NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17

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NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17

Table of Contents 2 – Introduction

Key Themes

3 – Director’s Message

22 – Gender-Responsive NAP Processes


28 – Financing NAP Processes

6 –Facilitating Peer Learning and Exchange

30 – NAP Process Communications

12 – Enhancing Bilateral Support

34 – Vertical Integration of Adaptation

16 – Supporting National-Level Action

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Introduction The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Global Network is a group of individuals and institutions working to enhance national adaptation planning and action in developing countries. The Network involves over 500 participants from 101 countries working on their countries’ NAP processes. This yearbook recaps highlights from 2016-17 from the Network’s activities and some of the key themes that the Network focuses on.

[Top left] participants in the Caribbean NAP Assembly held in Grenada in October 2016; [top right] country teams from Malawi and Philippines at a Targeted Topics Forum in February 2017; [bottom left] country teams from Benin and Madagascar exchange action plans at a Targeted Topics Forum in September 2016; [bottom right] presentation on Kenya’s National Drought Management Authority at a Targeted Topics Forum in February 2017.

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Director’s Message The momentum behind NAP processes has been building internationally for several years, but it seems like it has never been greater than the recent few months. It has been three years since the NAP Global Network was first established. We at the NAP Global Network Secretariat continue to be impressed by the dedication that Network participants bring to the task of developing and implementing NAP processes. Though the NAP process can involve many challenges, seeing countries’ progress towards building climate resilience is consistently encouraging.

Anne Hammill Director, Resilience International Institute for Sustainable Development Secretariat for the NAP Global Network

The last year has seen a number of major developments shape the NAP landscape. Since the Green Climate Fund announced its Adaptation Planning Support under its Readiness Programme, which provides up to USD 3 million per country for the formulation of NAPs, many countries are looking to access this resource quickly and strategically. Implementation of the Paris Agreement has countries focusing their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), the vast majority of which include adaptation components. Countries are also scaling up efforts to make progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There is an exciting opportunity for the NAP process to act as a vehicle for implementing the adaptation ambitions set out in these international agendas—in particular, the NAP process can contribute to achieving the goals set out in the adaptation component of NDCs and multiple SDGs. The NAP Global Network has been steadily scaling up our own activities. Established by a group of committed representatives from eleven countries, the Network now boasts over 500 participants from almost 100 countries who are contributing to national adaptation planning processes in different ways. Our first years were spent making initial connections between international peers engaged in NAP processes as well as identifying key themes and emerging issues. We have reinforced and expanded these connections, translated what we’ve heard as priority issues into a wide offering of tailored knowledge products, and started providing more hands-on, technical support to a growing list of countries. And to ensure that all of this activity is well coordinated, we have been encouraged to see more bilateral development partners signing up to participate in the Network to help coordinate their NAP support. We do all of this recognising that countries and donor agencies alike want to see tangible progress on the ground, that robust planning and peer learning alone is not enough – they must lead to more resources and action that deliver climate-resilient development outcomes. Extreme weather events in this past year have served as a sobering reminder of the high stakes involved in preparing for the impacts of climate change. Through their NAP processes, countries are responding to this urgent need to adapt and are making real progress to protect lives and livelihoods. This yearbook looks to highlight some moments and personalities from international NAP processes, as well as some of the important emerging lessons and themes from the NAP process that will shape our work for the years ahead. We thank all of the participants who have made the Network possible so far, and look forward to seeing more NAP process thinkers and doers join in the months ahead.

NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17

Our Activities The Network works on three main activities: • Facilitating peer learning and exchange • Supporting national level action • Enhancing bilateral support In addition to these activities, the Network produces analysis, communications and knowledge products.

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Facilitating Peer Learning and Exchange The Network aims to facilitate sustained peer learning and exchange on the challenges and opportunities associated with national adaptation planning and action. Our Targeted Topics Forums (TTFs) bring together policy-makers and practitioners involved in NAP processes for focused, technical discussions on challenges and best practices related to the NAP process, and how coordination may help. Our South-South Peer Exchange Program offers adaptation planners from developing countries opportunities to get together and share their knowledge and experience on specific aspects of the NAP process.

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Targeted Topics Forums We currently convene two peer groups, or ‘cohorts’, of adaptation planners who come together once each year to address a new topic, alongside staff from development partner agencies and technical experts.

Our first cohort includes participating country teams from Albania, Brazil, Grenada, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Peru, Philippines and Togo. This cohort has met for three TTFs: • “High-level Political Support and Sectoral Integration in NAP Processes” hosted by Brazil, July 2015. • “Financing NAPs: Options for Implementation” hosted by Jamaica in March 2016. • “Monitoring and Evaluation in the NAP Process” hosted by Malawi in February 2017.

The second cohort includes participating country teams from Benin, Cambodia, Colombia, Madagascar, Mexico, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Samoa and Vanuatu. This cohort has met for two TTFs: • “Integration and High-Level Political Support in the NAP Process” hosted by Cambodia in September 2016. • “Financing NAP Processes: Options for Implementation” hosted by Mexico in June 2017.


South-South Peer Exchange Program Throughout 2016-17, the Network hosted a number of Network participants to visit other national contexts both with close and distant neighbours.

[Top left] Vuthy Va, Cambodia; [top right] Juan Pablo Vallejo Arroyave and [bottom right] Camila Rodriquez Vargas, Colombia; [top right middle] Titus Antoine, [bottom right] Grenada attended Peru’s NAP Assembly. [Bottom middle left] Khady Sané and Fatou Thiaw, Senegal attended a workshop in Togo for West African countries working on the NAP process. [Bottom left] Janeel Miller-Findlay, St. Vincent and the Grenadines attended a climate change adaptation budgeting workshop in Jamaica. [Bottom middle left] Janelle Norville, Saint Lucia, attended communications workshops in Guyana and [bottom middle right] Víctor Santillán, Peru, attended NAP process communications workshops in Saint Lucia.

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The NAP Global Network Peer Exchange Awards are an opportunity for Network participants from developing countries to seek inputs from adaptation planners in developing countries around the world, and/or to offer their experience and expertise to others who are addressing similar issues in the NAP process. Peer exchanges that the Network has sponsored include the following.

Cambodia, Grenada, Colombia > Peru Peru’s Ministry of Environment requested to host a peer exchange as a part of their two- day NAP Assembly in December 2016. Vuthy Va from the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance, a programme under Department of Climate Change, presented lessons on the implementation of Cambodia’s climate change action plan. Juan Pablo Vallejo from Colombia’s Department of National Planning, made a presentation on institutional arrangements for addressing climate change adaptation in Colombia. Camila Rodriquez Vargas from Colombia, Climate Change Division, Ministry of Environment, presented on how Colombia is designing a national indicators system for adaptation. Titus Antoine from Grenada’s Ministry of Finance presented on budget labelling for NAP financing in Grenada.

Peru > Saint Lucia Víctor Santillán, communications officer for Peru’s Ministry of Environment, attended a series of workshops and consultations being held in Saint Lucia towards developing a communications strategy for their NAP process. Santillán presented Peru’s communications campaigns related to climate change adaptation, and Saint Lucia government colleagues outlined a variety of previous climate change communications campaigns.

Saint Lucia > Guyana Janelle Norville, Choice TV in Saint Lucia, attended a series of climate change adaptation communications workshops in Guyana and presented to Guyanese journalists on the challenges and opportunities related to involved in reporting on climate change.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines > Jamaica Janeel Miller-Findlay, Director of Environmental Management in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines’ Sustainable Development Unit, attended a training workshop held in Jamaica on integrating climate change adaptation into national and ministerial budgets. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is looking to hold a similar dialogue between budget officers and policy officers across ministeries.

Senegal > Togo Khady Sané and Fatou Thiaw attended a regional workshop that the Network co-hosted with the West Africa Biodiversity and Climate Change (WA BiCC) Program in Togo on integrating coastal issues into national adaptation planning. The workshop was attended by representatives from six West African countries, and Ms. Sané and Ms. Thiaw on Senegal’s fisheries sector plan.

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“Given the urgent need for adaptation planning, we are honoured to host this forum that brings together international adaptation experts from diverse regions. We will have the opportunity to learn from each other about best practices for monitoring and evaluation.” Dr Yanira Mtupanyama Chief Director for Environment and Climate Change Management in the Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining, offering welcoming remarks at the Network’s Targeted Topics Forum on M&E in Malawi.

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Enhancing Bilateral Support The Network enhances bilateral support for adaptation and climate-sensitive sectors through donor coordination, with developing countries at the table to ensure that bilateral programs align with the priorities they set out in their NAP processes. Seven new bilateral donors joined the Network from November 2016 onward to coordinate their support for the NAP process: Canada, Austria, the Netherlands, France, Australia, Czech Republic and the European Commission. With new Canadian support, the Network is working with Pacific countries engaged in the NAP process, including on gender-responsive NAP processes. With new Austrian support, the Network is supporting the Government of Uganda in developing water catchment management plans, as the water sector has been prioritized in their NAP process. Photo: Senator Simon Stiell (Minister of State, Grenada) speaking at a Caribbean NAP Assembly in 2016.

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Bilateral Coordination Spotlight: Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines In October 2016, the NAP Global Network co-hosted a Caribbean NAP Assembly with the Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (JCCCP), a joint initiative of the Government of Japan and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This regional NAP Assembly attended by 11 countries was an opportunity to coordinate bilateral support for NAP processes in the Caribbean, and the United States and Japan now have complementary bilateral NAP support programs in Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

“The NAP process involves many stakeholders and lots of different sectors. We think that single development partners alone cannot address them all. We have to get together as development partners, to do more work together to be more effective.”

Yoko Ebisawa Project Manager UNDP-JCCCP

Alec Crawford Caribbean Lead NAP Global Network

“The US In-Country NAP Support Program has been working closely with partners in the Caribbean to ensure that donor support to the region is complementary and coordinated. In Saint Lucia, for example, we are working closely with the UNDP-JCCCP to ensure that the sectoral adaptation strategies for agriculture and fisheries being developed under our program are consistent in style and content with the broader NAP and the sectoral strategy for water being developed by the JCCCP. Similarly, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, we are developing an adaptation financing strategy that will align with the country’s NAP, which is also being developed with UNDPJCCCP support.” NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17

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Timeline of Bilateral Donors Joining the Network

December 2014

November 2016

Network established at COP 20 in Lima with initial funding from Germany and the United States, with Japan and United Kingdom joining the Steering Committee.

Five new bilateral development partners make a joint announceme that they will join at COP 22 in Marrakesh.

Levels of Participation by Bilateral Donors

Preliminary Description

“receives information”


• Sign up as an individual participant and selfidentify as donor representative

Benefits of participation

Access to Network resources and latest news on NAPs


No decision-making role in Network

NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17


February 2017

May 2017

Netherlands joins the Network alongside the launch of the Global Centre of Excellence on Climate Adaptation.


Czech Republic joins the Network.

Levels of participation build on each other


Fully Active

“provides inputs, attends events”

“provides funding, informs decisions”

• Share information on current NAP/ adaptation support • Connect Network with relevant regional and country offices • Sustained participation in Network events

• Provide financial contribution to Network activities / Secretariat

Assistance for coordinating NAP support, Opportunity for shaping Network activities and learning from partners & peers, and recognition higher-profile visibility as a NAP supporter as a NAP supporter • Periodically invited to provide targeted inputs Invited to participate in Management Team and/ on Network activities or Steering Committee (pending open seat) • Invited to participate on Steering Committee (pending open seat)

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Supporting National-Level Action The Network supports national-level action on NAP development and implementation. In-country leadership is vital to the principles that underpin the NAP process, which state that the process should be country-driven, non-prescriptive and avoid duplication of efforts. Our Country Support Hub is the Network’s main way for providing targeted, national-level support to developing countries that will help them to maintain momentum in their NAP process or its implementation. Through the Country Support Hub, NAP teams can access: •

Expert advice on questions about the NAP process and implementation.

Targeted in-country technical support that addresses a specific, short-term gap inhibiting momentum in NAP process or its implementation.

Support for convening and facilitating meetings with key stakeholders to advance or build support for the NAP process and its implementation, including NAP Assemblies.

The Network Secretariat IISD also implements the U.S. In-Country NAP Support Program under the guidance of U.S. government representatives in Washington, D.C. This program helps countries achieve their adaptation goals through a coordinated approach to adaptation across sectors and levels of government. Programs of support are currently active in Colombia, Peru, Saint Lucia, Guyana, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Ethiopia (NAP strategic workshop pictured below).

NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17


National-Level Action Spotlight: Ethiopia Ethiopia’s response to climate change is guided by the Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy, which lays out the country’s ambition to achieve middleincome status by 2025, while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions and building climate resilience. The NAP provides a roadmap for reducing vulnerability to climate change by mainstreaming adaptation into development activities across sectors and levels. Our program of NAP support for Ethiopia seeks to raise awareness of Ethiopia’s NAP among key stakeholders; help prioritize adaptation options identified in the NAP at the regional level; develop implementation strategies for adaptation; and build capacity for implementation of adaptation. In partnership with the Climate Change Planning and Mainstreaming Directorate of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MEFCC), we are supporting regional adaptation workshops on prioritization and the way forward for implementation, a national synthesis workshop, the documentation of implementation strategies, and a NAP assembly to bring together key government actors and development partners. We are providing technical support and mentoring to support effective implementation of adaptation.

“Through the Climate-Resilient Green Economy strategy, different sectors have their own climate-resilient strategies. The NAP document will guide us—where we are coming from and what is our destination. It will give us an opportunity to implement those climate-resilient strategies produced by different line ministries.”

Asrat Yirgu Senato Climate Change Adaptation Advisor, MEFCC, Ethiopia

Debasu Bayleyegn Eyasu Director General for Climate Change Implementation Coordination, MEFCC, Ethiopia

“Ethiopia’s governance structure is divided into federal, regional, zonal and woreda levels, which all have existing responsibilities related to adaptation under the CRGE strategy. Both the national and local perspectives are important. As we move into NAP implementation, we will be keeping an open dialogue between national and sub-national governments, as well as other stakeholders from civil society and the private sector.” NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17

Key Themes The Network focuses our work on a number of key themes related to countries’ NAP processes. These include sector and vertical integration of adaptation, financing NAP processes, monitoring and evaluation, communications, links between the NDCs and NAP processes and gender-responsive NAP processes. The next section of this yearbook explores some of these themes.

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“Guyana’s coastal plain is below sea level. Most of our population is found in the coasts, an estimated 90% of the population is found on the coast. Men, women, and children are affected differently. And also there are some communities or segments of society that are vulnerable due to their socioeconomic challenges. So we need to ensure we address gender issues and also vulnerable groups in our plans that we are putting forward.” Janelle Christian Head, Office of Climate Change, Ministry of the Presidency, Guyana

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Gender-Responsive NAP Processes The NAP process presents an important opportunity to address gender inequalities. Gender has become a key topic in many countries’ NAP processes, and the Network recently published a framework for genderresponsive NAP processes. Gender-responsive approaches go beyond sensitivity to the differences between women and men—they actively seek to promote gender equality. Applying this to the NAP process requires attention to gender throughout the iterative cycle of planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It also means consideration of gender issues in the crosscutting dimensions, including institutional arrangements, capacity development and information sharing related to the NAP process. Three key factors in a gender-responsive NAP process are:

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Interview: Gender Issues in the NAP Process The NAP Global Network spoke with three female leaders involved in gender integration and/or climate adaptation planning in Uganda, Colombia, and Kenya. The three countries are at different stages of their NAP processes.

Winifred Masiko Member of Parliament, gender and climate change negotiator for Uganda at the UNFCCC, Uganda

Mariana Rojas Laserna Director, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Colombia

Why is gender an important issue in climate change adaptation planning at the national level? Ms. Rojas, Colombia: In Colombia, we understand that climate change challenges are linked to ecosystems and biophysical relations. But we also recognize that there are socioeconomic issues that influence both greenhouse gas emissions and adaptive capacity. Therefore, in our Climate Change National Policy we have identified that effective climate change management has to influence the development pathways, making them less carbonintensive and more climate resilient but also contributing to overcome poverty, marginalization and inequalities (gender inequality amongst others) in the national territory.

Winfred Lichuma Chairperson, National Gender and Equality Commission, Kenya

Ms. Masiko, Uganda: [Consideration of gender] enhances acceptability of the planned project and ensures involvement, increasing the chances of project implementation success. Why is it important that women and women’s organizations participate in NAP processes? How can vulnerable women’s perspectives be effectively heard and used to inform the NAP process? Ms. Lichuma, Kenya: Women’s participation in NAP process[es] brings on board the actual experience and proposes solutions. Women are therefore not only consumers of the strategies but are also game changers and will bring on board different strategies that can be used in climate change adaptation. [continued on next page]

NAP Global Network Yearbook 2016-17 Winfrd Lichuma Photo: IISD/ENB | ENB

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Interview: Gender Issues in the NAP Process (continued) Women’s organizations working either on climate change or gender/women issues are well placed to have clear understanding of the concepts of mainstreaming or integrating gender into different proposed interventions. They also are able to mobilize large numbers of women to participate in stakeholder engagement. Women’s organizations have the advantage of working on women issues daily. National Adaptation Plans are centred around the issues that are aimed at reducing vulnerability [to] the impacts of climate change by building adaptive capacity and resilience. It will be easy for women’s organizations to expand the knowledge they have about programming for women’s issues to include the gendered impacts of climate change in dealing with different sectional areas most affected by climate change effects. These include water, agriculture, food security, health education, transport and housing among others. No doubt the vulnerability of women is well documented especially in terms of inequality and power relations. Most women lack capacity to effectively respond and build resilience mechanisms. It is important to have women represented at all stages of NAP development. Gender-responsive decisions will require women to sit at the decisionmaking table to bring the gender dimensions into the entire process. Ms. Rojas, Colombia: We have found that one of the first steps in mainstreaming gender in climate change management is to establish a baseline to identify the different ways that gender approaches have been integrated in mitigation and adaptation processes at national, regional, local and sectorial levels, and challenges and opportunities in order to strengthen this approach. In order to achieve this goal, a stakeholders’ mapping is needed. There, women’s organizations or networks can be highlighted as key actors in the process of including

the gender approach in climate change management and corresponding building capacities. […] Certain women’s organizations might be closer to knowing and understanding vulnerable women’s perspectives and they might help government institutions to identify which are the main differences between men and women in relation to the division of labour and employability, as well as access to resources and participation in decision-making processes; how women may be affected differently by the effects of climate change; how women can contribute, in a differential way, to emissions reduction and climate adaptation in each of these sectors; and which are the gaps and the barriers to be overcome for the inclusion of a gender approach in the management of climate change in different sectors. What role can a government ministry that is responsible for gender play in supporting integration of gender in the NAP process? Ms. Lichuma, Kenya: In order to be gender responsive, the NAPs must have clear gender issues identified right from the baseline survey to drawing intervention activities, actual implementation and monitoring and evaluation. The strategies that get to be chosen must have clear gender dimensions that are measurable. Failure to [account for gender in] the process would automatically lead to interventions that are insensitive to the needs of women and other vulnerable groups. Finally it must be understood that integrating gender or gender mainstreaming is not about having separate interventions or action plans for gender. The NAP activities must be gender responsive and guided by gender-responsive policies technical support with budgets that are inclusive and promoting equal access to men and women in decision-making processes. Barriers that limit women’s participation must be removed. The principles of equality and non-discrimination, participation and transparency and accountability must be upheld.

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“It is important to have women represented at all stages of NAP development. Genderresponsive decisions will require women to sit at the decision-making table to bring the gender dimensions into the entire process.� Winfred Lichuma

Ms. Rojas, Colombia: The attention and interest in gender mainstreaming within the Colombian context has shown increasing trends in the last years. The Colombian government created in 2014 the Presidential Counseling Service for the Equity of Women (CPEM). From the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, and in the context of the implementation of our Climate Change National Policy, we are developing a national strategy to successfully mainstream gender in the management of climate change both at sectorial and territorial scales. In this sense, we foresee an articulation with CPEM guidelines insofar as it addresses the need to promote the equity of men and women, to incorporate the gender approach into environmental policy, and to promote the recognition and participation of women in the design and implementation of public policy. Furthermore, a coordination and alignment with CPEM shall provide an orientation about the integration of women empowerment in climate change gender-responsive actions at both the national and local levels. Ms. Masiko, Uganda: The representatives of the Ministry of Gender in different ministries, agencies and departments should monitor the progress of NAP programs and ensure that gender is integrated.

What is the most important factor needed in order to integrate gender considerations in NAP processes? Ms. Lichuma, Kenya: The most important factor in integrating gender consideration in the NAP process is to understand the gender impact of men and women, boys and girls. Women are disproportionately affected and documenting their experiences and concerns is very important. This is through undertaking gender analysis. Mainstreaming or integrating gender into the NAP process must commence with a baseline study that must be done with a participatory approach including men and women Ms. Rojas, Colombia: So far, some general issues we have identified in order to integrate gender considerations in climate change management [include the need] to propose gender tools and indicators to track and report on gender-responsive mitigation and adaptation measures, and to count on political will to position gender-related issues within the institutions leading climate change management in the different sectors and territories. Ms. Masiko, Uganda: [Sex-]disaggregated data should be established so that the NAP is developed from an informed point.

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“Adaptation strategies must be part of the domestic budget and part of development planning for our country to achieve our goal to become an emerging country by 2030. We have been mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the national budget, and aligning the NAP process with Togo’s national budget-planning process. We must take into consideration all factors that can build the resilience of our people and, as a consequence, of our economy.” Sama Boundjouw Secretary General, Ministry of Environment and Forest Resources, Togo

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Financing NAP Processes Significant financing is needed throughout the entire NAP process, but especially within its implementation phase. Countries will need to combine a range of potential sources of finance—private and public, international and domestic—to meet this need. Given the number of potential sources of finance for the NAP process, a key challenge for many countries is determining how to align these sources with the financing needs of its development and implementation phases. The Network published the guidance note Financing NAP Processes: Contributing to the achievement of nationally determined contribution (NDC) adaptation goals—co-authored by the Network’s Secretariat IISD and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH’s Climate Policy Support Program— which explores a range of financing options, highlighting the suitability of different sources for different contexts. Among its key recommendations is that countries create a dedicated NAP financing strategy to more strategically align financing needs for the NAP process with potential sources of finance. A sustainably financed NAP process can help realize national adaptation ambitions set out in not just in national adaptation plans, but also in NDCs and the Sustainable Development Goals. Photo: Participants at the Targeted Topics Forum on financing NAP processes, held in Mexico City in June 2017.

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NAP Finance in Graphics Below are two graphics from the guidance note Financing NAP Processes.

Key elements of the NAP process requiring finance.

Main building blocks of a NAP financing strategy and its link to the NAP process.

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NAP Process Communications As the NAP process is designed to involve active participation, involving many stakeholders both within and outside of government, and strategic communications can offer strong support. Countries engaged in the NAP process are using communications strategies to achieve a range of objectives, including raising awareness of climate change adaptation, changing behaviour, internal government communications and communication systems for climate information. The Network has been working with in-country adaptation planners and communications experts to develop strategic communications planning in support of the NAP process. Through the U.S. In-country NAP Support Program, media trainings on climate change adaptation for government personnel were held in Saint Lucia, Ethiopia, and Guyana (pictured below, top) and briefings for local media were held in Guyana and Saint Lucia (pictured bottom left).

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Blog: Five Lessons from Saint Lucian Journalists on Climate Change Adaptation Reporting The Government of Saint Lucia and the Network co-hosted a briefing for journalists on reporting on climate change adaptation. Here are five key lessons that journalists shared. 1 | Keep It Local Journalists at the workshop told us that images of polar bears and ice caps melting don’t resonate locally. To shift climate change from a problem that seems “out there” and abstract, several journalists stressed the need for stories that show local impacts on people’s lives. Examples include how warmer waters cause fishers to go further from shore in pursuit of mahi-mahi seeking colder water, which impacts their bottom line. Other ideas include focusing on how a warmer climate will increase the risks of mosquito-borne diseases, and how that might affect health and the economy. 2 | Tell Human Interest Stories Combined costs of three storms in the past decade (Hurricane Dean in 2007, Hurricane Tomas in 2010 and the December Trough in 2013) amounted to over USD 400 million, more than a third of Saint Lucia’s annual gross domestic product. As climate change will make extreme weather more frequent and intense, journalists said telling individual stories is a powerful way to build awareness about the importance of preparing for extreme weather events. Alison Kentish, a TV presenter at HTS News, described her 2015 story on the effects of drought in several Caribbean countries as an example of telling a story through the eyes of local farmers who struggled to save their crops.

3 | Highlight Solutions, Not Just Catastrophe Despite the severity of the threats posed by climate change, Kentish noted that, “We can also tell stories of hope, resilience and mitigation.” A 2016 report that focused on a solar project designed to help manage drought is a good example of this type of framing. Bernard Fanis, Calabash TV, also emphasized this need to report on solutions that encourage Saint Lucians to take action on climate change. Fanis said reporting that emphasizes the negative impacts can cause audiences to feel helpless in the face of climate change. 4 | Give Stories About Policy a News Value Despite the importance of the topic, climate change policy stories are often couched in technocratic phrases and acronyms that just don’t pack the same punch as a crime story, for example. In pitching stories about climate change policy, it’s vital to think of what journalists need: statistics related to people’s livelihoods, success stories from sectors that are tackling climate challenges, and sound bites in plain language that relate to individuals’ experiences. 5 | Make Government Spokespeople Accessible Several journalists emphasized the need for government spokespeople to be available to respond quickly to interview requests about climate change issues. There is no shortage of excellent spokespeople in the Government of Saint Lucia. Recognizing that journalists’ have strict time-bound “headlines and deadlines” routines, governments need to ensure they have procedures that can pass interview requests on to the right people and deliver the interviews journalists need.

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“Saint Lucia has had a history of stakeholder consultation. In this particular national adaptation planning process that we are embarking on, we try to have as many stakeholders as possible engaged and involved in the discussions, in the consultations; not only from governmental and non-governmental organisations,but also from the private sector and civil society as a whole, so that at the end, everyone’s voice is included in the fight against climate change.� Dawn Pierre-Nathoniel Acting Deputy Chief Sustainable Development and Environment Officer, Department of Sustainable Development, Saint Lucia

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Vertical Integration of Adaptation Vertical integration is the process of creating intentional and strategic linkages between national and subnational adaptation planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Integrating climate change adaptation across different levels of government is one of the main objectives of the NAP process. Vertical integration is not a single step in the NAP process—it is an ongoing effort to ensure that local realities are reflected in the NAP, and that the NAP enables adaptation at sub-national levels, including the local level. It is enabled by institutional arrangements, information sharing and capacity development for actors at all levels. The diagram below from our guidance note Vertical Integration in NAP Processes presents the outcomes of vertical integration in the NAP process.

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“As many of the impacts climate change are felt most acutely at the local level, it is vital that the people who are at the forefront of climate change—those who are experiencing the impacts—really have a say in national-level policy. This is why it is so imperative for countries to engage in forming NAPs to find approaches to ‘vertical integration.’

Aditya V. Bahadur Action on Climate Today

The NAP Technical Guidelines stress the importance of vertical integration, with good reason. Vertical integration provides an opportunity to overcome many of the barriers to adaptation. For example, sub-national governments may find it difficult to generate resources and financing for adaptation activities; through vertical integration, closer links with national-level frameworks and a closer link with national governments can help facilitate flows of finance, either from national funds like India’s National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change or through international funds like the Green Climate Fund.”

Vertical integration in the implementation phase of the NAP process

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[Top left] Participants in a TTF in Mexico in June 2017; [top right] presentation at Grenada’s NAP Assembly in October 2016; [middle left] Benin’s country team at TTF in Cambodia in September 2016; [middle right] TTF workshop in Malawi in February 2017; [bottom] participants in a workshop in Jamaica on integrating climate change adaptation into the budgeting process.

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[Top left] Participants on a field trip during the TTF in Mexico in June 2017; [top right] participants in Colombia’s NAP Assembly in May 2017; [middle left] Cambodia’s country team at TTF in September 2016; [bottom] presentation on Philippines’ NAP process at a TTF in February 2017.

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Coordinating Climate-Resilient Development @NAP_Network

Initial financing support from Germany and the United States

Secretariat hosted by IISD

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