Heritage in Trust August 2014

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NATIONAL TRUST OF AUSTRALIA Heritage in Trust

(ACT)

August 2014

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The Bunker today Peter Dowling

The West Block ‘Bunker’ and the Cable Girls The May edition of Heritage News contained a short article by Peter Dowling on the West Block ‘Bunker’. Here, Peter expands on the story. A small, innocuous and often ignored building in Canberra’s Parliamentary Triangle has quite a remarkable story to tell. The building is located in the West Block curtilage and today is used as an electricity substation and a place for the staff of the main offices to park their bicycles. During the Second World War this small building, tucked away behind the main building which once housed the Prime Minister’s Department, was known by its occupants as the ‘Bunker’. Cont p2

Inside Notice of AGM p6 Heritage Happenings p9 Travels and at home with the Trust p 12 West An evening with Bill Gammage p 15 Sts Peter and Paul’s Goulburn p 17


Heritage In Trust

August 2014

From the editors There’s plenty of interesting reading in this August 2014 edition of Heritage in Trust. Catch up on the current status of various heritage issues in the ACT in Heritage Happenings and in the separate article on Ginninderra Falls. Read articles on The West Block ‘Bunker’ and the Cable Girls, a little known piece of Canberra’s war-time history, on the restoration of Sts Peter and Paul’s Old Cathedral in Goulburn, and on the exciting new ANU History Learning Community which has been established by ANU history students. There are several dates to be noted in your diary including the Trust’s AGM on Thursday 16 October. See Travels and at home with the Trust and the Heritage Diary for more dates and more information on forthcoming events. As usual we welcome your views on the contents of Heritage in Trust. Are there subjects you would like us to cover? Are there items of news we should be including? Please email info@nationaltrustact.org.au or write to the Editors with your views and suggestions.

The West Block ‘Bunker’ and the Cable Girls cont from p1 West Block and its sister building East Block were erected in 1926. The proposed move of the seat of government from Melbourne to Canberra, along with the relocation of government departments and staff to the capital, was proving to be a major logistic problem for those involved. As a way out of the difficulty the Advisory Committee overseeing the moves suggested abandoning the original plan for the complete transfer of departments. Instead, they opted for a secretariat or nucleus of each department to be temporarily established in Canberra, sufficient to assist the Ministers with Parliamentary work. Two purpose-built office blocks were constructed behind Parliament House (now Old Parliament House) near enough to provide immediate support for the administrative needs of the Ministers and heads of departments.

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These two buildings, originally named as Secretariat Buildings One and Two, soon became known as East Block (east of Parliament House) and West Block (west of Parliament House). West Block housed the secretariat staff of several major government departments including the Prime Minister’s Department. Within the Prime Minister’s Secretariat was a section responsible for the encryption and decryption of Prime Minister’s Department and External Affairs communications. In days before highly secure online decryption of messages the main means of communication between the Prime Minister and foreign heads of state was by cablegrams, often sent overseas on cable links, which were subject to interception. One way to provide security for these communications was to encrypt the plain language messages at their source, and then transmit them via the cable links to their destination where they would be decrypted back into plain language by the recipients. The Prime Minister’s Cable Branch staff, ensconced in the secure environment of the Bunker, did the encryption and decryption. The process was done on a ‘Typex’ rotor machine similar in function to the more well-known commercial ‘Enigma’ machines used by Germany in the Second World War. Plain text messages were encrypted into five-letter groups by these machines using daily changing settings of its rotors and incoming messages were decrypted using the same daily settings.

Typex machine similar to those used in the Bunker (from Wikipedia)

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Contents The West Block ‘Bunker’ and the Cable Girls ___ From the President ________________________ People and Places _________________________ Notice of AGM ________________________ Trusted Recipe ____________________________ Heritage Diary ____________________________ Heritage Happenings _______________________ Ginninderra Falls proposals - update __________ Travels and at home with the Trust Local and interstate ________________ Overseas __________________________ An evening with Bill Gammage _______________ ANU History Learning Community_____________ Sts Peter and Paul’s, Goulburn ______________

1 5 6 6 6 8 9 11 12 14 15 16 17

Cable girls 1942 from Nancy Metcalfe private collection

The Cables Branch had begun as a small group of officers, mainly female, who dealt with the daily encryption and decryption of communications traffic. But during the Second World War, with the escalation of the conflict into the Pacific area and the southward advance of the Japanese forces, the number of highlevel security cables that had to be processed in the Bunker increased, putting pressure on the efficiency of the current staff. Subsequent staff increases and extra space in the main West Block building had to be made while still maintaining strict security requirements. Prime Minister Curtin saw the importance of the Cables Branch and their capacity to maintain the enormous load of encrypting and decrypting as absolutely vital to the war effort. A letter from the Prime Minister to Senator Joseph Collings, Minister for the Interior, regarding overcrowding and unsatisfactory working conditions for the staff in West Bock, particularly the Cables Branch, expresses the concerns at the highest level1:

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Minister for the Interior 11 January 1943 As you are aware there is a considerable lack of office accommodation in the Commonwealth Offices West block, and, I shall be glad if immediate steps can be taken to remedy, as far as possible, this defect. Without setting out the requirements of other Departments in the building I mention the case of the Cables Branch which has increased its staff tenfold since the war commenced and must continue to expand. At the present time its staff of nearly 100 is located in rooms (some of which are makeshift rooms) which should not be expected to carry a third of that number. The conditions are unhealthy and in any ordinary industrial undertaking would not be tolerated by Health authorities. The additional accommodation for this ever-growing staff has been temporarily met by taking accommodation from other sections of the Department. This is an unsatisfactory method of solving the problem and has an upsetting effect on the rest of the Department. Because of manpower difficulties there has been a change-over to female labour and the conditions under which these girls have to work are most unhygienic. In any ordinary business establishment there would be suitable rest rooms and associated accommodation for girls. The staff of the Cables Branch work continuously throughout the seven days of the week and because of the strain imposed upon the people some provision should be made in the direction of providing a suitably furnished rest-room controlled by a qualified nursing sister. In addition, because of the erratic hours and shiftwork, the staff has difficulty in securing meals. This important phase should not be disregarded. John Curtin Prime Minister

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The small Bunker and the ‘cable girls’ played a part in one of the defining moments in Australian history and its relationship with Britain. Following the fall of Singapore to Japanese forces on 15 February 1942, Curtin who had only been in office since October the previous year cabled Churchill requesting that the 6th and 7th Divisions then serving in North Africa be returned home to defend Australia. However, Churchill, mindful of the potential threat to India by the Japanese, tried to divert the Australian troops to Burma. What followed was a tense period of terse cables exchanged between the two leaders with the United States President, Franklin D Roosevelt siding with Churchill. Curtin maintained his ground against these two powerful leaders and the Australian Divisions were returned home. The cables exchanged between these leaders were encrypted and decrypted by the Cables Branch in the Bunker.

Prior to working on the high level security cables Nancy had been called into the office of the Department secretary: … so I climbed the stairs to his office. After a few pleasantries he told me that I must swear an oath that I would not disclose any of the contents of the cables which I might handle. He then produced a large bible on which I had to put my hand and swear an oath. He then asked me to kiss the Bible. This came as something of a shock. It was all a new experience for me. Somehow I think it gave me a feeling that I was about to tackle something really serious.

Nancy Metcalfe, one of the ‘cable girls’ recalls 2: The typex machine was revolutionary, as the cypher could then be put in by typing and also deciphered … A number of girls were chosen to help stick down the tape which emanated from the machine with message. There was one required for the operator each time the machine was used… Cables were pouring in. Some were far from interesting but I felt proud to be doing the few which were addressed ‘Most Immediate. Most Secret. Churchill to Curtin. Himself Alone.’ There was no doubt that the war was on when I also read before me the news of such things as submarines in the Sydney Harbour, the bombing of Darwin and the sinking of HMAS Sydney… I had been put in charge of the Typex girls and organising a roster. Several more had to be trained on the machine as the number of cables grew. Early on, I always had to do the most secret ones. I have since wondered if I had been security checked before hand. Perhaps my 2 years with the Navy gave me an ‘all clear.’

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Copy of cablegram from Curtin to Churchill

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Peter Dowling

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From the President Hello Members

Nancy at the Bunker 1998 from Nancy Metcalfe private collection

Today, the Bunker, the West Block building and the Parliamentary Triangle are on the National Heritage List and are under statutory protection. But a visitor to the West Block site would scarcely cast a glance at the small innocuous building at the rear nor realise the vital operations that occurred there during the days of the Second World War. The Bunker surely deserves a wider recognition. Peter Dowling National Heritage Officer, ACNT 1

NAA A292 C21630 part 1 West block Extensions Nancy Metcalfe (nee Ward), Memories of War Time, HMAS Torrens 1939-41, Gorman House & Prime Minister’s Department 1941-43, unpublished memoir, privately held, Canberra. 2

The National Trust acknowledges the support of our Corporate Members and Benefactors: Museum of Australian Democracy ContentGroup Benefactor: Mr Rob McL. Johnston

Trust Office opening hours 2014 The Trust Office is open Monday to Thursday, from 9.30am to 3.00pm.

The Trust will be holding its Annual General Meeting on Thursday 16 October 2014 at the National Archives from 6.30pm onwards. I mention this because it is important for a number of reasons but two in particular. Firstly, it is a great opportunity to hear firsthand how your Trust has been going and what we have planned for the year/s ahead and to ask questions of your Councillors. Secondly, we expect to have a couple of Council vacancies and I would be interested to hear from anyone with an interest in nominating for a position on the Council to help us with the continued work of ensuring that NTACT remains a vibrant organisation. So please come along and have a glass of red with us and share your views. One of our fundraising activities has involved NTACT volunteers manning weekend BBQs at a number of commercial outlets around Canberra in recent months. Our most successful one so far was at Bunnings Fyshwick in June where the Dowlings (Dianne and Peter) and I and youngest daughter Georgia cooked and served approximately 650 sausages for a total net profit on the day of $1,250. This was an outstanding result and all goes into building up our depleted bank balances. Sincere thanks to Bunnings and my able coworkers (and the weather gods!). I’d love to hear from you if you’re interested in assisting us with one of these BBQs. It’s a fun day and an easy way for the Trust to raise much-needed funds. I’ve spoken previously about volunteers helping with events etc but I have been remiss in not mentioning some of the great work being done in the office. In particular, Alan Kerr has provided some invaluable assistance (in between cheering from the sidelines for his beloved Majura Avengers U15 girls soccer team in which his grand-daughter plays!) in cleaning out decades of paperwork and scanning relevant material for storage on hard drive and discarding irrelevant papers. (Hard copies of statutory papers and those deemed important for our history have, of course, been retained.) Thanks mate.

Scott McAlister President

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People and Places Trusted Recipe On your next trip to National Trust properties in England you might sample scones made to this UK National Trust recipe.

Traditional sweet scones Serves 8. Ingredients 225g/8oz self-raising flour Half a teaspoon of salt 55g/2oz cold butter, diced 30g/1oz caster sugar 150ml/5fl oz milk

YOUR 2014 TRUST COUNCIL

Method 1. Preheat the oven to fan 200C and lightly oil a non-stick baking sheet 2. Sift the flour and salt into a food processor. Add the butter, whiz to fine crumbs, and then tip the mixture into a bowl. Otherwise, sift the flour and salt into a bowl and, using your fintertips, rub the butter into the flour until it resembles fine breadcrumbs. 3. Stir in the sugar, then add the milk and mix until it forms a soft, spongy dough 4. Turn out onto a lightly floured surface and gently knead until it is just smooth. The raising agent starts to work as soon as the liquid is added, so it’s essential to be quick. 5. Roll out the dough to about 2.5cm (an inch) thick 6. Dust a 7cm (2 3/4 inch) diameter pastry cutter in flour and quickly stamp out your scones 7. Place the scones on the baking sheet 8. Bake for 20 minutes or until well risen and brown Serve with jam and cream or try out a National Trust (UK) variation such as cheese scones. http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/article1356399794537/

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Scott McAlister - President and Treasurer Lisa Norman - Vice President Graham Carter Graeme Crocket Dianne Dowling Mary Johnston Peter Lundy Eric Martin AM Jim Nockels John Tucker NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING The 39th Annual General Meeting of the National Trust of Australia (ACT) will be held in the Menzies Room at the National Archives of Australia on Thursday 16 October 2014, 6.30pm for 7.00pm. Council vacancies will be notified in accordance with the Memorandum and Articles of Association prior to the meeting. If you wish to receive an individual notification please advise the National Trust office on 02 6230 0533 or email info@nationaltrustact.org.au. Members are invited to nominate persons for election to Council. Nominations must be made and seconded in writing and signed by current members of the Trust accompanied by signed consent from the nominee. Nomination forms can be obtained from the Trust office and must reach the office 30 days before the AGM. For further information please check our news page on the website www.nationaltrust.org.au/act/news or phone the Trust office on 02 6230 0533. Page 6


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People and Places New members The National Trust (ACT) warmly welcomes the following new members: Greg and Aina Crawford Adrian and Raelene Dikmans Kevin Playford and Robert Dolamore Michael Dowsett Gayle and David Ginnane Wendy and Richard Holland Kia Holmes Helen and Laurens Jensma Michael Hess and Marian May Susan McIntyre Julie McKinnon

Noel Montgomery Danica Browne and Don Nordblom Megan and Ian Pearson Alyson and Ian Robinson Chris Bourke and Julie Ryder Rosemary and Glynn Shepherd Don Taylor Bronwyn Cooper and Peter Thomson Alan and Sue Williams Trevor and Chris Wilson

ACT & Region Annual Australian Heritage Partnership Symposium 2014 “The Future of Heritage� This important symposium was held on 19 July 2014 and was well attended by professionalheritage experts and interested lay persons. A full report will feature in our November 2014 issue. (Photos by Wendy Whitham)

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Helen Cooke opening proceedings

Are you up with the latest National Trust happenings? Maybe you have been missing out on our E News bulletins! Make sure you are on the E News list and follow us on Facebook to keep up to date with events, have access to National Trust media releases and find opportunities to contribute to the valuable and important work of the Trust. Email info@nationaltrustact.org.au with the subject heading of: Subscribe to E News or find us on Facebook

Audience settling

Looking for Member events? For all National Trust events please see Travels and at home with the Trust. For all heritage-related events see the Heritage Diary. Or follow us on Facebook Members of the panel

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August 2014 Heritage Diary 2014

A selection of heritage-related events in Canberra Details of National Trust (ACT) events are provided in Travels and at home with the Trust, starting on page 12. Date and time

Event and location

Organiser

Contact

On-going

Find of the month. Each month a novel, interesting or quaint topic from ACT Government archives is highlighted

Archives ACT

From 4 August

Centenary Projects and First World War Galleries

Australian War Memorial National Library

www.archives.act.gov.au/ educational_resource/find of the month www.awm.gov.au/1914-1918

Until 17 August

Wednesday 20 August 6.30 for 7.00pm

Wednesday 17 September 5.30 – 7.00pm Wednesday 17 September 6.30 for 7.00pm Sunday 21 September 1.00-4.00pm Saturday 27 September 8.45am – 2.00pm Wednesday 1 October Wednesday 15 October 6.30 for 7.00pm Thursday 16 October 6.30 for 7.00pm Sunday 2 November 1.30 – 4.30pm Sunday 9 November Wednesday 19 November 6.30 for 7.00pm Wed 26 - Sat 29 Nov Wed 3 - Sat 6 Dec 6.30pm December Date to be advised

Canberra: Then and Now – an exhibition of historic photos matched with modern day photos. National Library of Australia CAS/CAR lecture – 'Common Indians', 'Negroes', and 'New Hollanders': Dampier, Buffon, and the 'Varieties of the Human Species' in the South Seas. Bronwen Douglas Department of Pacific & Asian History Manning Clark Centre, Theatre 6, Bldg 26A, Union Court, ANU National Trust Speaker’s Night – A Light in the Window, Harper’s Mansion – a talk by Ann Beaumont National Archives CAS/CAR lecture – Lake Victoria Project Place Stories, Keryn Kefous Manning Clark Centre, Theatre 6, Bldg 26A, Union Court, ANU Visit to Callum Brae

Conservation Management Planning: the What, Why and How for Historic Gardens, Landscapes and Buildings. Workshop National Trust Speaker’s Night – The Luck of the Irish An evening with Babette Smith CAS/CAR lecture – Vanuatu historic mission. James Flexner, School of Archaeology & Anthropology, ANU Manning Clark Centre, Theatre 6, Bldg 26A, Union Court, ANU National Trust AGM, National Archives. Guest Speaker Allen Mawer on Jack Doolan of Castlemaine

www.nla.gov.au

CAS

www.cas.asn.au

National Trust

RSVP 11 Sept to 6230 0533 or info@nationaltrustact.org.au

CAS

www.cas.asn.au

National Trust

6230 0533

AHGS (ACT/Monaro Riverina Branch) National Trust CAS

Program and Registration

RSVP 25 Sept to 6230 0533 or info@nationaltrustact.org.au www.cas.asn.au

National Trust

6230 0533

Reid Open Houses

National Trust

6230 0533

Day Trip to Harper’s Mansion, Berrima and Joadja ghost town AGM followed by CAS/CAR lecture – Elephant tongues for breakfast: sealing in Antarctica in the 1820s. Dr Mike Pearson AO Manning Clark Centre, Theatre 6, Bldg 26A, Union Court, ANU Anthology – a theatrical journey performance through Westlake created by Pip Buining and Louise Morris

National Trust

6230 0533

CAS

www.cas.asn.au

National Trust Christmas Party. Details to be advised

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Tickets are available onsite prior to the performance or on-line at www.anthology.net.au 6230 0533

Note: CAS is the Canberra Archaeological Society. CAR is the Centre for Archaeological Research. AHGS is the Australian Garden History Society. Information on events run by organisations other than the National Trust (ACT) is provided in good faith, but readers should check dates and times with the contacts indicated above.

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Heritage Happenings

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The Heritage and Grants Committee has a number of heritage issues under consideration at the moment. Eric Martin reports below on the status of the various locations of potential concern.

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Dickson/Lyneham Flats These are significant buildings that have been left to deteriorate over the past decade. Recently the tower blocks were vacated and a construction fence erected around them.

While the Land Development Authority has a Masterplan proposal for land rezoning and development, the future of the Brickworks remains in the balance as it is not the focus of the development, and funding for work on conserving it appears minimal.

The Development Application (DA) will be commented on by the National Trust.

The quarry reclamation is a positive but the former railway easement and its interpretation is only marginally considered.

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The Falls are significant as a feature of aesthetic beauty and for natural values. The area adjacent is within the West Belconnen rezoning proposals which will be available shortly for comment. There is a need to protect the heritage values, and NSW National Parks and the NSW Government are not particularly interested (or it has a low priority with them).

Kingston Arts Precinct Masterplan

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the multistorey car park to the west of the Power House (Glassworks) will block significant views from the west (corner of Wentworth Avenue and Telopea Park West); and the heritage values of the Fitter’s Workshop which were recognised as a result of a National Trust appeal on the previous development proposals (ie the acoustic values for music) are not clearly identified or mentioned.

Current proposals indicate a special Trust, established by the developers, to manage the area. This may be the best outcome but will need consideration of the detail as it evolves. (See also the separate article p11 on Ginninderra Falls by Doug Finlayson from the Ginninderra Falls Association.)

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City to Lake This project is starting to evolve but it is unclear how the plans for the area between Civic and the Lake will address and respect the heritage values. The heritage sites include:

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Ginninderra Falls Although the Falls are located in NSW the ACT National Trust is involved in their future.

The National Trust supports the Masterplan concept and the development of the Arts Precinct but is concerned that:

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Canberra Brickworks

The ACT Heritage Council has had a nomination for these buildings for about 14 years and is only now considering it. The ACT Government wants to demolish these buildings and sell the land for multi-unit development to increase population densities closer to the proposed light rail system.

The National Trust is concerned that: - the ACT Heritage Council has not completed its assessment; - the ACT Government is pre-empting an outcome without due process; and - no real opportunity has been considered for alternative and adaptive reuse.

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Civic Square City Hill Legal Precinct Civic Swimming Pool Lake Burley Griffin West Basin Acton Hotel Precinct Canberra Avenue and Bridge Commonwealth Park Ian Potter House and Shine Dome.

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ACT Supreme Court This is a significant building and part of a significant precinct which is under threat of substantial demolition and redevelopment with the ACT Government’s proposed private/ public partnership for the Courts. This issue needs careful monitoring as any detailed design evolves. Page 9


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August 2014

Oaks Estate Masterplan

This place matters

The Masterplan is available for comment and the National Trust will respond.

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Don’t forget that if you're a non-profit group with a mission to save historic or important places or an individual looking to spread the word, feel free to use the ‘This Place Matters’ message in your campaigns, conferences, or promotions by downloading our sign.

Hill Station This valuable heritage site in Hume is being forgotten. The National Trust is keen to see this heritage place conserved and used.

Take a photo of your important place and upload the photo to our Facebook page adding a brief statement as to why the place matters to you, or post or email the information to info@nationaltrustact.org.au. ‘This Place Matters’ is a trademarked property of the National Trust (ACT) and cannot be used by for-profit entities without express permission.

National Trust (ACT) walking tours iphone app Hill Station

Photo Eric Martin

Other Committee activities Significant Trees The National Trust has just completed the development of a National Register of Significant Trees through a National Partnership Programme with the Commonwealth Government. This lists trees throughout Australia that are considered significant by the National Trust. The ACT has about 30 entries in the register which is accessible from www.trusttrees.org.au. The register will provide a valuable information base and further nominations are welcomed. The ACT work was largely undertaken by Barry Cameron. A full report on the register will be provided in our November issue.

National Trust (ACT) Heritage Awards We received a number of nominations for these Awards which are currently being assessed. We are aiming to announce the results in early November. A full report will be given in a later issue.

The ACT National Trust has developed an app to help iphone users to explore Canberra's best heritage areas via self-guided walking tours. There are five walking tours in the app, covering the beautiful areas of Reid, Blandfordia, Commonwealth Park and the Northern and Southern Borders of the ACT. You choose the tour you want to take and follow the locations on the map. You can view historic photos and information about each important location on the tour.

The app was developed by local group Imagine Team Solutions and was supported with funding made available by the ACT Government under the ACT Heritage Grants Program. The App is available now for iphone HERE and will have a formal launch in November. Learn more about the walking tours on the National Trust website by clicking HERE. Eric Martin, AM

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Ginninderra Falls parkland proposals – July 2014 update In 2011 a north Canberra community group developed a proposal to create an outstanding regional park in NSW just north of the ACT border around the confluence of Ginninderra Creek and the Murrumbidgee River that included the Ginninderra Falls. The Association’s aims were:  to restore public access to the Ginninderra Creek and Murrumbidgee River corridors and Ginninderra Falls, and  to create a sustainable public park for recreational, educational and ecological purposes. For several years now the Riverview Group urban development company has been preparing plans for the West Belconnen township that involves housing construction in NSW south of Ginninderra Creek and adjacent land in the ACT bordering the Murrumbidgee River corridor. Over the last few months the Riverview Group has held planning workshops and cross-border government discussions to finalise planning proposals for the development in both the ACT and NSW. These have now been completed and a Cross-Border Services Committee that included NSW and ACT government and local authorities has, for the time being, been discontinued.

National Trust members in the ACT and NSW, and other community groups, to make representations to the ACT and NSW planning authorities to ensure that the river and creek parkland corridors are at least 300 m wide along all stretches of the waterways and that urban development does not intrude into areas with significant natural heritage. During an assessment of the area in 2013, the NSW Parks and Wildlife Service conducted an investigation into the feasibility of developing a national park centred on the Lower Ginninderra Falls and adjacent Murrumbidgee River corridor. Although the NSW Government was unwilling to fund a national park whose principal beneficiaries would be residents of the ACT, the National Parks and Wildlife Service acknowledged that:

Riverview Group planning proposal documents for land use rezoning in NSW and ACT are now complete and have been submitted to ACT and NSW Government planning departments for comment. Once issues raised by Government departments are addressed, these documents will be made available for public comment and feedback prior to rezoning approval being considered. The Ginninderra Falls Association maintains that current maps in the public arena for the footprint of the West Belconnen Urban Development indicate that the parkland along the Murrumbidgee River and Ginninderra Creek corridors is compromised and inadequate for long-term viable and attractive public parkland development. The Association contends that it is very important that the urban footprint be revised to include wider river and creek parkland corridors. When planning proposal documents become available to the public, the Ginninderra Falls Association urges

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Based on population projections for Canberra to 2050, the Ginninderra Falls Association suggests that a national park for the Ginninderra Falls area could see in excess of 50,000 visitors per annum. The Ginninderra Falls area of interest contains significant scenic as well as natural and heritage values. The area of interest has a range of recreational opportunities for the increasing population of the ACT and Yass Valley Council areas. Establishment of any reserve would require significant commitment from the NSW, ACT and local governments, the community and potentially private enterprise. The Ginninderra Falls Association contends that there are compelling arguments for strong cooperation between the ACT and NSW Governments, together with the Yass Valley Council, to create a regional park that will preserve an area of outstanding natural beauty along parts of the Ginninderra Creek – Murrumbidgee River corridor, including the Ginninderra Falls, and greatly enhancing the region’s tourist potential. This development will create commercial opportunities that will significantly improve the value of the surrounding area as a focus for cross-border enterprises with links to existing vineyards and broad acre developments. Doug Finlayson Ginninderra Falls Association Page 11


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Travels and at home with the Trust Local and Interstate Speaker’s Night – A Light in the Window: Harper’s Mansion

Visit to Callum Brae

Wednesday 17 September 5.30 – 7pm

Callum Brae was a soldier settler lease success story due to canny Hector McIntosh and hard work. While the property was leased in 1919, Hector finally moved his family here in 1925. The afternoon will start with an easy walk through the reserve which is an important link in the chain of woodland reserves that extend from Red Hill to Wanniassa Hills. Come and inspect this still much-loved working farm—heritage listed in 2011. Afternoon tea will be served before returning through the reserve.

The National Trust is pleased to announce that former Canberra journalist Ann Beaumont will visit us to talk about her latest book A Light in the Window, Harper’ Mansion Berrima – the place and its people. The book is a lively narrative which brings to life the story of James and Mary Harper who built Harper’s Mansion and the Surveyor-General Inn, the only pub still operating in Berrima today. It also gives an insight into the 120 year ownership of the house by the Catholic Church and introduces the reader to the priests, nuns and tenants who lived there. She also highlights the Trust’s restoration of the property, the creation of the garden, and the countless hours given by volunteers to keep the house open. Published earlier this year by the National Trust in May Anne received a National Trust NSW heritage award for her fine work. Copies of Anne’s book will be on sale and she will be pleased to sign copies. Meet: National Archives, Queen Victoria Terrace Cost: $10.00. Drinks and nibbles included. Bookings essential: RSVP 11 September to 6230 0533 or online at www.nationaltrust.org.au/act/events

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Sunday 21 September 1– 4pm

Meet: At entry of Callum Brae Woodland Reserve, Narrabundah Lane, Symonston Cost: $25 members and $35 non-members Bookings essential: 6230 0533 or online at www.nationaltrust.org.au/act/events

Speaker’s night The Luck of the Irish An evening with Babette Smith Wednesday 1 October 5.30 – 7pm Babette Smith is one of Australia's most respected experts on convict history and author of the bestselling Cargo of Women and Australia's Birthstain. The Luck of the Irish is a fascinating portrait of colonial life in the mid-19th century, which reveals how the Irish helped lay the foundations of the Australia we know today. The luck of the Irish was chronic bad luck, as their sad history attests. That's how it looked for 250 Irish convicts when their ship, the Hive, sank ignominiously off the NSW coast in 1835. Miraculously all survived, guided to safety by local Aboriginal people.

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They landed at a time when the so-called slave colony was at its height, ruled by the lash and the chain gang. Yet as Babette Smith tracked the lives of the people aboard the Hive, she discovered a very different story. Most were assigned to work on farms or in businesses, building a better life than they possibly could have experienced in Ireland. Surprisingly, in the workforce they found power, which gave rise to the characteristic Australian culture later described by DH Lawrence: 'Nobody felt better than anybody else, or higher.'

Meet: National Archives, Queen Victoria Terrace Cost: $10.00. Drinks & nibbles included. Bookings essential: RSVP 25 September to 6230 0533 or online at www.nationaltrust.org.au/act/events

National Trust (ACT) AGM Thursday 16 October 6.30 for 7.00pm Guest speaker at this year’s Annual General Meeting will be well known Canberra author and historian Allen Mawer who will take us on a search for Jack Doolan of Castlemaine. He was, as the song says, a teenage bushranger, but not quite the one we know. Meet: National Archives, Queen Victoria Terrace

Reid Open Houses Sunday 2 November 1.30–4.30pm This popular event is to be held again in collaboration with the Reid Residents’ Association. The program features a guided walk and visits to three houses and gardens in this heritage-listed residential precinct, which have been selected for their sympathetic restoration or renovations. There will be an introductory talk on Reid and its heritage significance by a heritage expert and the opportunity to hear the owners provide a short talk on their homes and gardens which can then be inspected at leisure. A delicious afternoon tea will be served at the Reid Pre-school.

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Meet: Corner of Dirrawan Gardens and Currong St, near the Reid Tennis Club Pavilion. A guided walking tour with a total distance of approx. 1.5 kms (return). Cost: $25 members; $35 non-members Bookings essential: 6230 0533 or email: info@nationaltrustact.org.au

Bus trip to Harper’s Mansion in Berrima and Joadja Sunday 9 November - all day bus trip from 7.30am We invite you to join us on one of our interesting regional heritage tours, this time to the Berrima region where we will explore one Joadja Town of Berrima’s fine old homes, Harper’s Mansion via the historic Joadja valley and Joadja ghost town for morning tea, a visit to the operating whiskey distillery and a BBQ lunch. Joadja town was founded by Scottish workers brought out to mine the local shale deposits. The mine closed early in the 20th century, and the town was abandoned but the ruins tell the story of those that lived, worked and perished there. Harper’s Mansion (c1834) is an excellent example of a colonial Georgian residence, furnished in period style and set in two acres of strolling gardens of cool climate heritage plants overlooking the historic village of Berrima including one of the largest hedge mazes in Australia. Bring some spending money for the National Trust shop. Meet: 7.30am in Deakin (car park behind the Deakin Fitness Centre, Deakin Shops) OR 7.45am northside at the bus stop on Northbourne Ave (outside the Southwell Park netball courts). Cost: $80 members; $90 non-members (including bus, morning tea, BBQ lunch and Joadja entry) Bookings essential: 6230 0533 or email: info@nationtrustact.org.au Please specify pick-up point when booking, plus any dietary requirements.

National Trust (ACT) Christmas Party December Date and venue to be advised.

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Overseas Germany

Heritage Gardens, Museum Island in Berlin, Potsdam and San Souci, Wittenberg where Martin Luther challenged Roman Catholicism and began the Reformation, the CelticRoman Museum in the heartlands of the early Celts at Manching, Nuremberg, Bamburg and more.

A fort on the Roman border

19 May- 10 June 2015 for 22 days http://www.nationaltrust.org.au/act/GermanyTour This exciting tour will focus on selected UNESCO World Heritage listed places, but other places of national significance to the history and cultural development of Germany will be included. Cost:

Brandenburg Gates

Historical archaeologist, Dr Peter Dowling will accompany the tour and an accredited English speaking guide will be with us at all times. Come with us. Contact the ACT National Trust on (02) 6230 0533 Monday – Thursday or Travelscene Canberra City (02) 6247 6544 Monday – Thursday

$10,200 pp Land Tour only $13,200 Package price including return economy airfares (Singapore Airlines) (Single supplement $1,620)

The Theme: A tour covering the history and culture of Germany from the Neanderthal period of the deep past, the Bronze and Iron Ages, the Celtic and Viking periods, the Roman period through the Renaissance to modern times. A focus of the tour will be visits to UNESCO World Heritage places. The tour will be at a leisurely pace. We will be based 5 nights in Trier, 6 nights in Berlin, 4 nights in Hamburg, 1 night in the World Heritage city of Bamberg and 5 nights in Munich. We will have time to explore these cities and from there venture into the heart of the country to visit the historical, archaeological, and cultural places that represent the development of Germany over a period of 40,000 years. We will also have free time in these cities to explore by ourselves and to experience the food and the shops. Some of the highlights will include: the site and museums of the first identified Neanderthal skeleton, sites from the Roman period, Heidelberg and the Rhine Valley region, Lübeck, the Viking settlement of Hedeby, Dresden, World

Heritage in Trust

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Tour inclusions  

     •

Professional English-speaking guide throughout the tour and sightseeing with local tour guides where applicable Twin/double share 4-star accommodation throughout the tour including hotel taxes, service charges, state and local taxes Breakfast daily, some lunches and dinners as per the itinerary Air-conditioned coach, as per itinerary. All touring, as stated in the itinerary Sightseeing as outlined in the itinerary with inside visits (including admission charges) Gratuities to the tour manager and coach driver Tips to baggage porters and hotel staff

Tour cost not included • • • • • • •

Meals not specified on the itinerary Excess baggage charges Meals not specified in the itinerary Beverages including tea and coffee except at breakfast and hotel dinners, wines, liquor, soft drinks, etc Items of a personal nature such as phone calls, laundry, mini bar, internet access, etc Gratuities to local guides Transportation to/from hotels or venues if travel is separate to that of the group

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Speaker’s Night Report An evening with Bill Gammage Wednesday 16 July 2014 at the National Archives of Australia The meeting room was packed out and many people were left on the waiting list. Those who attended had an enjoyable evening and may have had their beliefs challenged. Peter Dowling reports.

Professor Gammage stressed that where Indigenous land management practices have ceased, particularly in our nature parks and national parks, the ‘natural’ areas are overgrown with competing flora species, which are subject to the bushfires we now experience.

Archaeologists have been aware that many of the pre1788 landscapes of Australia have been strongly influenced How ‘natural’ are our natural landscapes? That was the and formed by Indigenous activities. We have seen question that many of us took away from Professor Bill evidence of this in the archaeological deposits dating back Gammage’s talk at the ACT National Trust members’ night. through the millennia. But it has taken the work of A large audience, around eighty people, attended this Professor Gammage and the rigour and detail he has event - a testimony to the interest in the history of our applied to his research for us to understand the true landscapes by our members and the high regard Bill nature and complexity of Indigenous land management Gammage is held in as one of Australia’s eminent across the continent. historians. His book, The Biggest Estate on Earth, How Aborigines For many years Professor Gammage has looked closely at Made Australia, is a fascinating read and has won several our rural and ‘natural’ landscapes with a discerning eye, awards since its publication including the Prime Minister’s taking nothing for granted, not just here in Canberra but Prize for Australian History. across the continent. Professor Gammage has spent over a decade examining a vast amount of archival and visual records, conducting fieldwork expeditions, studying the biology and ecology of our native flora and fauna and looking closely at traditional Indigenous hunting and gathering techniques. From this research he has pieced together a convincing theory relating to an extraordinarily complex system of human land management practices that has shaped our landscapes and biota for many thousands of years. Much of the landscape we are familiar with when we travel beyond our cities and towns is not the result of ‘natural’ causes but is to a high degree anthropogenic, caused by Bill Gammage and Aboriginal elder, Mrs Jannette Phillips the human hand. The Indigenous populations managed Photo Di Johnstone the landscapes by selective burnings and with an understanding of native plant ecology created patterns or Do you have a friend travelling overseas? mosaics of open grasslands and woodlands to ensure a Tell them about the advantages of joining the National plentiful and reliable source of animal and plant foods. In Trust including free entry into over 2000 National Trust doing so, it can be argued, they influenced the life-cycles of properties around the world. Australian flora and fauna.

Heritage in Trust

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ANU History Learning Community The best thing about history is that there is something to interest everyone. From the clash of arms in the Roman gladiatorial arena, to the machinations of the Tudor court, through to the dusty plains of frontier Australia, stories abound of the billions of lives long since lived. Curiously, however, schools and even sometimes universities do a good job of making this all seem dull. That’s what the ANU History Learning Community intends to counteract – to invigorate some of these stories and to champion and stimulate the power of curiosity to make history come alive. The ANU History Learning Community is a student-led collective of like-minded individuals who share a passion for history and seek to encourage a greater understanding of our shared past whether it encompasses local, national or global history. Through active collaboration with academics, local institutions, organisations like the National Trust and other students, the learning community aims to promote all things history so that we can learn to love our shared past – and see where those stories can take us. Each year two co-ordinators are selected to guide the learning community in the direction they see fit, the challenge being not a lack of resources or opportunities, just the coherent organisation of all this potential. So this year, we’ve sought to bring out the jumper-leads to give the Learning Community a kick of life. Our two main objectives were to increase the breadth of the History Learning Community and to give greater publicity to history-related events at ANU and in Canberra. In a way, we have been seeking to act as curators, selecting some of the best ‘goings on’ in the history world to promote to students and the wider ANU and Canberra community. Some of our initiatives have been very well received. Our foray into social media led us to create a Facebook page, enabling us to connect easily and quickly online – attracting over 200 followers already. Our monthly newsletter has also been a winner with several hundred subscribers.

Heritage in Trust

Also, our curated series of ‘History Highlights’ has been especially successful - promoting several excellent local events including a debate held at Albert Hall for Women’s History Month and a public lecture at the ANU by the Chichele Professor of the History of War at Oxford University, Sir Huw Strachan. Happily, support for the History Learning Community exists aplenty. Our first event ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of Coombs’ was attended by between 60 and 80 people including undergraduates, graduates and history school staff. The keener students delved into the labyrinthine depths of the Coombs Building to find as many of the ‘golden idols’ as possible while other students chatted among themselves and with academics. It was a very relaxed affair which was designed to be a ‘meet and greet’ and a bit of fun. We’ve also been fortunate enough to secure some excellent guest lecturers including Associate Professor Frank Bongiorno who gave a lecture called ‘Sex: A Raunchy History of the Sex Lives of Australians’ based on his award winning and acclaimed work The Sex Lives of Australians. Not only was this shortlisted for the Australian History Prize in the 2013 Prime Minister’s Literary Awards, but it also won the 2013 ACT Book of the Year Awards. Throughout the rest of the year, we’re aiming to showcase some of the excellent historical research being done at the ANU, by visiting academics and local Canberra historians. So please keep an eye out – the more the merrier. On top of this, plans are underway for exploring how we can promote career options for students studying history, as well as working on an undergraduate history prize. Lastly, if you would like to connect with the History Learning Community please like our Facebook page or send us an email at historylc@anu.edu.au.

Matthew Allanby and Daniel McKay

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Saints Peter and Paul’s Old Cathedral, Goulburn Completed at last! It's been a long time coming. Sts Peter and Paul’s Old Cathedral in Goulburn was built in two stages. The first stage, the nave, was built in 1871 -1872, and the second, transepts, sanctuary and tower, over the period 1886 1890. Now, with the new spire, it can be said that the building was built in three stages.

Twenty-four tonne of stone has already been replaced on the tower. Heritage NSW provided a $70,000 grant for the bell and housing restoration on a dollar for dollar basis. The Restoration Committee is grateful for the continued support from the National Trust (NSW) through the Sts Peter and Paul’s Old Cathedral Restoration Appeal.

Refurbished bell

The tower costs so far are approximately $1,080,000 and with funds exhausted, the scaffolding will remain in place for quite some time. Spire in position

The cathedral is unique in that it is constructed with green porphyry, a hard igneous rock of a beautiful olive green colour. It is not generally used for building as it is very hard and not plentiful. The church is finished with sandstone. The original architect was Andrea Stombucco, himself a stone mason, responsible for stage one. Charles Spadaccini 1886 engraving St Saviour’s Cathedral completed stage two. Garry Dutaillis, architect of Goulburn, designed the new spire following original drawings. It is steel framed and roofed with copper shingles. Garran's Picturesque Atlas of Australasia shows a sketch of the "completed" Cathedral with its short Romanesque type This all came about because in the current major spire. The same edition also shows Goulburn's sister, St restoration of the whole building, the original Murphy Saviour's Anglican Cathedral by Edmund Blackett, with its bell purchased in Dublin in 1869 was out of tune and its magnificent tall spire (maybe one day!) tower housing needed replacing. With scaffolding in place on the tower for stone restoration, to complete the building was an opportunity not to be missed. Father Dermid McDerott (Photographs and text)

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_______________________________________________ National Trust of Australia (ACT)

The Hon. Margaret Reid AO

President Scott McAlister

Office PO Box 1144 Civic Square ACT 2608

Office Manager

Telephone 02 6230 0533 Fax 02 6230 0544 Email info@nationaltrustact.org.au Net www.nationaltrust.org.au ABN 50 797 949 955 Opening times: Office Location:

Patron

Liz McMillan info@nationaltrustact.org.au

9.30am to 3.00pm Monday to Thursday 1st Floor, North Building Canberra City [above Canberra Museum & Gallery],

The e-magazine, Heritage in Trust, is produced and edited by Maree Treadwell and Wendy Whitham assisted by Dianne Dowling and Mary Johnston.

About Heritage in Trust Heritage in Trust is published quarterly as an electronic magazine in conjunction with the national magazine Trust News in February, May, August and November. The editors invite articles and letters from Trust members with an interest in the heritage of the ACT and these should be addressed to The Editor, Heritage in Trust, at info@nationaltrustact.org.au.

Deadlines for copy mid January (February issue) mid April (May) mid July (August) mid October (November) The views expressed in Heritage in Trust are not necessarily those of the National Trust of Australia (ACT). The articles in this e-magazine are subject to copyright. No article may be used without the consent of the ACT National Trust and the author.

Visiting England? Make the most of your National Trust of Australia (ACT) membership. Here is a selection of images of National Trust properties from the beautiful south west of England which you can visit for free with your ACT Trust membership, and where you can taste a classic cream tea or cheese scones (see Trusted recipe this issue).

Cotehele, Cornwall

Dovecote Cotehele

Buckland Abbey, Devon

Lanhydrock House Photos Maree Treadwell

A full report on my visit to these favourite properties will be in given in a future issue. We’d love to hear about your visit too. Send photos or reports to the editors at info@nationaltrustact.org.au. Maree Treadwell

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