at many colleges and universities. As defined by the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), the upper limit for a full load for private studio instruction is approximately 18 clock hours per week.4 This limit is imposed due to the understanding that “All faculty should have sufficient time for artistic, scholarly, and professional activity in order to maintain excellence and growth in their respective areas of expertise.”5 It also accounts for administrative or consultative duties, stating that faculty who have significant amounts of this type of work should have their teaching loads appropriately reduced. These numbers helped Friedlander understand that the example set by Smith, though impressive, may not be what is expected or even necessary for every studio teacher. Instead, she encourages teachers to experiment to find the right number of teaching hours for themselves.

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“For someone like Steve, teaching 40 hours a week might be really fantastic and energizing,” she says. “For me, it’s exhausting. Especially the way that I want to teach now, which is that I’m going to see you for that hour, but I’m going to give you some homework, and I’m going to be checking in with you over the course of the week to find out how you’re doing . . . that would just not be conceivable to do [with] 40 hours of teaching a week.”6 So what is Friedlander’s preferred number of weekly teaching hours? “It has varied, as things have evolved— between 15 hours a week and 24 hours a week, depending on what’s going on,” she says. “Ideally, the right number of hours for me to be teaching every week is probably somewhere between 15 and 18.”7 For another perspective, NATS Chat moderator Ragan admits to following a schedule closer to Smith’s than to Friedlander’s. In her book, A Systematic Approach to Voice: The Art of Studio Application, Ragan reveals that she averages 36 contact hours per week of studio instruction. The hours, however, are divided among a university studio, an independent studio, and working in affiliation with a medical voice team to rehabilitate singers with injuries and pathologies.8 For Ragan, this variety may indeed be the “spice of life” that allows her to teach such a demanding schedule. Regardless, if Smith, Ragan, and Friedlander are indicative of the profession as a whole, there is clearly no one-size-fits-all model for voice teachers.

THE 40-HOUR WORKWEEK Even if the idea of 40 hours of teaching each week seems exhausting, history proves that it represents a significant victory for American workers. Organized discussions about instituting a daily cap at eight hours of work began as early as the 1860s, eventually prompting the U.S. government in the 1890s to begin tracking workers’ hours. The government then discovered that, devoid of any regulation, the average workweek for full time manufacturing employees reached as high as 100 hours. In 1926, Ford Motor Company adopted a fiveday, 40-hour workweek, but it was not until 1938 that Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act, which limited the workweek to 44 hours. In June of 1940, Congress amended the act, limiting the workweek to 40 hours.9

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Journal of Singing


The Independent Teacher Considering that these limits were set for workers in the manufacturing industry, there is an increasing call for a different set of parameters that are more applicable to today’s workforce. CEO Steve Glaveski recognized that the nature of work in the twenty-first century has shifted from algorithmic tasks (where a worker follows a set of instructions to reach an expected end, as occurs in much of manufacturing work) to heuristic tasks that require critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity.10 Therefore, he conducted a two-week experiment with his own Australia-based company, instituting a six-hour workday to see how productivity might be impacted when employees were given 10 fewer working hours each week. To his delight, his team maintained, and in some cases increased, both quantity and quality of work, while also reporting an improved mental state. He believes that the shorter workday forced the team to prioritize their efforts, limit interruptions, and operate at a much more deliberate level, especially for the first few hours of the day. The added employee benefit is that each person had more time for rest and other endeavors.11 Even amid successful experiments such as this, tradition reigns supreme in many workplaces. As author Oliver Burkeman posits, the five-day workweek/two-day weekend is not as “natural” as we have come to believe. “The seven-day week itself is a human creation: unlike the year, month, or day, it has no close connection to nature,” he says.12 He further notes historical examples of experiments outside of the traditional workweek. “Revolutionary France had a 10-day week, and the Soviet Union tried a five-day ‘continuous workweek,’ with staggered days off, so production lines never needed to pause.”13 He believes that measuring work in hours, which is a legacy of the Industrial Revolution, may have outlived its usefulness and makes little sense for “knowledge work,” other than the fact that it is easy to quantify.14 Psychologist Adam Grant agrees. In his book Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World, he suggests that heads of companies should be willing to institute innovative approaches and outside-the-box workday structures. Otherwise, these companies will simply default to traditional models. “Like most humans,” he says, “leaders are remarkably good at anchoring on the past even when it’s irrelevant to the present.”15 May/June 2022

Freelance writer Lizzie Wade argues that, for some jobs, it is actually impossible to work productively for 40 hours each week.16 As she writes in Wired, workers may log 40 hours, but she questions how much creativity is really occurring within that time frame. “I’m positive that if you tracked knowledge worker’s time in an office the same way as I track mine—i.e., when they are actually at their computer doing something—you wouldn’t come up with 40 hours for hardly anybody,” she says. “Forty hours of availability, sure. Forty hours of office presence, probably. Forty hours of thinking about work—at least, and likely more. But the amount of time you’re actually doing something, writing something, creating something? You can’t do that work for eight hours a day without breaking down.”17 As Friedlander implies above, voice teachers may have similar natural limits of productivity, even if those limits may vary from person to person. What happens, then, if we regularly reach or exceed our personal productivity limits?

A LOOK AT THE NUMBERS A 2009 research study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in a population of middle-aged, British civil servants.18 Researchers found that working more than 55 hours per week, compared with working up to 40 hours per week, was associated with lower scores—at both baseline and follow-up—on a vocabulary test given to participants in the study. Long working hours also predicted a decline in performance on a reasoning test. A 2014 Stanford University study of munitions workers similarly found that per-hour productivity declined sharply after working more than 50 hours a week.19 After 55 hours, productivity dropped so much that “putting in any more hours would be pointless.” Further, those who worked up to 70 hours a week were getting the same amount of work done as those who worked 55 hours. Regarding how many weekly hours teachers generally work, a 2012 study from Scholastic and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation found that American public school teachers work an average of 53 hours per week (10 hours and 40 minutes per day).20 These numbers, from a survey of 20,000 teachers, represent 7.5 daily hours

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Brian Manternach in the classroom, 90 additional minutes beyond the school day for mentoring, providing after-school help, and attending staff meetings, and another 95 minutes at home grading, preparing classroom activities, and doing other job-related tasks. The workday is even longer for teachers who advise extracurricular clubs and coach sports—11 hours and 20 minutes, on average. These numbers are not unique to teachers in the United States, or even in North America. A 2019 survey of more than 4,000 teachers in England found the average workweek to be 47 hours.21 However, a quarter of the teachers surveyed reported working more than 60 hours per week, and one in 10 were working more than 65 hours per week. Of course, it may not be apples to apples when comparing all of these studies. Certainly, munitions workers and teachers engage in significantly different work activities. And data collected from classroom teachers may not exactly reflect what is logged by studio voice teachers. But, as we saw from the earlier examples, voice teachers can also approach or exceed 40 hours per week, just like classroom teachers do (especially when considering all work-related activities). It is also clear that there is a point of diminishing returns for all workers, where cognitive function and productivity begin to decline. Therefore, it stands to reason that when we begin to reach our personal productivity limits, our voice students are no longer receiving us at our best. And our students may not be the only ones suffering.

RAMIFICATIONS OF OVERWORKING Although hard work is often seen as a virtue, and practically all success requires some degree of discipline, sacrifice, and tenacity, working too much comes with consequences, as well. A recently released World Health Organization (WHO) study identifies “overwork” as the single most significant risk factor for occupational disease.22 The WHO reports that those working more than 55 hours a week have a 35% higher risk of stroke and a 17% higher risk of heart disease compared to those who work 35 to 40 hours. The study also reveals that overwork has considerable negative effects on other aspects of our health and behavior, including poor sleep, inadequate exercise, unhealthy diet, and excessive drinking.

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In addition, working too much can mean that our time spent can leave us feeling spent. In 2019, the WHO added “burn-out” to the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), identifying it as an “occupational phenomenon.”23 The definition reads, “Burn-out is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. It is characterized by three dimensions: feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion; increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one’s job; and reduced professional efficacy.”24 Friedlander is all too familiar with the term, since voice lessons are only one of the professional demands on her time. She is the author of two books and also maintains a website of online content and resources for clients and subscribers. She experienced firsthand how difficult it can be to give your full self to multiple demanding projects while trying to maintain the mental energy needed to be an effective teacher. “You can’t teach your full time load and then try to squeeze in writing books and creating content on the side,” she says.25 “I kind of learned that the hard way, because when I took on these book projects, I wished that I had been more intentional about it and said, ‘Okay, here’s how I’m going to modify my teaching schedule. These are now the hours that I’m just going to spend writing.’ It kind of evolved haphazardly, so I was just exhausted and burned out after a while . . . In retrospect, I wish I had been more intentional about it.”26

WHY DO WE DO IT? When we consider how overwork can make us less impactful as teachers, how it can hinder our ability to do effective work outside of the studio, and how it can make us prone to negative health consequences, why do so many of us work such long hours? There are several possible reasons. As stated above, time is money. When independent teaching studios are set up on the traditional hourly fee model, teachers are only paid for face to face time with students. Therefore, more hours in the studio means more income. To help voice teachers combat this “pricing pitfall,” entrepreneur Michelle Markwart Deveaux offers alternate pricing models to the “hourly rate” in a 2019 Journal of Singing article.27

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Journal of Singing


The Independent Teacher There is also a cultural expectation that working long hours is simply part of what it means to be a teacher. In reaction to one of the aforementioned studies, Chief Academic Officer of Scholastic Francie Alexander commented that the daunting number of hours teachers worked is an indication of their dedication to the profession and their willingness to go above and beyond to meet students’ needs. “Teaching isn’t a bell-to-bell job,” she says. “As the study shows, teachers are deeply engaged in their work beyond the walls of the school . . . Their students are front of mind throughout their increasingly long work days.”28 As much as her statements ring true, they also reflect a potentially dangerous mindset that could create an expectation that, unless teachers are working to the point of burn-out or exhaustion, they are not sufficiently dedicated to the profession or to their students. Another reason teachers are prone to working too much may be what author Bryan Lufkin describes as the “cult of overwork.” He believes that millions of us view working long hours as a status symbol. He admits that some of us seek additional hours in order to pay off debt or to work our way up the employment ladder. “But for those who embrace the overwork culture,” he says, “there’s also a performative element, whether that manifests as a new car to show off, a ‘dream career’ doing something meaningful or even exhaustion that can be displayed like a bizarre kind of trophy.”29 Certain icons in the business world may be contributing to this cultural phenomenon, as well. New York University professor Anat Lechner believes that, although many elements of burn-out culture originated in Wall Street, that culture has now spilled over into the tech world. “We put tech entrepreneurs who barely sleep on a pedestal,” she says, while noting that Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk tweeted in 2018, “nobody ever changed the world on 40 hours a week.”30 One other entrapment is the sense of identity that can come with a career in the performing arts. There is still a pervasive “starving artist” mindset in the industry, implying that those of us pursuing careers in this field are simply destined to be overworked and underpaid. Journal of Singing associate editor Lynn Maxfield writes, “As artists or artist-adjacent workers, we may be lulled into a false sense of safety by the notion that we get to do what we love, so we should be content to be defined by May/June 2022

that career. Furthermore, we likely have been told along the way that our success in the industry required singular focus on the profession. We have been conditioned for potential enmeshment with our careers.”31 If that identity embraces starving artist status, voice teachers may expect that overly long hours are assumed to be a necessary part of the profession. Maxfield points out that we may unknowingly be conditioning our students to think in the same way.

CONCLUSION In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many companies allowed employees to work from home in an effort to reduce the spread of the virus. What surprised many CEOs was that this shift did not generally result in a drop in productivity. In fact, in one survey of 800 employers, 94% said that productivity was the same or higher than it was before the pandemic, even with their employees working remotely.32 As a result, there is a newfound willingness in the corporate world to rethink many aspects of what were previously assumed to be best practices when it comes to how business is done. We may similarly consider revisiting and adjusting the concept of the 40-hour workweek. Teaching voice requires creativity, ingenuity, and, yes, some long hours. But it also requires rest, time dedicated to skill building, and self-care. Finding a work model more applicable to the independent studio may help ensure that we can keep our bodies healthy, our minds sharp, and our students progressing.

NOTES 1. Claudia Friedlander in “Academic or Entrepreneur? How to Steer Your Teaching Career—NATS Chat November 2020, Moderated by Kari Ragan,” OfficialNATS, November 9th, 2020; https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=c0U7dLNwzpg&t=4s (accessed December 21, 2021). 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. National Association of Schools of Music, “Handbook 2020– 21” 66; https://nasm.arts-accredit.org/wp-content/uploads/ sites/2/2022/02/M-2021-22-Handbook-Final-02-02-2022. pdf (accessed December 30, 2021), 66. 5. Ibid.

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Brian Manternach 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. Kari Ragan, A Systematic Approach to Voice: The Art of Studio Application (San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, 2020), xi. 9. Marguerite Ward and Shana Lebowitz, “A history of how the 40-hour workweek became the norm in America,” Business Insider, Jun 12, 2020; https://www.businessinsider. com/history-of-the-40-hour-workweek-2015-10 (accessed December 21, 2021). 10. Steve Glaveski, “The Case for the 6-Hour Workday,” Harvard Business Review, December 11, 2018; https://hbr. org/2018/12/the-case-for-the-6-hour-workday (accessed December 30, 2021). 11. Ibid.

20. Scholastic, “Teachers Work Nearly 11 Hour Days”; https:// www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/ teachers-work-nearly-11-hour-days/ (accessed December 30, 2021). 21. Nick Morrison, “One In Four Teachers Works 60-Plus Hours A Week,” Sep 18, 2019; https://www.forbes.com/sites/ nickmorrison/2019/09/18/one-in-four-teachers-works-60plus-hours-a-week/?sh=ac532ee1050d (accessed December 30, 2021). 22. Naz Beheshti, “We Worked Longer Hours During The Pandemic—Research Says We Need To Work Smarter, Not Harder,” August 18, 2021; https://www.forbes.com/sites/ nazbeheshti/2021/08/18/we-worked-longer-hours-duringthe-pandemic-research-says-we-need-to-work-smarter-notharder/?sh=52172a5a1805 (accessed December 30, 2021).

13. Ibid.

23. World Health Organization, “Burn-out an ‘occupational phenomenon’: International Classification of Diseases” by World Health Organization, 28 May 2019; https://www. who.int/news/item/28-05-2019-burn-out-an-occupationalphenomenon-international-classification-of-diseases (accessed December 30, 2021).

14. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

15. Adam Grant, in Glaveski.

25. Friedlander

16. Lizzie Wade, “The 8-Hour Workday Is a Counterproductive Lie,” Wired, Nov 21, 2019; https://www.wired.com/story/ eight-hour-workday-is-a-lie/ (accessed December 30, 2021).

26. Ibid.

12. Oliver Burkeman, “Go tell the boss: let me work less and I’ll produce more,” The Guardian, July 31, 2015; https:// www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/jul/31/work-lessproduce-more (accessed December 30, 2021).

17. Ibid. 18. Marianna Virtanen, Archana Singh-Manoux, Jane E. Ferrie, David Gimeno, Michael G. Marmot, Marko Elovainio, Markus Jokela, Jussi Vahtera, and Mika Kivimäki, “Long Working Hours and Cognitive Function: The Whitehall II Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology 169, Issue 5 (March 1, 2009): 596–605; https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/ kwn382. 19. Kabir Sehgal and Deepak Chopra, “Stanford professor: Working this many hours a week is basically pointless. Here’s how to get more done—by doing less,” CNBC, March 20, 2019; https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/20/stanfordstudy-longer-hours-doesnt-make-you-more-productiveheres-how-to-get-more-done-by-doing-less.html (accessed December 30, 2021).

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27. Michelle Markwart Deveaux, “Battling Pricing Pitfalls: Pricing Strategy for Today’s Studio Owner,” Journal of Singing 75, no. 4 (March/April 2019): 455–461. 28. Scholastic. 29. Bryan Lufkin, “Why do we buy into the ‘cult’ of overwork?” BBC, May 9, 2021; https://www.bbc.com/worklife/ article/20210507-why-we-glorify-the-cult-of-burnout-andoverwork (accessed December 30, 2021). 30. Ibid. 31. Lynn Maxfield, “Being versus Doing: Conflating Identity with Occupation,” Journal of Singing 78, no. 1 (September/October 2021): 109–111; https://doi.org/10.53830/KLQH3839. 32. Roy Maurer, “Study Finds Productivity Not Deterred by Shift to Remote Work,” Society for Human Resource Management, September 16, 2020; https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/ hr-news/pages/study-productivity-shift-remote-work-covidcoronavirus.aspx (accessed December 30, 2021).

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Journal of Singing


MINDFUL VOICE

Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives Lynn Helding and Kari Ragan

[Editor’s Note: This article is the third in a multi-part series that explores and further defines each of the three components of the Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP) framework, as outlined in Kari Ragan’s 2018 article “Defining Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy: A New Framework.”1 Each article discusses a single component of the tripartite framework, which consists of Voice Research; Teacher Expertise and Experience; and Student Goals and Perspectives. The order in which these components are presented in this series should in no way be seen as creating a hierarchy of importance.] Lynn Helding

T

INTRODUCTION

he initial inspiration for Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP) was Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Evidence-Based Practice (EBP).2 This article elucidates the third component of the Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP) framework, Student Goals and Perspectives. As defined in EBVP’s target article,

Kari Ragan

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 635–640 https://doi.org/10.53830/LOGC7063 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Student Goals and Perspectives acknowledges that optimal pedagogical/teaching outcomes require consideration of the interests, values, needs, and choices of the individuals we teach. It recognizes the value of a humanistic approach that accounts for factors unique to the individual that will impact their learning process. This requires voice teachers to take a collaborative approach in order to identify the student’s goals and perspectives both at the outset of and throughout their learning experience. 3

In the latter decades of the twentieth century, cultural forces in the United States abetted the dissolution of the European master-to-apprentice model in teaching singing, while sparking a more holistic approach to teaching in general. The twenty-first century has seen cognitive science proposed as the “third pillar of voice science,” and related calls to include it as a foundation in modern voice pedagogy due to its emphasis on how students actually learn.4 The authors of the current article are further informed by a twenty-first century approach that combines “science-informed voice pedagogy” with the needs and perspectives of each student.5 Voice teachers have an inordinate and unique power dynamic with students that must be consciously—and conscientiously—considered. Voice teachers have a tremendous responsibility to singers who rely on their expertise. The dynamic relationship between the voice teacher and the singer BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Lynn Helding and Kari Ragan is complex and requires empathy, compassion, and intuition. The teacher holds a position of authority over a musical instrument that resides within the body and impacts closely on the identity and spirit of another human being. Voice teachers have a profound role in the lives of the singers who place significant trust in them.”6

When EBM became the “buzz word” of the medical world in the 1990s, it conveyed a modern, progressive approach to practicing medicine. EBM is described as “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.”7 At its inception, many of the EBM discussions revolved around the need to balance clinical expertise based on scientific evidence along with the lived experience of practicing clinicians, because neither component alone was sufficient for accurate diagnosis and an adequate treatment plan. There was some criticism, however, that the founders of EBM, while including good clinical practice as part of their overall approach, did not go far enough to define the elusive quality of this dual competence. This lack of specificity, combined with “the separation of knower and knowledge and the creation of truths external to human relationships” seems to have left the movement vulnerable to powerful interests (especially economic ones) that diluted its “original desire to value both science and art.”8 Now, after more than twenty years since EBM’s appearance and the adoption of its model by many other fields, some critics have labeled EBM as a field “potentially ‘in crisis’” and called for its reform.9 To avoid these pitfalls in Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy, it was its author’s intention that from its inception the tripartite framework of EBVP be considered as a unified whole for the primary reason that, while a certain degree of professional competence can be acquired through voice science research and selfeducation, in the current authors’ opinion, an overemphasis on science-based voice pedagogy can tend to devalue practice-based expertise.10 Part 2 of this journal series focused on the value of teachers’ expertise and extensive experience.12 Here in Part 3, we further explicate the “student goals and perspectives” component of EBVP so that as it evolves as a teaching model, the complex and interpersonal nature of effective voice teaching will include a humanistic/holistic approach;

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as any experienced voice teacher knows, there is an art to catalyzing science.

HUMANISTIC EDUCATION The inclusion of a humanistic approach in the “student goals and perspectives” component of EBVP was intentional and is key to this discussion. “Humanistic education” has its roots in the ancient world, was revived during the Renaissance, and today consists of “facilitating persons to lead flourishing lives: to develop and employ soundly their innate powers, to make the best use of humanity’s greatest achievements, to actively engage in world betterment, and ultimately to shape for themselves autonomous, meaningful, and worthy life.”12 A humanistic approach further advocates a holistic approach, arguing that the whole is more than merely the sum of its parts; by advocating creativity while learning, there is an emphasis on personal growth, which leads to the ultimate goal of teaching: self-directed learning on the part of the student. 13 In medicine, holistic care refers to the care of the entire patient in all aspects of their well-being. In a humanistic and holistic approach to learning, the teacher fosters a heuristic environment to engage the student more fully and casts their critical view through the lens of empathy, which, as we shall see, boosts learning. Such an approach in voice pedagogy requires a paradigm shift from the historic and authoritarian master-to-apprentice model that has been the tradition in our field, to a collaborative model between teacher and client. Applied to the teaching of singing, we would see students as more than just their instruments, but as vocalists with particular needs and preferences, which necessitates a comprehensive assessment of each individual.

PREFERENCES, NEEDS, AND GOALS Let us now return to the inspiration for EBVP, which was EBM, and investigate both their similarities and differences vis-à-vis the notion of “student goals and perspectives.” To start, let us agree that the work of a physician and the work of a voice teacher are different; one is licensed and works in a clinic or hospital, while the profession of singing does not carry licensure. To add to the comparison, while the physician is often concerned with matters of life and death, the teacher

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Journal of Singing


Mindful Voice of singing is tasked with something altogether different, yet no less important: human flourishing. This is a fundamental tenet of positive psychology, the primary purpose of which is to amplify the positive elements in a client’s life, thereby contributing to their potential to flourish, rather than seek their flaws and neuroses, thereby pathologizing their conditions and inhibiting their growth.14 This stark difference perhaps reveals the fundamental difference between a physician and a teacher, which is the search for pathology. Most people see a physician when they are sick, in pain, or otherwise unwell. In this case, the client’s needs are obvious and rather primal: “Please, make it stop hurting!” The physician ideally discovers the cause of the disease and roots it out; on the way to this conclusion, the doctor may ameliorate the patient’s pain. By contrast, the basic need of a singer who seeks instruction from a knowledgeable voice teacher is to enrich and enhance what they are already doing. By this description, the definition of vocology, with its emphasis on “habilitation” rather than “rehabilitation” is apt. Vocology is . . . the science and practice of voice habilitation, which includes evaluation, diagnosis, and behavioral intervention. The emphasis in this definition is on habilitation rather than rehabilitation. Habilitation is the process of enabling, equipping for, or capacitating. Voice habilitation is therefore more than repairing a voice, or bringing it back to a normal state. It includes the process of building and strengthening the voice to meet specific needs.15

So the work of a physician and the work of a voice teacher are fundamentally different, because the needs of a patient differ from the needs of a singer. And considering needs, a conflation of the term “needs” with the following terms throughout the EBM literature—goals, priorities, values, preferences, and wishes—bears a closer look, for words are not empty of meaning, especially when they become amalgamated into action. As already noted, the ultimate need of the patient is for the doctor to cure disease. We assume that patient and doctor agree on this need, though exactly how it is addressed is a calculation made by the physician alone, from diagnosis to treatment. The patient’s role is to simply comply with the doctor’s orders. In the voice studio, student needs are expressed quite differently and often May/June 2022

erroneously, because what students think they need and what teachers deem a responsible reaction can be diametrically opposed. Here are four examples: 1. I need to gain a high B flat right now! 2. I need to drop out of this degree program because I think I’m going to win on American Idol! 3. I need to learn to scream because my stage director is demanding it. 4. I need to make it through one more performance, and then I’ll go on voice rest. In example number one, a wise teacher may well agree that a young tenor may “need” to be able to sing that particular pitch in order to eventually have a career, but she would just as wisely know that forcing this frequency before the tenor has mastered control of the rest of his voice is a huge risk. Example number two may reveal a student’s dreams or delusions, neither of which may be in the immediate best interests of the student; and examples three and four, if waved on, could quickly lead to pathology, regardless of whether these singers have bills to pay. These examples reveal the role of the voice teacher as an assessor of need. Clients pay for the teacher’s wisdom, which includes making judgments about whether the singing and performance opportunities that students think they need are actually in their best interests. In the historic master-to-apprentice model, the teacher might channel old fashioned parenting and declare their negative appraisal of the need without explanation. In the twenty-first century, this approach simply does not work. Worse, it can erect a fruitless battle between teacher and student that is hardly fertile ground for learning. At its most extreme, emotional battles of will between master and apprentice may evoke the stress response of the autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which is primed to secrete stress hormones when confronted with many different sources of arousal, including excitement, danger, and anger. The body’s immediate physical responses to the activation of the SNS include increased heart rate, muscle tension, and difficulty breathing; these are all conditions which make actual singing much harder, much less learning to sing.16 It is important to note here that there are several ingredients that must attend the ability to learn anything at all, be it a language, an instrument, or a golf swing.

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Lynn Helding and Kari Ragan Those requirements include desire, attention, motivation, and emotion; we have to want to learn, we have to desire to pay attention, and we have to care enough to keep at it. All of these requirements are damaged when under attack from the SNS (which we also know colloquially as the “fight or flight” response”). Any teaching that involves shaming, insults, or physical abuse of any kind obviously has no place in the ethical voice studio. Yet even a perceived imperiousness coming from a master teacher who brooks no interrogation of their pronouncements could evoke the SNS in a sensitive student. And while it may be tempting to nurse the notion that such students should just “toughen up” or “get over it,” an incredible finding from neuroscience regarding the SNS is that it operates not only outside our awareness, but actually ahead of it. People respond to [anxiety] in two fundamental ways: emotionally and physically (subjectively and objectively). It may seem that we experience these two basic responses in a predictable, linear trajectory that goes something like this: I feel nervous (cause) so my heart starts to pound (effect). But a mind-blowing finding from scientists like Sapolsky is that this trajectory actually plays out the other way around: we do not experience increased heart rates because we feel nervous—we feel nervous because our heartbeat increases.17

In other words, even if the sensitive student himself is determined to stay calm while enduring the ministrations of a “tough love” approach, his SNS will overrule him; as psychiatrist and trauma researcher Bessel van der Kolk has noted in the title of his landmark work, The Body Keeps the Score.18 If these reasons were not enough for eschewing the so-called “tough love” approach to teaching, any who remain wedded to this outmoded approach should consider this final piece of evidence against it from the medical literature. According to a 2003 report from the World Health Organization, among the strongest indicators that patients will comply with their doctor’s treatment plan (called “adherence”) are “physician warmth and empathy.” These factors “emerge time and again as being central” to what causes people to follow’s their doctor’s orders, outpacing regard for their physician’s skills, knowledge, or status.19 Voice teachers must comprehend that teaching with anything less than human warmth is simply not effective. In fact,

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adding empathy to the teacher’s tool-kit allows difficult discussions to be had, including what, in the teacher’s view, the student truly needs. In conclusion of this section, it is recommended that the third component of EBVP should leave “student needs” up to the judgment of the teacher, and incorporate this assessment into the joint venture of goal setting.

GOAL SETTING Goal setting is a specific tool that has many advantages: it is inexpensive, demands nothing more complicated than paper and pen, involves both student and teacher, and best of all, it has been shown repeatedly to actually work. The benefits of this simple tool have been covered in this journal and elsewhere, so readers are encouraged to consult these resources as a background to the following condensed version.20 Goal setting is simply the conscious act of listing one or several goals that the learner intends to reach. Goal setting has been shown to stimulate motivation and eventually, to actually increase achievement. However, several guidelines must be followed, which include the following: • The goal setter must be the student musician himself, not his teacher, parents, or friends. • The goal must be valued by the goal setter herself, not the dreams of another in disguise • Goals must be very specific, not vague. • Goals should be written down and reviewed often (think of diet or exercise advice posted on the bathroom mirror). • Goals must be realistic and actually achievable. • Finally, goals should exhibit some variety between both short term (easy) goals and longer term ones. Teachers can have a lot of positive influence here. • Goals must answer the question “How?” One study reported that students who were required to not only state their goals but also write about exactly how they intended to achieve them were more likely to succeed.21 A practitioner of EBVP should consider drafting goals along with their clients, taking into account both the teacher’s assessment of student needs, as well as students’ own unique perspectives on how singing fits into their life and, yes, their flourishing.

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Journal of Singing


Mindful Voice

CONCLUSION Evidence-Based Medicine was the model for EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy, and while the two models share commonalities, including the physiological nature of an instrument that resides within the body, the field of voice teaching is unique due to many factors. The most fundamental of these include the artistic endgame of fine singing and the relatively more egalitarian relationship between teacher and singer, as well as its timespan, often measured in years. Due to the complexities of this interpersonal relationship, client “goals and perspectives” has been an essential component of the tripartite EBVP framework since its inception. The broader field of voice pedagogy itself has evolved to include cognition as its “third pillar,” articulated as “a priority shift in pedagogy from the content of the teacher’s brain to the landscape of the learner’s mind.”22 This shift entails the crucial addition of human warmth and empathy in the skillset of the teacher, for as we have seen, these traits enhance both students’ learning and their adherence to assigned protocols. Thus, EBVP aligns seamlessly with the third pillar of science-informed voice pedagogy, for singers are more than just their instruments; they are people with particular needs and preferences, and it is the teacher’s obligation to use a humanistic approach to help them flourish. As voice teachers, it is imperative that we collaborate with our clients in assessing their needs and honoring their goals. As practitioners of EBVP, we must use an approach that balances all three of its components—voice research; teacher expertise and experience; and student goals and perspectives—in equal measure.

NOTES 1. Kari Ragan, “Defining Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy: A New Framework,” Journal of Singing 75, no. 2 (November/ December 2018): 157–160. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid., 159. 4. Lynn Helding, Chapter 15, “Science-Informed Vocal Pedagogy: Motor Learning, Deliberate Practice and the Challenge of Cognitive Dissonance,” in Gudmundsdottir, Beynon, Ludke, Cohen, eds., The Routledge Companion to Interdisciplinary Studies in Singing Volume II: Education (Abingdon, UK: Routledge Publishing, May 2020), 182–193. Amelia RollMay/June 2022

ings Bigler and Katherine Osborne, “Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits,” Journal of Singing 78, no. 1 (September/October 2021): 11–28; https:// doi.org/10.53830/CXBG6722. 5. Helding, “Science-Informed Vocal Pedagogy.” 6. Kari Ragan, A Systematic Approach to Voice: The Art of Studio Application (San Diego: Plural Publishing, 2020), 5. 7. David L. Sackett, William M. C. Rosenberg, J. A. Muir Gray, R., Brian Haynes, and W. Scott Richardson, “Evidence-Based Medicine: What It Is and What It Isn’t,” British Medical Journal Publishing Group 312, no. 7023 (January 13, 1996): 71–72. 8. Lucinda McKnight and Andy Morgan, “A broken paradigm? What education needs to learn from evidence-based medicine,” Journal of Education Policy 35, no. 5 (September 2020): 649. 9. Trisha Greenhalgh, Jeremy Howick, and Neal Maskrey, “Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis?” British Medical Journal Publishing Group 348 (June 2014). 10. Lynn Helding, “Voice Science and Vocal Art: In Search of Common Ground,” Journal of Singing 64, no. 2 (November/ December 2007): 148–149. Lynn Helding, “Voice Science and Vocal Art, Part Two: Motor Learning Theory,” Journal of Singing 64, no. 4 (March/April 2008): 417. 11. Ken Bozeman and Kari Ragan, “Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience,” Journal of Singing 78, no. 3 (January/February 2022): 389–393; https://doi.org/10.53830/XJOX9734. 12. Nimrod Aloni, “Humanistic Education,” in Michael Peters, Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory. Springer Science+Business Media, 2017; https://libproxy.usc. edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/ entry/sprepat/humanistic_education/0?institutionId=887. 13. Mary Maples, “A Humanistic Education: Basic Ingredients,” The Humanistic Educator 17, no. 3 (March 1979): 107–110. 14. Martin E. P. Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, “Positive Psychology: An Introduction,” American Psychologist 55, no. 1 (February 2000): 5–14. 15. Ingo Titze and Katherine Verdolini-Abbott, Vocology: The Science and Practice of Voice Habilitation (Salt Lake City: National Center for Voice and Speech, 2012), 11. 16. Robert Sapolsky, Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers (New York: W. H. Freeman 1994), 20–23. 17. Lynn Helding, The Musician’s Mind: Teaching, Learning, and Performance in the Age of Brain Science (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, 2020), 236–237. 18. Bessel van der Kolk, The Body Keeps the Score (New York: Penguin, 2015).

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Lynn Helding and Kari Ragan 19. World Health Organization, Adherence to Long-Term Therapies: Evidence for Action (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2003), 137. 20. Helding, The Musician’s Mind, 82–84. David Meyer and Lynn Helding, “Practical Science in the Studio: ‘No-Tech’ Strategies,” Journal of Singing 77, no. 3 (January/February 2021): 359–367. 21. Yuna L. Ferguson and Kennon M. Sheldon, “Should goalstrivers think about ‘why’ or ‘how’ to strive? It depends on their skill level,” Motivation and Emotion 34, no. 3 (September 2010): 253–265.

with the University of Washington Laryngology program to help rehabilitate singers with injured voices. She has maintained a thriving Independent Voice Studio for nearly forty years and served on the voice faculty at the University of Washington, teaching Applied Voice, Voice Pedagogy, and more. Dr. Ragan serves as the NATS Advancement Committee Chair and the moderator of NATS Chats. She is the co-founder and organizer of the Northwest Voice: Art and Science of the Performing Voice Conference, a multi-disciplinary meeting held annually in Seattle, Washington. Plural Publishing released her book A Systematic Approach to Voice: The Art of Studio Application in 2020. Other publications and information can be found at KariRagan.com.

22. Helding, The Musician’s Mind, 99 Lynn Helding is Coordinator of Vocology and Voice Pedagogy and a studio voice teacher at the USC Thornton School of Music. She is the author of The Musician’s Mind: Teaching, Learning & Performance in the Age of Brain Science, the chapter “Brain” in Your Voice: An Inside View 3rd ed. by Scott McCoy, and has served as an associate editor of the Journal of Singing, where she created the “Mindful Voice” column in the Journal of Singing, authoring it from its debut in October 2009 to her final installment in October 2017. Helding’s voice science honors include the 2005 Van L. Lawrence Fellowship, and election to chair the founding of the first non-profit vocology association PAVA, incorporated in 2014 as a 501(c)(6) non-profit association. Helding’s stage credits include leading roles with Harrisburg Opera, Nashville Opera, and Ohio Light Opera. She has commissioned new works and refashioned traditional recitals into theatrical performance pieces presented throughout the United States, Australia, England, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Iceland. Helding studied voice at the University of Montana with Esther England, in Vienna with Otto Edelmann, and at Indiana University with Dale Moore, where she was the first singer to pursue the Artist Diploma. She earned her master’s degree in voice pedagogy from Westminster Choir College of Rider University and completed the Summer Vocology Institute at the National Center for Voice and Speech. Please see www. lynnhelding.com for more information. Singer, author, and voice pedagogue, Kari Ragan holds degrees from the University of Washington (DMA), and Indiana University (MM, BM). Dr. Ragan was the recipient of the prestigious Van. L. Lawrence Award (2012), the NATS Foundation Pedagogy Award (2009), the Wicklund Singing Voice Specialist Certificate (2010), and was selected to be a Master Teacher for the NATS Intern Program in June 2021. Dr. Ragan works in affiliation

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Great is the sun, and wide he goes Through empty heaven with repose; And in the blue and glowing days More thick than rain he showers his rays. Though closer still the blinds we pull To keep the shady parlour cool, Yet he will find a chink or two To slip his golden fingers through. The dusty attic spider-clad He, through the keyhole, maketh glad; And through the broken edge of tiles Into the laddered hay-loft smiles. Meantime his golden face around He bares to all the garden ground, And sheds a warm and glittering look Among the ivy’s inmost nook. Above the hills, along the blue, Round the bright air with footing true, To please the child, to paint the rose, The gardener of the World, he goes.

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Robert Louis Stevenson, “Summer Sun”

Journal of Singing


PROVENANCE

Leone Giraldoni and the “Method, Analytical, Philosophical, and Physiological Method for Voice Education” Kimberly Broadwater

prov·e·nance (prǒv´\-n\ns) n. Place of origin, source. [Lat. Provenire, to originate.]

Kimberly Broadwater

L

eone Giraldoni (1824–1897) was a singer (baritone), composer, and teacher of singing. Born in Paris, he was famous for creating the title roles of Gaetano Donizetti’s (1797–1848) Il duca d’Alba and Giuseppe Verdi’s (1813–1901) Simon Boccanegra, and for creating the role of Renato in Un ballo in maschera. Giraldoni performed until his retirement in 1891. After his retirement, he soon became a highly sought after teaching of singing, teaching first in Milan, then at the Moscow University.1 Giraldoni was trained in Florence by maestro Luigi Ronzi (1805–1875) and made his debut in Lodi in 1847 in the role of the High Priest in Giovanni Pacini’s (1796–1867) Saffo. He performed throughout Europe, having his La Scala debut in 1853, as Conte di Luna in Verdi’s Il trovatore. Giraldoni was believed to be one of Verdi’s favorite baritones.2 Contemporaries described his voice as warm, amiable and even. He was also considered a valid actor, gifted with a noble and dignified stage presence and good phrasing, qualities that made him one of Verdi’s favorite baritones. Giraldoni belonged to the generation of baritones able to stage Verdi’s demanding new works, but also the bel canto repertoire, with exemplary style and technical skills.3

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 641–644 https://doi.org/10.53830/AIAY5868 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

He married famed soprano and violinist Carolina Ferni (1846–1926). Their son, Eugenio (1870–1924) was also a baritone and created the role of Scarpia in Giacomo Puccini’s (1858–1924) Tosca in Rome in 1900.4 Giraldoni authored two treatises on singing: “Theoretical-Practical Guide for the use of the Artist-Singer” and “Method, Analytical, Philosophical and Physiological Method for the Education of the Voice.”5 In 2011, Leslie John Flanagan translated the “Theoretical-Practical Guide for the use of the Artist-Singer.”6 I have a rudimentary reading knowledge of Italian. With this starting point and four different machine assisted translation portals, I began the task of BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Kimberly Broadwater translating “Method, Analytical, Philosophical, and Physiological Method for the Education of the Voice.” I assessed the translation from each portal, compared each for accuracy and supplemented with an ItalianEnglish dictionary when there were disagreements, and dealt with older texts that occasionally utilized different spellings, word order, and the like. I must admit at times it felt as if I was “cheating,” I having known translators who were fluent in a given language, spending long periods of time translating a single source. I was compelled to research the ethics involved with using machine assisted translation portals and discovered that this practice is academically sound when certain procedures are followed. “The lack of translation specialists poses a problem for the growing translation markets around the world. One of the solutions proposed for the lack of human resources is automated translation tools.”7 The human participant still plays a significant role, providing an “artist’s hand,” so to speak, to ensure that modern audiences may be able to appreciate and understand the author’s original. It does still feel a bit like cheating and presents an odd feeling of guilt, reminiscent of how robots replace humans in the manufacturing process. However, when one realizes that there are literally libraries full of untranslated documents waiting to be shared, it creates a small sense of relief to my conscience to know that using technology can be an acceptable practice.

METHOD, ANALYTICAL, PHILOSOPHICAL, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL METHOD FOR VOICE EDUCATION Leone Cav. Giraldoni, 1889 For quite a while, I have been trying to decide if I should write a book containing my singing method. There are already a significant number of singing methods books on the market that I question whether I would have anything to add to the conversation. I did decide to add my voice to the multitudes in the hope that something I say may help those who seek to improve their singing voice. There are method books that try to explain the extremely complex subject of vocal education that entirely omit the beginning rudiments. Singers place trust in us, but often the results are a total loss of a voice that one day could have aroused admiration. I

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Leone Giraldoni photographed in 1865. Photographer: Sorelle Marsini, Lucca. Source: Istituzione Casa della Musica, Parma.

am horrified and amazed that no one has yet had the courage to unmask the ignorant and the charlatans who vilify our art, compromising individuals and entire families that they lead, by deception, to ruin and misery. Malpractice in the singing studio should be protected by local or federal laws. Why is the teaching of singing not protected as other professions? This lack of oversight could explain the innumerable quantity of the so-called singing masters. Many voice studios are populated by failed performers who were unable to create a position in the musical world due to their own inability. There are so many singers that come to Italy from all over the world to learn the art of bel canto. There are also teachers who have received their notoriety because they were fortunate enough to inherit a wonderful artist. All the teacher must do is to allow the voice to develop naturally. It will always be problematic to tell if it is the work of the teacher or nature. These types of circumstances can make it difficult to choose a qualified teacher.

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Journal of Singing


Provenance Perhaps, when searching for a singing instructor, a person should consult with the students of a given teacher. Regardless of their success level, a student can speak to the effectiveness of the teacher more than any self-aggrandizing presentation by the teacher. Adding to this prevailing mania, students today expect to be singing on the opera stage with only a few months of study, as if they could be made into a professional singer with the same ease as a tailor makes a dress. And often, if a student does become successful, they will ascribe the victory to their own work and not that of the teacher. This is much like the sick person who thanks the Madonna for healing instead of the physician. If the outcome is negative, however, they will blame the doctor. The invention of the railways and the telegraph has given birth to the idea that things should happen in a hurry. Vocal education has the same needs as the education of the mind, and they both take time. If a student believes learning to sing is simple, then they may not be serious enough to deliver the work and energy needed to succeed. Only through artful skill can a teacher master the movements of the student’s vocal apparatus—skills that nature itself gives but does not teach us to use. The idea is generally held that voice defects cannot be corrected and that they must be respected as they are, without trying to disturb them with movements other than those that occur naturally. I do not share this opinion. Certainly, it is necessary to know if a defect comes from an individual organic conformation, or from a self-inflicted wound. It would be foolish and fruitless to try to correct a physical shortcoming. However, if the vocal fault is acquired, it can be rectified or considerably modified. The ear, almost always, is the first cause of faults in vocal quality. These are usually acquired since childhood through the act of imitation. Shared domestic dwellings lead to children who imitate their parents. Regardless of who shares the household, a certain genetic quality of voice is formed. However, each individual still possesses unique qualities that will distinguish it from others. Language and idioms are unknowingly appropriated by means of imitation from childhood. May/June 2022

The English bring their vocal sounds to the pharynx, unknowingly squeezing its walls, producing a particular sound that is unique to that nation. The English articulate with little space between the teeth, leading to great difficulty when trying to open one’s mouth to speak or sing. People that acquire a national vocal quality can have the sounds corrected by imitating proper sounds. Thus, likewise, the French generally carry the voice toward the nasal cavities. Acquisition of voice quality based on imitation of language and idioms also can happen at a regional level, as in the different timbres between the Roman and Tuscan dialects, etc. I conclude that, for these reasons, it is feasible to change or considerably change a habit found in the voice, even if it is ancient, provided that the nature of the sound does not come from some physical limitation. To achieve such an outcome, we must take an exact account of the conditions inherent in good emission. An artful, beautiful sound, taken in isolation, is a manifestation of nature. I say in isolation because nature is usually not perfect in its gifts to the human voice. The voice is bolstered by nature when striving to make the overall perfection. For the voice therefore, perfect beauty will understand in itself: 1. quality of the timbre; 2. extension of the scale which it may follow; 3. the volume and the sound. We will examine in its place what the conditions are that contribute to the highest perfection of any of these requirements; but we must form a concept of the whole of this wonderful instrument called voice, an instrument with which no other is comparable, even if it has contact points with most of them. Instead of making an anatomical description to explain clearly the isolated and simultaneous action of the agents that contribute to the formation of the sound, some compare singing to that of different instruments. In the violin, for example, we have: 1. the bow, the primary cause of sound production; 2. strings, secondary cause; 3. the harmonic case, in which the shape and quality of the wood and paint which covers it, give the sound quality and volume amplifying with its vibrations

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Kimberly Broadwater those produced by the strings by the friction of the bow. The strings and the bow are of secondary importance in the quality and volume of the sound produced by the harmonic chest of the violin. The strings to the bow will vibrate remarkably like a Stradivarius worth 20,000 lira. The opposite would be the case if the strings and the bow of a bad violin were to act over the case of a Stradivarius. I am certainly not saying anything new. These are all things that everyone knows, as I do, but that I needed to expose for the comprehension of the topics that I must deliver. In wind instruments there are no strings, no bow. It is no longer the friction of the horsehair on the strings that produces the sound, but only the pressure of the wind that, compressing and spending the air voluntarily between the walls of the wood or metal, makes them vibrate, amplifying the sound. In the organ we have the bellows (primary cause of the sound) that pushes the air between the walls of its reeds where it is found at its most compressed exit, passing from the relative openings of each reed, where the sound is modified according to the length of the reed and its mouth. In each of these instruments we have two: 1. A sound producing cause: a. the bow and strings in the string instruments; b. the air in the wind instruments. 2. Resistance, due to vibration intensity: a. the hand with its impulses on the bow in string instruments; b. the vocal cords and lungs that more or less compress air in the wind instruments. 3. The sound body resonance: a. the harmonic case in the stringed instruments; b. wooden or metal walls in wind instruments. Now it will be easy to find in the voice the parity of these effects produced by the same causes.

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1. We have the bellows, as in the organ, as the first cause of sound, and that is by the action of the diaphragm on the lungs, that with greater or lesser compression of the air increases or decreases. 2. We have by secondary action the vibration of the vocal cords produced by the compression of the air that replaces in us the bow of the stringed instruments in the violin. We already have in this second part a relationship with wind instruments and stringed instruments. 3. Our Stradivarius, our harmonic chest, resides in the pharyngeal framework and mouthpieces. From their organic conformation it gives the special timbre to each voice and the quality of the sound—as in the violin—takes place with the conformation of its harmonic case, the quality of its wood and the paint that invests it. The extension of the voice comes from the conformation of the vocal cords that can be tense, through the action of the arytenoids, which work on the vocal cords to the guise of the key on the violin.

NOTES 1. Astrea Amaduzzi, “The bel canto method of baritone Leone Giraldoni, first Verdi interpreter in ‘Simon Boccanegra’ and ‘Un ballo inevale’”; http://belcantoitaliano.blogspot. com/2020/04/il-metodo-di-belcanto-del-baritono.html (accessed January 9, 2022). 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Leslie John Flanagan, Forgotten Master Leone Giraldoni and the Pursuit of Singing Artistry (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 2011). 7. A. Taravella and A. Villeneuve, “Acknowledging the needs of computer-assisted translation tools users: the human perspective in human-machine translation,” The Journal of Specialised Translation 19 (January 2013): 62.

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COLLAB CORNER

The Art of Accompanying [Part 2] William Browning

[Editor’s Note: This column concludes a two-part reprint of an insightful article by William Browning that first appeared in The NATS Bulletin 25, no. 1 (September/October 1968): 16-23, 33. The truths of Mr. Browning’s provocative piece continue to resonate more than 50 years later. RDS]

Margo Garrett

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 645–648 https://doi.org/10.53830/RCMA8706 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

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ot the least of the vocal accompanist’s tasks is the performance of orchestral works. Now this is, at times, next to asking the superhuman effort from us. From our ten fingers we are supposed to give something akin to the effect of sixty to one-hundred instruments of an orchestra. We can run the gamut from the ridiculously funny to a great performance, but, I assure you, all forces are pitted against us. The orchestral tremolo that can be so dramatic, so ominous, so shimmering, so agitated, or so glorious in the orchestration can become excruciatingly hilarious when perpetrated at the keyboard—it is a pattern so simple for the stringed instruments but it can become a set of tangled digits and aching arms for us at the keyboard. The great orchestral chord can quickly become a dull thud from our solitary instrument. The fragile, silken fabrics of a Rossini accompaniment can sound like a poorly performed Scarlatti sonata. The Verdi Oom-pah-pah, which is not objectionable in the orchestra, becomes, if we are not careful, a beer tavern, Boom-chuk-chuk. If the selection is from an opera score, I must first acquaint myself with the plot, the psychological aspects of the accompaniment in relation to the voice and in relation to this specific aria or scene. Then, either through my imagination or first-hand knowledge of the orchestral sound, I must conjure up something of the color and texture of that orchestra from my scant eightyeight black and white keys. Sometimes notes have to be omitted to accomplish an effect—sometimes others must be added to achieve an orchestral sonority. Above all, the accompanist absolutely must know the art of the recitativo and the operatic traditions—for what appears on the printed page is much altered due to the composer’s alterations derived in performances long after the scores were published. Much has been altered—and usually justifiably—at the discretion of the performers and conductors (and, I am afraid, because of the indiscre- William Browning photo, circa 1975 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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William Browning tions of some performers). Modes of performance must be observed—i.e., where cadenzas may be interpolated, where ‘cuts’ occur, where appogiaturas may be expected, where unwritten tempo alterations occur, where the accompaniment must physically assist the singer, where major text changes may be expected. As for the sightreading and transposition requirements for accompanying, it goes without saying that we must have the capabilities. Seldom are these two elements a natural process. They are the processes that we have learned—that we have worked long hours to develop They are the processes that should occur in any well-trained pianist. As a matter of fact, every item I have mentioned should be a part of our educating of young pianists. Had we more of these fundamentals we just might have a far finer quality of performance before the public than we are presenting today. For how else is a pianist to discover the phrasing, the handling of the embellishments in a Chopin Nocturne if he is not acquainted with the great Bellini operatic cavatinas which Chopin used as his models? It is little wonder that Vladimir Horowitz went to the old recordings of the great Italian baritone, Mattia Battistini to re-study the art of phrasing, nuance, and rubato. The alliance of the vocal art and the instrumental art must be a fundamental in our studies if we are to produce performances that match the Hoffmans, Godowskys, Horowitz’s, Rubensteins, and Hesses. If you ever heard Myra Hess accompany singers and play chamber music, you would not wonder how her song soared from the keyboard in never to be forgotten beauty of phrasing, balance, flexibility, and tone. Hess studied, listened, then listened some more, and applied these textures, these principles to such a degree that every performance was a masterful re-creation. I have spoken at some length about the preparations for an accompanist. Let me direct your thought to some details about EXPERIENCE. I think the most important point that I must make is that the initial experience of the young apprentice is that the initial experience must be good! Nothing is so injurious as experience gained in accompanying for a bad musician or the musically careless. The artist training a young accompanist, should demand a complete performance. Accompanying is not merely sightreading in any fashion. The accompaniment must be “worked”—the technical details mastered, the

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musical details thought out and then worked into the mind and ear as well as the fingers. The accompanist should be instructed as to the artist’s emotional feelings—he must be made to understand the text and the role that his performance plays in creating an artistic whole. You can hardly blame the shortcomings of the young aspirant if you give him nothing more to do than sightread and “follow”! The artist should instruct the young accompanist before the first public performance as to attire, stage deportment, courtesies between himself and the artist, courtesies to the audience, and signals for performance must be arranged, understood, and rehearsed before the fateful moment. The accompanist’s duties also extend to the handling, the care, the upkeep of the musical scores, the availability of a page turner if needed, proper positioning and conditioning of his instrument, proper focusing of the hall’s lighting facilities, and many travelling arrangements are best handled by the accompanist as well as the handling of matters with hall managers and the public. When this has been established for one artist, it then must be fully realized that the performance requirements will be modified for the next artist. There may be the same compositions in different keys—necessitating complete technical restudying of the works—i.e., new fingering required because of the key change, new pedalling procedures because of that key change and the resultant change of registers—new tempi because of a difference of vocal timbre or interpretation. The accompanist’s art does not stand still—it moves from artist to artist—from thought to thought. His knowledge of the work must be so complete that he reads and thinks not just his portion of the work but so that he can devote equal thought to his fellow performer, otherwise, we may have two concurrent and totally different performances rather than the desired integrated whole. Now it must be admitted that there are occupational hazards for the accompanists. There are the performers who forget, who omit, who suddenly change interpretative ‘horses’ in mid-performance, and those who can’t decide what key they will utilize until the moment the accompanist is ready to begin. I’m sure that most of our gray hairs and balding pates occur because of these moments of travail. I shall not soon forget a New York performance last spring when a violinist and I performed Beethoven’s “Kreutzer” Sonata. First, I must admit that

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Collab Corner violinists usually annoy me when it comes to performances of the Beethoven violin and piano sonatas. The violin parts in no way equal the technical and musical difficulties of the piano portion. Consequently, the pianist is usually treated to hair-raising break-neck tempi that really don’t help Beethoven and, of a truth, kill not a few pianists. It is too often forgotten that Beethoven published these works with the title page reading, Piano Sonatas with Violin Obligatos. Just such a violinist was my fate. We tore into the great final movement as though the devil himself were in hot pursuit. Just when I was beginning to settle in to this jet-propelled performance, my ears were assailed with an array of flying notes that existed some sixteen bars later. Needless to say, at a moment such as this there is no point in arguing or trying forced-persuasion, so I jumped like a hysterical rabbit over the massive omission, only to have my fine fiddling friend then decide to jump back and give the audience all of Beethoven’s notes that had just been omitted. Midst all these happenings, as a good sporting partner you must not so much as wince even a little bit. Well . . . with any luck at all (and luck is all it is), one can hope that the startling musical surgery has been accomplished without leaving too great a scar on the masterpiece and that only a forgiving few may have noted. The ability to improvise is sometimes terribly necessary for the accompanist. They tell us that improvisation is a lost art but it isn’t really for you’d be surprised at how much that art is still practiced, involuntarily, by accompanists. Several years ago, a great contralto and I were appearing in a recital—and I must say right here that the singer involved in this tale is one of our greatest artists. In the concerts with her, I have never known a breach of etiquette or a memory lapse—i.e., she is intrinsically a supreme vocal and musical artist. The concert on this particular evening began to a noisy but ever-loving audience which finally brought the wrath of the great artist forth in a little speech demanding absolute quietness during the performance. We then proceeded with Madame X in magnificent voice but in ill-concealed bad humor. The program’s closing work was a complex contemporary work scored for piano, flute, and voice (it was also scored in a language which I cannot utter one word nor can I so much as begin to decipher its hieroglyphics). The difficult first moveMay/June 2022

ment was accomplished, we transcended the taxing slow movement, and finally we arrived at the relatively simple concluding movement. All went well for about twenty bars when, for some unknown reason, I glanced at my beloved singer and sensed something drastically wrong, for instead of the haughty, angry prima donna of a few minutes past, I now witnessed her transfiguration as the great high priestess of song (incidentally, this stance must always be viewed with some suspicion since it nearly always indicates stormy weather ahead for all concerned). Though I could not read one syllable of that text, I knew that the word sounds she was emitting indicated that we no longer were dealing with the written text, but we were still in the same musical score. In mid-page two, there occurred a ‘rest’ for my flutist friend and me. The gorgeous vocal sound poured forth in that rest but such notes! Instead of an adagio recitative, our prima donna treated us to the most expansive cadenza of her entire career—a cadenza that spilled from her throat and encompassed two-and-one-half octaves involving all known (and some just discovered) roulades, trills, Hungarian, Oriental and what have-you scales. At what seemed the best opportunity to sneak into this impromptu performance, I forced an entrance (more or less to imply, “Shut up and just listen for a moment and this show will get back on the right road!) and I answered her glowing performance with some musical tricks of my own but at the same time incorporating the notes of her next phrase in my improvisation (at least in the hope of getting us back to the musical score if not the literary score)—and it didn’t work! She was off to another cadenza and to my astonishment, my flutist friend proceeded to take up the challenge leaving it to me to get my ‘say’ in between their musical utterances. To make a long story short—that last movement should have lasted only three minutes but it grew to a fat, juicy twelve minutes whereupon I decided that I didn’t really cotton to this business any longer and brought us all to what must have been one of the loudest, trilliest, colossally brilliant finales since the heyday of Franz Liszt! The audience clamored for a repeat of that final movement (that twelve-minute jam session). We encored with the written finale and no one was any the wiser. The critics acclaimed the finale as ‘brilliantly effective’—the first two movements as uninspired writing!!!

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William Browning In conclusion, let me say that in view of our drastic shortages in the field, we need to give something more than a cursory thought to our courses of study in an effort to devote more attention to the art of accompanying. There must be some ruminative mentallation about our study courses for pianists and we must find the way to improve the technical and musical development of the young pianist. Until recently we have really believed that we were living in a day that was seeing the greatest pianistic perfection in the instrument’s history. However, relatively recent record releases of the past several generations of pianists have brought us to the unhappy realization that our present product is much less than even adequate. Part of the remedy will be found in the re-establishing of the emphasis on the art of accompanying and chamber music that has disappeared from our formal courses of study. Formalized study in the art was a necessity in the days of Bach and Quantz—how much more is demanded of us today with a much more demanding amount of rep-

ertoire, many modes of performance, many performers and the obvious failures, musically and technically, of the majority of our young musical aspirants! Born in 1924 in Lawrence, Kansas, William Browning’s father, a concert singer, was a close friend of the great pianist, Carl Friedberg, whose own teachers had included Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms. Browning studied with Friedberg as well as Will Humble, a student of Leopold Godowsky and of whom Browning said, “was perhaps one of the greatest pianists in history and was court pianist for Emperor Franz Josef.” Browning studied both in Europe and America and was considered one of the few and most articulate of teachers whose contact with 19th century Europe and some of its greatest masters made him a highly respected and sought pedagogue. After three years during World War II in General George Patton’s 3rd Army Division, Browning returned to the U.S. and Chicago where, after receiving his own master’s degree at American Conservatory, was invited to join the faculty there. He remained there for 32 years, ending his academic career at Chicago Musical College of Roosevelt University. As soloist, chamber music player, accompanist, vocal coach, and pedagogue Browning performed extensively in the UK, China, South Korea, and here in North America. He died in 1997 at age 73.

DISCRETIONARY FUND A Resource for NATS Regions and Chapters • DISCRETIONARY FUNDS ARE AVAILABLE TO: NATS regions; state, province, and chapter organizations; NATS chapters in the process of formation. The funds are for NATS group-sponsored events, not for individual member use. • PURPOSE: NATS discretionary funds are intended to assist NATS chapters and regions in sponsoring master classes and lectures, recitals, workshops, and other activities that enrich the professional life of students and teachers. Preference will be given to requests from organizations that have not previously received NATS discretionary funds and those sponsoring groups for whom NATS discretionary funds will permit the offering of quality events not otherwise possible. • GRANT AMOUNTS: $600 (USD) maximum in any fiscal year (January 1 to December 31). Grants of more than $150 USD must be accompanied by matching funds from dues, admission charges, registration fees, gifts, and/ or grants from other agencies. Submission of receipts is mandatory. Recipients and related paperwork are due to the VP of Discretionary Funds no later than SIX weeks after the event and, in all cases, no later than November 30 of that year.

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Journal of Singing


THE VOCAL POINT

A Conversation with Jerold Siena, Part 1 Leslie Holmes

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he American tenor and music pedagogue, Jerold Siena, is a singer of international acclaim who has appeared regularly at some of the world’s leading opera houses, including the Metropolitan Opera, Lyric Opera of Chicago, La Monnaie in Brussels, The Bayerische Staatsoper (Munich), Rome Opera, New York City Opera, and Teatro di San Carlo (Naples). He has performed under many notable conductors. He and I had the following conversation . . .

Leslie Holmes

Leslie Holmes: You are like the energizer bunny. I have interviewed many musicians, and you have sung in more different places with more different conductors than anyone I have ever talked with. I thought I could just memorize them all, but it’s impossible. I will do my best with all of your material. Your 62-page memoir has been incredibly helpful, but challenging. My feeling, after looking at all of your material, is that music is really your soul. Even when you were a very little boy you sang “Nature Boy,” because singing it made you feel not so alone and not so sad. This comes from deep inside. One of the funniest comments in all of your material took place when you and your grandmother were in the back seat of the car. She said, “Jerry, sing us a little song.” And you said, “For only two people?” Jerold Siena: Yes. I was a very little boy. LH: You already had this vision of singing in a large hall for a large audience. JS: Going along with that, from a young age I thought that people paying for my singing, for my art, was wrong. I wanted to do it for just the love of music. I wanted people to listen to me just for the love of music, and not pay me anything. I don’t know where I changed.

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 649–653 https://doi.org/10.53830/KMUU7325 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

LH: You had to eat, that’s when. And you had to live somewhere. I think you’re right. To spend your whole life doing something that you love is really a gift. I feel so sorry for people who go to work and don’t like the work that they do. You heard your first opera when you were eight years old. It was Traviata. Do you want to tell me about that experience? JS: When I was one year old, my mother and father split up. I was born in Cincinnati and we moved to Cleveland. My father was in BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Leslie Holmes vaudeville and, eventually, had a radio show. I used to go down to Cincinnati to visit him. Starting at six years old, they used to put me on a train to Cincinnati. When I was eight, my father took me to the Cincinnati Zoo, where they used to have an outdoor opera. That’s where I saw Traviata, with Eleanor Steber. She was very famous at that time, and sang at the Met. I was smitten by the bug, and I started singing in the shower in phony Italian. I remembered some of the melodies. Wouldn’t you know, when I was 23 years old, I sang my first Alfredo in Traviata with Eleanor Steber at the Chattanooga Opera. That was in English, by the way. At her first entrance she sang in Italian. She forgot that it was in English and immediately after that went into English. LH: One of the last opera roles I heard you sing was Germont in the second act of Traviata at the Cleveland Opera Workshop, in which we were both singing. You were only 17 and singing as a baritone at the time. I remember standing in the wings listening and when you sang “Piangi, piangi” [from Germont’s duet with Violetta] so movingly, I found myself weeping. That may be why I feel as if singing is your soul. JS: Yes [sings a few “piangis”]. Oh, that takes me back so far. It’s emotional. LH: You were so into the character that you weren’t Jerry. Tell me about your philosophy of teaching. JS: I describe it as the baking of a pizza. You learn the nuts and bolts. You learn the notes. You learn the melody. You learn the harmony. You learn the lives of the poets who wrote the poetry. You fill yourself up with as much knowledge as you can. But, at the moment of the performance, you just give yourself to your own emotion as it relates to your life. And, then, the audience will realize that it’s alive and it’s something you created at that moment. That’s what connects you to the audience. LH: It’s that old adage . . . at least it’s the one that I go by: Never try to entertain. JS: Yes. LH: Feel it. Don’t try to show it and, if you do feel it, it will show. And, in one, sentence, what is your philosophy of vocal technique? Ha, ha . . . I don’t mean in one sentence. Impossible.

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JS: It’s the baking of the pizza that counts. Unless you are able to sing the words, it doesn’t mean much. I’m a very pragmatic vocal teacher. Alexander Technique is very important. It’s not just posture. That’s a lot of it, but not all. My wife is an Alexander teacher. I believe that a good teacher can hear, but must also be aware of the body. I believe in proper breathing. LH: And what is that? JS: Most people are not aware that the ribs in the back are covering the lungs. There is a large part of the lungs in the back. You need to flex the ribs and breathe all the way around. There are certain exercises that free up the ribs and get the back open. I, personally, think mostly of breathing from the back. LH: Apparently, from comments I’ve read, you have excellent diction. JS: I didn’t used to believe in good diction. I used to believe it was just sound with a nice, loose throat. But, now, I believe that good, clear diction is important in all the languages. Understanding, word by word, in a foreign language is very important because the composer has set each word in the proper position. The words that are printed in English under the foreign language are never right. But you know that. LH: Well, part of this is that the sentence syntax is so different from language to language that it couldn’t make sense if you translated each word and put it underneath that word. JS: I have people—and I think this may have come out of Joan Dornemann’s book—make three lines under a foreign language text. First you translate, precisely, every word; the second line you make an English paraphrase, so you understand the meaning of the text; on the third line you say what the text means to you from your life. I often have people close their eyes and imagine an experience from their own life—kind of like method acting. I ask them to experience it with all their senses—smell and taste, sound, and feeling—so that it becomes more real. LH: I can’t remember what opera it was, but a reviewer wrote that you were the only one whose French sounded idiomatic. Was that an all-French cast?

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The Vocal Point JS: No, it was all-Italian. That was in Genoa. I was doing Manon.

to sing that role. How old were you when you sang the first staged performance of Amahl?

LH: That’s quite a compliment.

JS: Eleven or 12. The boy who sang it on television, Chet Allen, had also been the soloist with the Columbus Boychoir. We did several recordings with him. That was at Christmas time. In the spring I sang at the Karamu Theater and we did Amahl.

JS: It was at the L’Opera de Nice where I was hired to sing Remendado in Carmen, but I ended up singing Dancaire. Dancaire had a lot more spoken dialogue than did Remendado. I learned it after I got to Nice. They gave me a French coach. I had to work very hard at that, with all of the speaking. LH: Maybe your reputation of having idiomatic French preceded you. JS: It reminds me of Phyllis Curtin. We both spoke French, she better than I. She told me the story of her being engaged to sing at the Wienerstaatsoper. She got out of the taxi from the airport and saw a big poster saying she was engaged to sing Donna Anna [Don Giovanni], instead of Donna Elvira, as her contract had stated. She had to learn the role in two weeks. And she did. She performed it. LH: She was a smart lady. I got to know her quite well. I went to visit her when she was older and lived with her daughter. They had a lovely wing of the house for her, with a large Steinway in the center. It was just perfect. She was a classy lady. I understand that she was one of the people who wrote references for you for teaching jobs. Let’s talk about the Columbus Boychoir. You sang with them for only one year. JS: It was, actually, a half a year. I went there in January. They were going to move up to Princeton, New Jersey, and become the American Boychoir. My mother had recently re-married and I wanted to stay home with them. LH: That’s awfully young to leave home . . . eleven. JS: Yes. I was eleven and I was pretty homesick. I would come home every weekend on the bus. LH: I read that, in school, you were assigned a poem to recite and, instead, you sang “Trees.” JS: They liked it so much that they sent me around to all the classes to sing it for them [sings a bit of “Trees”]. LH: You had seen Amahl and the Night Visitors on television. You thought that it would be “kind of cool” May/June 2022

LH: It’s a very moving story. I sang the mother and, when I took my curtain call, I was crying my heart out. “All that Gold,” which the mother sings, is amazingly beautiful. JS: It’s a gorgeous piece. LH: So, apparently you slid right through your change of voice and became a baritone. JS: Yes. That’s right. I became a baritone. I was kind of a second soprano. I took lessons, as a baritone, from Warren Whitney. LH: How old were you when you first started taking lessons? JS: I must have been 13 or 14. I gave a recital at the Cleveland Museum of Art just before I graduated from high school. I was 17. I remember. I was just about to go to Mannes College. By the way, before that opera workshop, I didn’t know what I was going to do that fall. LH: You had already auditioned for all the prominent music schools, none of which had the good sense to admit you. JS: That’s true, and I don’t think I was worried about that. I just thought something would happen. LH: I think it was because you knew you had something special inside and that, somehow, it was going to come out. Thank goodness for Sam Morgenstern [Director of the opera workshop who told Mannes they should admit Jerry]. I sang a semester at Mannes, singing an opera role. I can’t remember which one. For five years I went to New York, from Massachusetts, every Monday and came back Wednesday. I worked with Frank Corsaro, Winifred Cecil, and Margaret Singer. I learned a lot! JS: You’re bringing all those names back to memory. They were great, great people. I remember that Frank, in all of his productions, didn’t seem to do anything, but

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Leslie Holmes they all came together. He didn’t raise his voice or get very excited, but would sit back and relax. I remember his Carmen was fantastic. It took place during the Spanish Civil War. It made it great for the little characters. They had a lot more to do. LH: While you were at Mannes, you did what all of us did. We had church jobs. Your church job was at Fifth Avenue Presbyterian. JS: You remember everything. LH: And we all had temple jobs. JS: Mine was at Temple Emanu-El, the big temple on Fifth Avenue. I was so fortunate. I auditioned for Robert Baker, who was the organist at Fifth Avenue Presbyterian. He was also organist at Temple Emanu-El. I had two terrific religious jobs. LH: Yes, you were fortunate. But you have to be good enough for them to hire you. You were fortunate to get the audition. You were bass soloist in the Christmas Oratorio. JS: I also sang at Columbia. I sang the Lord Nelson Mass. The bass solo had a low G in it. Rita Shane was the soprano. She had a recording of me singing that aria with the low G in it. LH: Wasn’t it on your tour with Goldovsky that Sherrill Milnes and the other singers decided that, when you warmed up, you sounded like a tenor? JS: Yes. They said I should be a tenor. When I got back to New York, I started studying as a tenor with Ray Buckingham. LH: At Mannes, you sang in the premiere of Ned Rorem’s The Robbers? JS: That’s right. There were three of us . . . three male characters. There were no females. Ned then engaged me to sing in a concert at Carnegie Hall. LH: I got to know him very well. JS: He is a great writer. LH: Yes, he is. You and I have taken very different paths since the Cleveland Opera Workshop but, in some ways, we have gone similar paths. I’m sure you know many of the people in music whom I know.

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JS: Something I regret. I have not kept a lot of friends through the years. I have been close to my students and my family, but not to my colleagues. And, certain times, I wish I had stayed close to my colleagues. I speak to colleagues who have had good friendships with colleagues for a long time. I was so involved in the arts and not so much with the people and everyday life. LH: It must have taken a lot of energy and time to be singing lots and lots of places . . . and to be conducting, like the Israel Philharmonic, and directing . . . plus teaching. You probably were working so hard at keeping your career going that you didn’t have time to form close friendships. JS: It didn’t seem like it at the time. In retrospect, I think I am unique in keeping a performing career going, while teaching at the same time. The universities always have been very understanding about my being out in the world performing, and they almost always let me go. LH: Good tenors are hard to find. Good sopranos are a nickel a dozen. JS: I made my major career in the characters I put together. LH: Well, that’s appropriate for a character [laughter]. With Linz and the smaller houses, you sang major roles. JS: That’s true. My voice wasn’t that big. I remember getting a review for Bohème. It was a small headline that said, “Orchestra overwhelms tenor.” My brother-in-law is a tenor, too. He asked me if I had seen the review, that it said, “Tenor overwhelms harpsichord” after singing a Baroque piece in Carnegie Hall [more laughing]. LH: I love the title of your memoir: “My career—‘Too young to be a tenor’ (‘and just a little too short’)” . . . a shameless festival of name dropping. Would you explain where those quotes came from? JS: Well, I had studied with Martial Singher for three years, while at Mannes College, as a baritone. A couple of years later, after I had become a tenor, I made the mistake of singing for him. This is a mistake that many singers make. I wanted to sing for him as a tenor. He said those deathless words, “Yes, you are a tenor but, then, you were too young to be a tenor.” LH: What do you think he meant by that?

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Journal of Singing


The Vocal Point JS: I don’t know what he meant by that. It’s not like I was a baritone trying to become a dramatic tenor. Maybe he thought that. But I had just been a tenor singing low. LH: I have no way to know if I am way, way off the path when I say that, it seems to me, a tenor has more pressure going on when he sings than does a baritone.

LH: How tall were you, are you? JS: Probably about 5 feet 7. LH: The whole package was perfect for character tenors. JS: Yes, exactly.

JS: Absolutely.

LH: Tell me the story about what you did and said during a rehearsal for the Tales of Hoffmann.

LH: I’m just making this up, because I’m not a tenor. A baritone is singing so much more in his speaking voice. As you have said, you were always terrified of high Cs, even though you only cracked on it once, when you were auditioning for Risë Stevens, and you got hired anyway. I wonder if the abdominal pressure required for those high notes is not easy to assume for a young singer.

JS: Well, it took place in the rehearsal room. I was singing the role of Frantz, the servant. Frantz was always carrying a feather duster, as was appropriate for a house servant. So, at one point, I was dusting various items and I went up and dusted the singer who was playing Hoffman, stopped everything, and said, “Dustin’ Hoffmann.” Everybody broke up.

JS: It’s also that Martial Singher wanted me to follow in his footsteps, being what the French call un bariton martin . . . almost a tenor.

LH: That was perfect. What is the world without humor?

LH: That’s a compliment, because it means he thought you had enough potential to follow in his footsteps. How about the second half of the title?

JS: I remember a time I was doing Monostatos [Magic Flute]. During the scene with the animals, I was supposed to pull the tail of the lion’s suit. The tail came off in my hand, and I started whipping him with it. I’ve done a few funny things on stage.

JS: Right. This was several years ago . . . maybe eight years ago. One of my students, visiting a friend in New York who studied with this very famous teacher—the “teacher of the moment”—and my student went to his lesson with him. This teacher said, “Oh, you study with Jerry Siena. He had everything. He had it all: fantastic diction, beautiful voice, incredible stage presence, languages . . . just a little too short.” So, that’s why I subtitled my memoir, “just a little too short.”

LH: Well, what are you going to do? You can’t pretend it didn’t happen.

LH: Do you love it or hate it?

LH: Oh, that’s great. She sang, in Jordan Hall [Boston], a French cycle. In this cycle, she sang a pianissimo high A that I will never lose. It went right through me; it was so beautiful.

JS: I love it. LH: This is a rather personal question. Do you feel that, if you were taller, you would have done more tenor leading roles? JS: No. If my voice had been bigger, I probably would have done more leading roles. LH: That’s good, because you wouldn’t want to resent something that you can’t do anything about. JS: There are tenors as small, or shorter than I am, who are having big careers in leading tenor roles. They just have bigger voices. May/June 2022

JS: In Nice, when I was doing Basilio, Susan Graham was the Cherubino. This was many years ago, and she was not quite famous, yet. When she was in the chair, I was leaning on the chair. She had her hat in her hand. I said, “Why don’t you hit me in the privates, and I’ll double over? We did that every time” [laughter].

JS: She’s a great singer. LH: And she is so nice. All those great singers who are about the same age—Dawn Upshaw, Susan Graham, Barbara Bonney, Tom Hampson, Renée Fleming, Deborah Voigt, Frederica von Stade, and many more— are all so nice. Many of them seem to be such good friends. I have had these NATS Conversations with almost all of them.

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[continued in next issue]

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Your online resource!

NATS.org

NATS.org is a valuable resource for everyone who uses the site — from current and prospective members to others who may be looking for a voice teacher or information about the industry. The latest upgrades offer new navigation and a fresh look. Some of the most popular offerings of the site include: • Easy renewal and complete history of payments See a complete history of all transactions made through NATS.org, including dues payments and registrations to workshops and conferences. • Access to Journal of Singing Archives Search past Journal of Singing articles from 1944 to view and download. • Apply online for NATS competitions and programs — National Student Auditions, National Musical Theatre Competition, NATSAA, Art Song, NATS Intern Program and more! • Links to all valuable NATS resources for easy access and use! NATS Job Center, So You Want To Sing Book Series Resources, Member Directory, Online Giving, the NATS Live Learning Center with video archives of workshops and conferences, and more!

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RECENT RESEARCH IN SINGING

T Donald Simonson

he following list of recent research in singing is a brief sampling of dissertations/theses published during the last year. It is by no means comprehensive and reflects only a small fraction of the available documents. If you have published recent research in singing, voice pedagogy, voice science, vocal repertoire, pedagogic methodology, or other topics of interest to the membership of NATS, please send citations and abstracts to Donald Simonson at drs@iastate.edu for review and possible inclusion in future columns. Chen, Mian. “A Conjecture of Singing Chinese Repertoire With the Italian Bel Canto Technique.” PhD Dissertation, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (Portugal), 2021, 187 pages; ProQuest 2570179457. “This research intends to show how Chinese contemporary vocal works can be sung with the western lyrical singing technique, focusing on the pronunciation of the Italian language: The way of dealing with Chinese vowels and consonants in the pronunciation of articulation refers to the rules/principles of that presented in Italian language. The subject was inspired by Dr. A. Hirt’s lecture about singing English like Italians in 2011. In terms of rationality, to convey a sense yet also to approach the maximization of the rules of phonation (vowels) and articulation (consonants), researchers hypothesize that Chinese language (Mandarin) can be pronounced like the Italian language but in the setting of singing. This study will take into consideration from pieces of literature about singing technique to teaching, from viewpoints about articulation (in singing) of performers, to recordings and videos. We believe it’s necessary to import (impart) knowledge about the singing of Chinese phonetics and linguistics, compared to Italian, the most traditional language for singing and the original language of a considerable number of masterpieces on what regards vocal repertoire, since they have been evolving from two completely families of languages.” (ProQuest/Author Abstract) Kramer, Peter. “A Bird’s Eye View: Large-Scale Tonal Structures in Robert Schumann’s Four Song Cycles (Op. 42, 24, 39, and 48).” DMA Dissertation, City University of New York, 2022, 169 pages; ProQuest 2616649903.

Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 655–656 https://doi.org/10.53830/IVTT8982 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

“Some of Robert Schumann’s most notable works are his Lieder for solo voice and piano accompaniment. Schumann’s Lieder are considered some of the best compositions in this genre, engendering various interpretations by performers and exciting vigorous debate among musicologists and theorists. Robert Schumann’s early music was almost entirely composed for the piano alone; it wasn’t until 1840 that he started to compose almost exclusively Lieder and song cycles inspired by his predecessors Beethoven and Schubert. This was a prolific year for Schumann compositionally, in part due to his marriage to Clara Schumann who was one of Europe’s most preeminent piano virtuosos and a budding composer herself. Schumann composed four major song cycles during this time, Frauenliebe und Leben [sic] op. 42, Liederkreis op. BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Donald Simonson 24, Liederkreis op. 39 and Dichterliebe op. 48, each containing a unique narrative or series of poetic images. This study will consider four of Schumann’s song-cycles (op. 42, 24, 39 and 48), taking a “birds eye view” of their architectures with regards to key centers. Schumann arranges the tonality of each individual Lied within his cycles carefully, resulting in patterns that can be represented by scale-figures that support the poetical and narrative intricacies of the texts. Though these macro details are not heard during performance, they result in a large slowly unfolding experience, an effect which contributes to Schumann’s uniquely ingenious marriage of poetry and music.” (ProQuest/Author Abstract) Meyer, Trey C. “A Contemporary Adaptation of America’s Musical Heritage: The American Folk Set by Steven Mark Kohn.” DMA Dissertation, The University of Nebraska—Lincoln, 2021,122 pages; ProQuest 2568302742. “Steven Mark Kohn’s American Folk Set is comprised of contemporary arrangements of fifteen historic American folk songs, conceived as art songs for the vocal recital stage. This collection serves as a prime opportunity for performers to discover the expressive potential of the Art Song Repertory through folk settings that exude drama. Drawing from his background and experience as a composer, Kohn’s settings combine musical elements from classical Art Song, musical theatre, popular, and folk music. His settings musically depict tales from the lives of those who originally conceived the folk songs. This performance guide offers insights into Kohn as a composer; the historical background and development of each selection; an examination of Kohn’s compositional traits as found in each song; Kohn’s preferences for performance practices; and a discussion of the artistic potential of this contribution to the Art Song repertory. With equal musical and theatrical integrity, Steven Mark Kohn’s contemporary arrangements of historic folk songs bring moments from America’s past to vivid life for performers and their audiences.” (ProQuest/ Author Abstract) Harper, Andrew. “The Art of Humorous Song: Examining Humorous Songs through the Lens of Selected Song Sets.” DMA Dissertation, The University of Memphis, 2021, 96 pages; ProQuest 2564511833.

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“Humor is a universal human emotion, with many proven positive effects. These proven positive effects are invaluable to a vocal artist in reaching an audience. This document starts with an introduction to humorous art song. Following this is a critical defense of its inclusion in modern concert programming by exploring the effective use of humor in entertainment, clinical psychology, and business. “Specific humorous art song sets are analyzed to validate this repertory as effective and legitimate. Performance options, text analysis, form, and score analysis were included. In the first section, Craigslistlieder by Gabriel Kahane (2009) and Another Reason I Don’t Keep a Gun in the House by Tom Cipullo (1998) are explored. The second section introduces a compositional pattern that I have termed the short pithy song. These songs contrast other traditional art songs as they are extremely brief. The song sets explored are two collections, 19 Short Songs about Chuck Norris by David Harned Johnson (2016) and “Do you sing, Mr. Twain?” by Gordon Myers (1999). This study is informed through direct score analysis, online interviews, literature review, video performance analysis, and a phone interview with Dr. David Harned Johnson.” (ProQuest/Author Abstract) Where-e’er you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees where you sit, shall crowd into a shade, Where-e’er you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. Oh! How I long with you to pass my days, Invoke the muses, and resound your praise; Your praise the birds shall chant in ev’ry grove, And winds shall waft it to the pow’rs above. But wou’d you sing, and rival Orpheus’ strain, The wond’ring forests soon shou’d dance again, The moving mountains hear the pow’rfull call, And headlong streams hang list’ning in their fall! But see, the shepherds shun the noon-day heat, The lowing herd to murm’ring brooks retreat, To closer shades the panting flocks remove, Ye Gods! And is there no relief for Love? But soon the sun with milder rays descends To the cool ocean, where his journey ends; On me Love’s fiercer flames for ever prey, By night he scorches, as he burns by day.

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Alexander Pope, from “Summer” Journal of Singing


BOOKSHELF

Debra Greschner

Caicedo, Patricia. The Latin American Art Song: Sounds of the Imagined Nations. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2019. Paper, xix, 165 pp., $39.99. ISBN 978–1-4985– 8164–6. www.rowman.com Patricia Caicedo is a fervent advocate for Latin American song, as both performer and author. In this volume, available in both Spanish and English, Caicedo considers the social and historical context of the Latin American art song and offers a view of the genre that is both panoramic and nuanced. The volume is not comprehensive; instead, it presents the background for Latin American song and identifies composers whose songs represent transitional or transformational points in the evolution of the genre. The author offers both musical and social perspective for the repertoire by framing the discussion within the topics of identity and nationalism. Caicedo begins with an analysis of musical nationalism. The term, which arose in the nineteenth century, is Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 657–661 https://doi.org/10.53830/TGPO7931 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Debra Greschner used to describe music from outside the traditional European centers. As the Latin American colonies achieved independence, the descriptor was applied to the music of the New World. The author explores the concept of identity and shared cultural values as the basis of nationalism. She opines that if nationalism is viewed as an aesthetic-sociocultural movement, it is possible to differentiate between music of national style and nationalistic music. Caicedo also cites the research of anthropologist Partha Chatterjee who explains that emerging nations, in their attempt to reach the level of the Eurocentric model, often submerge their unique qualities and instead aspire to imitate models that are hostile to them. An additional level of disparity often exists because the dominant group within the emerging nation becomes the builder of the national image. Caicedo uses this refined perspective of nationalism to illuminate notable composers and movements in the evolution of Latin American art song. She explains that the genre is well suited to express nationalist ideals because it is accessible, intimate, and employs text; furthermore, when composers select texts by Latin American poets, the impact of the latter characteristic is intensified. The author focuses on the art songs of six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela. Each repertoire represents a different approach to nationalism during the early twentieth century. There is also a discussion of three composers, Alberto Ginastera (1916–1983), Carlos Guastavino (1912–2000), and Jaime León (1921–2015), all of whom made significant, yet diverse, contributions to the genre after 1940. BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

A native of Colombia, Caicedo has lived in the United States and currently resides in Spain. She draws upon these experiences to offer a profoundly personal perspective, using the construction of her own identity as an entrée to the connection between the development of song and the evolution of identity and nationalism in Latin America. Caicedo also muses about the digital age, observing that it has made people “simultaneously isolated and connected to the world” (xviii). These words, penned before the Covid pandemic, are particularly prescient. She argues that mobility, multilocality, and access to technology have led contemporary composers to embrace musical transnationalism. The author is an avid collector and performer of Latin American art song. Her interest in the repertoire encompasses the musicological and social context of the genre, as well as its performance practice. In the final chapter of the volume, she compares the performance of art song to that of folk and popular song, and proposes innovations that would expand the appeal of the former. Caicedo is a singer, medical doctor, musicologist, and founder of the Barcelona Festival of Song. The breadth of her training and experience is reflected in her previous publications, which include Spanish Diction for Singers: A Practical Guide for the Pronunciation of the Peninsular and American Spanish (Barcelona: Mundo Arts Publications, 2020; reviewed in Journal of Singing 77, no. 1 [September/October 2020]: 122– 123), We Are What We Listen To: The Impact of Music on Individual and Social Health (New York: Mundo Arts Publications, 2021; reviewed in Journal of Singing 78, no. 4 [March/

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Debra Greschner April 2022]: 537), and annotated compilations of Latin American vocal music. This volume is an enticing introduction to Latin American song that encourages readers to rethink the concept of nationalism in an increasing transnational world. It is highly recommended. Alderson, Richard and Ann. A New Handbook for Singers and Teachers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020, 328 pp. E-book ISBN 978–0190920449, $15.65; Paper ISBN 978–0190920456, $41.95. www.global.oup.com This voice pedagogy textbook is intentionally bipartite. In the introduction, authors Richard and Ann Alderson provide the rationale for this dual focus: the purpose of the book is to offer simultaneous instruction to singers and teachers of singing. Pupil and pedagogue alike need information about the voice and how it works. However, voice teachers also need to know how to impart this knowledge to their students. Alderson and Alderson opted for parallel construction to address the needs of both groups and intentionally include redundancies by discussing topics in both sections. The first section, entitled “How to Sing,” is intended for both student and teacher. It contains chapters devoted to the foundational principles of voice instruction, including respiration, phonation, resonance, and articulation. The authors offer an accessible explanation of formants, vowel unification and equalization, and vowel modification for both male and female voices. Another chapter offers a cogent overview of registers and registration. Each chapter contains diagrams, illustrations, and exercises.

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The second part of the book, “How to Teach Singing,” begins with an overview of the basic concepts of voice pedagogy. Teachers must be able to impart clear guidance about the anatomic and physiologic aspects of the vocal mechanism, and the authors offer advice about how to prepare and present such tutelage. The section also discusses factors to consider when selecting repertoire, how to structure lessons, physical aspects of the teaching studio, and what to do if the student is not making progress. The chapters are broadly correlated to those of the first. In this section, however, topics are viewed through a pedagogic lens, and teaching methodologies are included. The final chapters are devoted to teaching young changing voices and teaching the aging voice. Richard Alderson is Professor Emeritus of Voice and Opera at Northwestern University, and Ann Alderson is a professional singer, voice teacher, and conductor. They have co-authored a useful book that is intended to supplement, not replace, voice lessons. While it is possible to trace pedagogic influences (the detailed instructions for the creation of vowel modification charts are surely a nod to Berton Coffin), the overall approach is mainstream. Singers and their teachers will welcome the organization of the volume, and instructors of voice pedagogy classes may find this an appealing textbook option.

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Nandhu Radhakrishnan

GUEST REVIEW

Nandhu Radhakrishnan

Woo, Peak. Stroboscopy and HighSpeed Imaging of the Vocal Function, 2nd edition. San Diego: Plural Publishing Inc., 2022, 437 pp. Cloth, $299.95. ISBN 978-1-63550-236-7. www.pluralpublishing.com

This is another noteworthy release by Plural Publishing. In this comprehensive textbook, Peak Woo, MD focuses on stroboscopy and highspeed imaging of voice production regarding basic science and laryngeal disorders. Its predecessor, Stroboscopy, by the same author in 2010, can now be replaced with this second edition that introduces a chapter dedicated to high-speed imaging of the larynx that is becoming prevalent in the research of voice production. The volume also contains elaborate details quoting current research on imaging techniques, enhanced images, and a spectacular array of video files via a companion website hosted by the publisher. The foreword is penned by the author’s professional friend and collaborator, Thomas Murry, MD, who is an equally accomplished voice scientist, researcher, and clinician. Journal of Singing


Bookshelf The textbook consists of two parts, “Basic Science” and “Laryngeal Disorders.” The first section deals with the history and principles of stroboscopy and high-speed video imaging. The chapters related to anatomy and physiology of the larynx, histological properties of vocal fold layers, and the effects of disorders on these layers help build the foundation for readers, especially phonosurgeons, to understand the importance of vocal fold imaging in successful diagnostics and intervention. Vibratory aspects of vocal folds and the science behind control of airflow by the larynx enhance the basic knowledge of a voice scientist. The correlation between mass, stiffness, and tension of the vocal folds, aerodynamic aspects of the larynx, and the acoustic output is an eye opening resource for clinicians working with patients who have voice disorders. This information is important because understanding the source of sound production enhances the prognosis of patients. The chapters related to normal and abnormal vocal fold vibration amplify the importance of understanding basic science in clinical intervention of voice. One of the most valuable resources in this textbook are the chapters that acclimate new clinicians and laryngologists to the set-up, recording, and interpretation of videostroboscopy. Visual analysis, a subjective study, requires extensive training; one cannot be oversaturated with information or experience. The video examples of every parameter involved in stroboscopic evaluation will indeed help to not only increase visual accuracy of findings but also enhance interpretation. These chapters are written for both neophyte and expert. The author also specifies how findings and interpretation can differ between speech May/June 2022

language pathologists and laryngologists. This is crucial for students and early stage clinicians in both these professions. The second section of this textbook, “Laryngeal Disorders,” covers almost all disorders from muscle tension dysphonia to malignancy of the larynx. In addition to giving an overview of these functional, organic, and neurogenic disorders, these chapters also include histopathology as and when needed, stroboscopic findings and its relevance to diagnosis and treatment, including phonosurgery. Overall, this is a definitive source for clinicians, voice teachers, and researchers in the field of speech science, vocal arts, and medicine. Dr. Nandhu Radhakrishnan is an associate professor in the Communication Sciences and Disorders program at Kansas State University. As the Director of K-State Voice Clinic, he supervises graduate clinicians during evaluation and treatment of voice disorders. Dr. Radhakrishnan has presented and published at national and international conventions related to voice science. He is a co-author for two chapters in Oxford Handbook of Voice Studies and Oxford Handbook of Singing. Dr. Radhakrishnan’s innovative research includes two voice therapy techniques, Nasal Resistance (NR) technique, and a Voiced Whistle technique that is currently under development. Dr. Radhakrishnan is an active member of The Voice Foundation and Pan American Vocology Association (PAVA). He has been elected as the Central Governor of PAVA. Dr. Radhakrishnan also serves as a member of the Voice Science Advisory Committee, a wing of the National Association of Teachers of Singing. Apart from his professional activities in the United States, Dr. Radhakrishnan has ties with institutions and professional organizations in India. He is a stage artist, playwright, YouTuber, and hobby chef.

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Christina Swanson

GUEST REVIEW

Christina Swanson

Mills, Matthew, and Gillie Stoneham. Voice and Communication Therapy with Trans and NonBinary People: Sharing the Clinical Space. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2020. Paper, 224 pp., $27.95. ISBN 978-1787751040. www.us.jkp.com Traditional methods of voice pedagogy that utilize a student’s Fach or voice type as a guide for their repertoire and vocal development are insufficient guides for teaching transgender and non-binary artists. However, is a desire to support their students, combined with knowledge of vocal function, enough for voice practitioners to break this mold? Speechlanguage therapists Matthew Mills and Gillie Stoneham suggest otherwise in their book Voice and Communication Therapy with Trans and Non-Binary People: Sharing the Clinical Space. Combining their experiences as singers, actors, voice coaches, and specialists in speech language therapy for transgender and non-binary voices, they make a compelling case for teachers of singing to start at speech level

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Christina Swanson when supporting their non-cis gendered students. In the book’s introduction, the authors organize the practice of coaching transgender and non-binary clients into four “spaces” of work: Gender, Psychological, Vocal, and Social. These spaces correlate to the book’s first four chapters, while a fifth chapter is dedicated to the discussion of an emerging community space. The first chapter, “The Gender Space,” calls upon voice practitioners to confront their unconscious biases prior to working with transgender and non-binary clients. Testimonies from experts, defined as “trans and non-binary clients who are experts by experience” (13), validate the need for voice practitioners to reconcile their own ideas of gender prior to inadvertently projecting those ideals into the studio. A poignant testimony is given by Natasha, a client and expert who is also a psychologist. She calls upon cis-gendered voice practitioners to “become friends with your unconscious biases” and “gently

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challenge them” (25). This testimony presents crucial evidence for the importance of creating a safe space for clients. However, it is significant from a technical standpoint, too. A failure to confront unconscious bias could result in students’ voices echoing the binary stereotypes internalized by the teacher, rather than supporting their vocal goals. For example, a perception that “feminization” of the speaking or singing voice must result in a dramatically higher pitch range could result in extraneous laryngeal elevation. Experts throughout this section testify that their journey to voice modification was shaped by an expansion of their concept of a “feminine” or “masculine” voice, rather than the achievement of a specific pitch range. Mills and Stoneham emphasize that voice practitioners need to be prepared to support this type of expansion, rather than forcing clients from one vocal construct into another. Another chapter, “The Psychologi­ cal Space,” contextualizes work with

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transgender and non-binary students and reframes the narrative that the teacher knows best. The authors instead urge voice coaches to adopt client-centered and solution-focused methods. The former is founded upon a fundamental premise: The client is the expert on their own instrument, while the role of the coach is to facilitate the pursuit of client goals. The solution-focused approach argues that sessions focused on finding solutions rather than fixating upon vocal problems allow for rapid growth. Adoption of these methods, which could be implemented to foster healthy relationships with any student, becomes even more essential when working with trans and non-binary clients. This is due to the power dynamic present in a teacher-student relationship that can be magnified when working with a student from a marginalized population. Utilizing the “drama triangle” pioneered by psychiatrist Stephen Karpman (“Fairy tales and script drama analysis,” Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 1968), the authors warn that practitioners and clients may default to one or more of the following roles: rescuer, persecutor, or victim. The teacher, in an effort to save or help the student, may see themselves as a rescuer, or push the student outside of their goals, filling the role of the persecutor. Instead, Mills and Stoneham offer a reframing of these roles to the Challenger, Facilitator or Coach, and Co-Creator to empower practitioners and uplift clients. This reframing restores power to the client, replacing dependence with collaboration. Voice practitioners who lack experience working with trans and non-binary clients will appreciate the chapter “The Vocal Space.” Filled with practical considerations, this discussion offers specific exercises to address Journal of Singing


Bookshelf potential concerns of trans and nonbinary students. Mills and Stoneham call upon Annie, a vocal coach at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, to offer testimony in this section. She refers to the first sequence of exercises as experiments to cultivate a growth mindset. Notable experiments involve using the big toe as an anchor to find a grounded posture, enabling the release of the base of the tongue and the jaw. Annie calls these the “editor” and the “agent of will-power,” respectively. When the tongue and jaw cease to micromanage sound production, the result is increased resonance and clarity, positive attributes regardless of pitch range. Rather than obsessing with extreme tessitura modulation for trans and non-binary clients, the authors encourage voice coaches to focus on elements of the desired sound. For example, they suggest employing the terms “smile tone” and “thin folds” for transfeminine and non-binary clients who may desire a higher or lighter sound, and “yawn

space” and increased chest resonance for transmasculine and non-binary clients who may desire a lower sound with increased presence and projection. Smile tone is code for engaging the zygomatic muscles to facilitate increased soft palate lift, and thin folds suggest increased engagement of the cricothyroid muscles, while yawn space activates more pharyngeal resonance for a warmer, darker sound. The authors suggest employing these techniques at speech-level and gradually exploring a wider tessitura to cultivate an identity affirming vocal range upon a foundation of efficiency. Mills and Stoneham again warn teachers not to make assumptions about their students’ vocal goals, but to ask them, forming a growth plan together. The industries of opera, musical theater, and contemporary commercial music often emphasize Fachs and types. However, when working with trans and non-binary clients, voice pedagogues would do well to abandon types and focus their ex-

ploration on the unique goals of the client before them. In their book, Mills and Stoneham synthesize expert testimonies from trans and non-binary clients, case studies, and methods developed from psychological, therapeutic, and pedagogic practices. Thus, they offer a comprehensive guide that is of use to any voice practitioner seeking to cultivate a more inclusive studio practice.

Christina Swanson, mezzo soprano, is an Adjunct Instructor of Voice at New York University Steinhardt. She will complete her Master of Music in Vocal Performance: Classical Voice, Advanced Certificate in Vocal Pedagogy from NYU in the Spring of 2023. Christina received a Bachelor of Music degree in Vocal Performance from the University of Michigan. As a soloist, Christina has appeared with Opera MODO and NYU Opera, as well as performing as a professional chorister with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. She maintains a private voice studio in New York City, where she works with clients in contemporary, musical theater, and classical styles.

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May/June 2022

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MUSIC REVIEWS

Kathleen RolandSilverstein

I have the great pleasure of exploring and introducing two wonderful new publications by Breitkopf & Härtel, both highlighting the work of unusual and little known composers. These include the work of nineteenth century singer, scholar, and polyglot, Pauline Viardot-Garcia, and an excellent compilation of Chinese art songs. NewMusicShelf, a dynamic publisher headed by Dennis Tobienski, has been reviewed here before for an excellent new art song anthology (2019). Their latest contribution is an exciting addition to a fast growing field of interest in vocal literature and pedagogy.

Viardot-Garcia, Pauline (1821– 1910). Viardot-Garcia: Ausgewählte Lieder für Singstimme und Klavier, Band I (Selected Songs for Voice and Piano, Volume I). Miriam-Alexandra Wigbers, editor. Urtext, Breitkopf & Härtel, 2020. Twelve Settings of Russian Texts: “Das Blümlein”/“Цветок” (Alexander Puschkin); “Auf Grusiens Hügeln”/“На холмах Грузии” (Alexander Puschkin); “Ruhige, heilige Nacht”/“Тихая, звёздная Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 663–665 https://doi.org/10.53830/VTGE6584 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

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Kathleen Roland-Silverstein ночь” (Afanassi Fet); “Mitternäch­ tige Bilder”/“Полуночные образы” (Afanassi Fet); “Flüstern, atemscheues Lauschen”/“Шёпот, робкое дыханье” (Afanassi Fet); “Die Beschwörung”/“Заклинание” (Alexander Puschkin); “Die Meise”/“Синица” (Iwan Turgenejew); “Zwei Rosen”/“Две розы” (Afanassi Fet); “Des Nachts”/“Мой голос для тебя и ласковый и томный” (Alexander Puschkin); “Der Gefangene”/“Узник“ (Alexander Puschkin); “Das Vöglein”/“Птичка божия” (Alexander Puschkin); “Die Sterne”/“Звёзды” (Afanassi Fet). 5 Canti Populari Toscani: “Fiorentinische Ständchen”/“Serenata Fiorentina”; “Die Verlassene”/“C’era una volta”; “Die Dorfsängerin”/ “Non vi maravigliate”; “Die Unglückliche”/“Povera me”; “Doppel-Liebe”/“L’innamorate.” Pauline Viardot-Garcia was an extraordinary figure in the musical world of the nineteenth century. An acclaimed opera singer, voice teacher, and collaborator with opera composers such as Giacomo Meyerbeer, she was also a prolific composer, mainly of art song. Her talent, her travels, and the salon culture that formed around her, all inspired and drew together some of the greatest minds in music, culture, and literature. Her celebrated and dynamic personality entranced the likes of George Sand, Clara Schumann, Richard Wagner, Charles Dickens, Ivan Turgenev, and Hector Berlioz, only a handful of the luminaries who were drawn to Madame Viardot and her work. She began her career as a pianist, studying at one time with Franz Liszt. Her sister, Maria Malibran, was at that time the most celebrated soprano in Europe. She encouraged and supported BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

the budding pianist and included her in her own concertizing. Viardot-Garcia also accompanied voice lessons in her father’s studio, which no doubt enhanced her knowledge of the singing voice and repertoire. Viardot-Garcia’s own career as a singer, which continued for many decades, emerged from what might have been the shadow of her talented older sister, when Maria died at the age of twenty-eight from a tragic riding accident. Viardot-Garcia’s father was Manuel Garcia (senior), for whom the role of Almaviva in Il barbiere di Siviglia was created. Her brother, acclaimed pedagogue Manuel Garcia, invented the laryngoscope. In short, she was part of a powerful musical dynasty, and her gifts reflect the sphere in which she grew up. After retiring from public performance in her early forties, ViardotGarcia continued her work as a song composer, and it is during this period in her life that the songs under review here were completed, and began to be published by Breitkopf & Härtel. This newly published offering from the same publishing house is the first critical edition of these songs, released in 2021 to commemorate the composer’s birthday. In addition to the original Russian texts by Pushkin, Tergenjev, and Fet, the collection includes their German language singing translations, originally created by Friedrich Bodenstedt, as well as phonetic translations for the original Russian texts. For the Canti Populari Toscani, German singing translations (translator unknown) of Giuseppe Tigri’s poems are included. Editor Wigbers’s preface is a fascinating account of the songs’ provenance, and a thoughtful discussion of the composer’s creative personality and life. There is also a link on the publisher’s website of a recording by the editor of the songs.

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Kathleen Roland-Silverstein Those songs included in the Breitkopf & Härtel anthology display the composer’s remarkable sensitivity to text and language. She had a natural affinity for languages, which was bolstered by her family’s concertizing across many continents and countries while she was a young girl, and by her lifelong travels abroad as an adult. The songs demonstrate a variety of influences, with the twelve settings of poetry by Turgenev and Pushkin serving as a wonderful introduction to Russian song. These songs number among the earliest settings of Russian texts in European art song, made all the more effective by Viardot-Garcia’s fluency with the language and her lifelong championing of Russian music, including that of Tchaikovsky, Borodin, and Cui. The Tuscan canti clearly reflect the composer’s familiarity with bel canto sensibility and practice, which may be heard in the use of ornamentation, such as portamenti, appoggiature, and melismas. So, too, can be heard in these the importance of folk song as part of her compositional palette. Presently, the anthology is available only in one set of keys, but the songs vary in tessitura and are suitable for medium high and medium low voices. Volume II is in preparation, and will include Viardot-Garcia’s settings of poetry by Möricke, Geibel, Rellstab, Müller, Pohl, and Goethe.

Changyong, Liao, and Hartmut Höll, editors. Three Wishes from a Rose: 16 Ausgewählte chinesische Kunstlieder. Urtext, Breitkopf & Härtel, 2021. Qing, Zhu (1893– 1959), “The Great River,” “The End of Yangtze River”; Huang, Tzu (1904–1938), “Three Wishes from a Rose,” “Spring Nostalgia,” “Winter Plum Blossom,” “Ascending the

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Tower”; Liu, Shea-an (1905–1985), “Red Love Beans”; Chen, Tianhe (1911–1955), “Whither Spring”; “Farewell” (based on an ancient tune); Yinghai, Li (1927–2007), “Maple Bridge”; Lu, Zaiyi (b. 1943), “Song of the Moon”; Zhao, Jiping (b. 1945), “Ode to the Orchid,” “Home Nostalgia”; Xu, Peidong (b. 1945), “Moon over Mount Heng”; Su, Yue (1955–2018), “Moonlight Chamber”; Zhou, Yi (b. 1943), “Phoenix Hairpin.” Many of us have had the joy and privilege of teaching Chinese singers in our studios, whether privately or in a university/conservatory setting. These students sometimes share their own beautiful repertoire with their Western voice teachers, and for those of us who “live to learn,” this is always a special opportunity to add to our knowledge of vocal repertoire. With Three Wishes from a Rose, Breitkopf & Härtel has created a scholarly and well prepared anthology of art song created in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Previous music reviews of Chinese song anthologies have appeared in the Journal of Singing, most recently, Contemporary Chinese Art Songs, edited by Dr. Mei Zhong, on faculty at Ball State University. This new publication of Three Wishes from a Rose is an excellent scholarly introduction to a genre of classical art song deserving of performance by Western singers. The opening greeting and preface of Three Wishes from a Rose, by editors Changyong and Höll, respectively, describe the process by which the editors came together to create this unique compilation. The story is an interesting one: An outstanding publisher of Western art music collaborated with the Shanghai Conservatory in what Changyong describes as the moment BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

when “the world’s oldest music publishing house join hands with China’s first higher music institution for an all-round cooperation in the publication and promotion of Chinese music works and Sino-German music cultural exchange, marking the opening of a great musical and humanistic cause.” For each of the sixteen songs, phonetic translations underlie the original Chinese text. Poetic English translations, IPA translations, names and dates of the composer and poet, and detailed notes about the provenance of the songs and poems, are included. Downloads of mp3 recordings of the spoken poetic texts are available on the publisher’s website. The publisher has included beautifully rendered copies from the autograph score of a number of the songs. The songs vary in mood and tessitura, with most of the songs lying between A3 and A♭5. Some are virtuosic, while a few are more in the nature of a simple lied or folk-song. The title song, “Three Wishes From a Rose,” includes a violin obbligato accompanying a melodic line that lies well for a lower voice (A3-F#5). “Maple Bridge,” marked lento, includes a virtuosic piano part echoed by beautiful vocal melismas; “Phoenix Hairpin,” marked adagio, is similarly melismatic. “Song of the Moon” is an excellent choice for the high baritone, lying as it does between C3 and F4, with demanding dynamic changes. Dr. Jing Liu, my colleague at Chengdyu University in China, and my former student, graciously offered her own insights as a singer and scholar into these beautiful songs. Liu agrees that these are considered excellent examples of well written and well known art songs in China. Her doctoral thesis, “A Performance Guide to Mandarin-Chinese Art Songs Reflecting the Second Sino-Japanese Journal of Singing


Music Reviews War (1931–1945),”1 was particularly helpful to me in my research into this genre and this anthology in particular. Three Wishes from a Rose offers all the ingredients for an informed and satisfying guide to Chinese song, for singers and teachers of singing.

Tobienski, Dennis, Eric Saroian, and Connor Johnson, editors. Anthology of New Music: Trans and Nonbinary Voices, Volume I. Curated by Aiden K. Feltkamp. NewMusicShelf, 2021. Salmonson, Hope (b. 1999), “At a Dinner Party,” from Three Amy Levy Songs (2019); Candey, Griffin (b. 1988), “Foxes,” from Fox Songs (2019); Weinberg, Yoshi (b. 1993), “Captain of My Soul” (2018); solomon, brin (b. 1991), “And Still the Last Abandoned Angel Sings (Hallel)” (2020); Hurley, Leo (b. 1989), “Chapel Hill Gets Lonely,” from The Body Politic (2016); Crean, Rosśa (b. 1975), “Solitaire” (2019); Manfredonia, Tony (b. 1992), “Your Heart,” from Ghost Variations (2018); Li, Melissa (b. 1983), “Loser Dumplings,” from Interstate (2016); White, LJ (b. 1984), “Labor Day” (2012); Burnette, Adam (b. 1982), “Spätherbst” (2013); Schankler, Isaac (b. 1979), “With Such Teeth,” from Sharp (2007); Cohen, Nell Shaw (b. 1988), “Fallen Star” (2017, rev. 2020); Seward, Ashley, “Let the Little Birds Sing” (2020); Allegretti, Keith (b. 1989), “Breathe,” from Good Country (2019); Kaufman, Dana (b. 1989), “To my mother’s closet,” from Cycle Kardashian & Opera Kardashian (2017); Allphin, Penrose (b. 1997), “Open-Mouthed Gemini” (2019); Gleave, Rylan (b. 1997), “Walrus” (2020); Wadsworth, Mickie (b. 1998), “Lake Song” (2020); Yee, Thomas (b. 1992), “The Smoke Curls Into the May/June 2022

Sky,” from Eva and the Angel of Death (2019); Grant, Grey (b. 1993), “Prelude,” from Michigan Trees: A Guide to the Trees of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region (2019); Ressler, Pax (b. 1989), ”Love Song for Me” (2019). Like the New Music Shelf Anthology publication reviewed earlier in this journal,2 this compilation is a rollicking breath of fresh air. Curator Aiden Feltcamp’s objectives in assembling this compilation of songs were the following; “For inclusion in this anthology, a song had to have music or text by a trans and/or nonbinary creator or it had to have been written for and premiered by a trans and/or nonbinary singer.” Both Feltcamp’s loving, enthusiastic and welcoming preface and Tobienski’s foreword strongly advocate for inclusion of this body of repertoire in performances by both students and professional singers. Many of the songs are challenging musically and vocally, utilizing extended vocal techniques, wide ranges, and metric and rhythmic complexities. There are also many songs that younger singers will find provide a comfortable approach to rewarding material. Just such a song is Adam Burnette’s “Spätherbst,” a quietly powerful setting of a text that describes Heaven weeping over a gray landscape, where birds are silent, and flowers do not bloom. It is the only song written in bass clef, with a range from D#3 to E4. Leo Hurley’s “Chapel Hill Gets Lonely,” from the opera, The Body Politic, is a moving first-person description of life as a queer Muslim outsider in a college town, and is one of the most musically accessible pieces in the anthology. On the other end of the spectrum of difficulty is brin solomon’s “And Still the Last Abandoned Angel Sings (Hallel),” with multiple mixed meters and instructions near the end of BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

the piece to sing “somewhere between a shriek and a whoop.” Another exceptional aria is Thomas Yee’s “ The Smoke Curls into the Sky,” from his opera Eva and the Angel of Death,” with its evocative melismas and driving accompaniment. Ten of the songs are excerpted from larger works, both operas and song cycles. Myles McClean’s foreword is scholarly and thorough, in which the important question is asked many times, “Why do we sing?” McClean identifies many answers, including for reasons of identity, to be “seen” and heard, to encourage agency, to combat gender dysphoria, and to encourage a sense of community. He also shares interesting information about historical antecedents, including a discussion of the Fach system and of castrati in the evolution of opera. The composer and poet/lyricist biographies, which include their contact information and social media handles, are a fascinating read. There is also a link in “supplementary materials” to texts, composer bios and headshots, and program notes. In the editor’s preface, Tobienski shares the fervent wish that performers and composers will be encouraged, through this volume, to reach out in a spirit of collaboration. He writes, “Do you want to know more about a work? Reach out! NewMusicShelf is not a brick wall separating composers and performers; it is a bridge between collaborators.”

NOTES 1. Jing Liu, “Mandarin-Chinese Art Songs Reflecting the Second Sino-Japanese War (1931-1945)” (DMA dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2021). 2. Kathleen Roland-Silverstein. “New Roads in the American Art Song Journey,” Journal of Singing 75, no. 4 (March/April 2019):507–508.

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THE LISTENER’S GALLERY Letter,” “How the Waters Closed,” “Wild Nights,” “There Came a Wind Like a Bugle.”

Gregory Berg

Were I With Thee. Michelle Areyzaga, soprano; Dana Brown, piano. (4 Tay CD066; 73:44) Edouard Lippé: “How do I love thee.” Wayland Rogers: “To My Dear and Loving Husband” (I-Thou). Tres Poemas de Gabriela Mistral: “El Aire,” “El Angel Guardian,” “Apegado a mi.” Leonard Bernstein: “A Julia de Burgos” (Songfest). John Duke: “What Lips My Lips Have Kissed.” Richard Pearson Thomas: “Wild Nights—Wild Nights!” “I Never Saw a Moor,” “At Last, To Be Identified” (At Last, To Be Identified). Gwyneth Walker: “La Luz.” Emily! (from New England): “My Letter to the World,” “The Moon and the Sea,” “The Frog in the Bog,” “Hope (with Feathers),” “Passion,” “Joy,” “All I Have to Bring.” Patrice Michaels: “Anita’s Story,” “Epilogue—The long View, Questions Answered” (The Long View: A Portrait of Ruth Bader Ginsburg in Nine Songs). Lee Hoiby: “The Waltz” (Three Women). The Shining Place: “The Shining Place,” “A Journal of Singing, May/June 2022 Volume 78, No. 5, pp. 667–671 https://doi.org/10.53830/XTGT1735 Copyright © 2022 National Association of Teachers of Singing

May/June 2022

Soprano Michelle Areyzaga is one of those treasured singers who creates gold out of everything she touches, conceiving compelling projects and executing them with exceptional skill. Her latest release, Were I With Thee, may be her finest achievement yet. It presents a selection of outstanding art songs with texts by woman writers. This simple concept has not been done as often as one might assume, and rarely, if ever, has it been carried out with such a high level of excellence. The title of the recording is drawn from Emily Dickinson’s remarkable poem “Wild Nights—Wild Nights!,” and three different settings of it, by Richard Pearson Thomas, Lee Hoiby, and Gwyneth Walker, serve as the disk’s artistic nexus. Moreover, an illustration of Emily Dickinson by one of her living descendants, Kandice Dickinson, adorns the cover of the disk. It is that kind of attention to detail that elevates this recording from very good to truly great. Twelve of these twenty-six songs are recorded here for the very first time, which only underscores the significance of this release. The writers and poets are a widely varied lot, with excellence being the one and only constant. Musically, the disk mostly focuses on neo-romantic repertoire, for which both the singer and pianist have a clear affinity. That affinity is abundantly clear in their impassioned performance of Edouard Lippé’s “How Do I Love Thee?” that opens the disk. One cannot imagine Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s famous text being given a more rhapsodic setting or being performed with more openhearted BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Gregory Berg generosity. By the way, Lippé is best known as the primary voice teacher for both Nelson Eddy and Todd Duncan, but this song is a vivid indication of his considerable skill as a composer. From the pen of John Duke comes an expertly crafted setting of “What Lips My Lips Have Kissed” by Edna St. Vincent Millay, a potently expressive song that is given its world premiere recording here. Bernstein’s contribution to this collection is an excerpt from his wide ranging Songfest. It’s a setting of a fascinating poem by the gifted Puerto Rican writer and activist Julia de Burgos in which she strives to elucidate her role as a poet. Bernstein’s musical restlessness is a perfect mirror of the text’s unsettled nature. There is some of that same musical flavor in two excerpts from Patrice Michaels’s remarkable work From the Long View: A Portrait of Ruth Bader Ginsburg in Nine Songs. The remainder of the disk is given over to generous samplings of the songs of Gwyneth Walker, Lee Hoiby, Wayland Rogers, and Richard Pearson Thomas. Walker’s chief contribution to this recording is her stunning song cycle Emily!, which features marvelously crafted settings of seven poems by Emily Dickinson. There is a vivid, pictorial quality to Walker’s songs, as well as a sense that her songs spring directly from the beautiful natural world around her. This is the work’s world premiere recording. Walker also contributes to the proceedings a playful setting of “La Luz” by the Chilean poet and humanitarian Gabriela Mistral, the first Latin American writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Mistral’s deeply personal texts are also the basis for three songs by Chicago-based composer Wayland Rogers, whose lush,

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Gregory Berg heartfelt style is a perfect match for Areyzaga and Brown. Two of the three songs were written specifically for Areyzaga, and they suit her perfectly. Richard Pearson Thomas, a gifted and prolific Montana-born composer, is represented by At Last, To Be Identified, a setting of three Emily Dickinson texts that beautifully balance starkness with tenderheartedness. These expertly crafted songs leave us longing to hear more from him. The balance of the disk belongs to the great Lee Hoiby, whose unashamedly emotional approach very much echoes that of his primary teacher, Gian Carlo Menotti. The Shining Place, a setting of five widely varied Dickinson poems, stands among Hoiby’s best works and calls forth some of Areyzaga’s finest singing. Areyzaga possesses an exceptionally lovely instrument that she deploys with flawless ease and evenness. Her musical instincts are unerring, and she embraces the rich emotionality of these songs without the histrionic excesses that such repertoire can so easily evoke. Her articulation of these texts, both the English and Spanish, is crystal clear, yet utterly natural. Pianist Dana Brown is Areyzaga’s equal partner in every way. As with most literature written in this style, these are thickly textured piano parts that a less accomplished pianist might turn to meaningless mush. Brown dispatches them with clarity and precision, yet also wrings every ounce of beauty from them. Brown is also responsible for the liner notes, which offer up illuminating information on the works that comprise this recording. Full texts and translations are available at wereiwiththee.com. This release could not be more highly recommended.

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Original Cast Album: Company (The Criterion Collection). D. A. Pennebaker, director. (Criterion 1090; 53:00)

The death of 91 year old Stephen Sondheim in late 2021 touched off a massive outpouring of sorrow well beyond the music community. It is fair to say that no single figure has been a more influential and important force in music theater over the last half century, and the world suddenly seems like a less vibrant and creative place with his passing. Remarkably, Sondheim was hard at work on his latest project almost right to the end, which serves to underscore the sense of loss that his death represents. Criterion’s re-release of the remarkable documentary Original Cast Album: Company could not have been more propitiously timed, becoming an ideal if inadvertent memorial tribute to Sondheim and his irrepressible genius. The film captures the memorable 1970 marathon session during which the original cast album of Sondheim’s Company was recorded. The documentary was actually the brainchild of producer David Susskind, who envisioned a series of short films documenting the making of a succession of such original cast albums. The film about Company was meant to be something of a pilot, a sample of what such films might look and sound like. D. A. Pennebaker was approached for the project because he had already made a name for himself in the relatively new field of cinéma vérité, the style that Susskind believed would be most appropriate for such a film. By the time the film was completed, Susskind and his associates moved BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

on to new positions at MGM and any prospects for further films to be made for the series simply evaporated. This single film was all that remained of the aborted project, existing as a sort of wonderful accident for the way it managed to capture a magical moment in music theater history. At this time, original cast albums were typically recorded within a week of the show’s opening, usually unfolding over the course of a Sunday afternoon. Sondheim’s Company, however, was not your typical show, and it presented all kinds of knotty challenges to its singers, orchestra members, and producers. What had been optimistically envisioned as an eight-hour session eventually stretched to more than twice that long, and what began in a spirit of fun and excitement became an increasingly tense affair. Pennebaker’s crew was there to capture it all, and the resulting film is a three-fold celebration of Sondheim, this show, and the gifted musicians struggling to surmount its many challenges. Pennebaker’s cameras allow us to view the singers in action from amazingly close proximity, giving us the opportunity to observe even the most minute aspects of their performances with breathtaking clarity. One interesting choice Pennebaker made was to occasionally zero in on certain instruments in the orchestra, both sonically and visually, in order for the audience to catch certain inner voices within the instrumental fabric that might not otherwise be noticed. One comes away from these moments with a new appreciation for the rich complexity of Sondheim’s score even apart from the sophisticated vocal lines that so often captivate us to the exclusion of all other musical matters. Two musical numbers captured in the film have taken on the patina of Journal of Singing


The Listener’s Gallery legend. One of them is Dean Jones’s riveting performance of the show’s great anthem “Being Alive,” in which the central character of Bobby finally begins to break through the curtain of uncertainty that has held him back from pursuing a serious or meaningful relationship, finally realizing that the pain, frustration, and unpredictability of it all are essential to being fully human. In one of the commentaries, Sondheim pronounces that Jones never sang this incredible song any better than he sang it on this occasion. The other legendary performance captured in this film was not the same sort of triumph. The brilliant but erratic Elaine Stritch agreed to switch places in the schedule with Dean Jones, meaning that her towering solo “The Ladies who lunch” would be recorded at the very end of the recording session. It was not until three in the morning that Stritch finally stood before the microphones to begin this fiercely demanding song with a voice that by then sounded like battered leather. Take after take is attempted, but Stritch’s voice and energy are not up to the challenge. The ordeal occupies about ten minutes time toward the end of the film, but it feels like it goes on for hours on end. Pennebaker said later that he was astonished at the time that the producers in the booth, as well as Sondheim himself, were so displeased by what appeared to him to be one riveting performance after another. He was forgetting that the producers were making an audio-only recording, and Stritch’s raw and even painful vocalism was simply unacceptable for such a document. It is an extraordinary bit of drama that ends only when the decision is made to lay down an orchestral track to which Stritch’s vocals will be added when she is up to the challenge. (One might May/June 2022

wonder why they didn’t think of it much earlier, but we are viewing this from a world in which instantaneous cutting and pasting is ridiculously easy. A half century ago, it was not so common or so easily done.) In a triumphant coda to the film, we get to see and hear Stritch’s soaring performance from two days later, her voice restored to its radiant glory. Criterion’s edition presents Pennebaker’s film in remastered splendor. There are commentary tracks with Pennebaker, Sondheim, stage director Hal Prince, and Elaine Stritch. Just as interesting is a prerecorded dual interview with Sondheim and his frequent collaborator Jonathan Tunick, as well as an additional conversation between Tunick and Ted Chapin, who managed to be present in the recording studio to witness most of what unfolded back in 1970. These conversations offer up a plethora of fascinating insights on the role that the orchestra plays in a show like Company and on the challenges of orchestration. On a lighter note, the release also includes Original Cast Album: Co-op, a spoof of Pennebaker’s film written by John Mulaney and Seth Meyers, which was an episode of the mock-documentary series Documentary Now! There is also a zoom interview with its cast in which they talk about their affection for Pennebaker’s original film. All in all, this Criterion release more than lives up to the label’s reputation for exceptional attention to detail as well as the highest standards of technical quality. They have treated this one of a kind documentary with the loving care that it fully merits.

STILLED VOICES Of the singers we lost in 2021, none was more beloved or important than BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

the great Christa Ludwig (1928– 2021), whose remarkable onstage career began with her opera debut in 1946 (as Orlofsky) and ended with a final Klytemnestra at the Vienna State Opera in 1994. For nearly half a century, Ludwig graced opera, recital, and concert stages around the world with her warm, luscious voice and incomparable artistry, collaborating with all of the finest singers and conductors of her time. This writer will never forget the priceless experience of witnessing her performance of Schubert’s Winterreise at the Ravinia Festival in the summer of 1991. As the final sounds of “Der Leiermann” faded away, the audience remained transfixed in silence for more than a minute. It was as though the world had stopped spinning on its axis, and we did not want anything to interrupt that blessed stillness. There are very few singers capable of casting that kind of spell on an audience. Ludwig was one of them. Your columnist wrote these words over a dozen years ago: In his book Opera People, Robert Jacobson called Christa Ludwig “the Earth-Mother of all singers” and the moniker was fitting in every possible way. There was the arresting beauty of the sound itself, from its opulent depths to his radiant heights. There was the reassuring strength of her technique, which allowed her to sing with ease and utter security. There was the intense expressiveness of her singing, wed to a disarming simplicity and directness which set her apart from some of her famous contemporaries. That lack of pretentiousness was a hallmark of her offstage personality as well, for which she was adored by fans and colleagues alike. In short, Christa Ludwig was everything that a professional singer should be, and the fact that she was able to sing for so long with such excellence is perhaps the highest tribute of all (“The

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Gregory Berg Listener’s Gallery,” Journal of Singing 65, no. 1, September/October 2008).

There are several sprawling tributes to Ludwig that celebrate her legacy in thorough fashion. The Christa Ludwig Edition, a 12-CD set from Deutsche Grammophon, was released in 2018 to celebrate the singer’s 90th birthday. It features everything from Mahler’s sorrowful Kindertotenlieder to Bernstein’s entertaining Candide, and includes a lavishly appointed sixty page booklet. The same year, Warner Classics released an 11-disk set that limits its scope to the years 1957–1972, which constitute the singer’s prime. A third set worth considering is titled Ludwig: Her First Recordings—The Greatest Successes, on the Imports label. If one is curious to hear Ludwig in some of her earliest roles such as the Second Lady in Mozart’s The Magic Flute, this is the set for you. It includes a mix of studio and live recordings with nothing later than 1960. Delightful and intriguing rarities abound. If you are looking for a single disk, one of the best choices is Ludwig: Highlights 1955–1975, a disk from Orfeo that features her in excerpts from live performances at the Vienna State Opera, which (along with the Salzburg Festival) was her primary artistic home. One can hear splendidly sung samples of her Cherubino, Dorabella, Marschallin, Dyer’s Wife, and both the Composer and title role from Ariadne auf Naxos. If you prefer studio recordings, you should opt for a volume from EMI’s Great Recordings of the Century series that features Ludwig’s collaboration with Otto Klemperer in the Wesendonck Lieder, Alto Rhapsody, “Liebestod,” five songs by Mahler, and Leonora’s great aria from Fidelio. This captures Ludwig at the height of her considerable powers.

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Lastly, one should consider acquiring Christa Ludwig: A 70th Birthday Tribute (BMG), which is devoted almost entirely to soprano roles that played little or no significant role in her career. A definite highlight is her thrilling traversal of the Immolation Scene from Götterdämmerung that helps us understand why she was sorely tempted to undertake roles like Brünnhilde. Even more astounding is the soaring beauty of her rendition of “Es gibt ein Reich” from Ariadne auf Naxos, perhaps the finest performance of this demanding aria ever committed to disk. The disk also includes a searing performance of the Recognition Scene from Elektra that serves as a potent reminder of her many memorable onstage collaborations with her first husband, baritone Walter Berry. Lastly, one should seriously consider acquiring a double DVD titled Christa Ludwig: The Birthday Edition (ArtHaus Musik). The first disk is a generous sampling of her masterful lieder singing in performances drawn from every phase of her long career, along with brief excerpts from two of her opera roles. The second disk allows us to see Ludwig as a master class clinician, demonstrating an ideal if all too rare combination of warmhearted encouragement with relentless meticulousness. This should be required viewing for anyone wanting to engage in this kind of instruction. She is simply the best. Slovakian soprano Edita Gruber­ ova (1946–2021) enjoyed an even longer career on the opera and concert stage than Ludwig, but her singing was more of an acquired taste. The voice was never conventionally beautiful and her sense of style and musicality could be rather peculiar. Still, she was capable of delivering thrilling BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

fireworks in some of the most difficult coloratura repertoire, and she retained impressive control of her instrument right up to her farewell to the stage— a triumphant 2019 performance of Roberto Devereux with the Bavarian State Opera that came 51 years after her operatic debut. (A pirate video of this performance, captured by someone in the audience, can be seen on Youtube and is worth seeking out.) Gruberova was a prolific recording artist, and every one of her significant opera roles can be heard in both studio and live recordings. Among the most notable is the Decca Ariadne auf Naxos conducted by Kurt Masur, in which Gruberova’s Zerbinetta all but steals the show from Jessye Norman’s Ariadne. It is difficult to imagine another soprano delighting in the fiendish difficulty of this role the way Gruberova does. Another stunning example of Gruberova at her very best is a 1991 live performance of Bellini’s I puritani from the Metropolitan Opera (Sony) that finds her in scintillating yet tasteful form. Her cast mates include Chris Merritt and Paul Plishka, and Richard Bonynge is the assured conductor. A fascinating if flawed recording worth seeking out is the Deutsche Grammophon The Tales of Hoffmann with Placido Domingo in the title role and Gruberova undertaking all four heroines. It falls short of the ideal, but Gruberova’s earnest efforts are endearing and always interesting. Finally, one will find much to enjoy in the Orfeo disk titled The Art of the Coloratura, which features such vocal bonbons as Johann Strauss’s “Voices of Springtime” and Reinhold Gliere’s Concerto for Coloratura and Orchestra. Mention should also be made of Gruberova’s much discussed appearance in Jean-Pierre Ponnelle’s Journal of Singing


The Listener’s Gallery 1981 film version of Verdi’s Rigoletto (Decca) with Luciano Pavarotti and Ingvar Wixell. This is a garish, over the top production that people tend to adore or detest, but Gruberova’s emotionally wrenching performance of Gilda established her as much more than a mere songbird. Russian bass Yevgeny Nesterenko (1938–2021) enjoyed a long and important career that encompassed more than fifty leading roles and took him to many of Europe’s most significant stages. Oddly, he seems to have scarcely set foot in North America, but he made his presence known here through the many recordings he made that managed to capture the peculiar beauty of his voice. For a full appreciation of this artist, one should bypass more standard fare in favor of the many Russian operas he recorded, including Rimsky-Korsakov’s The Tsar’s Bride, Tchaikovsky’s Mazeppa, and Rachmaninoff’s Aleko. Two important singers who were shamefully neglected by recording companies were Teresa ZylisGara (1930–2021) and Giuseppe Giacomini (1940–2021.) The Polish soprano enjoyed many years of prominence at the Metropolitan Opera singing roles like Cio Cio San, Tosca, Manon Lescaut, and Desdemona with beauty and sensitivity. Sadly, the major recording companies took little notice and Zylis-Gara’s recorded legacy is all but nonexistent. Her fiery Donna Elvira is preserved on the Karl Böhm Don Giovanni (Deutsche Grammophon), but it makes much more sense to investigate the broadcasts of Faust, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte, and Otello that are available on Met Opera On Demand. As for the Italian tenor, his most important studio recordings, Cavalleria rusticana and Norma, find him saddled with May/June 2022

ill matched or poorly cast colleagues. The best way to celebrate Giacomini’s distinctive and exciting singing is to seek out Il Mito dell’Opera- Giuseppe Giacomini (Bongiovanni), with live recordings from 1969 to 1996. The best moments from this disk find him in thrilling form in arias from Andrea Chenier, La fanciulla del West, Otello, and Tosca, hurling out his powerful, caramel colored sound with exciting abandon. He can also be seen and heard in the Metropolitan Opera’s video of La forza del destino (Deutsche Grammophon) opposite the legendary Leontyne Price. Giacomini may have been a less than charismatic figure on the stage, but he was a fine singer and musician, and his performance here is exemplary. American soprano Gianna Rolandi (1952–2021) enjoyed tremendous success at the New York City Opera for twenty years, taking up many of the roles that had been sung by the illustrious Beverly Sills, but bringing

to them her own sparkle and charm. Rolandi may be even more fondly remembered for her loving mentorship of young singers as director of the Lyric Opera of Chicago’s Center for American Artists. A beautiful memento of her artistry can be found with the Glyndebourne recording of Le nozze di Figaro, which preserves her beguiling Susanna. Finally, mention must be made of the passing of Sally Ann Howes (1930–2021), whose wide ranging career included music theater, television, and film. She is perhaps best remembered in America for her exquisite performance as Truly Scrumptious in the 1968 film Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. She can be heard in the original cast recordings of I Remember Mama and What Makes Sammy Run, but the single finest memento of her singing is found in the 1966 recording of Brigadoon (Sony), the soundtrack to an Emmy Award-winning telecast of that Lerner and Loewe classic.

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Journal of Singing Author Index to Volume 78 Agha, Ari, and Laura Hynes. Exogenous Testosterone and the Transgender Singing Voice: A 30-Month Case Study. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 441–455. American Academy of Teachers of Singing. NATS Visits AATS: The American Academy of Teachers of Singing at 100: Respecting Tradition and Advancing Change. 78:4 (March/ April 2022): 435–440. American Academy of Teachers of Singing. NATS Visits AATS: Ethical Behavior Within the Voice Teaching Profession. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 7–9. Arnold, Donna. Provenance: A World Famous, Yet Unknown, Countertenor: Basile Bolotine of Serge Jaroff’s Don Cossack Choir. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 517–522. Berg, Gregory. The Listener’s Gallery. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 145–148; 78:2 (November/December 2021): 305–308; 78:3 (January/February 2022): 421–425; 78:4 (March/April 2022): 545–548; 78:5 (May/June 2022): 667–669. Berg, Gregory. Stilled Voices. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 669–671. Bernardini, Denise, and Lauren DiMaio. Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Time. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 591–599. Bester, Christian. A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 569–582. Bester, Christian, and Bronwen Forbay. Language and Diction: An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song: A Guide to Lyric Diction. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 497–506. Bester, Christian, and Bronwen Forbay. An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song Literature: Origins and Repertoire. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 471–482. Bigler, Amelia Rollings, and Katherine Osborne. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Citizens of NATS. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 553–554. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Coming Home; Together Again! 78:2 (November/December) 2021: 153–154. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Diversity and Inclusion: Actions Sing Louder than Words. 78:1 (September/ October 2021): 1–2. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Lift Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 429–430. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Meeting the Needs of NATS Members Throughout the World. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 313–314. Bos, Nancy, Joanne Bozeman, and Cate Frazier-Neely. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Bozeman, Joanne, Cate Frazier-Neely, and Nancy Bos. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. May/June 2022

Bozeman, Kenneth, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 389–393. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: Clergyman’s Sore Throat. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 113–117. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: David Clark Taylor, Part 1. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 273–277. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: David Clark Taylor, Part 2. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 395–400. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: Leone Giraldoni and the “Method, Analytical, Philosophical, and Physiological Method for Voice Education.” 78:5 (May/June 2022): 641–644. Brodnik, Pia, and Leslie De’Ath. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Brook, Julia, Ben Schnitzer, and Colleen Renihan. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. Brown, Kirsten S. Singing Messiah, Then and Now: How Handel’s Singers Influenced Messiah’s Composition and Inform Performances.78:4 (March/April 2022): 457–469. Browning, William. Collab Corner: The Art of Accompanying [Part 1]. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 523–526. Browning, William. Collab Corner: The Art of Accompanying [Part 2]. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 645–648. Carroll, Tom, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, and Allen Henderson. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Chandler, Chuck. Fitness Training and the Singing Voice: Successful Strategies for Integration. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 337–346. Cole, Amanda. António Fragoso’s Canções do Sol Poente: A Song Cycle of Saudade from the Renascença Portuguesa. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 29–45. Collyer, Sarah, and Ajhriahna Henshaw. Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 583–590. Daniel-Cox, Minnita, and Justin John Moniz. The Vocal Point: Honoring a Legacy: The Final Conversation with Arthur Woodley. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 289–294. De’Ath, Leslie. Language and Diction: Toward a Transcription Standard for Lyric Italian. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 89–98. De’Ath, Leslie, and Pia Brodnik. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. DiMaio, Lauren, and Denise Bernardini. Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Time. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 591–599. Edgar, Julia D., and Deirdre D. Michael. Voice Pedagogy: Who Believes What? Singers’ Belief in Vocal Health Information and Misinformation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 197–206.

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Journal of Singing Author Index to Volume 77 Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: The Alphabet Soup of Singing. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 99–100. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Lift Your Voice! 78:4 (March/April 2022): 507–508. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Revisiting Stage Fright. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 625–627. Faust, Jeremy, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, and Tom Carroll. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Fleming, Rachelle, Renée Fleming, and Ingo Titze. Voice Research and Technology: The FlemIngo Stance: Resistance Training in Breath Management. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 83–86. Fleming, Renée, Ingo Titze, and Rachelle Fleming. Voice Research and Technology: The FlemIngo Stance: Resistance Training in Breath Management. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 83–86. Forbay, Bronwen, and Christian Bester. Language and Diction: An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song: A Guide to Lyric Diction. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 497–506. Forbay, Bronwen, and Christian Bester. An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song Literature: Origins and Repertoire. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 471–482. Frazier-Neely, Cate, Nancy Bos, and Joanne Bozeman. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Garrett, Margo. Collab Corner: Thoughts on What May Be Ahead for Artists and the Performing Arts. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 119–122. Greschner, Debra. Bookshelf. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 135–139; 78:2 (November/December 2021): 297–300; 78:3 (January/February 2022): 413–416; 78:4 (March/April 2022): 535–538; 78:5 (May/June 2022): 657–658. Helding, Lynn, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 635–640. Helding, Lynn, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, and John Nix. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Henderson, Allen, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David, Meyer, John Nix, and Lynn Helding. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Henshaw, Ajhriahna, and Sarah Collyer. Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 583–590. Hoch, Matthew. Voice Pedagogy: The Postpandemic Pedagogue. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 483–489. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with George Shirley, Part 1. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 405–409. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with George Shirley, Part 2. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 527–531.

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Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Jerold Siena, Part 1. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 649–653. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Kate Lindsey, Part 2. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 127–132. Howell, Jessica B., and Jaime Eaglin Moore. Care of the Professional Voice: Laryngeal Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 355–358. Hynes, Laura, and Ari Agha. Exogenous Testosterone and the Transgender Singing Voice: A 30-Month Case Study. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 441–455. Isley-Farmer, Christine. Care of the Professional Voice: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Guide to Causes, Treatment, Problems, and Coping Strategies. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 75–81. Kandl, Jessica, and Jaime Moore. Care of the Professional Voice: Parkinson Disease. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 609–612. Kosin, Kelci. Mastering the Aria through Song: Daron Hagen’s Amelia, “Apostrophe to the Stars,” and Selected Hagen Art Songs. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 47–54. Lanza, Elizabeth, Megan Lee, and Brian Manternach. The Independent Teacher: Taking a Different Path: From Voice Teacher to Speech-Language Pathologist. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 383–387. Lee, Megan, Brian Manternach, and Elizabeth Lanza. The Independent Teacher: Taking a Different Path: From Voice Teacher to Speech-Language Pathologist. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 383–387. Leigh-Post, Karen. Mindful Voice: Perspectives on Perception for Optimal Performance. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 261–271. Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Shaming and Blaming. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 103–107. Manternach, Brian, Elizabeth Lanza, and Megan Lee. The Independent Teacher: Taking a Different Path: From Voice Teacher to Speech-Language Pathologist. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 383–387. Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Time Spent: The Forty-Hour Workweek. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 629–634. Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Voice Elevated. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 509–511. Maxfield, Lynn. Mindful Voice: Being versus Doing: Conflating Identity with Occupation. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 109–111. Maxfield, Lynn. Mindful Voice: Competition and Creativity. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 513–515. McCoy, Scott. Voice Pedagogy: Reflections on my Life as a Mechanic (Vocal and Otherwise). 78:1 (September/October 2021): 71–74. Meyer, David, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, and Christine Petersen. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232.

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Journal of Singing


Journal of Singing Author Index to Volume 78  Michael, Deirdre D., and Julia D. Edgar. Voice Pedagogy: Who Believes What? Singers’ Belief in Vocal Health Information and Misinformation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 197–206. Mitton, Dann. Voice Pedagogy; Habilitation for the Aging Singer. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 347–354. Moniz, Justin John. The Changing Face of Opera in America: Musical Theatre on the American Operatic Stage. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 171–176. Moniz, Justin John. Voice Pedagogy: Regulating Vocal Load in High Impact Production. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 601–607. Moniz, Justin John, and Minnita Daniel-Cox. The Vocal Point: Honoring a Legacy: The Final Conversation with Arthur Woodley. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 289–294. Moore, Jaime Eaglin, and Jessica B. Howell. Care of the Professional Voice: Laryngeal Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 355–358. Moore, Jaime, and Jessica Kandl. Care of the Professional Voice: Parkinson Disease. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 609–612. Moteki, Mutsumi. Collab Corner: Lessons from a Genius: A Tribute to Glenn Parker (1955–1996). 78:2 (November/ December 2021): 279–286. Nix, John, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, and David Meyer. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Osborne, Katherine, and Amelia Rollings Bigler. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Park, Sooah. “La lune blanche.” 78:1 (September/October 2021): 55–69. Patinka, Paul. Representations in Vocal Repertoire. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 161–170. Petersen, Christine, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, and Jeremy Faust. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Pollack, Howard. Singing Finnegans Wake: A Key to Samuel Barber’s “Nuvoletta.” 78:3 (January/February 2022): 319–325. Radhakrishnan, Nandhu. Guest Book Review. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 658–659. Ragan, Kari, and Kenneth Bozeman. Mindful Voice: EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 389–393. Ragan, Kari, and Lynn Helding. Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 635–640. Ramalho, Marcel. Language and Diction: Issues of Lyric Diction of Brazilian Portuguese as Applied to José Siqueira’s Oito Canções Populares Brasileiras. Language and Diction: 78:3 (January/February 2022): 363–373. Renihan, Colleen, Julia Brook, and Ben Schnitzer. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. May/June 2022

Roland-Silverstein, Kathleen. Music Reviews [no title]. 78:5 (May/ June 2022): 663–665. Roland-Silverstein, Kathleen. Music Reviews: American Songs— Bonds, Laitman, Mahy—and Jean Cras, A Master of 20th Century Mélodie. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 141–144. Roland-Silverstein, Kathleen. Music Reviews: Onward, Upward: Songs About Women. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 539–541. Roland-Silverstein, Kathleen. Music Reviews: Songs for a Hopeful Age. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 417–419. Roland-Silverstein, Kathleen. Music Reviews: Voice of the Americans, from South to North. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 301–303. Romano, Tessa. Types of Testosterone Therapy and their Effects on the Voices of Transgender Singers. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 327–336. Sansom, Rockford. The Independent Teacher: When Corporate Executives Sing: A Multidisciplinary Invittion. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 255–259. Sataloff, Robert T. Care of the Professional Voice: World Voice Day 2022. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 491–493. Schnitzer, Ben, Colleen Renihan, and Julia Brook. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. Simonson, Donald. Recent Research in Singing. 78:1 (September/ October 2021): 133–134; 78:2 (November/December 2021): 295–296; 78:3 (January/February 2022): 411–412.\; 78:4 (March/April 2022): 533.534; 78:5 (May/June 2022): 655–656. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Cecilia and Me. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 155–158. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Lift Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 431–433. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: The Long Silence. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 315–317. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Plus ça change . . . 78:1 (September/October 2021): 3–5. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary. A Time To . . . 78:5 (May/June 2022): 555–558. Smigelski, Mikhail. Language and Diction: Phonetics of Unstressed Russian Vowels in Singing. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 615–624. Story, Brad H., and Ingo Titze. Voice Research and Technology: How Well Does the Larynx “Canal” Match the Ear Canal? 78:3 (January/February 2022): 359–361. Swanson, Christina. Guest Book Review. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 659–661. Switzer, Erika. Collab Corner: Collaborative Resilience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 401–404. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: The Acoustic Characteristics of Vocal Twang. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 613–614. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: Lift Up Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 495–496.

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Journal of Singing Author Index to Volume 77 Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: Self-Organization in Vocal Mechanics and Physiology. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 233–234. Titze, Ingo, Rachelle Fleming, and Renée Fleming. Voice Research and Technology: The FlemIngo Stance: Resistance Training in Breath Management. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 83–86. Titze, Ingo., and Brad H. Story. Voice Research and Technology: How Well Does the Larynx “Canal” Match the Ear Canal? 78:3 (January/February 2022): 359–361.

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Van Doorn, Ineke. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Breathing Technique for Jazz/Pop Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 247–253. Van Es, Marjon. Die Winterreise and Winterreise: A Comparison of Wilhelm Müller’s Cycle of Poems and Franz Schubert’s Cycle of Songs for Voice and Piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 193–196. Zavracky, Gregory. Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 559–568.

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Journal of Singing


Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78

Association Business Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Citizens of NATS. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 553–554. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Coming Home; Together Again! 78:2 (November/December) 2021: 153–154. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Diversity and Inclusion: Actions Sing Louder than Words. 78:1 (September/ October 2021): 1–2. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Lift Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 429–430. Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Meeting the Needs of NATS Members Throughout the World. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 313–314. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: The Alphabet Soup of Singing. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 99–100. Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Voice Elevated. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 509–511. Sataloff, Robert T. Care of the Professional Voice: World Voice Day 2022. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 491–493. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Lift Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 431–433. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Plus ça change . . . 78:1 (September/October 2021): 3–5. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary. A Time To . . . 78:5 (May/June 2022): 555–558. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: Lift Up Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 495–496.

Book Reviews Alderson, Ann, and Richard Alderson. A New Handbook for Singers and Teachers. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 658. Alderson, Richard, and Ann Alderson. A New Handbook for Singers and Teachers. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 658. Balliro, Linda. Being a Singer: The Art, Craft, and Science. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 138–139. Brodovitch, Elizabeth, and Lori McCann. Chants d’Auvergne: A Singer’s Guide to Auvergnat Pronunciation. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 414–415. Caicedo, Patricia. The Latin American Art Song: Sounds of the Imagined Nations. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 657–658. Caicedo, Patricia. We Are What We Listen To: The Impact of Music on Individual and Social Health. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 537. Chu, Katherine, and Juliet Petrus. Singing in Mandarin: A Guide to Chinese Lyric Diction and Vocal Repertoire. 78:1 (September/ October 2021): 135–136. Draina, Bonnie. The Breathing Book for Singers. 78:2 (November/ December 2021): 298–299. Ficken, Ted. Music of Hate, Music for Healing: Paired Stories from the Hate Music Industry and the Profession of Music Therapy. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 537–538. Friedlander, Claudia. The Singer’s Audition and Career Handbook. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 413–414. May/June 2022

Gerbi, Elizabeth, and Bob Marks. Bob Marks’ 88 Keys to Successful Singing Performances: Audition Advice from One of America’s Top Vocal Coaches. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 138. Goren, Neal. Beyond the Aria: Artistic Self-Empowerment for the Classical Singer. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 299–300. Hoch, Matthew, ed. So You Want to Sing with Awareness: A Guide for Performers. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 136–137. Hutchison, Linda, and Ron Morris. If in Doubt, Breathe Out! 78:3 (January/February 2022): 416. Loges, Natasha, and Laura Tunbridge, eds. German Song Onstage: Lieder Performance in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 297–298. LeRoux, François, and Romain Raynaldy. Le Chant Intime: The Interpretation of French Mélodie. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 535–536. Marks, Bob, and Elizabeth Gerbi. Bob Marks’ 88 Keys to Successful Singing Performances: Audition Advice from One of America’s Top Vocal Coaches. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 138. McCann, and Elizabeth Brodovitch. Chants d’Auvergne: A Singer’s Guide to Auvergnat Pronunciation. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 414–415. Mills, Matthew, and Gillie Stoneham. Voice and Communication Therapy with Trans and Non-Binary People: Sharing the Clinical Space. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 659–661. Montgomery, Cheri. Russian Lyric Diction Workbook. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 415–416. Morris, Ron, and Linda Hutchison. If in Doubt, Breathe Out! 78:3 (January/February 2022): 416. Petrus, Juliet, and Katherine Chu. Singing in Mandarin: A Guide to Chinese Lyric Diction and Vocal Repertoire. 78:1 (September/ October 2021): 135–136. Raynaldy, Romain, and François LeRoux. Le Chant Intime: The Interpretation of French Mélodie. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 535–536. Sansom, Rockford, ed. The History of Voice Pedagogy: Multidisciplinary Reflections on T raining. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 536. Stoneham, Gillie, and Matthew Mills. Voice and Communication Therapy with Trans and Non-Binary People: Sharing the Clinical Space. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 659–661. Stoney, Justin. Sing Like Never Before: A Creative Look at Vocal Technique and Pedagogy for Singers and Voice Teachers. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 137–138. Tunbridge, Laura, and Natasha Loges, eds. German Song Onstage: Lieder Performance in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Cen­turies. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 297–298. Woo, Peak. Stroboscopy and High-Speed Imaging of the Vocal Function, 2nd ed. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 658–659.

Careers American Academy of Teachers of Singing. NATS Visits AATS: Ethical Behavior Within the Voice Teaching Profession. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 7–9.

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Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Bigler, Amelia Rollings, and Katherine Osborne. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Brook, Julia, Ben Schnitzer, and Colleen Renihan. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. Collyer, Sarah, and Ajhriahna Henshaw. Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 583–590. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Revisiting Stage Fright. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 625–627. Garrett, Margo. Collab Corner: Thoughts on What May Be Ahead for Artists and the Performing Arts. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 119–122. Henshaw, Ajhriahna, and Sarah Collyer. Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 583–590. Osborne, Katherine, and Amelia Rollings Bigler. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Lanza, Elizabeth, Megan Lee, and Brian Manternach. The Independent Teacher: Taking a Different Path: From Voice Teacher to Speech-Language Pathologist. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 383–387. Lee, Megan, Brian Manternach, and Elizabeth Lanza. The Independent Teacher: Taking a Different Path: From Voice Teacher to Speech-Language Pathologist. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 383–387. Manternach, Brian, Elizabeth Lanza, and Megan Lee. The Independent Teacher: Taking a Different Path: From Voice Teacher to Speech-Language Pathologist. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 383–387. Renihan, Colleen, Julia Brook, and Ben Schnitzer. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. Schnitzer, Ben, Colleen Renihan, and Julia Brook. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182.

CD/DVD Reviews Are Women People? The Songs of Lori Laitman. Nicole Cabell, Maureen McKay, soprano; Daniel Belcher, baritone; Four Coast Ensemble; Andrew Rosenblum, Maria Sumareva, Lori Laitman, piano; Tarn Travers, violin. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 422–424. Birds of Love and Prey: Song Cycles by Eric Kitchen, Andrew Earle Simpson, Gabriel Thibaudeau. Deborah Sternberg, soprano; Andrew Earle Simpson, Mark Vogel, piano. 78:3 (January/ February 2022): 421–422. Bold Beauty: Songs by Juliana Hall. Molly Fillmore, soprano; Elvia Puccinelli, piano. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 545–546. Confessions. Laura Strickling, soprano; Joy Schreier, piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 306-307. Daniel Thomas Davis: Family Secrets: Kith and Kin. Andrea Edith Moore, soprano; Jane Holding, speaker; Elizabeth Phelps,

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violin; Nicholas Photinos, cello; Bo Newsome, oboe; Lisa Kaplan, piano; Hank Smith, banjo; Timothy Myers, conductor. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 146–147. Deon Nilsen Price: Radiance in Motion. Darryl Taylor, countertenor; Roland Kato, various instrumentalists. 78:4 (March/ April 2022): 547–548. Dreams of a New Day: Songs by Black Composers. Will Liverman, baritone; Paul Sánchez, piano. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 145–146. Heinrich Marschner: Songs for Baritone. Jeffrey Williams, baritone; Sangeetha Ekambaram, soprano; Jennifer McGuire, piano. 78:2 (November/December 2020): 305–306. Kirsten Flagstad: Rarities. Kirsten Flagstad, soprano; Set Svanholm, tenor; Clemens Krauss, Carl von Garaguly, Johan HyeKnudsen, conductor. Berlin Symphony Orchestra; Danish Radio Orchestra and Chorus; Havana Philharmonic. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 147–148. Love for Ghena—A 75th Anniversary Portrait of Ghena Dimitrova. Dimitar Sotirov, director; Milena Stoykova, producer. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 307–308. Margaret Bonds: The Ballad of the Brown King & Selected Songs. Lacquinta Mitchell, soprano; Lucia Bradford, mezzo soprano; Noah Steward, tenor; Malcolm J. Merriweather, baritone; Ashley Jackson, harp; The Dessoff Choirs and Orchestra, Malcolm J. Merriweather, conductor. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 546–547. Marian Anderson: Beyond the Music. Marian Anderson, contralto; Roberta Peters, soprano; Jan Peerce, tenor, Leonard Warren, baritone; Franz Rupp, John Motley, Kosti Vehanen, piano; various orchestras/conductors. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 424–425. Original Cast Album: Company (The Criterion Collection). 78:5 (May/June 2022): 668–669. Were I With Thee. Michelle Areyzaga, soprano; Dana Brown, piano. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 667–668.

Collaborative Pianists Browning, William. Collab Corner: The Art of Accompanying [Part 1]. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 523–526. Browning, William. Collab Corner: The Art of Accompanying [Part 2]. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 645–648. Garrett, Margo. Collab Corner: Thoughts on What May Be Ahead for Artists and the Performing Arts. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 119–122. Moteki, Mutsumi. Collab Corner: Lessons from a Genius: A Tribute to Glenn Parker (1955–1996). 78:2 (November/ December 2021): 279–286. Switzer, Erika. Collab Corner: Collaborative Resilience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 401–404.

Composers Bester, Christian. A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 569–582.

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Journal of Singing


Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Bester, Christian, and Bronwen Forbay. An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song Literature: Origins and Repertoire. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 471–482. Brodnik, Pia, and Leslie De’Ath. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Brown, Kirsten S. Singing Messiah, Then and Now: How Handel’s Singers Influenced Messiah’s Composition and Inform Performances. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 457–469. Cole, Amanda. António Fragoso’s Canções do Sol Poente: A Song Cycle of Saudade from the Renascença Portuguesa. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 29–45. De’Ath, Leslie, and Pia Brodnik. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Forbay, Bronwen, and Christian Bester. An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song Literature: Origins and Repertoire. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 471–482. Kosin, Kelci. Mastering the Aria through Song: Daron Hagen’s Amelia, “Apostrophe to the Stars,” and Selected Hagen Art Songs. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 47–54 Park, Sooah. “La lune blanche.” 78:1 (September/October 2021): 55–69. Pollack, Howard. Singing Finnegans Wake: A Key to Samuel Barber’s “Nuvoletta.” 78:3 (January/February 2022): 319–325. Ramalho, Marcel. Language and Diction: Issues of Lyric Diction of Brazilian Portuguese as Applied to José Siqueira’s Oito Canções Populares Brasileiras. Language and Diction: 78:3 (January/February 2022): 363–373. Van Es, Marjon. Die Winterreise and Winterreise: A Comparison of Wilhelm Müller’s Cycle of Poems and Franz Schubert’s Cycle of Songs for Voice and Piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 193–196. Zavracky, Gregory. Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope. 78:5 (May/June): 559–568.

Language and Diction Bester, Christian, and Bronwen Forbay. Language and Diction: An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song: A Guide to Lyric Diction. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 497–506. De’Ath, Leslie. Language and Diction: Toward a Transcription Standard for Lyric Italian. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 89–98. De’Ath, Leslie, and Pia Brodnik. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Forbay, Bronwen, and Christian Bester. Language and Diction: An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song: A Guide to Lyric Diction. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 497–506. Ramalho, Marcel. Language and Diction: Issues of Lyric Diction of Brazilian Portuguese as Applied to José Siqueira’s Oito Canções Populares Brasileiras. Language and Diction: 78:3 (January/February 2022): 363–373. May/June 2022

Smigelski, Mikhail. Language and Diction: Phonetics of Unstressed Russian Vowels in Singing. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 615–624.

Miscellaneous American Academy of Teachers of Singing. NATS Visits AATS: The American Academy of Teachers of Singing at 100: Respecting Tradition and Advancing Change. 78:4 (March/ April 2022): 435–440. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: Clergyman’s Sore Throat. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 113–117. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: David Clark Taylor, Part 1. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 273–277. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: Leone Giraldoni and the “Method, Analytical, Philosophical, and Physiological Method for Voice Education. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 641–644. Bozeman, Kenneth, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 389–393. Moteki, Mutsumi. Collab Corner: Lessons from a Genius: A Tribute to Glenn Parker (1955–1996). 78:2 (November/ December 2021): 279–286. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Cecilia and Me. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 155–158. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: The Long Silence. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 315–317.

Music Criticism Arnold, Donna. Provenance: A World Famous, Yet Unknown, Countertenor: Basile Bolotine of Serge Jaroff’s Don Cossack Choir. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 517–522. Brown, Kirsten S. Singing Messiah, Then and Now: How Handel’s Singers Influenced Messiah’s Composition and Inform Performances. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 457–469. Cole, Amanda. António Fragoso’s Canções do Sol Poente: A Song Cycle of Saudade from the Renascença Portuguesa. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 29–45. Pollack, Howard. Singing Finnegans Wake: A Key to Samuel Barber’s “Nuvoletta.” 78:3 (January/February 2022): 319–325. Van Es, Marjon. Die Winterreise and Winterreise: A Comparison of Wilhelm Müller’s Cycle of Poems and Franz Schubert’s Cycle of Songs for Voice and Piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 193–196.

Music Reviews Bempéchat, Paul-André, ed. Jean Cras: Mélodie de jeunesse. The Early Songs 1892–1901. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 143. Bonds, Margaret. Rediscovering Margaret Bonds: Art Song, Spirituals, Musical Theater and Popular Songs. 78:1 (September/ October 2021): 141–142.

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Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Changyong, Liao, and Hartmut Höll, eds. Three Wishes from a Rose: 16 Ausgewählte chinesische Kunstlieder. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 664–665. Cipullo, Tom. The Husbands [for soprano, baritone, flute, viola, and piano]. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 419. Dove, Jonathan. All the Future Days: Songs for Mezzo-Soprano or Soprano and Piano. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 539. Flavio, Mello, and Carol McDavit, eds. Art Song Anthology: 25 Obras par canto e piano/25 Pieces for Voice and Piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 301–302. Hall, Juliana. Ahab: Monodrama for Baritone or Bass-Baritone and Piano. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 540–541. Hall, Juliana. Cameos for soprano or mezzo soprano (poems by Molly Fillmore). 78:4 (March/April 2022): 539–540. Heggie, Jake. Intonations: Songs from the Violins of Hope (mezzo soprano, solo violin, string quartet, and solo youth violin). 78:2 (November/December 2021): 303. Heggie, Jake. [ 4 anthologies] Opera Arias for Soprano. Opera Arias for Mezzo Soprano. Opera Arias for Tenor. Opera Arias for Baritone. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 302–303. Höll, Hartmut, and Liao Changyong. Three Wishes from a Rose: 16 Ausgewählte chinesische Kunstlieder. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 664–665. Johnson, Connor, Dennis Tobienski, and Eric Saroian, eds. Anthology of New Music: Trans and Nonbinary Voices, Vol. 1. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 665. Laitman, Lori. The Imaginary Photo Album [cycle]. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 142. Ling, Peter Anton, ed. Oper-Aria, für Alt, Mezzosopran 1, Sopran 3, Sopran 4. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 541. Mahy, Kenneth. Four Poems of Edgar Allen Poe, for Medium Voice and Piano, Opus 6. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 142–143. Mahy, Kenneth. Four Poems of John Donne, for Medium Voice and Piano, Opus 5. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 142–143. McDavit, and Mello Flavio, eds. Art Song Anthology: 25 Obras par canto e piano/25 Pieces for Voice and Piano. 78:2 (November/ December 2021): 301–302. Peavler, Robert, ed. Modern Music for New Singers: 21st Century American Art Songs. [Two vols. each for soprano, mezzo, baritone, tenor.] 78:3 (January/February 2022): 418–419. Saroian, Eric, Connor Johnson, and Dennis Tobienski, eds. Anthology of New Music: Trans and Nonbinary Voices, Vol. 1. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 665. Tobienski, Dennis, Eric Saroian, and Connor Johnson, eds. Anthology of New Music: Trans and Nonbinary Voices, Vol. 1. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 665. Toppin, Louise, ed. An Anthology of African and African Diaspora Songs. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 417–418. Viardot-Garcia, Pauline. Viardot-Garcia: Ausgewählte Lieder für Singstimme und Klavier. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 663–664. Villa-Lobos, Heitor. Oeuvres pour soprano et piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 301.

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Music Theater and CCM Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: The Alphabet Soup of Singing. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 99–100. Moniz, Justin John. The Changing Face of Opera in America: Musical Theatre on the American Operatic Stage. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 171–176. Van Doorn, Ineke. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Breathing Technique for Jazz/Pop Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 247–253.

Opera Berg, Gregory. Stilled Voices. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 669–671. Brodnik, Pia, and Leslie De’Ath. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Brook, Julia, Ben Schnitzer, and Colleen Renihan. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. Daniel-Cox, Minnita, and Justin John Moniz. The Vocal Point: Honoring a Legacy: The Final Conversation with Arthur Woodley. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 289–294. De’Ath, Leslie, and Pia Brodnik. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with George Shirley, Part 1. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 405–409. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with George Shirley, Part 2. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 527–531. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Jerold Siena, Part 1. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 649–653. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Kate Lindsey, Part 2. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 127–132. Moniz, Justin John. The Changing Face of Opera in America: Musical Theatre on the American Operatic Stage. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 171–176. Moniz, Justin John, and Minnita Daniel-Cox. The Vocal Point: Honoring a Legacy: The Final Conversation with Arthur Woodley. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 289–294. Renihan, Colleen, Julia Brook, and Ben Schnitzer. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182. Schnitzer, Ben, Colleen Renihan, and Julia Brook. The Divas Get Real: Training Singers for Success in the Canadian Cultural Domains. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 179–182.

Opinion Blankenship, Carole. From the President: Lift Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 429–430. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: The Alphabet Soup of Singing. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 99–100.

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Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Garrett, Margo. Collab Corner: Thoughts on What May Be Ahead for Artists and the Performing Arts. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 119–122. Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Voice Elevated. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 509–511. McCoy, Scott. Voice Pedagogy: Reflections on my Life as a Mechanic (Vocal and Otherwise). 78:1 (September/October 2021): 71–74. Patinka, Paul. Representations in Vocal Repertoire. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 161–170. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: Lift Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 431–433. Sjoerdsma, Richard Dale. Editor’s Commentary: The Long Silence. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 315–317. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: Lift Up Your Voice. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 495–496.

Pedagogy Agha, Ari, and Laura Hynes. Exogenous Testosterone and the Transgender Singing Voice: A 30-Month Case Study. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 441–455. American Academy of Teachers of Singing. NATS Visits AATS: Ethical Behavior Within the Voice Teaching Profession. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 7–9. Bernardini, Denise, and Lauren DiMaio. Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Time. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 591–599. Bigler, Amelia Rollings, and Katherine Osborne. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Bos, Nancy, Joanne Bozeman, and Cate Frazier-Neely. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Bozeman, Joanne, Cate Frazier-Neely, and Nancy Bos. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Bozeman, Kenneth, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 389–393. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: Clergyman’s Sore Throat. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 113–117. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: David Clark Taylor, Part 1. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 273–277. Broadwater, Kimberly. Provenance: Leone Giraldoni and the “Method, Analytical, Philosophical, and Physiological Method for Voice Education. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 641–644. Bozeman, Kenneth, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 389–393. Carroll, Tom, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, and Allen Henderson. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. May/June 2022

Chandler, Chuck. Fitness Training and the Singing Voice: Successful Strategies for Integration. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 337–346. Collyer, Sarah, and Ajhriahna Henshaw. Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 583–590. De’Ath, Leslie. Language and Diction: Toward a Transcription Standard for Lyric Italian. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 89–98. DiMaio, Lauren, and Denise Bernardini. Students’ Mental Health and the Voice Studio: How to Help Without Losing Time. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 591–599. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: The Alphabet Soup of Singing. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 99–100. Edwin, Robert. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Revisiting Stage Fright. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 625–627. Faust, Jeremy, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, and Tom Carroll. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Fleming, Rachelle, Renée Fleming, and Ingo Titze. Voice Research and Technology: The FlemIngo Stance: Resistance Training in Breath Management. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 83–86. Fleming, Renée, Ingo Titze, and Rachelle Fleming. Voice Research and Technology: The FlemIngo Stance: Resistance Training in Breath Management. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 83–86. Frazier-Neely, Cate, Nancy Bos, and Joanne Bozeman. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Helding, Lynn, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 635–640. Helding, Lynn, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, and John Nix. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Henderson, Allen, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David, Meyer, John Nix, and Lynn Helding. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Henshaw, Ajhriahna, and Sarah Collyer. Under Pressure: Reports of Performance Anxiety Across Multiple Singing Genres. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 583–590. Hoch, Matthew. Voice Pedagogy: The Postpandemic Pedagogue. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 483–489. Hynes, Laura, and Ari Agha. Exogenous Testosterone and the Transgender Singing Voice: A 30-Month Case Study. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 441–455. Leigh-Post, Karen. Mindful Voice: Perspectives on Perception for Optimal Performance. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 261–271. Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Shaming and Blaming. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 103–107.

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Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Manternach, Brian. The Independent Teacher: Time Spent: The Forty-Hour Workweek. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 629–634. Maxfield, Lynn. Mindful Voice: Being versus Doing: Conflating Identity with Occupation. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 109–111. Maxfield, Lynn. Mindful Voice: Competition and Creativity. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 513–515. McCoy, Scott. Voice Pedagogy: Reflections on my Life as a Mechanic (Vocal and Otherwise). 78:1 (September/October 2021): 71–74. Meyer, David, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, and Christine Petersen. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Mitton, Dann. Voice Pedagogy; Habilitation for the Aging Singer. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 347–354. Moniz, Justin John. Voice Pedagogy: Regulating Vocal Load in High Impact Production. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 601–607. Nix, John, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, and David Meyer. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Osborne, Katherine, and Amelia Rollings Bigler. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Petersen, Christine, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, and Jeremy Faust. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Ragan, Kari, and Kenneth Bozeman. Mindful Voice: EvidenceBased Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 2: Voice Teacher Expertise and Experience. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 389–393. Ragan, Kari, and Lynn Helding. Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 635–640. Romano, Tessa. Types of Testosterone Therapy and their Effects on the Voices of Transgender Singers. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 327–336. Sansom, Rockford. The Independent Teacher: When Corporate Executives Sing: A Multidisciplinary Invitation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 255–259. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: The Acoustic Characteristics of Vocal Twang. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 613–614. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: Self-Organization in Vocal Mechanics and Physiology. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 233–234. Titze, Ingo, Rachelle Fleming, and Renée Fleming. Voice Research and Technology: The FlemIngo Stance: Resistance Training in Breath Management. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 83–86. Van Doorn, Ineke. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Breathing Technique for Jazz/Pop Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 247–253.

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Performance Practice Brown, Kirsten S. Singing Messiah, Then and Now: How Handel’s Singers Influenced Messiah’s Composition and Inform Perfromances. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 457–469. Pollack, Howard. Singing Finnegans Wake: A Key to Samuel Barber’s “Nuvoletta.” 78:3 (January/February 2022): 319–325.

Performers Arnold, Donna. Provenance: A World Famous, Yet Unknown, Countertenor: Basile Bolotine of Serge Jaroff’s Don Cossack Choir. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 517–522. Berg, Gregory. Stilled Voices. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 669–671. Brown, Kirsten S. Singing Messiah, Then and Now: How Handel’s Singers Influenced Messiah’s Composition and Inform Performances. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 457–469. Daniel-Cox, Minnita, and Justin John Moniz. The Vocal Point: Honoring a Legacy: The Final Conversation with Arthur Woodley. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 289–294. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with George Shirley, Part 1. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 405–409. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with George Shirley, Part 2. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 527–531. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Jerold Siena, Part 1. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 649–653. Holmes, Leslie. The Vocal Point: A Conversation with Kate Lindsey, Part 2. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 127–132. Moniz, Justin John, and Minnita Daniel-Cox. The Vocal Point: Honoring a Legacy: The Final Conversation with Arthur Woodley. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 289–294.

Research and Technology Agha, Ari, and Laura Hynes. Exogenous Testosterone and the Transgender Singing Voice: A 30-Month Case Study. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 441–455. Bigler, Amelia Rollings, and Katherine Osborne. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Carroll, Tom, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, and Allen Henderson. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Edgar, Julia D., and Deirdre D. Michael. Voice Pedagogy: Who Believes What? Singers’ Belief in Vocal Health Information and Misinformation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 197–206. Faust, Jeremy, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, and Tom Carroll. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Helding, Lynn, and Kari Ragan. Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 635–640.

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Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Helding, Lynn, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, and John Nix. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Henderson, Allen, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David, Meyer, John Nix, and Lynn Helding. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Hynes, Laura, and Ari Agha. Exogenous Testosterone and the Transgender Singing Voice: A 30-Month Case Study. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 441–455. Leigh-Post, Karen. Mindful Voice: Perspectives on Perception for Optimal Performance. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 261–271. Maxfield, Lynn. Mindful Voice: Being versus Doing: Conflating Identity with Occupation. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 109–111. Maxfield, Lynn. Mindful Voice: Competition and Creativity. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 513–515. Meyer, David, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, and Christine Petersen. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Michael, Deirdre D., and Julia D. Edgar. Voice Pedagogy: Who Believes What? Singers’ Belief in Vocal Health Information and Misinformation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 197–206. Nix, John, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, and David Meyer. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Osborne, Katherine, and Amelia Rollings Bigler. Special Report: Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 11–28. Petersen, Christine, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, and Jeremy Faust. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Ragan, Kari, and Lynn Helding. Mindful Voice: Evidence-Based Voice Pedagogy (EBVP), Part 3: Student Goals and Perspectives. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 635–640. Romano, Tessa. Types of Testosterone Therapy and their Effects on the Voices of Transgender Singers. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 327–336. Simonson, Donald. Recent Research in Singing. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 133–134; 78:2 (November/December 2021): 295–296; 78:3 (January/February 2022): 411–412; 78:4 (March/April 2022): 5v33–534; 78:5 (May/June 2022): 655–656. Story, Brad H., and Ingo Titze. Voice Research and Technology: How Well Does the Larynx “Canal” Match the Ear Canal? 78:3 (January/February 2022): 359–361. Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: The Acoustic Characteristics of Vocal Twang. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 613–614. May/June 2022

Titze, Ingo. Voice Research and Technology: Self-Organization in Vocal Mechanics and Physiology. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 233–234. Titze, Ingo., and Brad H. Story. Voice Research and Technology: How Well Does the Larynx “Canal” Match the Ear Canal? 78:3 (January/February 2022): 359–361.

Song Literature Bester, Christian. A Bushmen Myth Song Cycle by Niel van der Watt: Giving a Voice to Indigenous People. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 569–582. Bester, Christian, and Bronwen Forbay. An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song Literature: Origins and Repertoire. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 471–482. Brodnik, Pia, and Leslie De’Ath. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Cole, Amanda. António Fragoso’s Canções do Sol Poente: A Song Cycle of Saudade from the Renascença Portuguesa. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 29–45. De’Ath, Leslie, and Pia Brodnik. Language and Diction: Slovene Musical Stage Works. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 235–245. Forbay, Bronwen, and Christian Bester. An Introduction to Afrikaans Art Song Literature: Origins and Repertoire. 78:4 (March/April 2022): 471–482. Kosin, Kelci. Mastering the Aria through Song: Daron Hagen’s Amelia, “Apostrophe to the Stars,” and Selected Hagen Art Songs. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 47–54. Park, Sooah. “La lune blanche.” 78:1 (September/October 2021): 55–69. Patinka, Paul. Representations in Vocal Repertoire. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 161–170. Pollack, Howard. Singing Finnegans Wake: A Key to Samuel Barber’s “Nuvoletta.” 78:3 (January/February 2022): 319–325. Ramalho, Marcel. Language and Diction: Issues of Lyric Diction of Brazilian Portuguese as Applied to José Siqueira’s Oito Canções Populares Brasileiras. Language and Diction: 78:3 (January/February 2022): 363–373. Van Es, Marjon. Die Winterreise and Winterreise: A Comparison of Wilhelm Müller’s Cycle of Poems and Franz Schubert’s Cycle of Songs for Voice and Piano. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 193–196. Zavracky, Gregory. Beyond the Spirituals: Harry T. Burleigh’s Five Songs of Laurence Hope. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 559–568.

Voice Care Bos, Nancy, Joanne Bozeman, and Cate Frazier-Neely. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Bozeman, Joanne, Cate Frazier-Neely, and Nancy Bos. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379.

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Journal of Singing Subject Index to Volume 78 Carroll, Tom, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, and Allen Henderson. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Chandler, Chuck. Fitness Training and the Singing Voice: Successful Strategies for Integration. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 337–346. Edgar, Julia D., and Deirdre D. Michael. Voice Pedagogy: Who Believes What? Singers’ Belief in Vocal Health Information and Misinformation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 197–206. Faust, Jeremy, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, and Tom Carroll. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Frazier-Neely, Cate, Nancy Bos, and Joanne Bozeman. Singing A Cappella to Zydeco: Managing Perimenopausal and Menopausal Voice Changes. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 375–379. Helding, Lynn, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David Meyer, and John Nix. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Henderson, Allen, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, David, Meyer, John Nix, and Lynn Helding. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Howell, Jessica B., and Jaime Eaglin Moore. Care of the Professional Voice: Laryngeal Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 355–358.

Isley-Farmer, Christine. Care of the Professional Voice: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Guide to Causes, Treatment, Problems, and Coping Strategies. 78:1 (September/October 2021): 75–81. Kandl, Jessica, and Jaime Moore. Care of the Professional Voice: Parkinson Disease. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 609–612. Meyer, David, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, and Christine Petersen. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Michael, Deirdre D., and Julia D. Edgar. Voice Pedagogy: Who Believes What? Singers’ Belief in Vocal Health Information and Misinformation. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 197–206. Moore, Jaime Eaglin, and Jessica B. Howell. Care of the Professional Voice: Laryngeal Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis. 78:3 (January/February 2022): 355–358. Moore, Jaime, and Jessica Kandl. Care of the Professional Voice: Parkinson Disease. 78:5 (May/June 2022): 609–612. Nix, John, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, Jeremy Faust, Christine Petersen, and David Meyer. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232. Petersen, Christine, David Meyer, John Nix, Lynn Helding, Allen Henderson, Tom Carroll, and Jeremy Faust. Care of the Professional Voice: Reentry Following COVID-19: Concerns for Singers. 78:2 (November/December 2021): 211–232.

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CONGRATULATIONS TO

A field of top young vocalists from across North America offered thrilling performances as they competed in the 47th National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS) Artist Awards competition on Friday, January 7, 2022. The event culminated with mezzo-soprano Claire McCahan from Boulder, CO, winning first place, earning more than $13,000 in cash and prizes. McCahan is a student of Abigail Nims and represents the NATS West Central Region.

Claire McCahan FOR WINNING FIRST PRIZE AT 47TH NATS ARTIST AWARDS

CONGRATULATIONS TO

David Young WINNER OF THE NATS 2022 NATIONAL MUSICAL THEATRE COMPETITION

David Young placed first in the NATS 2022 National Musical Theatre Competition on Saturday, January 8 at the Neidorff-Karpati Hall at the Manhattan School of Music. An alum of Depauw University, Young received $5,000 in cash and prizes. He was most recently a student of Caroline Smith and is from the NATS Eastern Region. The competing singers performed in front of a live audience of top professionals in the music industry as well as through a livestream on the NATS website.

Both will appear in recital at the NATS 57th National Conference in Chicago this summer!


ASSOCIATION OFFICERS (2021–2022) CAROLE BLANKENSHIP, PRESIDENT 365 N. Willett St., Memphis, TN 38112-5119 901-569-3807 president@nats.org KAREN BRUNSSEN, PAST PRESIDENT 106 South Lincoln St., Westmont, IL 60559 708-710-3760 pastpresident@nats.org DIANA ALLAN, PRESIDENT ELECT 1030 Sheridan Dr., Joplin, MO 64801 210-884-4500 (C) presidentelect@nats.org ROBERT WELLS, VP AUDITIONS 3604 Cardinal Ridge Dr., Greensboro, NC 27410 336-202-5528 (C) vpauditions@nats.org KIMBERLY GRATLAND JAMES, VP OUTREACH 2352 Via Alicante, Henderson, NV 89044 406-396-6629 vpoutreach@nats.org TORIN CHILES, VP MEMBERSHIP 107 Glenburnie Cress, London, ON, Canada N5X 2A1 519-615-8258 vpmembership@nats.org DEMAR NEAL, VP WORKSHOPS vpworkshops@nats.org JASON LESTER, SECRETARY/TREASURER Palm Beach Atlantic University, P.O. Box 24708, 901 S. Flagler Dr., West Palm Beach, FL 33416 561-803-2402 secretarytreasurer@nats.org

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INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Georgia Southern University Fred and Dinah Gretsch School of Music. . . . . . . page 554 Hal Leonard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 671 Innovative Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 660 International Congress of Voice Teachers – Vienna 2022. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 600

The Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing Richard Dale Sjoerdsma Editor-in-Chief Published five times annually (Sept/Oct, Nov/Dec, Jan/Feb, March/April, May/June)

James Madison University School of Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 557 New York Vocal Coaching, Inc.. . . . . . . . . back cover Northeastern Illinois University . . . . . . . . . . page 624 School of Music at Indiana State University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 558 Tennessee Tech University. . . . . . . . . . . . . page 590 NATS Programs, Events and Competitions

NONMEMBER SUBSCRIPTIONS (Individuals And Institutions)

57th NATS National Conference. . .inside back cover

Electronic subscription: $90/year Electronic + print subscription (USA): $130/year Electronic + print subscription (Canada & International): $130/year

Congratulations to NATSAA and NMTC Award Winners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 685

Printed single and back copies cost $15 each plus shipping. Please call or email for availability and replacement. Subscribers can download back issues in pdf format through the nats.org web site for no additional charge.

ORDERING INFORMATION •  All Journal subscriptions must be prepaid by credit card or check drawn in U.S. funds on a U.S. bank. •  All claims for any missing issues must be made within 60 days after publication date of issue claimed.

Conference Hotel Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 661

Discretionary Fund. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 648 Encore! Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside front cover Have You Moved?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 684 Intermezzo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 582 Journal of Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 662 Let’s Get Associated!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 672 Let’s Get Social!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 607 Live Learning Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 608 National Conference Volunteer Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 599 National Student Auditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . page 628

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NATSCast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 568 NATS.org – Your Online Resource. . . . . . . page 654 So You Want to Sing!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 666 Student NATS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 612

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GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS MISSION STATEMENT The Journal of Singing is a refereed journal that focuses on research in voice pedagogy, history, literature, diction, science, technology, medicine, and psychology. Submissions encompass an array of music genres and performance styles, including but not limited to Western classical music, world music, music theater, jazz, pop, and rock. The Journal also serves as an historical record of the National Association of Teachers of Singing.

GUIDELINES FOR SUBMITTING MANUSCRIPTS The Journal of Singing welcomes contributions on all subjects relating to the voice, such as— but not restricted to—structure and function, history and literature, scientific and laboratory research, performance, care and nurture, and current and historical pedagogy. All articles become the property of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, a nonprofit organization. Authors receive no remuneration for their submissions. It is assumed that no article has been submitted simultaneously to or has appeared in another journal. Articles submitted to the Journal of Singing are forwarded to the Editorial Board for evaluation, a process that may last up to six months. The Board is made up of several members of the Association chosen for their expertise in a variety of voice-related fields. Upon completion of the peer review, the Editor in Chief makes a final decision concerning publication. Three courses of action are possible: (1) the article is accepted as submitted or with minor emendations; (2) the article is returned to its author for revision; or (3) the article is rejected. If an article is deemed to require an accelerated publication cycle it may be published online ahead of print (the “preprint” option). A submission should be of topical interest to a significant part of the widely varying constituency served by the periodical and advance the literature in its particular subject area. The latter criterion may be addressed by synthesis, amalgamation, or critical examination, as well as by original research. The article should be well organized with a clear statement of purpose in its introduction. Where applicable, it should contain a review of the literature and should be documented with references appropriate to the subject area. Great care should be exercised with written style and form and in use of language. First-person pronouns should be avoided unless they are essential to the nature or content of the article.

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An expanded version of the submission guidelines can be downloaded at www.nats.org/article-submission.html.

Human Subjects Research. Authors submitting papers reporting research studies that involved interaction with subjects should include a statement in their manuscript confirming that the study was carried out with the approval of the appropriate Institutional Review Board.

MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS Articles should conform to the guidelines delineated in the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word .doc or .docx format. Submissions should be in English, and include a separate title page with the name(s), degree(s), and affiliation(s) of the contributing author(s), along with a correspondence address, telephone number, fax number, and email address. When we migrate to the ScholarOne system for manuscript submission in the near future, updated guidelines will be provided to authors. In the meantime, all articles should be submitted via email or online file sharing link. See IPA, Musical Examples, and Tables and Figures for more technical specifications. Abstracts, keywords, and ORCID ID for article metadata (online edition). Abstracts must be supplied with every feature article and column contribution. A list of three to eight keywords or keyword phrases should be supplied for all submissions. Please separate keywords with commas and do not otherwise punctuate keyword phrases. Authors should provide their ORCID ID if available. Length. The length of a typical Journal of Singing article ranges between twelve and twenty double-spaced pages, but articles may be longer or shorter as subject matter demands. Document formatting. The entire text, including endnotes and references, must be double-spaced, with 1-inch margins on all sides. The first lines of all paragraphs should be indented, and no additional space should separate the paragraphs. Citation. Endnotes format is required. Ref­ er­e nces and bibliographic entries should conform to the guidelines found in The Chicago Manual of Style. (See www.chicago manualofstyle.org, click on “Tools,” then choose “Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.”) Please include DOI hyperlinks in references whenever they are available. Ref­erences in the text are indicated by superscript number, not by parenthetic author/date listing. Some models for various kinds of endnote citations can be found in the expanded Submission Guidelines PDF available at http://www.nats.org/articlesubmission.html. BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pitch Notation. The lowest C on the piano is called C1; thus, middle C is C4. Octave designations should appear as subscripts after letter names. Chromatic signs appear as superscripts between the letter names and the octave number subscript (C#4, B ♭5). Numbers. Single digit numbers normally should be spelled out except in scientific works or other articles that make frequent use of numbers. Century designations may also use numbers: 19th century. Decades may be spelled out or not, but consistency is a primary concern: the sixties, the ’60s, or the 1960s. Note that no apostrophe is used in the latter case. IPA. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols should be employed to represent all language sounds. The distinction between phonemic notation, /i/, /k/, and phonetic notation, [i], [k], should be uniformly observed. If IPA characters are used please provide a PDF of the article for reference in addition to the Word file. Please use a Unicode font for all non-Latin characters. Graphic Format (musical examples, figures, author photos, etc.). All graphics should be should be submitted in TIFF, maximum quality JPG, EPS, or PDF format with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi for photos and a preferred resolution of 400–600 dpi for line art such as music examples. Author head shots must be at least 1.5 inches (450 pixels) wide at 300 dpi. If graphics are placed within the Word file authors must also supply separate nonembedded graphic files. Tables and Figures. Use Arabic numerals for both tables and figures with concise captions. Tables must be double spaced on separate pages, and must be provided as editable text in Word format, not as embedded graphics. When designing figures or tables, keep in mind the width of a column or page to prevent loss of clarity if reductions are necessary. Printouts of all tables and figures should be attached to each copy of the manuscript. If tables are used please provide a PDF of all tables for reference in addition to the Word file. Permissions. The author must obtain permission in writing for the use of music examples, illustrations, and lengthy quotations that are not in the public domain. All materials submitted for consideration should be sent to: Richard Dale Sjoerdsma, PhD Editor in Chief, Journal of Singing rsjoerdsma@carthage.edu

Journal of Singing


CHICAGO 57TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE

Chicago Marriott Magnificent Mile ★

John Holiday in Concert

FEATURING

Opening Session + Community Sing

July 1-6, 2022

An Evening with Jimmy Webb

Keynote Address: Craig Terry

MORE ACTUAL SINGING ★ MORE SESSIONS THAN EVER BEFORE ★ MORE FUN! Premium Workshops, Early Morning Coffee + Conversations, Special Tours, Expanded Student Workshops, National Student Auditions, and so much more! EARLY-BIRD FULL REGISTRATION: $475 (NATS MEMBER); $515 (NON-MEMBER). SEE WEBSITE FOR DETAILS.

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Journal of Singing National Association of Teachers of Singing 9957 Moorings Drive, Suite 401 Jacksonville, Florida 32257 www.nats.org