Page 1

INR 100

HARBIL/2004/22481

20 Cool Facts

You Never Knew About Cows

Vol.14 | No. - 10 | October - 2017

Detection Of Adulterants In Milk Negative Energy Balance ?


5

From the Pen of Chief Editor

6

Detection Of Adulterants In Milk

DAIRY farms have been the flagship for the Tasmanian agricultural sector in the past five years, with milk production expanding rapidly.

Demand for milk and milk products has gone through the roof, largely

due to the insatiable appetite for milk powder of the growing Chinese middle-class. Prices have remained high amid this increase in production, resulting in buoyant confidence in the sector that has in turn encouraged further investment. As we all know, confidence is a peculiar phenomenon because it feeds off itself. Success breeds success. The dramatic and sustained expansion and the perception of a “blue sky” future in dairy has resulted in land that was sown with tree plantations —

Negative Energy Balance (neb): Effect On Reproductive Traits Of Bull

C O N T E N T S

Editorial

Editorial: Challenging days down at the dairy

12

Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer Dry Cow Therapy For Mastitis Management

15

Role Of Dairying In Doubling Farmer's Income : An Economic Analysis

16

Dairy Farming Business Guide

18 19

PRESS RELEASE

20 Removing Value Chain Inefficiencies Will 22 Propel Growth Of India's Animal Protein Sector

22

News

which had once been prime dairy land before forestry managed investment schemes artificially inflated prices and lured many of the

25

Recipe

state's dairy farmers into selling their farms — being returned to pasture and cows. The circle complete.

10

26

Upcoming Event

Tasmania's biggest dairy processor, yesterday announced it was cutting its supplier milk price. This less-than-welcome news came only a week after Murray Goulburn slashed its farmgate price.

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However, in the first hiccup in the sector in some years, Fonterra, Amul Godrej Agrovet Indus Food Pixie

03 07 28 02

#923, Sector-9, Urban Estate, KARNAL - 132001 (Haryana) INDIA

OUR TEAM

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBER

Vishal Gupta

Dr. J Tamizhkumaran

Managing Director vishal@pixie.co.in

M.VSc., PGDEP., Ph.D. (Ph.D in Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension Education)

N.K. Gupta General Manager + 91 999 170 5005 pcslkarnal@gmail.com

Dr. Mohanlal Shende BVSc&AH ,PGDBIM

Rakesh Kumar Founder - Growel Agrovet Private Limited

Aparna Marketing Manager + 91 999 170 5007 dairy.pcsl@gmail.com

Dr. Sanjay K Latkar Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd Mumbai

Dr. Rabi Ranjan Naik Website : www.pixie.co.in 04

M.VSc.Scholar, Department of Livestock Prouducts Technology, Madras veterinary collage, TANUVAS, Chennai

Email : dairy.pcsl@gmail.com | info@pixie.co.in Website : www.pixie.co.in Editorial Policy is Independent. Views expressed by authors are not necessarily those held by the editors. Registered as Newspaper by Register of Newspaper for India : RNI No. HARBIL/2004/22481 Editorial & Advertisements may not be reproduced without the written consent of the publishers. Whilst every care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of Dairy Planner. The publishers do not accept any responsibility or liability for the material herein. Publication of news, views and information is in the interest of positive Dairy industrial development in India . It does not imply publisher's endorsement. Unpublished material of industrial interest, not submitted elsewhere, is invited. The Submitted material will not be returned. Publisher, Printer : Mr. Vishal Gupta on Behalf of Pixie Consulting Solutions Ltd. Karnal. Printed at : Jaiswal Printing Press, Jain Market, Railway Road Karnal. Published at : 923, Sector-9, Urban Estate, Karnal132001 (Haryana) Editor-In-Chief : Mr. Vishal Rai Gupta All Legal matters are subject to Karnal.

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


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Ÿ vkjfEHkd voLFkk esa rhoz Toj ns[kus dks

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lkFk&lkFk [kqjidk&eq¡gidk jksx ds cpko esa Hkh lgk;d gksrk gaSA

Ÿ yhleku vfHkjatd fof/k }kjk Ÿ tSo jlk;fud ifj{k.k Ÿ lhjeh; ifj{k.k

fofHkUu çdkj dh thok.kqjks/kh nok,a xy?kksaVw jksx esa rHkh dkjxj fl) gksrh gSa tc mUgsa jksx dh çkjafHkd voLFkk esa gh ns fn;k tk,A blfy, jksx dh igpku vkjfEHkd voLFkk esa djuk furkar vko';d gaSA dqN egRoiw.kZ thok.kqjks/kh nok,a tSls flQSyksLiksjhu] D;ksuksyhu] VsVªklkbDyhu] fyadkslkekbM] oSdksekbflu] jhQkEiflu vkfn dkQh mi;ksxh ikbZ x;h gaSA thok.kqjks/kh nok,a de ls de 5 ls 6 fnuksa rd yxkrkj nsuh pkfg,A lwtu dks de djus ds fy, lwtu&jks/kh nok,a tSls& chVkesFkklksu ;k MsDlkefeFkklksu] Hkh ykHkdkjh gSaA ;g lHkh nok,a ,d dq'ky i'kqfpfdRld dh ns[kjs[k esa gh nh tkuh pkfg, vU;Fkk çfrdwy ifj.kke Hkh gks ldrs gSaA blds lkFk

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DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


DETECTION OF ADULTERANTS IN MILK Milk and dairy product adulteration came into global concern af ter breakthrough of melamine contamination in Chinese infant milk products in 2008.Milk is considered to be the 'ideal food' because of its abundant nutrients required by both infants and adults. It is one of the best sources for protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin and minerals. Adulteration in milk is one of the most common and old practice due to a very high demand. As the population increases, the demand will increase because there will be more m o u t h s t o f e e d . To m e e t t h e exponentially increasing demand, adulteration is being employed on regular basis. Adulterated food has adverse effects on health because of the toxic nature of the substituting compounds or lack of compounds of nutritional value. The most common adulterants added to milk are water, urea, starch, oils etc. Although various known methods for detection of adulteration in milk are available but the simple, rapid and sensitive methods become more popular in the field. Adulterants in milk: Adulterants in milk may be classified into following categories. a Water b Thickening agents

Ÿ

Formaldehyde

Ÿ

Benzoic acid

Ÿ

Salicylic acid

Ÿ

Hydrogen peroxide

Ÿ

Hypochloride

Normal freezing point of milk is taken as – 0.55°C. A tolerance level of 3% is given which is equivalent to specifying a minimum freezing point depression for authentic milk of – 0.55°C. ii. Detection of thickening agents in milk

e Neutralizers Ÿ

Lime water

Ÿ

Sodium bicarbonate

Ÿ

Sodium carbonate

Ÿ

Sodium hydroxide

f Mixing of milk of one species with other Ÿ

Cow milk in goat milk / sheep milk

Ÿ

Cow milk in buffalo milk

Ÿ

Buffalo milk in cow milk

g Coloring matter Ÿ

Annatto

Ÿ

Coal tar dyes

h Miscellaneous Adulterants Ÿ

Vegetable oil

Ÿ

Soybean protein

Ÿ

Urine

Ÿ

Coconut water

Ÿ

Dirt

Ÿ

QAC

Ÿ

Antibiotics

Ÿ

Wash water / Detergent

Ÿ

Cane sugar

The different adulterants of milk may be detected by following methods.

Ÿ

Gelatin

I. Detection of water in milk

Ÿ

Cellulose

Ÿ

Glucose

Ÿ

Ammonium sulphate

Ÿ

Potassium nitrate

Ÿ

Salts

d Preservatives Ÿ

06

Boric acid/Borates

Detection of sucrose (sugar) Generally sugar is mixed in the milk to increase the solids not fat content of milk i.e. to increase the lactometer reading of milk, which was already diluted with water.

Ÿ

Urea

Detection of starch

Take about 3 ml of well mixed milk in a test tube and boil in water bath. Then milk is cooled to room temperature and added with 2 to 3 drops of 1% iodine solution. D e v e l o p m e n t of b l u e c o l o u r indicates that the milk is adulteratedwith starch.

Starch

Ÿ

Ÿ

Addition of starch increases the SNF content of milk. Apart from the starch, wheat flour, arrowroot, rice flour etc., can also be added for increasing the SNF content.

Ÿ

c Fertilizers /Additive

When milk is watered and skimmed, it is deficient in viscosity/ density/ consistency. It may be restored by the addition of one or more substances as follows

Though the adulteration of milk with water can be checked by lactometer reading, other adulterations too affect the lactometer reading. Hence freezing point depression, recognized by AOAC, is usually adopted. Percentage of water added = (Normal freezing point – Observed freezing point) / Normal freezing pointx 100

Take 10 ml of milk in a test tube and add 1 ml of hydrochloric acid along with 0.3 g of resorcinol. Then shake the test tube well and place the test tube in a boiling water bath for 5 min. Appearance of red color indicates the presence of cane sugar in milk. Ÿ

Detection of gelatin Generally gelatin is mixed in the milk to increase the solids not fat content of milk.Take 10 ml of milk in a flask and add 10 ml of mercuric nitrate solution.Then add 20 ml of distilled

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube. Add 0.2 ml of fresh urease (20 mg / ml). Shake well at room temperature. Add 0.1 ml of bromothymol blue solution. Development of blue color after 10– 15 minutes indicates the presence of extraneous urea in the milk.

water and keep it for 5 minutes; and filter. Now add equal volume of picric acid to the filtrate. Development of turbidity and / or yellow color indicates the presence of gelatin in milk. Ÿ

Detection of cellulose Take 10 gm of milk, add 50 ml of hot water & stir it for 2 minutes. Then filter & wash the residue with 50 ml hot water. Place it in a spotting plate and stain one part with iodine-ZnCl2 reagent and another with iodine. Development of blue color in iodine solution indicates presence of cellulose.

Ÿ

Take 5 ml of milk sample in 50 ml conical flask and add 5 ml of acetate buffer& heat for 3 minutes or add 5 ml TCA solution. Filter through Whatman number 42 (filter paper)& collect 1 ml of filtrate in the tube. Add 1 ml of sodium hydroxide solution to the filtrate followed by 0.5 ml of sodium hypochlorite solution.Mix thoroughly and finally add 0.5 ml of phenol solution. Development of blue or blue green color indicates presence of extraneous urea in the milk.

Detection of Skim milk powder Generally skim milk powder is mixed in the milk to increase the solids not fat content of milk. Take 10 ml milk in each of two centrifuge tubes, then centrifuge the tube at 3000 rpm for 30 minutes. D i s card th e s u pe rn atan t an d dissolve the residue in 2.5 ml concentrated nitric acid. Dilute the solution with 5 ml of distilled water then add the 2.5 ml of liquid ammonia. Appearance of orange color indicates the presence of skim milk powder in the milk.

Ÿ

Milk suppliers take an advantage of increasing the solid not fat content of milk by adding various substances such as urea, glucose, ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and other salts. Ÿ

Take 5 ml of milk sample and mix itwith 5 ml paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde reagent in test tube. If the solution turns distinct yellow in color, then the given sample of milk contains urea. Control, normal milk may show a faint yellow color due to presence of natural urea. 08

Alternatively 1 ml of milk is taken in a test tube. Add 0.5 ml NaOH and 0.5 ml of sodium hypochlorite solution. Mix thoroughly and add 0.5 ml phenol solution to this. Heat the tube in boiling water bath for 20 seconds. Development of blue color, which turns deep blue, indicates the presence of extraneous ammonium sulphate in the milk.

Detection of urea

Ÿ

Ÿ

Detection of glucose (Phosphomolybdic or Barford Test) Usually poor quality glucose is added to milk to increase the lactometer reading. Take 1 ml of milk

Test for the detection of salt Addition of salt in milk is mainly r e s o r t e d t o w i t h t h e a i m of increasing the corrected lactometer reading. Five ml of silver nitrate (0.8%) is taken in a test tube and mixed with 2 to 3 drops of 1% potassium dichromate. Now 1 ml of milk is thoroughly mixed with it. If the contents of the test tube turn yellow in color, then the milk contains salt in it. If it is chocolate colored, then the milk is free from salt.

Detection of ammonium sulphate The presence of sulphate in milk increases the lactometer reading.Take 5 ml of hot milk in a test tube and add a suitable acid e.g. citric acid and the whey thus separated is filtered. Collect the whey in another test tube and add 0.5 ml of 5% barium chloride to it. The appearance of precipitatesin the tube indicate the presence of ammonium sulphate in milk.

iii. Detection of Fertilizers / Additives

in a test tube and add 1 ml Barford's reagent and mix it thoroughly. Keep the tube in a boiling water bath for 3 min and then cool it for 2 min by immersing in tap water without any disturbance. Now add 1 ml of phosphomolybdic acid and shake. Immediate formation of deep blue color indicates the presence of extraneous glucose in the milk.

iv. Detection of preservatives In dairy industry preservatives means a substance which when added to milk, cream or other milk products would retard sourness and decomposition. The practice of adding preser vatives is highly objectionable and should be forbidden. It is illegal because of many reasons. Ÿ

Detection of borax and boric acid in milk Take 5 ml of milk in a test tube.Add 1 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid mixed well. Dip the tip of turmeric paper in the acidified milk and it is dried in a watch glass at 100°C or over a small flame. If the turmeric paper turns red, it indicates presence of borax or boric acid.Add a drop of ammonia solution on the turmeric paper and if the red color changes to green, it shows the presence of boric acid.

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


Ÿ

Detection of hydrogen peroxide Take 5 ml milk in a test tube and add 5 drops of paraphenylenediamine hydrochloride solution and shake it well. Change of the color of milk to blue indicates the presence of hydrogen peroxide in milk.

Ÿ

limewater, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide etc. may be added. Such practice is not permissible. Ÿ

Formalin (40%) is poisonous though it can preserve milk for a long time. Take 10 ml of milk in test tube and 5 ml of conc. Sulphuric acid is added on the sides of the test tube without shaking. If a violet or blue ring appears at the intersection of the two layers, then it shows the presence of formalin. Ÿ

Detection of benzoic and salicylic acid in milk Five ml of milk is taken in a test tube and acidified with concentrated sulphuric acid. 0.5% ferric chloride solution is added drop by drop and mixed well. Development of buff color indicates presence of benzoic acid and violet colour indicates salicylic acid.

v. Detection of neutralizers Milk is highly perishable and during storage, it undergoes microbial action and develops acidity. If such highly acidic milk is used for manufacture of milk products, it will result in final product of inferior quality, so neutralizer in the form of

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Test for detection of pulverized soap 10 ml of milk is taken in a test tube and diluted with equal quantity of hot water. Now add 1–2 drops of p h e n o l p h t h a l e i n i n d i c a t o r. Development of pink color indicates that the milk is adulterated with soap.

Detection of buffalo milk in cow milk The presence of buffalo milk in cow milk is tested by Hansa test. It is based on immunological assay. One ml of milk is diluted with 4 ml of water and then it is treated with 1 ml of antiserum. The characteristic precipitation reaction indicates the presence of buffalo milk in the sample taken. (The antiserum is developed by injecting buffalo milk proteins into rabbits).

Detection of vegetable fat in milk The characteristic feature of milk is in its fatty acid composition, which mainly consists of short chain fatty acids such as butyric, caproic, caprylic acid; whereas the vegetable fats consist mainly of long chain fatty acids and hence adulteration of vegetable fat in milk can be easily found out by analyzing the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography.

Detection of carbonate or bicarbonate (Rosalic acid test) Rosalic acid is an indicator, which shows change in the color on addition to alkaline milk. Take 5 ml milk in a test tube and add equal volumes of alcohol. Then add few drops of 1% rosalic acid solution. Development of rose red/pinkish red color indicates the presence of carbonate. In pure milk, it may be brownish or brownish yellow color.

Detection of formalin

vi. Miscellaneous Adulterants

Ÿ

Detection of detergents in milk 5 ml of milk is taken in a test tube and 0.1 ml of bromocresol purple solution is added to it. Appearance of violet color indicates the presence of detergents in the milk . Unadulterated milk samples show a faint violet color.

Rachana Sharma, Panjab Singh Yadav, Mala Singh and Ram Kumar Singh National Dairy Research Institute Karnal (Haryana)

Contd of... Page 5

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NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE (NEB): EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BULL Negative Energy Balance ? The basic components of energy balance include energy intake, energy expenditure and energy storage. NEB is the depletion of body's energy stores due to imbalance between energy intake and expenditure.

important role during calf hood (the period from 10 to 26-30 wk of age) and peri-pubertal period (the period from 27-31 to 70-74 wk of age) on sexual development and reproductive function in bulls. Ÿ

Normal Mechanism

the period of accelerated reproductive development after 20 wk of age through puberty; during this period, gonadotropin secretions decrease, although testosterone secretion continues to increase.

Sexual development can be divided

into the infantile, prepubertal and pubertal periods, according to changes in gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations. The infantile p e r i o d i s characterized by low gonadotropin and testosterone secretion and extends from birth to approximately 8 wk of age.

Ÿ

Endogenous metabolic hormones (leptin, insulin, GH and IGF-I), gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations have major effect on sexual development, sperm production, and semen quality.

Ÿ

Low nutrition during calf hood suppresses LH secretion during the early gonadotropin rise and results in delayed puberty and reduced testicular development at maturity.

Ÿ

Temporal associations between LH secretion patterns and circulating IGF-1 concentrations implied that IGF-I is a possible signal to the central “metabolic sensor” involved in translating body nutritional status to the GnRH pulse generator.

Ÿ

Growth hormone concentrations d e c re a s e c o n c o m i t a n t l y w i t h increasing IGF-I concentrations during sexual development in bulls, suggesting that the testes can contribute considerable amounts of circulating IGF-I.

Ÿ

Since LH and IGF-I have crucial, complementary roles in promoting Leydig cell proliferation, differentiation, and testosterone secretion, the effects of nutrition on testicular steroidogenesis were probably mediated by both LH secretion and IGF-I concentrations.

Ÿ

IGF-I concentrations accounted for a high proportion of the variation in testes size, indicating that IGF-I may be a potent testicular mitogen.

Ÿ

Circulating leptin and insulin may have only permissive roles on GnRH secretion, but may enhance testicular development.

Ÿ

Blood flow and uptake of oxygen and

Ÿ

When NEB

Ÿ

Nutrition and the Hormonal Mechanism Ÿ

10

The effects of nutrition play an

A transient increase in gonadotropin secretion occurs from approximately 8-20 wk of age; this has been called the 'early gonadotropin rise' and characterizes the prepuber tal period.

Testosterone concentrations begin to rise during the prepubertal period. Ÿ

The pubertal period corresponds to

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


glucose in unit weight of testis and testosterone output is significantly reduced in underfed bulls. Ÿ

Ÿ

In the bull, testosterone secretion is closely related to the amount of testosterone in the testis and the latter is related to the weight of the seminal vesicles, to their content of fructose and citric acid and to the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Microscopically, tubular damage of varying degrees is found in the testes, many of the tubules showed extreme sloughing; in some places only the Sertoli cells and spermatogonia remained attached to the basement membrane, and the lumina contained cellular debris and fat droplets.

Ÿ

Testicular growth- retarded

Ÿ

Development of seminal vesicle , ampulla and epididymis- retarded

Ÿ

Testicular morphology- impaired development of seminiferous tubules , tunica dartos muscle and interstitial cells

Ÿ

Germinal epithelium- unaffected

Ÿ

Ejaculate volume- reduced

Ÿ

Spermatogenesis-

Effects of NEB on Reproductive Function in Mature Bull Ÿ

The reproductive organs of the adult male are more resistant to dietary changes than are those of the immature animal.

Ÿ

Restricted feeding has no observable effect on volume and density of semen, or motility and morphology of spermatozoa.

Ÿ

Normally, it does not affect the sexual desire of bulls unless it becomes extreme or continues over a long period of time.

Ÿ

However, long-term feeding of bulls on low protein rations can reduce their libido compared with that of bulls fed normal.

1. Sperm Production- reduced 2. Sperm Morphology- unaffected 3.Sperm Motility- reduced temporarily

In addition, delayed appearance of motile sperm in ejaculate, retarded testicular growth, decreased size of Leydig cells and low differentiation of the seminiferous tubules and of the interstitial tissue is observed in the male gonads of underfed maturing bull-calves.

In previously protein-deficient yearling bulls, the return of the animals to an adequate diet for at least 6 weeks result in an increase in body weight, a recovery of normal secondary sex gland function as evidenced from their normal concentrations of fructose, citric acid and 5-nucleotidase activity and although semen volume increase, the adequate diet do not induce an elevation in the concentration of spermatozoa.

Ÿ

Testicular volume, weight and scrotal circumference is also markedly reduced.

The failure of re-feeding to induce full reproductive function in previously underfed young animals will reflect-

Ÿ

Animal is not able to maintain scrotal temperature for optimum spermatogenesis in negative energy balance because tunica dartos and cremaster muscles are ill developed due to less testosterone production at puberty.

Ÿ

Some degree of damage to neural centers controlling reproduction due to deficiencies in dietar y components early in life.

Ÿ

The impaired ability of the animals

Ÿ

to synthesize adequate protein which appears necessary to facilitate t h e a c t i o n of h y p o t h a l a m i c releasing factors.

In conclusion, management strategies to optimize reproductive function in bulls should focus on increasing nutrition during calf hood because nutrition during calf hood has longterm effects on sexual development, regardless of the nutrition offered during the peripuber tal period, puber tal and mature stage as maintenance ration is adequate for optimum sexual activity in bull at later stages.

Abhishek Kumar¹, Sandeep Kumar Chaudhary², Rohit Kumar Jaiswal³ and Vaibhav Purwar⁴ Effects of NEB on Growth and ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Reproductive Development of Young Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P-243 122 Bull ¹PhD Scholar, Animal Reproduction Division, ²PhD Scholar, Following consequences arises as a Animal Nutrition Division, ³PhD Scholar, result of NEB: LPT Division, 4PhD Scholar, LPM Division

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In India’s most preferred Dairy Magazines DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


SPERM MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER Introduction Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The most widely used method to create transgenic animals is to microinject foreign DNA into a pronucleus of the fertilized eggs. However, this pronuclear microinjection method has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger species. It also requires high technical skills and is labor intensive. The idea of using a sperm cell as a vehicle to introduce exogenous DNA into an oocy te is of interest for simple production of transgenic animals. This method is very simple and convenient. A primary impetus for the development of Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer (SMGT) has been the search for new methods of creating transgenic animals. Transgenic animals can encompass those that have had foreign genes inserted into their genomes but also gene knockouts (where a gene is made inoperative) and knockins (where a gene is modified in situ in the genome). Transgenic and knockout/knockin mice have revolutionized the study of gene function in the whole organism and are usually generated by injection of DNA into the pronucleus of the fertilized egg (Wall, 2001), or the injection of gene targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells into blastocysts to form chimeras, respectively. However, despite the success of these two approaches, concerns still remain about their efficiency. Transgenic versions of large animals like sheep, pig, and cow offer immense possibilities for agriculture a n d a l s o f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n of therapeutic human proteins in their milk (Niemann and Kues, 2007). A major limiting factor is the lack of efficient methods for creating transgenic versions of such species. Thus pronuclear injection is highly inefficient with respect to transgene integration for cow, pig, and sheep, with only 1% of injections being successful (Wall 2002). This has led to a search for other ways of 12

generating transgenic mammals. As a means to generate transgenic animals, SMGT is attractive since the sperm itself is natural vector carr ying genetic information into the oocyte. Almost 40 years ago that rabbit sperm could take up exogenous DNA, it was not until approximately twenty years later that Lavitrano et al. (1989) demonstrated that mouse epididymal sperm incubated with plasmid DNA were able to transfer this DNA to the oocyte, resulting in transgenic offspring at an apparent impressive 30% efficiency. According to a study by Camaioni et al. (1992), exogenous DNA can bind to the sperm head in the subacrosomal region and in the proximity of the equatorial segment. Francolini et al. (1993) showed that mature sperm could spontaneously take up exogenous DNA. Moreover, another study by Lavitrano et al. (1992) suggested that DNA binding and internalization was not a random event but was mediated by specific DNA binding proteins on the sperm surface, with further studies by the same group indicating that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD4 proteins played important roles in this process of interaction (Lavitrano et al. 1997). Finally, Zani et al. (1995) identified an inhibitory factor (IF-1) in mammalian seminal fluid that appeared to block the binding of exogenous DNA to the binding proteins on the surface of the sperm. These findings might explain why mammalian sperm are resistant under normal physiological conditions to the uptake of exogenous DNA (which could be disastrous from an evolutionary point of view) and could also account for the varying success of the different studies investigating SMGT. Mechanism The uniqueness of SMGT is that the method uses the 'natural' vector of genetic material, namely the sperm cell, for transporting exogenous DNA. The exogenous DNA molecules bind to the sperm cell's head in the

subacrosomal region and in the proximity of the equatorial area. Once bound to the cell membrane, DNA molecules are taken up (Francolini et al., 1993). The process of DNA binding and internalisation is not a random event. The exogenous DNA interacts with DNA- binding proteins (DBPs) of 30–35 kDa, which are present on the sperm cell surface (Lavitrano et al., 1992; Zani et al., 1995) and in addition it is also shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD4 molecules also play a role in the process of sperm/DNA interaction (Lavitrano et al., 1997). In fact, sperm cells from MHC class II-knockout mice have a reduced ability to bind DNA compared with sperm cells from wild-type animals (Wu et al., 1990). Conversely, spermatozoa from CD4-knockout mice are fully capable of binding exogenous DNA, yet lose the ability to internalise it. To further support the role of CD4 in DNA transfer, Lavitrano et al. (1997) have shown that nuclear internalisation of exogenous DNA is prevented in wild-type sperm cells pre-incubated with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Thus, although not present in mature sperm cells, MHC class II expression appears to be required during spermatogenesis to produce sperm cells capable of taking up foreign DNA, whereas CD4 molecules present on sperm cells mediate the nuclear internalisation of sperm-bound DNA (Lavitrano et al., 1997). Nevertheless mature spermatozoa are naturally protected against the intrusion of foreign DNA molecules; in fact, there is a identified factor called inhibitory factor 1 (IF-1), present in the seminal fluid of mammals that blocks the binding of exogenous DNA to sperm cells. This factor also exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on DNA uptake in sperm cells of heterologous species. The DBPs are the specific targets through which the inhibition is mediated because, in the presence of the

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inhibitory factor, the DBPs lose their ability to bind exogenous DNA (Zani et al. 1995). Thus, the interaction of exogenous DNA with sperm cells does not appear to be a casual event but, in contrast, relies on a molecular mechanism based on the cooperation of specific protein factors. In the absence of IF-1, DBPs are able to interact with DNA and the complex can translocate the DNA into the cell in a CD4-dependent manner (Lavitrano et al. 1997). Thus, it is important that seminal fluid is removed from sperm samples by extensive washing as soon as possible after ejaculation so that these inhibitory factors can be reomved. After DNA–sperm cell interaction and internalisation, the subsequent step involves integration of the exogenous DNA into the genome. It has been suggested that various mechanisms may underlie DNA integration after the microinjection procedure (Brinster et al., 1985; Coffin, 1990). DNA may be integrated when chromatin is freed from the nuclear context at fertilisation, at oocyte activation, at nucleus decondensation or even later at the formation of the pronuclei. Using the SMGT technique, it has been found that foreign DNA sequences are tightly bound to the sperm nuclear scaffold and that integration of the exogenous DNA occurs preferentially in the long interspersed nuclear element type-1 elements, repeated sequences interspersed into the genome. Moreover the presence of a topoisomerase II consensus sequence at one end of the integration site suggests a possible role for this enzyme in the integration process (Spadafora, 1998). Sequence analysis of randomly selected clones from a library of sperm genomic DNA incubated with pSV2CAT plasmid showed that foreign sequences were integrated in a unique site of the sperm genome (Magnano et al. 1998). 13

Method The method of production of transgenic organism by sperm mediated gene transfer is to insert the transgene construct into the sperm cells of the male animal, so that the transgene is “taken up” by the spermatozoa and when fertilization occurs it is transferred to the progeny creating a transgenic offspring (Fig. 1).

seminiferous epithelium are then transfected in situ after microinjections within the seminiferous tubules or within the rete testis (step II). The males can also be then mated with wild-type females (step III) and the progeny analyzed by PCR/Southern blotting to confirm that the transgene has been transmitted to the offspring.

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the different techniques available for

(C) Germ cell transfection (in vitro) and transplantation (in vivo). Testes are dissected out (step I), and germ cells are prepared by mechanical and enzymatic procedures. The cells are then transfected in vitro with exogenous DNA (step II) b e f o re t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n i n t o aspermatogenetic mouse seminiferous tubules (step III) generated by an antimitotic treatment (busulfan) or from genetically sterile mice. The microinjected animals are then mated with wild-type females (step IV) and the progeny analyzed by PCR/Southern blotting. The most commonly used animal model is the mouse.

making ''transgenic'' mammals by genetically modifying male germ cells. Fig. 1 shows the generalized method for creation of transgenic organisms by SMGT: (A) In vitro transfection of spermatozoa followed by ICSI. Different permeabilization procedures of the spermatozoon plasma membrane can be used, such as Triton X-100, freezethawing, freeze-drying, or even REMI, before incubation with the DNA construct (step I). Oocyte fertilization is then performed by ICSI (step II), the embryos are cultured for 3 days (step III), and the viable ones are selected and reimplanted into the uterus of a pseudopregnant female (step IV). (B) In vivo germ cell transfection via microinjection within the seminiferous tubules. The DNA to be transfected is incubated with liposomes or retroviral constructs (step I), and the cells of the

Use of electroporation and liposomes for enhancement of gene delivery Although in most cases spermatozoa are simply incubated in the presence of foreign DNA electroporation or cationic liposomes are sometimes used to enhance uptake. These methods have been used on several species including mice, salmon, finfish and shellfish, cows, zebrafish and chicken (Sato, 2005). Bachiller et al. (1991) first demonstrated that cationic liposomes can enhance uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. Further analysis revealed that about 80% of liposome/DNAtreated spermatozoa exhibit a signal specific for the exogenous DNA inside the sperm head. After IVF with DNAintroduced sperm cells, the resulting 2cell embr yos were transferred to recipients to obtain offspring. Southern blot analysis of the offspring born failed

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to detect any signal for the exogenous DNA. The reason for this failure might be that the majority of sperm were of low motility and may have been more frequently labeled with the exogenous DNA, than the sperm which exhibit active motility and potentially are capable of fertilizing oocytes. Rottman et al. (1992) performed liposomemediated transfection of rabbit, cow and chicken sperm cells with the alkaline phosphatase gene followed by insemination. The transgene was expressed at least several months after the birth of the only transgenic calf. Shemaesh et al. (2000) bound transgenes to liposomes before exposing DNA to bovine sperm. That treatment did not yield transgenic animals, but when restriction enzymes were added to the mixture, transgenic bovines were successfully produced (called restriction enzyme mediated insertion, REMI). Use of viral vector in the SMGT system The possibility of infection of sperm by viral vectors to create transgenic animals is of interest. Retroviral vectors (RVVs) a re o n e of t h e m o s t f re q u e n t l y employed forms of gene delivery in animal transgenesis (Cepko et al., 1984). As in SMGT, zygotes can be incubated in media containing high concentrations of the resultant retroviral vector, or, the retrovirus-producing cell monolayers may be used; upon which zygotes are co- cultivated. In either case, up to 90% of embryos can be infected. Farre et al. (1999) used adenoviral vector to introduce foreign DNA into pig sperm. When spermatozoa were exposed to replication-defective adenoviral vector bearing lacZ gene, gene transfer was obser ved in the heads of the spermatozoa of the 2- to 8-cell embryos obtained after in vitro fertilization with

adenovirus- exposed sperm, 21.7% expressed the lacZ gene incubated in the presence of foreign DNA and approximately 7% piglets were positive for foreign DNA after AI with adenovirus-exposed spermatozoa as analyzed by PCR, but none of the PCRpositive piglets exhibited the lacZ gene. Furthermore, the offspring obtained after mating the PCR-positive animals did not carry the exogenous DNA. This showed that the adenovirus is able to deliver exogenous DNA into pig spermatozoa, but the use of pig spermatozoa carr ying replicationdefective adenovirus does not appear to be practically useful as a system for obtaining transgenic pigs. Gene transfer into oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of spermatozoa treated with DNA in vitro Perry et al. (1999) first reported use of the combination of DNA-bound sperm and ICSI (called — TransgenICSI“) as an alternative to the traditional gene transfer method, pronuclear microinjection. They microinjected sperm exposed to naked DNA molecules into oocytes, and demonstrated that approximately 20% of founder mice had integrated and expressed the transgenes. The transgene behaved as expected (transgene inheritance was approximately followed by Mendelian rule). Transgene uptake and expression using TransgenICSI has been reported in other animals such as porcine embryos. Nevertheless, the technique still requires manual injection of the DNA- coated sperm into oocytes, which requires high technical skills. Technical aspects of sperm mediated gene transfer method

production of transgenic animals with SMGT were performed in mouse using epididymal sperm cells, however, these experiments showed lack of reproducibility among some research groups. Since then researchers have focused their attention towards utilization of ejaculated spermatozoa as a vehicle for carrying foreign DNA. In case of epididymal spermatozoa the donor animal can be used just once whereas with ejaculated sperm the same animal can be used for its entire reproductive life. Lavitrano et al., 1996 have repor ted that sperms from different species has varying amount of capacity to carry the exogenous DNA. Lavitrano et al., 2003 has identified two important parameters that affect the SMGT technique which are (1) quality of semen sample; (2) DNA uptake which is dependent primarily on viability & motility. Semen quality is affected by parameters like season of collection, frequency, age of the donor etc., whereas motility should be around 80% initially and not less than 65% after washing procedures (Lavitrano et al., 2006). Lavitrano et al., 2003 have shown that after addition of exogenous DNA the DNA –sperm interaction is completed within 2 -4 hours, and the DNA should be added within 30 min of washing procedure (washing is done to remove seminal plasma that hinders with the uptake of foreign DNA). Interestingly, Chan 2000, has reported that the uptake of DNA (at least in mammals) does not generally interferes with the normal physiological parameters of the semen, such as motility at the time of collection and progressive motility, even in some cases the treated sperm cells perform better than the untreated sperm cells.

The initial experiments for the

Rebeka Sinha¹, Kush Shrivastava², Prajwalita Pathak¹, Deepandita Barma¹ ¹ Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, ICAR- NDRI, Karnal, Haryana, India ² Department of Animal Husbandry, Govt. of M.P., Madhya Pradesh, India

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DRY COW THERAPY FOR MASTITIS MANAGEMENT Treating or infusing teat of lactating dairy animals, with long acting antibiotics or teat sealants or both, at drying –off following last milking for management of subclinical mastitis is called dry cow therapy. The dry period is an essential part of a cow's lactation cycle. With an objective to achieve proper foetal growth and recouping the body tissue for next lactation, dairy animals are dried for approximately 45-60 days before calving. However, microorganisms like E. Coli and streptococcus uberis get access to udder during dry period, remain dormant i.e subclinical and causes clinical mastitis in the first few months of the next lactation. On cessation of milking at the end of lactation, the teat canal closes and forms a keratin seal. This process may take up to two weeks to complete and therefore presents a risk period for new Intramammary infections to develop. The other main risk period is in the last couple of weeks before calving when the integrity of the teat canal seal is compromised as the udder prepares for the subsequent lactation. The chances of infection during these periods are increased by poor environmental management. Methods Of Dry Cow Therapy Antibiotic Therapy Long acting antibiotic therapy: This includes administration of long acting antibiotics into each quarter at drying off to remove existing infections and to prevent entry of some new infections. This is the most effective and widely used method for controlling mastitis in dry cows. This method kills resident bacteria that colonise the teat canal and also minimizes the debris built-up associated with the action of bacterial enzyme and may help to reduce the number of new infections at drying off. Drugs most commonly used in this are Cloxacillin, Cephalosporins, Combination of Penicillin and streptomycin. Advantage of Long acting antibiotic therapy in dry cows are 1. Higher doses can be used than in the milking cow 2. Antibiotics remain in the udder for longer - compared to the milking cow where a lot of antibiotic is lost at each milking

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3. Antibiotics used for dry cow therapy are different from those used in the milking cow. The antibiotics used for dry cow therapy have a high concentration of antibiotics in a slow-release base. This means that the cure rate for dry cow therapy is much higher than for milking cow therapy, especially for bacteria such as Staph aureus. Selective dry cow therapy Treatment of infected quarters at the time of drying –off is called 'Selective dry cow therapy. Selective quarter treatment requires initial screening to identify an infection. When subclinical mastitis in a herd has been reduced to a very low level (e.g. every cow in the herd has less than 100,000 somatic cells/ milliliter of milk), selective dry cow treatment is considered. However, selective treatment may fail to reach 20 to 40 percent of subclinically infected quarters in the herd. Also, quarters not treated at drying off are more likely than treated quarters to become infected during the early dry period. Blanket dry cow therapy Treatment of all quarters of all animals at the time of drying –off is called blanket dry cow therapy. Treating every quarter of every cow at drying off is more effective than selective treatment in preventing new infections during the early dry period, and does not require screening of cows to treat. Teat Sealants

recommended for use alone only in the uninfected udder. When used alone in uninfected quarters, it could prevent significantly more new infections than using no treatment at all, and it has been shown to have equal, if not better, efficacy in preventing new infections as compared to using antibiotic alone. In the infected udder, or when the infection status is unknown, an antibiotic infusion is recommended. Using the internal sealant in combination with an antibiotic prevents s i g n i fi c a n t l y m o re n e w d r y p e r i o d infections than using antibiotic alone. External teat sealants External teat sealants are in the form of a barrier film that is applied to the teat skin as a dip. Its duration of action is thought to be approximately 7 days. However, it is considered to be less effective in preventing of new infections during the dry period than the internal teat sealants and therefore is less widely used. The efficacy can be increased by regular application during the dry period. Other components of an effective mastitis control program include 1.

Hygiene and sanitation on farm

2.

Following clean milk production practices

3.

Using properly functioning milking equipment.

4.

Dipping teats immediately after milking with a product known to be safe and effective.

5.

Good udder hygiene between milkings.

6.

Prompt treatment of all clinical mastitis cases.

7.

Culling cows with chronic mastitis infections.

8.

Keeping accurate records of clinical mastitis and somatic cell counts in individual cows to assist in making management decisions.

Internal teat sealants A problem may arise when using just long acting antibiotics for dry cow therapy as they may not provide sufficient protection alone for the whole dry period. This is because during period prior to calving, antibiotic levels may have reached low levels insufficient to confer protection against new Intramammary infections. This is the rationale behind using an internal teat sealant which prevents new Intramammary infections for a prolonged period of time. Internal teat sealants contain inert bismuth based paste, which is infused into the teat canal. This may be performed alone or after infusion of an antibiotic. If used alone, it is important to ensure that there is no preexisting subclinical infection. It has no antimicrobial activity and, therefore, is

J. Razia Sultana

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ROLE OF DAIRYING IN DOUBLING FARMER'S INCOME : AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Introduction In his 70th Independence Day speech, the honourable prime minister referred to farmers so many times. He talked about several achievements in agricultural sector viz. providing soil health cards to nine crores farmers and the enhanced crop insurance scheme. He also mentioned that 99 projects under the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana will be completed by 2019, Foreign Direct Investment in food processing will be encouraged, supply of inputs to farmers will be ensured and they will be assisted in marketing their produce. The PM concluded by saying, “Together we will build such an India where the farmers can sleep without worry. In 2022, they will earn double of what they earn today”. With this aspect, is dairy sector of India plays important role i n d o u b l i n g f a rm e r 's income is our prime concern of our discussion. As we know the milk production statistics of India for the year 2015-16 was 155.5 million tonnes with per capita availability of 337g per day which is far more than the daily requirement of 285g per day (DADF, 2016). The rampant growth in milk production in our country is a matter of proud which indicates the contribution of farmers in dairy sector which have been boosting the agricultural GDP since long. We know that dairy and agriculture complements each other assuring farmers survival with the sincere efforts of government policies and reform. To accomplish the honourable prime minister dream project, the Finance Minister's announcement of allocating a fund of 8,000 crore over a period of three years for dair y processing 16

infrastructure is expected to generate an estimated 50,000 crore worth of annual extra income for dairy farmers. It seems a good scheme as average dairy with two lakh litres per day (LLPD) milk processing capacity would require an investment of about 35 crore. With 8,000 crore, we can establish capacities aggregating o v e r 5 0 0 L L P D. A t a n a v e r a g e procurement price of Rs 30 per litre, this investment can help pump in over 50,000 crore annually to farmers.This is the first time after independence that such a large fund has been allocated for the dairy sector that has a cascading effect on rural incomes as it leads to 50

per cent increase in income of dairy farmers annually somehow supporting the dream project. As NABARD has always been opining that development of dairy is critical to bringing sustainability to agriculture. There are millions of examples where farmers have shown their ability to manage inclement weather and market vagaries by investing in dairy as an alternate mode of income.The dairy cooperative network includes 254 cooperative milk processing units, 177 milk unions covering 346 districts and over 1,55,634 village-level societies.About 15.1 million farmers

have been brought under the ambit of village level dairy corporative societies up to March 2013. Still, about 80 per cent of this milk is being collected and distributed by unorganised sector in the form of 'doodhiyas', local sweet shops, etc. The allocation for dairy development will allow NABARD to finance modernisation of milk processing units, encourage new bulk-milk cooling units, improves milk production and increasing modernisation of breeding facilities. Outcomes of government schemes per taining to dair y sector for doubling farmers income 1. Boost investment in dairy sector: Dairying in India is not just an economic activity. It is an integral part of our society, our culture. No other industry can claim to touch lives of millions of farmers; more than half of them landless. Given market access, remunerative prices to farmers, dair y can become a potent tool for equitable growth a n d i n c o m e distribution. Genuine impetus to the dairy sector leading to its growth will lead to that elusive balanced and inclusive growth where our villages progress alongside urban India. Given over 40% of population of India is vegetarian. Milk is now the largest crop of India and Milk products are the primary source of Protein for nutritional development of Population. It is reasonable to assign a status of Agriculture products shall be assigned to Milk Products. Therefore bringing Milk and Milk Products to NIL under GST is warranted. 2. Create Alternate Lively hood for farmers: There have been some

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external reports stating of farmers difficulty to sow Rabi crops due to the unavailability of new currency notes in sufficient numbers. If the reports that large areas of agricultural land have remained unsown are true, food inflation can become a challenge. With unpredictable monsoon season, we shall look for alternate source of earnings for farmers. Keeping this in mind, Private Dairy Sector shall be provided with additional incentives for ease of farmers. 3. Boost dair y growth through private sector: India is the largest producer of milk. The Indian dairy industry presently contributes about 15% to the total milk production of the world. Dairy Industry in India presents a plethora of opportunities. Earlier, dairy industry was dominated by co-operatives but since last 20 years with the entry of private players, we have seen a sharp rise in demand for milk and milk products.The private sector have overtaken the cooperatives today. The overall industry is underdeveloped and extremely fragmented. Private Sector is now willing to further speed-up its investment in Indian dairy industry but an extremely poor state of farmers and no incentive for Private Dairy to develop farmers is becoming a real hurdle. A subsidy on purchase of Milk from farmers under cashless conditions should be initiated to bring double advantage in terms of supporting farmers from vagaries of monsoon and also bringing economy to cashless. 4. Develop infrastructure: To maintain quality, longer shelf life and to keep it fit for human consumption, proper packaging of milk products is essential. Investment in cold chain infrastructure should bepromoted

and support in terms of subsidy and tax relief be granted. Packing of milk products should also be construed as processing for preservation and the packaging industry should be exempt from all duties like excise, CST, Octroi etc. and should be considered under the food processing industry. If a meaningful impetus were to be given to the dairy industry, all machinery and equipment used by the industry should be exempt from import duty.

along with the share of the Government of India will flow from DADF to NDDB and in turn to eligible EIAs. Objectives of NDP

5. Avoid loss of nation's crop: Also, when there is a thrust on increasing the milk production, then there should be ample amount of facilities to handle it. There is a dearth of required infrastructure of chilling plants and bulk coolers due to which so much of milk goes waste due to spoilage. Bulk Milk Coolers cover long distances to and fro from the collection centre. There is a shortage of refrigerated vans and insulated tankers for ferrying the chilled milk to the processing plants. Government shall create a fund to support these activities by subsidizing these investments to a large extent for economic growth of the country.

NDP I is a scientifically planned multistate initiative with the following Project D e v e l o p m e n t . To h e l p i n c r e a s e productivity of milch animals and thereby increase milk production to meet the rapidly growing demand for milk . To help provide rural milk producers with greater access to the organised milk-processing sector. These objectives would be pursued through adoption of focused scientific and systematic processes in provision of technical inputs supported by appropriate policy and regulator y measures. NDP I will focus on 18 major milk producing states namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Har yana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh which together account for o v e r 9 0 % of t h e c o u n t r y 's m i l k production. Coverage of NDP I will however be across the country in terms of benefits accruing from the scheme.

National Dairy Plan (NDP)

Conclusion

NDP Phase I (NDP I) is a Central Sector Scheme for a period of 2011-12 to 201819. NDP I will be implemented with a total investment of about 2242 crore comprising 1584 crore as International Development Association (IDA) credit, 176 croreas Government of India share, 282 crore as share of End Implementing Agencies (EIAs) that will carry out the projects in participating states and 200 crore by National Dairy Development Board and its subsidiaries for providing technical and implementation support to the project.Funding will be through a line of credit from the International Development Association (IDA), which

The dream of honourable prime minister to double the farmer's income by 2022 is a realistic goal. To accomplish the mission, dairy sector is playing critical role to support increasing farmer's income on one hand and sufficing the nutrients requirement of the nation on other. In this aspect, financial ministry is supporting beyond the limit and role played by NABARD and cooperatives dairy sectors are highly appreciable. We can conclude that if all the announcements and plans will work in proper direction without any delay, then our farmers income will definitely doubles by 2020-2022.

Rohit Kumar Jaiswal¹, Heera Lal¹, Madane Pratap¹, DipakKumar Banerjee¹, Vaibhav Purwar² Abhishek Kumar³, Gulab Singh⁴, Dhruv Desai N.⁵ Division of Livestock Products Technology¹; Division of Livestock Production and Management² Division of Animal Reproduction³; Division of LES & IT⁴;Division of Microbiology⁵ 17

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DAIRY FARMING BUSINESS GUIDE Dair y Farming Business is ver y lucrative business venture now a days.If you interested in starting a dairy farming business, then I advice you please read on this article You don't necessarily need to have love for animals especially cows before recognizing their money-making capabilities. Most people are aware of the business of rearing cows for meat but they tend to forget that you can begin a dairy farm business. In this case, you will be breeding cows for their milk and make quite a lot of money from milking cows and selling them off to big dairy companies, or even sell the product off as your own products if you can afford to buy the processing equipment. If you are interested in learning the pros and cons of how to go about starting a successful dairy farm business, then read on. How to Star t a Dair y Farming Business 1. You need exper ience in this business Bear in mind that you will be dealing cows in this business and it is quite risky as the cows can get aggressive without warning. So you need to be experienced in handling cows and understanding their mood. In order to acquire such knowledge and experience in the business, it is advisable that you work for a dairy farmer before you consider starting your own farm. Many dairy farmers were brought up on dairy farming while some others inherited it from their parents and branched out on their own. If you were not born into it but rather you just want to give the business a trial, you will need to get your hands dirty and work on a farm before starting yours. This is because the only way you will know if you truly enjoy dairy farming is from personally engaging yourself in it and secondly, the experience you 18

gain while working as an employee in a dairy farm will help you in building your own business. 2. Start with the best breeds To start on a positive note, you should begin with 45 to 50 of the best cow breeds you can purchase. You can also reduce debt by renting land and buying used equipment; you can think of upgrading your business technology later. Never begin with poor producing cows because if you begin with poor-producing cows, you will always be struggling to rebuild your herd and you might never be able to catch up. 3. Keep cost as low as possible

Look for a university with agriculture department because most universities with agriculture departments have dairy specialists on their faculties. You can learn a lot from their research works. 6. Challenges of Starting a Dairy Farming Business 1. It is capital intensive

As a beginner, you have to try your possible best to keep cost at its lowest minimum. For example, you can make use of family labor. Talk to the people around you to help you work the farm, if you can. This is because the fewer people on the payroll at first, the better. Try and keep costs as low as possible. 4. Connect with other dairy farmers

2.It is labor or management intensive 3. Outbreak of diseases 4. You need intensive and extensive knowledge of the business 5. The problem of quality of the milk produced 6. It is difficult to start a dairy business in an urban area or city because of the high cost of land. 7. The maturity period for the cows to start producing milk takes time thus leading to tight profit margin

Of course you know that you are not the only dairy farming business owner in the area. If you are, then you have to go it all alone. but if you are not, then you have to connect with other farmers. Locate other dairy farmer with whom you can swap tips, share ideas, share equipment and grazing pastures.

8. Marketing your milk or diary products is quite a challenge because your products are likely produced in the rural areas and the dair y processing companies are located in the urban areas.

5. Acquire more knowledge about dairy farming and the industry at large

9. Maintaining high production efficiency

In business, knowledge is power and the application of knowledge is tremendous power. As a dair y farming entrepreneur, your cup must never be full. You must continually keep learning how to improve your business efficiency, technological improvements and industr y development.

10. Difficulty in increasing scale of operation

You can also consider acquiring a little formal education on the business.

11. Weather or climatic conditions

Rakesh Kumar Founder : Growel Agrovet Private Limited

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


vaxwj ,d cyo/kZd ,oa lkSUn;Zo/kZd Qy gSA Qyks es vaxwj loksZre ekuk tkrk gS] D;ksfd ;g fucZy lcy] LoLFk&vLoLFk vkfn lHkh ds fy, leku mi;ksxh gksrk gSA cgqr las ,sls jksx gS ftles jksxh dks dksbZ inkFkZ ugh fn;k tkrk gS] mles Hkh vaxwj Qy fn;k tk ldrk gSA vaxwj fpfdRlk dks ,fEiyksFksjsih izkPkhu xzhd ,EQhyksl ;kfu oknu ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA ;g uSlfxZd fpfdRlk ;k oSdfYid fpfdRlk dk ,d :Ik gS ftles vaxwjks dk cgqr vf/kd ek=k es mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS bles vaxwj ds cht Qy vkSj ifŸk;ks dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;n~fi LokLF; iz;kstukvks es vaxwj ds miHkksx ls ldkjkRed ykHk ds dqN lhfer izek.k gS fdUrq dqN pje nkos Hkh gS tSls fd vaxwj fpfdRlk }kjk dSalj dk bykt laHko gS gky gh dh ,d fjiksVZ es ;g ik;k x;k gS dh vaxwjks ds cht es ik;s tkus okys QkbVks dsfedYl LokLF; ds fy, csgn ykHkdkjh gS blfy, orZeku es bls U;wVzkL;qfVdy ds :Ik es Ms;jh [kkn~; inkFkksZ es iz;ksx fd;k tk jgk gSA vktdy miHkksxrkvks dk mu [kkn~; inkFkksZ dh rjQ T;knk /;ku vkdf'kZr gks jgk gS tks ekud iks’k.k lEcU/kh vko”;drkvks ls vf/kd LokLF; ykHk iznku dj ldrs gS vkSj ,sls mRiknks dks dk;kZRed [kkn~; inkFkZ ;k U;wVzkL;qfVdy ds :Ik es tkuk tkrk gSA vaxwj ohfVlohuhQsjk nqfu;k dh lcls cMh Qyks dh Qly gS bls T;knkrj Qy ds :Ik es gh [kk;k tkrk gSA vaxwj Lokn ds fy, gh ugh cfYd lsgr vkSj LokLF; ds fy, Hkh vR;Ur Qk;nseUn gSA ;g iks’kd rRo dk ?kj ekuk tkrk gSA vaxwj QkbZcj] izksVhu] rkack] iksVkf”k;e] yksgk] QksysBk o foVkfeu C dk Hkjiwj L=ksr gSA vaxwj ds cht okbujh vkSj vaxwj twl mn~;ksx dk vif”k’V inkFkZ gSA vaxwj ds cht ls fudyk vdZ ,d izkd`frd mRikn gS tks dh ikWyhQsuksy dk ,d loksZre L=ksr gS vkSj ;s cgqr gh vPNs Qzh jsfMdy LdosatlZ Hkh gSA vaxwj ds Qy ls ikWyhQaasuksYl dh ek=k vaxwj ds cht ls vf/kdre 60-70% o vaxwj ds fNyds ls 28-35% rFkk vaxwj ds xqn~ns ls yxHkx 10% rd izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA blds lkFk&lkFk vaxwj ds cht ,d tfVy eSfVzDl gS ftles yxHkx 40% Qkbcj] 16% rsy] 11% izksVhu vkSj 7% dkEIkysdl ?kVd “kkfey gSA vaxwj ds cht es ekStwn izeq[k ikWfyfQuksfyDl es dVs fpul] xSfyd ,flM] ,fidVsfpu] xSyksdVsfpu] ,ihxyksdpsfpu] ,fidVsfpu&3&O xSysV] ,UFkksL;kfuu] izksL;k fufMu MkbZelZ] VzkbZelZ vkSj vf/kd mPp ikWfyejkbTM izksL;k fufMu “kkfey gSA ;s ;kSfxd ikWyhfQuksfyDl [kkn~; inkFkZ dh dqy ,aVh vkWDlhMsaV {kerk es vf/kd ;ksx nku nsrs 19

gSA ikWyhfQuksfyDLk ds vykok] vaxwj ds cht es ik;s tkus okys ,aVh vkWfDlMsVl es fof”k’V foVkfeu] fo”ks’k :Ik ls foVkfeu C ,LdkWfcZd ,flM vkSj foVkfeu E VksdksfQjksy “kfey gSA foVkfeu C vkSj E fo”ks’k dj ls ;kstu :Ik es gn; jksx vkSSj e/kqesg okys yksxks ds LokLF; dks ldkjkRed :Ik ls izHkkfor djrs gSA vaxwj ds Qy ds fofHkUu fgLlks fct] fNydk o xqnnk es ls vaxwj ds cht es vf/kdre ,aVh vkWfDlMsaV lfdz;rk ikbZ tkrh gSA blds vfrfjDr bles dbZ fpfdUlh; xq.k tSls dh e/kqesg fojk/kh] jksxk.kq jks/kh] ,aVh jkbfMdy] ,a V h&ba Q ys e s V jh] gs i s B ks i z k s D Vho] ,a V h FkzksEcksfVd] ,aVh gkbZijsfVo vkSj ,aVh dkflZuks tsfud xfrfof/k;ks ds dkj.k bldk izeq[k egRo gSA ikWyhQsuksy dh ,Vh vkWDlMsV lfdzrk dh fdz;k fof/k ds vuqlkj vkWDlhtu eqDr d.kks dh izR;{k lQkbZ ;k vkDlhMsfVo ,atkbeks ds fu'kspu }kjk izfrfdz;k dh tk ldrh gS tks izfrfdz;k”khy vkWDlhtu iztkfr;k mRiUu djrh gSA Qy es fQuksfyDl dh ,aVh vkWDlhMsV xfrfof/k eq[; :Ik ls muds jsMkWDl xq.kks ds dkj.k gksrh gS ftles mUgs de djus okys ,tsaV ds :Ik es dk;Z djus dh vuqefr feyrh gSSA ikS/kks ds mŸkdks es QkbZVksdSfedYl dh mifLFkfr ds dkj.k ,aUVh vkDlhMSUV lfdz;rk ikbZ tkrh gS blds lkFk&lkFk QhuksfyDl ,aFkksL;kfuu vkSj vU; QySoksuks,M inkFkksZ dh ek=k Hkh ,UVh vkDlhMSUV lfdz;rk dks c<krs gSA vaxwj ds cht ls fudkys x;s ikWyhfQuksyl dk vkS’k/kh; vuq iz;ksxks es 150-300 feyhxzke @ fnu rd iz;ksx es fy;k tk ldrk gS ;g dkQh de ek=k 0-01&1% ij iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

gksy o Ldhe feYd de o lkokys nw/k 0-01 fofHkUu feYd mRikn Lokfn'V nw/k vk/kkfjr is; 1-01 NkN ;kasx gVZ@ngh 0-01 0-02

vaxwj ds cht dk egRo dk;ZRed [kkn~; inkFkksZ ds fodkl ds fy, ,aVh vkWfDlMasVl dh o`nf/k ,d mHkjrh gqbZ izo`fr gS dk;kZRed Ms;jh mRiknks ds fodkl ds fy, mi;ksx fd, tk ldus okys egRoiw.kZ ?kVd lewgks es QkbVks

dsfedYl tks ,aVh vkWfDlMsaV ds izkd`frd L=ksr ds :Ik es ialn fd;k tkrk gSA T;knkrj Qyks es iks y hQs u ks y tS l s va x w j dks ,a V h&vkW f DlMs V xfrfof/k okys QkbVks dsfedYl ds izeq[k oxZ ds :Ik es ekU;rk izkIr gSA Qy es fQuksfyDl dh ,aVh vkWfDlMsaV xfrfof/k eq[; :Ik ls muds jsMkWDl xq.kks ds dkj.k gksrh gS tks mUgs de djus okys ,tsaV ds :Ik es dk;Z djus nsrh gS vkSj blds vykok ;g Hkh izekf.kr fd;k x;k gS fd Qyks dk fu;fer :Ik ls lsou fofHkUu izdkj ds gzn; jksxks ls ljq{kk inzku djrk gAS bl id z kj Qhukfsyd ;kfSxdks dks M;sjh [kkn;~ mRikn dks efseDl djus ls mudh ik’sk.k lEacU/kh eYw;ks es l/qkkj fd;k tk ldrk gAS dbZ mRikn vc n/wk vkjS M;sjh mRiknks lfgr foVkfeu dk Utx w fsVMfyukfsyd ,flM] feDl n/wk] ngh vkjS feDl M;sjh fMd z l a es ikzcsk;kfsVDl ds ikl vkesx s k 3 olk ;Dqr n/wk lfgr ctkj es miyC/k gAS bu lHkh [kkn;~ mRikndks dks QDa”kuy M;asjh ikzM s DVl ekuk tkrk gAS Qy fofHkUu egRoi.wkZ QkbVZkUsa;fwV;zUVl] foVkfeu] [kfut] ,Vah vkfDlMVasl vkjS vkgkj Qkbcj ds len`/k L=krs gAS fofHkUu fjikVskZs ls irk pyk gS fd vf/kdre ,UsVh vkDlhMUsV {kerk ds lkFk&lkFk vkf/kd LokLF; lEcfU/k ykHk dEiyDSl QhukfsyDl ds ikzVshu ds lkFk fefJr ifzd;zk ls ikzIr gkrsh gAS blh ds lkFk Qy ds L=krs tl S s dh QVwz QyoSj] Ik;jwh blh ds lkFk&lkFk QVwz iky s hfQukYsl ds L=krsks dks vU; [kkn;~ inkFkkZs es i;zkx s djus ls mudh U;Vwhz”kuyoYS;w ds vykok Lokn] cukoV] jx a es Hkh fofo/krk c<+ tkrhgAS blfy, vaxwj ds cht ds lkFk Ms;jh mRiknks ds iwjd iksyQhukWyeku o vkgkj es tSfod :Ik ls lfdz; QkbVks dsfedYl nsus ds fy, ,d u;k rjhdk iznku dj ldrs gS c”krsZ fd bu rS;kfj;ksa ds nkSjku bu lHkh [kkn~; inkFkksZ dh izfdz;k o Hk.Mkj.k ds nkSjku ,aVh vkDlhMsaV {kerk dks dk;e j[kk tk;sA ikWyhQaasuksy dk mi;ksx eq[; rkSj ij QaD”kuy is; inkFkZ] QaD”kuy Hkkstu vkfn es fd;k x;k gSSA vaxwj ds cht iksyhQasuksy ,UFkkL;kfuu L=ksrks es le`n~/k gksus ds dkj.k dk budk mi;ksx e/kqesg vkSj dSalj ds bykt ds fy, Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA

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Ms;jh dsfeLVªh foHkkx] vkbZ lh, vkj&jk"Vªh; Ms;jh vuqla/kku laLFkku] djuky] gfj;k.kk ¼Hkkjr½ 2 Ms;jh bathfu;fjax foHkkx] ykyk ykt irjk; fo'ofo|ky;] i'kq fpfdRlk ,oa i'kq foKku fglkj] gfj;k.kk¼Hkkjr½ DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


PRESS RELEASE

Key2Green recently organized AGRI FEST 2017 concurrently with DAIRY FEST, POULTRY FEST & FOOD FEST 2017 at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (UP) from 06 to 08 October 2017 with an aim to strengthen these sectors and to earn the trust of the industry for bringing investments in the state through PPP or other knowledge based models. The 6th Edition of the FEST was officially opened by Smt. Rita Bahuguna Joshi Hon’ble Minister of Women, Family & Child Welfare, Maternity and Tourism, Government of Uttar Pradesh on 6th October 2017 Visitors started pouring in even before the official inauguration of the exhibition. The 6th edition was bigger & better both in terms of number of exhibitors and visitors. Exhibitors showcased their latest products and innovations in the field of agriculture, food, dairy & poultry sectors. Altogether, thousands of farmers and trade-only visitors made their way for the 6th edition of AGRI, FOOD, DAIRY & POUTRY FEST 2017. Participants were

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not only from across the country but also from the countries like Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh & Bhutan who found it an interesting show displaying a diverse range of products & services catering to the different sub-sectors of agriculture industry. Exhibitors in the FEST included companies operating in the field of Farm machinery, agri-inputs like seeds, pesticides, insecticides, bio-fertilizers, shedding nets, agricultural pipes, dairy & poultry farming machineries & equipments, animal health, Feed & Nutrition etc. Apart from these there were different central & state government departments disseminating information regarding their various schemes, policies, extension activities & innovations in their respective fields. There were B2B por tals, publications and other software related to business activities who displayed the techniques & a d va n t a g e s of j o i n i n g t h e m i n promoting the business ventures to the national & global level.

Most of the exhibitors fetched direct benefits from the show and said that this FEST has the potential and showed likeliness to participate at future editions. They also said that this show is the best place to network with the Potential clients and a very good place to find new business opportunities. They were satisfied with the quality of visitors but they have also found the need to adopt a more aggressive marketing & promotional activities to reach to the targeted audience on a wider scale and thus becoming one of the leading trade events in the agriculture & allied sectors servicing not only Uttar Pradesh but also nearby s t a t e s l i k e B i h a r, J h a r k h a n d , Uttarakhand and even further. Apart from the several deals being done by key buyers and decision makers, some manufacturers chose this FEST as the stage to launch a raft of new products into the region making it a vital par t of most companies’ promotional campaigns.

Profile of Exhibitors

Farm Machineries like tractors, rotovators, Excavators, Irrigation Equipments Back-hoe, Generator sets, Mobile starters etc.; Agri-Inputs like Seeds, Pesticides, Insecticides, Bio-Fertilizers, Shedding Nets, Agricultural Pipes, Processed Food, Food Packaging, , Horticulture Products, Animal Health, Livestock Feed, Dairy Farming Equipment & machineries, Cold Chain and cooling equipments, Dairy Products Packaging machinery, Animal Feed Machinery, genetics and breeding Equipments, Poultry Farming Equipments & machineries, Quality control and analytical labs, Banks, Government Departments, Publications, Online Portals

Profile of Visitors

Visitors were the stakeholders in the Agriculture and allied sectors like Food processing, Dairy & Poultry sectors. Their category of position is given below for your kind perusal. Ÿ Agriculture Farmers Ÿ Dairy & Livestock Farmers Ÿ CEOs/ Directors/ Top Executives Ÿ GM or Middle Level Managers DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


PRESS RELEASE

Association Heads Frontline Executives Ÿ Would be Entrepreneurs Ÿ

Ÿ

Exposure

The Fest was promoted to the industry year round, with its extensive media campaign build up reaching a crescendo five months prior to the event. A B2B and B2C Media Campaign was conducted to spread awareness and publicize the event across all Stakeholders before and during the Show

Number of Participants

There were Approximately 15000 visitors not only from across India but also from some neighboring Countries.

Uttar Pradesh (UP) is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity. It is the second largest state economy in India. Keeping in view the vast potential of the state, it has major role to play in ushering in farm sector led economic growth of the country. Our Fest will be particularly relevant in Uttar Pradesh

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Dealers & Distributers Ÿ General Visitors Govt. Officials Ÿ Media Ÿ Research Scholars/ Students Ÿ

Ÿ

where farmers grow a number of crops, but face problems in enhancing production and productivity because of inadequate exposure to high technology and inputs as also to a d va n c e d p ro d u c t i o n p ra c t i c e s , logistics and marketing. In order to introduce latest mechanization & technological innovations, AGRI, DAIRY,

POULTRY & FOOD FEST can prove to be an ideal platform to showcase exclusive range of products and services among thousands of progressive farmers, agri entrepreneurs who throng this expo. Therefore, the companies can take advantage of this opportunity by participating in this mega show.

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


PRESS RELEASE REMOVING VALUE CHAIN INEFFICIENCIES WILL PROPEL GROWTH OF INDIA'S ANIMAL PROTEIN SECTOR On the occasion of World Food Day, CLFMA of India calls for a renewed focus on enhancing agricultural productivity and reinforces its commitment towards safe and sustainable milk and meat production. World Food Day is celebrated every year on 16 October. Commenting on the occasion, B Soundararajan, Chairman, CLFMA of India, the apex representative entity for India's animal protein sector, commented that World Food Day is a strong reminder that all inefficiencies and roadblocks in the food value chain that stand between the poor, hungry and malnourished population and its due share of safe and nutritious food are to be removed with a great sense of urgency. World Food Day is also an opportunity to l o o k a t t h e A A A ' s ( A v a i l a b i l i t y, Accessibility and Affordability) of food particularly, for the underprivileged and

vulnerable sections of the society who suffer from various forms of malnutrition. He is optimistic that the animal protein sector in India has been growing at over 8 percent per annum since last few years and will continue to contribute significantly to strengthen the country's food and nutritional security. In fast growing developing economies like India, demand for protein is increasing and c o n s u m e r s ' p re f e re n c e a n d f o o d consumption patterns are evolving. Consumption of processed foods including dairy products and meat is bound to go up significantly as currently, only about 3 to 5 percent of the chicken meat consumed in India is processed. India's dynamic meat sector is up for the challenge being one of the highly efficient producers of meat, milk and eggs in the world. Sharing his concern on negative p u b l i c i t y o n t h e m e a t s e c t o r,

NEWS

Soundararajan insisted that ground realities in developing countries differ completely from that of the matured economies. He further mentioned that apart from producing food, the livestock sector contributes significantly to rural India's employment, prosperity and agricultural GDP, he added. CLFMA of India, which is celebrating its G o l d e n J u b i l e e ye a r, a l re a d y h a s more than 230 members and represents the country's feed and livestock sectors in various national and international forums including IFIF (International Feed Industry Federation). The association commends the various initiatives of the Government aimed at boosting the livestock sector's growth and is proactively working with departments including Animal Husbandr y, Dair ying and Fisheries (DADF), and also Agriculture, Finance and Trade ministries, on key policy areas.

NEWS

Baltic clams and worms release as much greenhouse gas as 20,000 dairy cows

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he team, from Cardiff University and Stockholm University, have shown that the ocean critters are producing large amounts of the strongest greenhouse gases - methane and nitrous oxides from the bacteria in their guts, Methane gas is making its way into the water and then fi n a l l y o u t i n t o t h e a t m o s p h e re , contributing to global warming methane has 28 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, A detailed analysis showed that around 10 per cent of total methane emissions from the Baltic Sea may be due to clams and worms, The researchers estimate that this is equivalent to as much methane given off as 20,000 dairy cows. This is as much as 10 per cent of the entire Welsh dairy cow population and 1 per cent of the entire UK dairy cow population,The findings, which have been published in the journal Scientific Reports, point to a so far neglected source of greenhouse gases in the sea and could have a profound impact o n d e c i s i o n m a ke r s , I t h a s b e e n suggested that farming oysters, mussels 22

and clams could be an effective solution a g a i n s t h u m a n p re s s u re s o n t h e environment, such as eutrophication caused by the run-off of fertilisers into our waters, The authors warn that stakeholders should consider these potential impacts before deciding whether to promote shellfish farming to large areas of the ocean, Co-author of the study Dr Ernest Chi Fru, from Cardiff University's School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, said: "What is puzzling is that the Baltic Sea makes up only about 0.1% of Earth's oceans, implying that globally, apparently harmless bivalve animals at the bottom of the world's oceans may in fact be contributing ridiculous amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere that is unaccounted for, Lead author of the study Dr Stefano Bonaglia, from Stockholm University, said: "It sounds funny but small animals in the seafloor may act like cows in a stable, both groups being important contributors of methane due to the bacteria in their gut, These

small yet very abundant animals may play an important, but so far neglected, role in regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases in the sea, To arrive at their results the team analysed trace gas, isotopes and molecules from the worms and clams, known as polychaetes and bivalves respectively, taken from ocean sediments in the Baltic Sea, The team analysed both the direct and indirect contribution that these groups were having on methane and nitrous oxide production in the sea. The results showed that sediments containing clams and worms increased methane production by a factor of eight compared to completely bare sediments.

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


NEWS

Proof that sustainable meat and dairy farming can work

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had just got back into the house from milking the cows when I read the discussion (Letters, 7 October) on George Monbiot’s latest contribution to the debate about the future of our food production system. While George is a fundamentalist, I must confess I agree with much of what he says! The problem is that, as an extremist fundamentalist, he just goes too far. Here on our rented family farm of 100 dairy cows with some beef and sheep, we are in the first year of a three-year, final-stage experiment to challenge the idea that treating our animals, land, environment and the people who work and live here with respect is somehow incompatible with financial viability and

our industr y’s ability to provide adequate amounts of affordable food, and is therefore unsustainable, This is the final part of a much longer-term experiment, incorporating agroecology, agroforestry and calfwith-cow dairying along with appropriate technologies that allow us to achieve these public benefit outcomes. On paper this could work. In practice it hasn’t been easy. But there are glimmers of daylight. We are on the final stretch and many of our targets have been met: substantial (90%-plus) cuts in the use of antibiotics, anthelmintics, vaccines, soluble fertiliser and pesticides (and diffuse pollution) without compromising

productivity or animal health; and substantial increases in biodiversity and reductions in staff working hours, We have greatly extended the period of time the calves remain with their mothers, from 24 hours to between five and six months. This is the final challenge, but when you see something you know is right, it’s about finding ways to make it work, not giving up. So please, don’t bundle all farmers into the s a m e p i g e o n h o l e , G e o rg e . T h e consensus – outside of vested interests – is that there is room for meat and dairy in sustainable diets. We just have to be a good bit more selective.

Why This New York Dairy Ditched Cows After 92 Years And Started Henry Schwartz knew he had to make a through 2020, according to research Making Nut Milks drastic change, Elmhurst Dairy was firm Mintel, Meanwhile the plant-based

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hat sets successful entrepreneurs apart from the rest is the ability to recognize new trends, combined with a willingness to be flexible and adapt their business model when it's no longer working, So when his company Elmhurst Dairy experienced continued losses, CEO 23

founded by Schwartz's father and uncle in 1925 in New York, and became one of the largest dairies on the east coast, supplying a metropolitan area of seven million people, But dairy sales in the US are on the decline. They went down by 7 percent ($17.8 billion) in 2015 and are projected to drop another 11 percent

milk sector continues to grow. Mintel's figures show gains of 9 percent in 2015 to reach $1.9 billion in the US, while Innova Market Insights found the global dairy alternatives market is set to top $16 billion in 2018, up from $7.4 billion in 2010,So, in November last year, 83-year-old Schwartz made a

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


Cows may seem like simple creatures - most of us have seen them grazing with seemingly not a care in the world. Well, there's more to these ruminants than meets the eye. Here are 20 facts you probably haven't heard about cows:

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DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


Breakfast au Gratin

Time Period 1 Year INR 1000 3 Years INR 2500 Life Time INR 8000

USD 160 USD 250 USD 800

(Life Time period 10 Years)

Ingredients l 1 tbsp (15 mL) butter l 8 thin slices of baguette l 4 eggs l 4 slices of Canadian Raclette cheese l 1 cup (250 mL) vegetables of your choice (onions, mushrooms,

peppers, zucchini, etc.), diced

Preparation Raclette grill method l Heat raclette grill to medium-high. Heat 4 pans under the grill. l Melt ½ tsp (2 mL) butter in each pan. Break an egg into each pan

and top with cheese. Cook for 4–5 minutes or until desired doneness. l Meanwhile, melt remaining butter on the grill. Cook vegetables

and grill baguette slices. l Place 2 baguette slices topped with 1 egg and cheese on each of 4

plates. Add grilled vegetables and serve. Oven method l Preheat oven to 425°F (220°C). l Butter 4 gratin dishes and place 2 baguette slices in each dish.

Break an egg into each dish and top with cheese. l Cook for 7–10 minutes or until desired doneness. Melt some

butter in a skillet on medium heat and cook vegetables. Pixie Consulting Solutions Ltd. #923, Sector-9, Urban Estate, KARNAL - 132001 (Haryana) INDIA Email : dairy.pcsl@gmail.com | info@pixie.co.in Website : www.pixie.co.in

l Remove gratin dishes from the oven and top with vegetables;

serve. l Cooked, crumbled bacon can be sprinkled on top just before

serving, if desired.

Advertisement Tariffs Advertisement Type Front Page Front Title Inside Front Title Opening Full Page 25

Single Issue (cost per issue) 20000 12000 10000 6000

Advertisement Type Back Title Back Title Inside Back Title Opening Center Spread

Single Issue (cost per issue) 15000 12000 10000 12000

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


/ NEWS

November 2017 Idf World Dairy Summit BELFAST- UK (29th Oct -3rd Nov 2017) www.fil.idf.org/idf-world-dairy-summit2017 China Food Tech (1st -3rd November 2017) Bejing, China Food Tech Expo (3rd -5th November 2017) BTI Ground, Raipur, Chattisgarh www.bsiconference.co.in SWOP- Processing & Packaging (7th -10th November 2017) Shanghai New International Expo Centre, China www.swop@adsale.com.hk Food Tec Expo (9th -11th November 2017) Bombay Exhibition Centre , Mumbai www.ubmindia.in December 2017 4 Plastpack, Agrofood + Bev & Food, Hospitality Trade Fair (5th -7th December 2017) ACCRA International Conference Centre, AACRA, Ghana www.comnetexhibitions.com February 2018 Food tech Pune (23rd -24rd-25th February 2018) Packaging Machinery, Food Products and Allied Industries www.foodtechpune.com March 2018 ANUGA FOODTEC (20th -23rd March 2018) Cologne, Germany www.anugafoodtec.com 26

radical decision to stop using cows to make milk products, and replace them with nuts, The company rebranded as Elmhurst Milked and launched its first four products, made from walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews and almonds, at the Natural Foods Expo West in Anaheim in March this year. “We strongly believe that plant-based foods are the future and our goal is to vastly improve upon non-dairy alternatives by making them more delicious and nutritious, thus b r i n g i n g m o re s u s t a i n a b l e a n d healthful options to households across America Schwartz says, The move is something he believes his father and uncle would approve of They were innovators,he says,They went from bottling small batches of cream on a hand filler to selling dairy products to millions of New Yorkers and eventually developing the first drinkable and premium yogurt products available in

the United States, I think they would respect my decision to continue to innovate in a new direction, Part of this innovation is a proprietary cold milling process which the company has coined 'milking'. Developed by plant-based culinary specialist Dr. Cheryl Mitchell, the patented process involves pressing nuts in a way that enables each component the fats, vitamins and minerals to re-engage with each other after separation to retain the full nutrition content and flavor of the nuts, without any gums, stabilizers or emulsifiers.

Could improving renewable energy technology ease the power bill pinch for dairy farmers

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is paddocks are green with a covering of pasture after more than 100 days of consecutive irrigation a necessity amid one of the driest seasons he can remember, But while the water has been desperately pumped in a bid to grow feed for his livestock,Mr Williams is bracing for an extraordinarily high-power bill, This year, if this dry weather keeps up, we might [be] pushing towards $200,000,High bills have some considering their futuresRunning a dair y farm has always been an expensive undertaking. There is the cost of the cattle, feed, irrigation, as well as the price of running the dairy, cleaning, and keeping milk cool, But as power prices continue to ratchet up, Mr Williams said some farmers,including himself, could be forced to consider their futures if no relief came, It's going to come to a point where something's going to have to happen,You just can't keep running things down forever he said,There's quite a possibility I'll leave

t h e i n d u s t r y i f t h i n g s d o n' t improve,You've got to make money, you've got to make a living,With high power prices a central concern for many farmers, sections of the dairy industry were looking to boost the use of renewable energy,The NSW dairy advocacy group, Dairy Connect, has announced they would link with renewable energy companies to develop ways to provide relief for farmers feeling the high power price pinch,Part of their aim included researching and developing renewable energy technology that could help,We want to ensure the dairy industry continues to have the green, clean image that it deserves, and we want to be able to find companies that ensure renewable energy can be provided to farms throughout NSW and Australia, at a cost that's affordable,That's so important for the economic wellbeing of this country.

DAIRY PLANNER | VOL. 14 | NO. - 10 | October 2017


Dairy Planner - Oct 2017  
Dairy Planner - Oct 2017  
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