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C O N T E N T S

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INTRODUCTION

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A: CONCEPTUALIZATION

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A1 A1.1 A1.2

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A2 A2.1 A2.2 A2.3

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A3 A3.1 A3.2 A3.3

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CONCLUSION PART A LEARNING OUTCOMES

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B CRITERIA DESIGN

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B1 B1.1 B1.2 B1.3

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B2 B2.1 B2.2

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B3 B4 B5

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B6 B6.2 B6.3 B6.4

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PART B LEARNING OUTCOMES

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PART C PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C1.1 C1.2 C1.3 C1.4

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C2.1 C2.2 C2.3

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C3.1 C3.2 C3.3 C3.4

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C4.0

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PART C LEARNING OUTCOMES

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 3

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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HELLO

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Hi, I’m Naomi, a third year student in University of Melbourne. My interests lie in visualising architecture and architecture theory, particularly the complex and ever changing relationship between built environments and our society. The way architecture reflects our ever changing common beliefs, practices and attitudes throughout history really interests me.

As we live in the digital generation, digital Fabrication to me is a captivating realm in which allows me to develop intricate designs and innovative methods. Though I acquired the basis of digital fabrication during my Digital Design and Fabrication project, I am yet to experiment with technological parametric tools and algorithms. Eager to experiment with form finding, optimization and analytical methods, I strive to utilize digital technology to enrich my understanding of architecture, the roles of design today and the future.

FIG.1: MY DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICAITON PROJECT 2015 SEMESTER 1 ON ‘PERSONAL SPACE’

3D PRINTING IN STUDIO EARTH, 2015 SEMESTER 1 FOR PROJECT ‘MASS’

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S O C I E T Y

Today, we live in the age of social media. We evolved into an apathetic culture that craves for immediate results. We are in essence, a numb society. Subconsciously, we understand our destructive potential to the environment; we have to, because we are continuously reminded of it. Yet, crisis like overpopulation, environmental pollution, and over consumption are taken as facts without attachment or immediate consequences. They no longer faze us, but in reality, they should be more alarming than ever before. O B S E S S I O N

W I T H

I M M E D I A T E

R E S U L T S

No one can envision the future. Although environmental activists constantly reinforce what they fear, the general public lacks involvement with our environment to feel under threat. Rather, many fantasize radical possibilities for new, innovative solutions to provide each one of us our ‘individualised utopias’. When picturing a ‘radical future’, our culture’s obsession with numbers, productivity and immediate response causes us to think of additive solutions: implementation of new technology, new automated systems or even new capitalism systems (Dune & Rabby, 2013). While this obsession with radial production provides us with hopeful insight, a picture of where we would like to be, the phenomenon is also a dangerous one. In Australia, striving to achieve a 6 green star rating has become a goal and a trend among architects. It has become a symbol of sustainability. However, as Stanislav Roudavski puts it, such results are based merely on how it was designed, and not based off actual performance. This illusory fools the public in thinking we are a step closer to a sustainable future, but we are still producing; we are still impacting the world’s biosphere. Conceivably, this sense of disconnection, the inability to view beyond the near future, is what caused us to become more apathetic than ever before, and it is ever so dangerous. As Tony Fry puts it, it trivializes design and our current environmental situation. When no clear solution could be envisioned, we can merely attempt to slow down the process of killing our earth (Fry, 2008). Architecture, however, has the power to make us slowdown from our rapid lifestyle and be involved with nature once again; this is the first step to a sustainable future.

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BIOMIMICRY, SUSTAINABILITY AND EDUCATION SHIFT IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODS Biomimetic architecture sets as an example in which technological advancement in the digital age can prepare us for the future. It not only mimics found forms in nature, but also examines the fundamental principles that operate natural systems. Although biomimetic architecture is sometimes criticised for seeing humans as distant relatives of nature, the philosophy behind it arguably brings people and nature together. The Eden project, Cornwall by Nicholas Grimshaw is a prime exemplar that showcases the power of architecture and its interpolation with nature. It doesn’t ‘produce’ new interventions, but rather protects the current environments. The form of iconic biomes derived from Fibonacci’s sequence and Buckminster fuller’s revolutionary domes through hexangle tessellation, while program emulates natural flow of ecosystems. It encompasses wind turbines, geothermal energy plants and controlled conditions that allow wildlife to prosper.

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Even till today, the structural composition and construction methods are deemed radial. With the aid of digitalization, stability and structural integrity could be calculated to fit harmoniously with materiality. As opposed to heavy and obstructive traditional methods of creating a dome, the expansive nature of hybrid materials like EFTE cushions allows construction industries to reach larger spans with lighter mass than ever before. This allows us to design comfortable and suitable environments while minimising man-made interventions posed upon our natural environment. The Eden project is was a radical and timeless piece; it was and is used as an environmental education centre and eco conservatory. It not only changed the way we saw how we could blend in unison with nature, but also inspired future eco-parks, such as Singapore’s ‘Supertrees’ in 2012.


FIG.2 INTERIOR OF THE EDEN PROJECT- BECOMING ONE WITH NATURE

FIG.3 THE STRUCUTAL HEXANGLE FORM OPTIMIZED THROUGH BIOMIMETICS

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SUSTAINABILITY TO WHERE IT IS NEEDED MOST Architecture does not, however, have to be as grand as the Eden project to bring humanity a step closer to nature. The comparatively humbling ‘Warka Water Project’, with first iterations in Ethiopia, started as a small scale project by architecture and vision. The project utilizes digital fabrication, local materials, biomimicry and references to traditional Ethiopian culture to draw drinkable water from the atmosphere for locals. Biomimicry forms derived from local Namib beetle’s shell, lotus flower leaves, spider web threads and the integrated fog collection system in cactus. This project borrows technology not into what we could see as a ‘green utopian future’, but brings functional simplicity into remote areas of the present. While many architecture projects today reinforce our state of ‘denial’ by implementing seemingly ‘green’ yet highly artificial ‘green solutions’ (e.g. a grass wall), this project brings our focus back to where the basic necessities are needed: rural communities. This project lies beyond environmental responsibility. It considers culture, ethical and social wellbeing, and this is precisely how architecture can and should aid our future. As architectural critic Ben Campkin mentions “attention to habitats and their occupation of manmade environments has the power to reveal architecture’s place within wider social and geographical processes…[it helps] rethink architecture and architects’ zones of influence” (Campkin, 2010).

FIG.3 IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

Ultimately, we need to instigate change, and architecture can be a powerful tool if implemented strategically. That is not to say, however, that sustainable future should be in the hands of the designer, but rather a result of collective effort. While we do need ‘reorientation’ in our current apathetic attitude, that alone is insufficient. We need to use design not only as a tool that raises awareness of our actions, but also ignite universal interest in humanity’s coexistence with nature before we can understand it and fantasize our utopian harmonic, sustainable future.

FIG.3 INTERPOLATED THROUGH BIOMICRY OF LOCAL ATTRACTIONS

FIG.3 FINE HAIRS COLLECT MOISTURE FROM THIN AIR

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79 PARK BY BIG ARCHITECTS

TANGIA BAY BY MALKA

LONDON CITY HALL

Ordos museum by MAD architects

ARCHITECTURE

TIMMERHUIS BY OMA

CORAL REEF PROJECT

THE BLOB, EINDHOVEN

GRAZ ARTS MUSEUM

VINCENT CALLEBAUT

FIG.10 TYPOLOGIES LIKE MODULAR AND ‘BLOBITECTURE’ ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY SIMILAR?

FLUCTUATING BETWEEN REVIVAL AND REBELLION Architecture is both a collective memory of our history and an expression to translate our envisioned future. We are constantly in a state of fluctuation: between revival and rebellion. Although technological advances are seemingly connoted to our future, the high flexibility of digital computerization provides the power to fulfil both parties when used carefully and correctly. CRITICISM IN COMPUTERIZED DESIGN As computerized architecture and digital design is more common than ever before, it is inevitable for criticisms to arise with popularity. One of the major concerns relates to how technology is shaping us into thinking in a specific set of logic. Especially as similar software like Rhino (NURBS system) and grasshopper (algorithmic) are utilized by more users, we are moulded into thinking from a certain approach; from a point > curve > surface > solid. This arguably limits the way we approach design problems, where some argue that it ultimately hindering creativity. As we rely on the same technology, functions and constraints, there is a reoccurring theme; contemporary architecture since the new millennial are dangerously gearing towards similar tectonic expressions, such as inflation structure, domes, modules and blobitecture (fig 10). In our apathetic society, such examples and particularly ‘precedent based designs’ (Kalay, 2004, pp.23) face declining public interest and fading originality. High accessibility to this “new and popularly available software” (Oxman & Oxman, 2014, pp.3) further eliminates the need for specialists. The ways in which the general public can play around with similar digital parametric programs would perhaps blur the boundary between the ‘professional’ and the ‘hobbyist’. Lastly, due to the convenience and accuracy of digital fabrication, the ‘file to factory’ phenomenon (Oxman & Oxman, 2014) encourages a growing reliance on technology. This in essence, could be seen as distancing oneself from our own work.

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C A S E S T U D Y 0 1 ICD-ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION COMPUTERS BRINGING BACK CRAFTMANSHIP However, digital design can aid our future if it is exploited effectively and correctly. Computerisation in architecture stretches far beyond our preconceived misconception that it is merely for digital modelling purposes. Technological interventions could, and should be implemented in every stage of the design process, from feasibility studies (Kalay, 2004, pp.10) to evaluation. Rather than distancing oneself from our work, I believe digital design drives designers closer to our work than ever before. ICD-ITKE’s 2013 research pavilion and NED’s Chealsea Garden pavilion are complementary example. ICD-ITKE’s biomimetic project uses digital analysis to determine the genetic makeup of beetles before form optimization, while NED architects drew links between cellular leaf structure and photosynthesis system.

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DIGITAL FABRICATION BUT ALSO CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESIGNERS, STUDENTS AND THEIR WORK

Digital fabrication tools may have created modules in both projects, but the designers were seen closely involved with the designing and assembly processes. Following the mentality of the arts deco movement, digital fabrication allows designers to focus back on the beauty of craftsmanship. Once digitally designed, designers can craft their designs first-hand. Digital tools no longer pose as an industrial, mass customization tool. Rather, it acts as a tool to aid artistry.

THE PAVILLION REFERRED TO THE BIOLOGICAL STRUCTUR E OF BEETLES BEFORE IMPLEMENTING TO ARCHITECTURE THROUGH DIGITIZATION. DIGITAL AID IS IN RESEARCH, DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTING STAGES. CONCEPTUALISATION 17


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INTERIOR OF THE EUREKA PAVILION BY NED ARCHTIECTS

FORM DERIVED FROM DIGITALLY OPTIMIZED BIOMIMETIC STRUCTURE OF PLANT CELLS. IT IS THEN DIGITALLY FABRICATED TO CREATE A SENSE OF ILLUMINATION.

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PEICES WERE ASSEMBLED BY HAND WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF DIGITAL TOOLS

BIOMIMICRY IS MORE THAN THE FORM In addition to reinforcing the link between the creator and its work, digital design opens up new typologies, techniques, styles and approaches that were never explored before. Taking biomimetic architecture as an example, computerization not only makes mimicking natural forms possible, but also enables us to analyse and implement natural systems

into our built environment. Algorithmic technology explores the relationships between rational reasoning and logic. Plug-ins like Ladybug and Honeybee poses new possibilities to find shortcuts within nature, like sun path patterns and principles of physics. Ultimately, this allows us to determine the implication of our actions and find optimal solutions (Kalay, 2004, pp 6).

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AN EXAMPLE OF LOOKING BACK AT HISTORY AND MOVING INTO THE FUTURE AT THE SAME TIME 20

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RATIONAL COLLOINADE INSPIRED BY THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGE OF THE PARTHENON

SIMULTANEOUSLY GOING BACK AND INTO THE FUTURE While digital design could facilitate the ‘architectural rebellions’ or futurists by finding new approaches and innovative strategies, is also has large scope for revivalists or inventive traditionalists who strive to look back in time, especially for ‘rule based designs’ (Kalay, 2004, pp.21) such as renaissance architecture. Parametrical constraints from Palladio and Vitruvius’ books of architecture (1570) could be directly applied to designs with the aid of Digital software while retaining creativity. The acropolis museum for example, is both innovative and historical at the same time. To pay homage to ancient Athens, interior spaces follow the logical and rational language found in classical architecture such as symmetry and colonnades. Hence, digital design is highly flexible and manipulative tool capable of detailed iterations and repetition. It is to be used in the hands of the designer; as freeform or as restrictive as desired.

STRONG SYMMETRY AND LOGIC BEHIND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT, INFUSED WIWTH INDUSTRIAL MATERIAL LIKE CONCRETE

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DIGITIZATION AS A TOOL IN ALL STAGES

Ultimately, digital design is used beyond form finding. It is used in every stage of the design process. While some argue that our creativity is hindered by the parameters of the logic and approach of digital design, I see digital interventions as what (Gray, Brown and Macanufo, 2010) sees as a ‘game’. Inevitably, there are ‘rules’ to the game; they are unavoidable. But the ‘player/designer’ needs to willingly participate within such parameters and have a foreseeable/achievable ‘goal’ and understand when the design ‘ends’ (Gray, Brown and Macanufo, 2010). To elude from the dangers of designing architecture that is already created over and over again, design solutions must rely on the player/designer itself rather than digital tools that we use. If implemented correctly, I believe digital design can lead us a step closer to what Oxman (2014) refers to as the ‘second

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CONCEPTUALISATION 23


FROM PEN TO GENERATION TO...?

COMPOSITION

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Historically, architects are associated with pen and paper. Yet, ever since the introduction of the computer, pen and paper tend to merely connote with expressive illustrations and diagramming. Using freehand sketches for technical drawings or any means of precision, is deemed to be obsolete; as Rory Stott coined it, “the anachronism of the 21st century” (Stott, 2015). Even so, we as a culture have surpassed the stages of using computation as a compositional tool (such as CAD technical drawings and digital modelling). We moved into an era of generative computerization, and while we are already familiar with the generative abilities of the computer (that aids form finding and

optimization processes such as biomimicry), I believe we are approaching a new stage in algorithmic modelling, one that we are not quite accustomed to yet: using ‘software to design software’ (Burry, 2010). We evolved from using computer to translate designs we have in mind, next, to relying on computer to generate designs on our behalf, and now, utilizing computer to find flows, patterns and relationships in the world and implementing such systems in our designs as a method of generative computerization. Kinetic architecture is an emerging and expanding realm in architecture that feed our obsession with relationships and natural systems.

A DIAGRAM I CREATED TO EXPRESS HOW I VIEW THE SHIFT IN TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURE.

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CASE STUDY 01

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USING SOFTWARE TO DESIGN SOFTWARE TO GENERATE DESIGN

LARGE SCALE OF HIGHLY CUSTOMIZED IMAGES HAS A STRONG AMBIANCE TO IT

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The notion of ‘designing software to inform design’ often utilizes mathematical models or games with simple rules as inputs of an algorithm. Direct results may be logical and linear, but even a slight change in parameters can evoke highly complex and highly compelling geometry, which not only translates our ‘flows’ visually, but also has the ability to mimic and manipulate the way we move or the system we operate in. For example, a kinetic façade, the Megaface pavilion for the 2014 Sochi winter Olympics by Asif Khan and iart is a playable and interactive façade that digitizes and real time facial scans into a 3d façade composed by 11,000 actuators that illuminate according to the image (Iart.ch, 2014). Projects like such are only made possible by Algorithmic technology and its rules, such as tessellation and mesh systems (Frearson,2014). Image sampling is another tool made possible by grasshopper, which, through computerization, allows built spaces to become highly customized, highly interactive and kinetically responsive.


PROTOTYPING THE FIRST BATCH OF FACADE, SHOWING MOTION OF ILLUMINATIVE AND RESPONSIVE OUTPUT FROM ALOGRYTHMIC PROGRAMMING

COULD MANIPULATE TO IMAGINABLE IMAGES, NOT LIMITED TO FACES.

ALTHOUGH NOT SPECIFICALLY USED IN THIS PROJECT, I BELIEVE THE IMAGE SAMPLLING GRASSHOPPER COMMAND COULD BE IMPLEMENTED IN A REACTIVE PROJECT LIKE THIS- FROM OUR EXPRESSIVE FORMS TO RULES AND CODES

DOMED BULBS ELONGATE AND RETRACT INDIVIDUALLY.ACCORDING TO INPUT

HOW THE PROGRAM WORKS: HAVING REAL TIME EFFECT AS USERS TAKE ‘SELFIES’ OVER THE INTERNET OR CLOUD AS IMAGE INPUTS..

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USING SOFTWARE TO DESIGN PROGRAM THAT INVESTIGATES NATURAL FLOWS Unlike the Megaface Pavilion, the Albahr Towers, Abu Dhabi by AHR architects is another example of kinetic architecture which automatically ‘breathes’ and reacts according to natural systems (as opposed to artificial programming). The biomimetic form of ‘mashrabiya’, a wooden lattice shading screen folds and unfolds according to light levels,

solar radiation and desired level of privacy, ultimately to achieve better visibility and reducing energy footprint (Ahr-global.com, 2013). The use of patternation along with analytical software like the ‘ladybug’ plugin for grasshopper now enables designs to easily react to real world natural conditions. This creates opportunities for humans to better adapt with nature, which is crucial to achieve a sustainable future.

FACADE IS REACTIVE TO LIGHT: IT AUTOMATICALLY SHRINKS AT NIGHT AND DURING SHADE, AND UNFOLDS AT TIMES OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT.

RELIES ON PARAMETRIC MODELLING TOOLS LIKE LADYBUG TO ANALYZE THE SUNPATH OVER YEARS

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EACH SCREEN ARE CONNECTED WITH NODES THAT FORM A PANELLED SURFACE/FACADE AROUND THE TOWER.

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BETWEEN VIRTUAL & REALTY

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RENDERING OF HOW THE NETWORKED GEOMETRY HAD LOOKED ONE POINT IN TIME 30

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In addition to making use of computerization to manipulate our flows and relationship between systems holistically within architecture, the idea of ‘computerization through software design’ could also provoke insight and new sensations for the individual. Computer is no longer merely involved with quantitative; by implementing it on a personal level, the shift in scripting culture is slowly becoming more qualitative. Corpora in Si(gh)te, (by double negative architecture, exhibited in Yamaguchi center for arts and media) is an art installation that deals with an interactive, ‘game like’ technology into autonomous architecture that responds to environment through information networking (YCAM, 2007). Sensors/seeds were implemented and connected into a meshed network in this virtual space, generating real time, ever changing geometries based on natural variables such as sunlight, wind, temperature humidity, acoustics and wind (YCAM, 2007). With experimental technological interventions as such, we are able to ‘feel’ the intended atmosphere/ ambiance and a strong sense of dynamic motion. Within our recent cultural history, Computation progressed from a static visual medium, to an expression through motion and sound (mainly flythrough and videos) and ultimately, to interactive and responsive software. However, the assumption that soft technologies like games are a means of architecture may be dangerous– as it blurs the boundaries between ‘virtual’ and ‘reality’. Nevertheless, it is exciting to assume that we are closer than ever before to achieving the fantasized ‘living architecture’ that breathes, reacts and responds with human interaction.


INTERACTED AS A ‘GAME LIKE’ INSTALLATION

That, however, is merely a hopeful vision. Currently, if physically built, such programmatic approaches to architecture are mostly seen as research pavilions or small projects. Commercialized architecture is still, in this aspect, ‘conservative’. Clients tend to seek for similar ‘brands’ or ‘styles’ we are familiar and comfortable with. It is not till we accept generative computerization as the ‘norm’ before this process could readily and steadily, and ‘naturally implemented’ (Peters, p15). We as a community need to accept initiate and participate in order to engage with such responsive, software-led architecture. SO...GENERATIVE OR COMPOSITION? COMPUTATION OR COMPUTERIZATION? THE HAND OR COMPUTER?

FORM PRODUCED BY ANALYSING SUN, SOUND, MOVEMENT, VIEW, WIND, ETC. HOW THE NETWORKS CHANGED OVER A COURSE OF ONE HOUR ACCORDING TO FLOWS OF PARAMETERS

In essence, our culture has simultaneously ‘shifted into a new age of computerization’ and ‘remained static’ at the same time. Much like how pen and paper could be seen as similar to one another as it could be polar opposites (Stott, 2015). They are both expressive algorithm outputs, in a similar manner that we think with our minds (Wilson, p.11). Comparing or using such methods as representatives of an ‘era’ is wrong to begin with. Both the expressive medium of pen and paper and computerization can co-exist, as long as employed suitably and strategically within design processes. Neither should be over-relied upon; as it is our thoughts, the poetics of architecture which raises questions and sparks conversations. USING PARAMETRIC SOFTWARE

+ SENSORS AS NODES

= GENERATIVE FORM BASED ON FLOW

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S I O N As we live in a society that constantly fluctuates between revivalists and rebels (or arguably, innovators), computer and digital tools hold the ability to satisfy both parties, by either implementing constrained parameters or as generative instruments. However, our envisioned, sustainable future does not have to fall into either groups. What if our ‘future’ is ‘here and now’? Architecture such as the Warka waters project successfully satisfied the needs for those who need it most through technological interventions. This project, in my opinion, is how we should envision the future; promote innovation using technology to satisfy current needs, sustaining current environments and bringing humanity closer to nature. While we live in the present, the idea of ‘innovation’ is a significant one- it brings us to our visions of the future. Innovation is unforeseeable; it is unexpected, almost acts as a ‘happy mistake’. As we shifted from compositional computation to generative computerization and now to ‘composing software to generate design’, computers can effectively generate unexpected results (Peter, p.10). This exposes us to new and ‘unexpected’ possibilities like Albahar towers and the emerging realm of kinetic architecture that encourages interaction with the built environment. Yet, although computers in architecture has assisted performance, questioned concepts and generated new processes, it shall not be over-relied upon. Our future is a collective responsibility; and as architects is one of the few groups of generalists, we need to be aware of the processes and relationships revolving how we live and how we interact with architecture. The digital age is capable of merging abstractivity in art with rationality in algorithms. We should use it purposefully, but should not expect it to choose our future for us.

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Within the architectural realm, I always saw computerization as a means of translating thought into physical, developable structures. It was merely a tool used within the design process, whether as a generative, visualisation, or a fabricating tool. However, having explored precedents the past, societal values of the present and visions of the future, I was able to see that computerization is much more flexible than I once thought, and the scope of potential is boundless. The way architecture is beginning to dip into the realm of virtual reality and interactive media really fascinates me; it allows me to see the exponential power of the digital age. Architecture is no longer static. It is dynamic, responsive and interactive. The algorithmic world is unavoidable, but currently, I am more aware of how close we are to the digitized utopia than we ever were. Taking my previous studio work as an example, if I had known the implications of digital tools, I would have approached them very differently. For example, my project ‘studio earth: secrets’ looks into the notion of secrecy, labyrinth, veiling and unveiling through a moire effect façade that submerges occupants from the ground, to the threshold, and eventually to the underground. I used freehand sketching, diagramming and a concept model as the basis of my design. Digital tools were merely used for composition and visualisation purposes. However, had I known algorithmic processes, I would have analysed human flow and the patternation of façade to really evoke the sense of secrecy, rather than be limited by my own creativity. Perhaps use of algorithmic software like kangaroo can further generate some kinetic motion as people make their way through the pavilion.

COULD HAVE ANALYZED HUMAN FLOW AND VISIBILITY

MY EARTH DESIGN IS PREDOMINANTLY ILLUSTRATIVE AND DIAGRAMMATIC

COULD HAVE ANALYZED FLOW WITH PATTERNATION

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THE ‘R’ MATERIALS: RECYCLED, REDUCED, REUSED, REPURPOSED MATERIALS With an aim to design an interactive and dynamic structure that encourages recycling, reducing and reusing, analysing material performance through generative algorithmic computation plays a critical role in aiding my design goal of education and environmental preservation in Merri Creek. EVOLUTION OF MATERIALISTIC APPROACH From vernacular architecture to contemporary architecture, we had always been limited to the properties of available materials. whether provided by nature (e.g. sand and stone) or synthetic (e.g. plastic and concrete), architects were required to analyse and strategically implement materials according to the strengths of their properties in order to assure structual stability and achieve experiential qualities. Yet, recent technological advances such as algorithmic programming and 3d printing (even unconventional materials like composites and biological tissues) allowed us to move from static, masonry bricks and rocks into more lightweight, elastic and adaptive structures than ever before, optimising structural performance with minimal material. ALGORITHMIC COMPUTATION AS AN OPPORTUNISTIC GENERATIVE METHOD Utilizing material performance as a basis of generative form finding incurs an array of design opportunities, assisting viability and structural optimization. This method of designing allows advanced studies of the material itself across different scales, from the detailed junction with other materials to the overall structural integrity. Analysing material performance allows quick feedback through rapid fluctuation between physical prototyping, generative simulation and computational iteration. This forms a feedback loop which allows repetitive elements such as patternation and modulation in particular to be more efficiently fabricated and allows scope for flexible adaptation to local surroundings.

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Material-led design approach allows “complex integrated force active morphologies”.

– ICD, 2012


OPPORTUNITY #1: LIGHTWEIGHT MEMBRANE STRUCTURES Recent research projects with materialled design approaches poses us with more lightweight structures that undergo constant tensile stresses and active bending. ICD/ITKE’s textile hybrid M1 for example investigates the behavioural attributes of textile to ultimately implement into a membrane structure that optimizes structural stability with material usage. Formation is not predetermined by the designer; yet the generated form has the opportunity to instigate optimal acoustic properties, structurally stable joints, and situates structures to fit micro-climates local contexts; ultimately striving to be minimally invasive to the natural environment. OPPORTUNITY #2 BIOMIMICRY Form finding based off materiality does not denote eliminating control over formation and assembly. Material optimization could be cohesively merged with biomimicry, imitating the systems and forms found within nature. ICD’s Textile Hybrid M1 further mimics the function of a leaf, embedding elements of heterogeneity, anisotropy hierarchy, redundancy and integration into the overall, textile hybrid system. This also acts as a potential for the implementation of biomimicry into our personal designs, perhaps mimicking water flows or the build of natural aquamarine inhabitants. CRITERIA DESIGN

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OPPORTUNITY #3 CONSTRUCTABILITY

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ICD/ITKE’s 2010 research pavilion also analyses material performance to “reach a feasible proposition”, assisting constructability. The materials become the joints itself, eliminating the need for major conjunction joints. Investigating material performance is particularly appropriate for projects as such, where components (in this case, plywood strips) were subject to bending and constant elastic pressure. To inform the computer properties and tolerances of the plywood strips, the pavilion utilizes FEM simulation to determine stored energy of individual units before conducting stress tests and rapid prototyping. Ultimately, utilizing material performance as the basis of spatial design concurrently sets opportunities and limitations. Yet, in the age of mass consumption and waste, this method of designing creates countless possibilities for the future, especially lightweight/temporary structures that strive to minimize use of materials, ultimately reducing (or even reusing) unwanted material.

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S T A T E M E N T

According to CRES’s environmental strategy plan 2014, their objectives include:

Although recycling and environmental campaigns are increasingly taking action, statistics show that levels of waste in Australia alone has skyrocketed since the 1997, almost reaching 250tonnes in 2012 with no signs of slowing down. This global issue is also evident in local scales of Merri creek; one of- if not the most polluted waterway in Melbourne. Although CRES environmental groups serves to protect the existing natural environment within the merri creek area, high levels of litter, water pollution and visual pollution remains within the site, due to industrial runoff and heavy stormwater. Chemical releases from litter as well as non-degradable waste ultimately cause discolouration and harm to the existing ecosystem, particularly the aquamarine inhabitants

42

CRITERIA DESIGN

STATEMENT #1 “maximise the capture of recyclables from waste stream… maintain a zero litter site” by “increasing reuse and recycling of materials [and] avoiding the need for consumption and waste in the first place” (p.6) STATEMENT #2 “To develop a waste reduction ethic and practice…to maintain a healthy and aesthetically pleasing working and learning environment” (p.6)


DESIGN OPP ORT UNIT Y upon site visit, litter was entrapped among branches, and somewhat brings a sculptural quality. The exposure of raw litter in a sense provokes our awareness to our actions. Hence, I see this as an opportunity not only to filter waste from the polluted river, but also to educate visitors in a captivating and interactive manner.

CRITERIA DESIGN

43


B1.3

RESEARCH

FIELD

S E L E C T I O N C1 FILTRATION ABILITY (FUNCTION & POROSITY)

C R I T E R I A

The filtration ability serves as the fundamental function and purpose of the design. Upon initial site visit, waste and litter burdened the merri-creek river, suffocating natural ecosystems and its inhabitants. Hence, the design needs to be porous, allows water movement and natural inhabitants to go through. Ideally, the filter would be transparent enough to retain visibility to heighten participant awareness, but needs to be dense enough to successfully capture litter. C2 INTERACTIVE POTENTIAL

A selection criterion assesses various algorithmic formations according to the feasibility and suitability of the design according to the design intentions and objectives. It is important as part of the design process to clearly converge into more successful species that could later be further developed. It serves to retain a balance between the ambitious design concepts with the realistic design limitations.

44

CRITERIA DESIGN

Interactivity is a significant component of the design, as it strives to elevate involvement and attention of visitors in merri creek. In order to heighten participants awareness to their environmentally invasive actions, user participation would assessed according to the potential in which the structure could dynamically (not necessarily kinetically) react to any form of user input. C3 EDUCATIONAL VALUE Educational value ties in closely with interactivity. Has the design successfully allowed scope for education?


Are there elements in which provokes thought and insight? Does it elevate participants understanding towards merri-creek – or even environmental issues as a whole? My design strives to not only help the environment (through waste filtration) but also lets participants leave with gained understanding and awareness for current and future generations to come. C4 AESTHETICS While the design aspires to reveal captured waste – with objectives to ‘raise awareness’, it should still remain presentable, deliberate and intrinsically placed onto the site. Ideally, the design would have a sculptural quality in which allows it to serve as an artistic addition to the existing site.

C6 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY Although this could be confused with adaptability, structural reliability is more concerned with the stability and viability of the structure. Would it safely withstand under wavering micro-climates (withstanding change in rain, wind, and humidity levels)? This specification is more concerned with the structural performance rather than the function. As the design strives to act as a filtration system, it would raise moral and environmental issues if the filter breaks to generate more litter. Particularly as components would be composed with recycled or ready-made materials, the strength of joints would play an important role in keeping the design together. C7 CONSTRUCTABILITY

C5 ADAPTABILITY Could the design adapt and react to the ever changing conditions of the water; such as water flow, and intervention of natural inhabitants (birds and aquamarine animals)? Would the design have a reactive output according to the environment?

Constructability determines the ability in which the design could be fabricated easily within my limited skills and available equipment. Particularly as material components involve recycled materials, the ability to construct and manipulate them in unconventional manners may pose as a limitation to the design.

CRITERIA DESIGN

45


[B2] C

A

S

E

S

S E R O U S S I

B

I

T

U

CRITERIA DESIGN

Y

0

1

P A V I L I O N

O

T H I N G

46

D


SEROUSSI PAVILION WITHIN A PARAMETRIC WORKSPACE

The seroussi pavilion by Biothing relies on vectors which are modified through varying electro-magnetic fields to create patternating curves ď Ź(Biothing.org, 2016). The Internal cocoon like fabric is anchored by charged nodes or attractor points within grasshopper. The parametric definition allows for curvature to be expressed in terms of field forces: attracting or repelling. With highly customized field planes and lines, curves could be flattened, lifted, concentrated of sparsed, creating organic geometries that are capable of adapting dynamic environments and ecologies ď Ź(Arch2O.com, 2014). I selected this as my case study due to its porous nature- the way in which field lines sparse out from nodes would enable the geometry to become a potential filter to trap and encapsulate litter. As the pavilion is generated through lines, it would also be able to imitate the flow of water along the creek. Hence, I strive to take this geometry to explore it further and apply it according to my personal design brief and design intentions.

RENDERING OF THE SEROUSSI PAVILION

SEROUSSI PAVILION AS A BUILT SPACE

CRITERIA DESIGN

47


B2.0 CASE STUDY 01 MUTATING SPECIES MATRIX VARIATION/01

VARIATION/0

SPECIES 1 CURVE DIVIDE

CD=1

CD=5

SPECIES 2 CENTER RADIUS R=10.05

R=1

SPECIES 3 FIELD LINE LENGTH

FL=10 48

CRITERIA DESIGN

FL=100


02

Species 1-6 experiments with the parameters and verticies within the existing definition. Variables were iterated and modified to produce a matrix of new formations that could potentially suit my project brief of filtering waste from Merri Creek.

VARIATION/03

CD=10

VARIATION/04

CD=30

R=2

R=3

FL=200

FL=300 CRITERIA DESIGN

49


B2.0 CASE STUDY 01 MUTATING SPECIES MATRIX VARIATION/01

VARIATION/0

SPECIES 4

GRAPH MAPPER TYPOLOGY

SINE-SUMMATION

SQUARE-RO

SPECIES 5

RANDOM CULL VERTICIES

RC-23-VERTICIES

RC-20-VERTICIES

SPECIES 6

UNIT CURVE DIVIDE AND RANGE

CD&R=1 50

CRITERIA DESIGN

CD&R=2


02

OOT

VARIATION/03

BEZIER

RC-10-VERTICIES

CD&R=3

VARIATION/04

PARABOLA

RC-5-VERTICIES

CD&R=5+ CRITERIA DESIGN

51


B2.0 CASE STUDY 01 MUTATING SPECIES MATRIX VARIATION/01

SPECIES 7

PIPING CURVES + INTRODUCING NEW POINTS TO EXTRUDE TO PIPE-RADIUS=0.3

SPECIES 8

INTRODUCING NEW POINT CHARGES

SPECIES 9

PROJECTED ONTO NEW PLANES

52

CRITERIA DESIGN


species 7 to 9 implements new inputs to the existing definition to manipulate the existing script.

VARIATION/02

PIPE-RADIUS=1

VARIATION/03

PIPE-RADIUS=5

VARIATION/04

EXTRUDE-TO-POINT

CRITERIA DESIGN

53


B 2 . 2 - C A S E - S T U DY- 1 . 0

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

SUCCESSFUL S P E C I E S

S U C C E S S F U L S

P

E

C

I

E

S P E C I E S S

0

2

-

0 1 V

3 C1

60%

C2

70%

C3

54%

C4

45%

C5

83%

C6

50%

C7

35%

Total score 55.45%

DESIGN POTENTIALS

54

CRITERIA DESIGN

With a circular opening on top of each moduie, this species allows for direct sunlight and high visual transparency. If used as a filter within running water, litter can be trapped within the modules through water movement. As spectators could view directly through the openings, they would be able to see filtered litter in its raw state; increasing awareness and perhaps even educate them. There also stands a potential as a reactive and responsive design, ultimately achieving user interaction. The opening could contract and relax according to the time of day (open at times of strong sunlight and contract when none).


S U C C E S S F U L C1

80%

C2

75%

C3

70%

C4

50%

C5

80%

C6

45%

C7

35%

S

P

E

C

I

E

S

S P E C I E S 0

4

-

V

1

&

0 2 V

2

Total score 60.75%

DESIGN POTENTIALS There is high interactive and responsive potential for this design. Where two seemingly juxtaposing forms created from graph mapping are placed alongside each other. At a relaxed state, unlike the original pavilion, the modules cup upwards. This allows for full exposure to waste and transparency. When waste is filtered through water, waste may enter from the ‘kinks’ along the sides and potentially emerges in the canter of clusters. Once litter is extracted in that stage, the design may react by pulling up from the centre, caging litter on the inside instead, and allowing leftover residue to ‘slide off’ on its sides. The change between the two dynamic states could perhaps be controlled by automation (based on natural climate and sensors) or even a controlled response (e.g. a button for users to interact with). CRITERIA DESIGN

55


S U C C E S S F U L S

P

E

C

C1

45%

C2

85%

C3

85%

C4

45%

C5

35%

C6

40%

C7

30%

I

E

Total score 50%

DESIGN POTENTIALS The original geometry was projected onto a newly introduced, lofted, tunnel-like surface. Unlike the previous two species and the original species, it creates a journey, a path rather than emerging points were waste is collated. The path could potentially be used in to ways. To harmoniously unify with nature and water, it could allow inhabitatnts through while waste is trapped on the external surface. Flipping the inside from the outside, forever, allows visitors to walk through and perhaps be more aware of our environmental damage. This creates high interactivity and user engagement. However, it does not consider constructability and fabricating concerns. 56

CRITERIA DESIGN

S P E C I E S S

0

8

-

0 3 V

4


S U C C E S S F U L S

P

E

C

C1

70%

C2

55%

C3

40%

C4

60%

C5

85%

C6

60%

C7

56%

I

E

S P E C I E S S

0

7

-

0 4 V

3

Total score 61%

DESIGN POTENTIALS This species makes use of newly introduced attractor points to alter the way in which field lines can move. The new points, placed along the rim of edges, attract loose ‘hairs’ of the filter. This creates kinks where litter could easily enter and be trapped. It could also flow against dynamic movement in a way that allows it to sit cohesively in the water. However, while this species puts emphasis on filtration function and performance, it lacks consideration for responsiveness, interaction and educational value.

B2.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

C R I T E R I A F

I

N

D

S E L E C T I O N I

N

G

S

Since the original precedent project, the Biothing, is composed of curves, its porous nature allows it to be suitably implemented as a filter. The netted formation further allows high visual transparency in which arguably raises awareness of its spectators (however, whether this serves as an educational virtue is debatable). Hence, depending on the scale and target occupants of these selected iterations, they could serve as very successful built designs, if they were to be further developed. CRITERIA DESIGN

57


B3.0 CASE STUDY 2.0

I b

58

CRITERIA DESIGN

N y

S

P

I T

R

A

T

a

r

a

I

O

N D

0 o

C n

L o

O

U

D

v

a

n


The inspiration cloud by Tara Donovan, 2006 is an art installation piece composed of Styrofoam cups, exhibited at the Ace Gallery in New York. The carefully aligned Styrofoam cups were assembled into a large scale installation that spans 20ft W x 6ft H. using a hot glue gun, Donovan makes use of artisan approaches that bring out the beauty in the mundane. Submerging glowing lights above the cups, they naturally form their own shadows in some areas and diffuses light in others, ultimately creating a highly atmospheric and experiential piece, almost like an ‘infinitely pixelated landscape’. It has a sense of soft tactility and sublime. Tara Donovan is known for her emphasis on the process, materiality and reference to nature. “It’s about creating a system, using a structure, and repeating incremental units that can go from the finite to the seemingly infinite.” Donovan approaches with materiality before referencing to nature, “In a sense, I develop a dialogue with each material that dictates the forms that develop. With every new material comes a specific repetitive action that builds the work.” She is not intending to create a statement about mass consumption, but the bring out the qualities of the banal through biomimicry. For example, her inspiration cloud appears as huge mounds “almost as if alive and growing…it is not like I’m trying to simulate nature. It’s more of a mimicking of the way of nature, the way things actually grow.” While the project was successful on a conceptual level; in terms of bringing out the beauty in the mundane- it would not be capable of fulfilling my design brief on a functional or structural level of filtering waste within a dynamic water filled environment. CRITERIA DESIGN

59


B3.0 CASE STUDY 2.0

R

E

V

R

S

E

E

N

G

I

N

E

E

R

I

S

T

E

N

P

0

1

Create the number of points according to desired number of metaballs

E

G

S

T

E

P

0

2

Create a meshed surface geometry by increasing threshold

Note: This method does not utilize the metaball component; instead uses a VB script that turns points within a bounding box into meshed metaball surfaces according to their radius instead of the threshold. Please refer to appendix for 2 other dropped methods that use the metaball(t) components that achieves metaball curves and grids. 60

CRITERIA DESIGN

S

T

E

P

0

3

Move points from Rhinoceros to the desired location

S

T

E

P

0

4

Iterate radius/ threshold of metaballs till desired geometry is achieved


S

T

E

P

0

6

Create cup geometry though lofting. Add as separate input

S

T

E

P

0

5

Explode the mesh surfaces into individual planes and evaluate the centre points of each plane.

+

S

T

E

P

0

7

Find the normals of each plane

S

T

E

P

0

8

Orienting the cup geometry onto surface plane

CRITERIA DESIGN

61


B3.0 CASE STUDY 2.0

P

O

T

E

N

T

I

A

L

P

A

R

A

M

E

T

R

I

C

A

P

P

R

O

A

C

H

E

S

INPUT RADIUS OF EACH POINT (CUSTOMIZED)

POINTS FOR METABALLS (MULTIPLE)

VB SCRIPT POINTS IN BOUNDING BOX INTO METABALLS WITH MESHES

MESH SURFACE TO NURBS POLYSURFACE

BAKE AND REINPUT GEOMETRY

MESH TO POINTS TO PLANAR SURFACES

OR

I decided to abandon using the metaball(t) component as dividing curve, finding points and rebuilding surface is an inefficient and at times an implausible method.

METABALL(t) COMPONENT

INPUT THRESHOLD OF EACH POINT (CUSTOMIZED)

62

CRITERIA DESIGN

DIVIDE CURVE INTO POINTS

EXPLOD

Mesh could be by finding mesh rebuildling them polysurfaces. H contains cluster Baking and turn meshtonurb in r


DE SURFACE

LOFTED CIRCLES WITH PIPE WITH CUSTOM RADIUS

FIND NORMAL OF EACH SURFACE

ORIENT CUPS ON SURFACE

turned into surfaces h edge points and m into NURBS However, this method rs and heavy scripting. ning geometry from rhino is more efficient.

Currently, unlike the existing inspiration cloud installation, the oriented cups are overlapping each other, and cups are mirrored on each of the shared plane and normals. Hence, there is a potential to cull pattern with cups length that are less than the radius length. Furthermore, the mirrored, ‘inner’ cups could be culled by solid intersection.

CULL OVERLAPPING OBJECTS WITH DISTANCE EQUAL OR LESS THAN 0

FIND AND CULL SOLID INTERSECTION WITH METABALL SURFACE

LEGEND INPUTS

STEPS

POTENTIAL STEPS TO DEVELOP FURTHER

CHOSEN PATH

POTENTIAL (OR ABANDONED) PATH

CRITERIA DESIGN

63


With an implimentation of multiple points, the volumous suspended mass as seen from the inspiration cloud could be more accurately imitated.

B 3 . 0 R E V E R S E

F I N A L

E N G I N E E R I N G

O U T C O M E HOW COULD THE DEFINITION BE DEVELOPED?

B L O B S U S E D 64

C O U L D A S

CRITERIA DESIGN

B E

M O D U L E S

As my definition utilizes parametric tools to replicate a structure that originally utilizes low-tech artisan approaches, there are many possibilities for future development. [01] Rather than one cohesive surface generating a bulk mass, with the aid of parametric tools, a few metaballs could merge into smaller, more portable modules to aid construction, structural stability and to generate new ornamental forms. [02] As I would like to look into using recycled materials to bring out the beauty in them, much like the design intentions of Tara Donovan, perhaps the object itself could change. [03] This installation holds more conceptual purposes aesthetically and experientially, while my design intentions are more practical- as a water filter and educational tool. Hence, perhaps the surfaces and objects could be pierced or voided in a way that creates a porous surface to trap waste..


WHAT WAS SIMILAR TO THE ORIGINAL DESIGN? Like the original art installation, [01] multiple metaballs were merged together to form a highly curvilinear, undulating ceiling [02] composed of oriented cups that are aligned to one another; creating a pixelated landscape. [03] The suspended installation was cut off and lays flat against the roof by placing the points within a bounding box. [04] The cups were also replicated in detail, with a thicker rim and tapered profile. This is to retain the essence of the project, bringing the beauty out from banal and mundane objects. [05] Knowing that the original installation was assembled in situ, site specific and temporary, I attempted to retain high levels of customizability to capture the intentions of the project. WHAT WAS DIFFERENT FROM THE ORIGINAL DESIGN? However, there were many differences to the original installation. [01] As the original art piece was composed using more crafty and low tech methods such as utilizing a hot glue gun, I was unable to retain the softness and craft-like sensibilities to the final touch. Cups were aligned in a way which seems computerized and calculated. [02] at the moment, the cups are placed onto the surfaces as solid individual objects. When touched, they overlap one other. Real cups, however, retain plasticity and flexibility, which allows them to curve and warp as they are compressed against one another, forming organic and seamless geometry. [03] The cups were also oriented to the planes in a way that they mirror one another- creating an ‘external’ layer and an ‘internal layer’. This not only makes the algorithmic definition heavier to process, but is dissimilar to that of the original piece. CRITERIA DESIGN

65


B3.0-INSPIRATION

FINAL

TOP

66

CRITERIA DESIGN

CLOUD

DRAWINGS

LEFT

FRONT


This final model was created as a smaller scaled prototype than the original- composed of only 7 points.

ISOMETRIC

CRITERIA DESIGN

67


[B4] R E V E R S E D E N G I N E E R I N G

M A T R I X

CATEGORIZATION OF SPECIES each species were sorted into various categories: 01 manipulate metaball geometry in itself 02 buildling up 03 cutting into 04 adding new interventions

68

CRITERIA DESIGN


MY DESIGN APPROACH LEADING TO PART C DESIGN FABRICATION

CATEGORY 1 METABALL GEOMETRY ITSELF

GROUPMATE’S IDEAS

CATEGORY 2 BUILDING UP REVERSE ENGINEERED SCRIPT

CATEGORY 3 CUTTING FROM/ PATTERNATION

SUCESSFULL HYBRIDS

CATEGORY 4 INTRODUCE NEW GEOMETRIES

DIVERGING IDEAS

HYBRID & CONVERGING IDEAS

ANALYSIS AGAINST CRITERIA

COMBINED HYBRIDS

MY IDEAS

SUCESSFUL DESIGNS

PROTOTYPING

CONVERGING IDEAS

HYBRID & DIVERGING IDEAS

CRITERIA DESIGN

CONVERGING IDEAS

69


B4 R

E

V

M

CATEGORY 1 involves iterating the parameters of the metaballs themselves. The main structual composition is largely affected by the number of points, arrangeent and threshold (radius) of these merging spherical shapes.

CATEGORY01

VARIATION/01

VARIATION/02

POINT NUMBER=1

POINT NUMBER=3

E

R A

S

E

E T

VARIATION/03

POINT NUMBER=7

SPECIES 1

NUMBER OF POINTS

CATEGORY01

SPECIES 2

ALTERING GEOMETRY

70

CRITERIA DESIGN

DENSE

POLARARRAY

CONE

N


4.0

N

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 01

G

I

N

E

R

E

R I

VARIATION/04

POINT NUMBER=10

LINEAR

I

N

G X

VARIATION/05

POINT NUMBER=15

FLAT

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 02 FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 03

VARIATION/06

POINT NUMBER=20

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? There is no one form that is more ‘successful’ than another, as it depends on the fitnes for the context. Yet, i believe the most useful forms for my brief would be a sparse or dense formation,

SPARSE

CRITERIA DESIGN

71


B4 R

E

V

M

VARIATION/01

E

R A

VARIATION/02

S

E

E

N

T

VARIATI

CATEGORY01

SPECIES 3

THRESHOLD SIZE

CATEGORY 2 is concerned with the geomtry oriented on the metaball surfaces. Hence I kept a constant metaball shape for display purposes.

CATEGORY02

SPECIES 4

CULL ORIENTED GEOMETRY

72

CRITERIA DESIGN

CULL=T

CULL=TF

CULL=TFFF


4.0

N

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 01

G

ION/03

I R

N

E

E

R

I

N

I

VARIATION/04

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 02

G

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 03

X

VARIATION/05 WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? As my definition involves a VB script. it allows highly customizable metaballs with individual thresholds, dispayed within a gene pool. There is no ‘successful’ size, but more of a matter of which type is more suitable for the design brief.

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? I believe the more geomtry culled, surface area is reduced and filtration abiility weakens. CULL=TFFFFF

CULL=TFFFFFFF

CRITERIA DESIGN

73


B4 R

E

V

M VARIATION/01

E

R A

VARIATION/02

S

E

E

N

T

VARIATIO

CATEGORY02

SPECIES 5

ORIENTED OBJECT EXTRUSION HEIGHT

R=O.3

R=1

R=10

CATEGORY02

SPECIES 6

CUP RADIUS TOP-RADIUS=0.1 BOTTOM-RADIUS=9

TOP-RADIUS=1 BOTTOM-RADIUS=5

FACTOR=0.3

FACTOR=0..8

TOP-RA BOTTOM-

CATEGORY02

SPECIES 7

ORIENTED GEOMETRY SIZE

74

CRITERIA DESIGN

FACT


4.0

N

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 01

G

ON/03

ADIUS=1 -RADIUS=1

TOR=1

I R

N

E

E

R

I

N

I VARIATION/04

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 02

G

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 03

X VARIATION/05 WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL?

TO-ATTRACTOR-PT

RANDOM-VERTICIES

the taller the object, the more surface area and hence better filtration ability. however, attractor poins create a gradual aesthetic appeal. WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL?

TOP-RADIUS=4 BOTTOM-RADIUS=1

TOP-RADIUS=10 BOTTOM-RADIUS=1

geometries overlap once radius is too large. Yet, if using soft material like textiles, it could produce adaptive filtering forms.

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? once geometry is too big (x>1), it begins to become impractical to construct. Hence, smaller factors are more successful. FACTOR=10

FACTOR=100

CRITERIA DESIGN

75


B4 R

E

V

M VARIATION/01

E

R A

VARIATION/02

S

E

E

N

T

VARIAT

CATEGORY02

SPECIES 8

LOFTED GEOMETRY (eliminates overlapping)

HEXAGON

TRIANGLE

EXTRUD

CATEGORY 3 investigates the surface of the metaballs instead of the geometry that is oriented on it.

CATEGORY03

SPECIES 9

PROJECTED PATTERNATION

VORONI1

VORONOI2

VORON

2LAYER

3LAYER

CATEGORY03

SPECIES 10

SURFACE LAYERS BY OFFSET 1LAYER

76

CRITERIA DESIGN


4.0

N

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 01

G

I R

TION/03

DE-TO-POINT

NOI3

R

N

E

E

R

I

N

I

G

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 02 FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 03

X VARIATION/04

EXTRUDED-INTERPOLATE-CURVE

VARIATION/05

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? Extrusion of the interpolated curve creates an irregular, interesting yet non-overlapping form. If made with flexible material, it could flow along the natural water directions.

OCTAGON

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? Voronoi 1 and Delauney 2 appears to be more successful as they have a more sparse wireframe, useful for filtering and trapping litter. DELAUNEY1

DELAUNEY2

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL?

5LAYER

2LAYER-LARGE-OFFSET

3 layered metaball creates the most evenly distributed tiers which can categorize litter of different scales without overloading form.

CRITERIA DESIGN

77


B4 R M

E

V

E

R

S

A

E

E

N

T

VARIATION/01 VARIATION/ CATEGORY03

SPECIES 11

CULL METABALL PLANAR SRF

CULL=TF

CULL=TF(WITH-GEOMETRY)

CULL=T

CATEGORY03

SPECIES 12

REGION INTERSECTION & REGION DIFFERENCE

REGION-INTERSECTION-OFFSET=2

78

CRITERIA DESIGN

REGION-INTERSECTION-OFFSET=5

REGION-INTE


4.0

N

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 01

G

I

N

R

E

E

R

I

N

I

G

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 02 FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 03

X

/02 VARIATION/03

TFFF

ERSECTION-OFFSET=10

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? Unlike culling geometries, the more planar surface culled, the better the filtration ability, as litter could be trapped within the metaballs.

CULL-TFFFFFF

CULL=TFFFFFF(WITH-GEOMETRY)

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL?

REGION-DIFFERENCE-OFFSET=2

REGION-DIFFERENCE-OFFSET=10

Region difference creates an additional hole among each planar surface, compared to region intersection. If oriented towards direction of water, offset=10 creates sufficient cupping ability to trap litter.

CRITERIA DESIGN

79


B4 R

E

V

E

M VARIATION/01

R A

VARIATION/02

S

E

E

N

T

VARIA

CATEGORY 4 Involves introducing new geometry to manipulate the exisitng formation.

CATEGORY04

SPECIES 13

ORIENTING NEW GEOMETRY

SHARD

VALVE

CATEGORY04

SPECIES 14

METABALLS AS NEGATIVE SPACE

METABALL-IN-CUBE(SINGULAR)

80

CRITERIA DESIGN

METABALL-IN-BLOB

METABALL-IN-BOX


4.0

N

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 01

G

I R

ATION/03

N

E

E

R

I

N

I

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 02

G

FOR SUCESSFUL HYBRID 03

X VARIATION/04

VARIATION/05 WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? Valves are successful because it could open and close, increaseing adaptability and interactive potential. Cloth is also successful for trapping litter.

TORUS

X(SPARSE)

SCALE

CLOTH

WHICH IS SUCCESSFUL? Depending on scale, metball in cube (singular) could create a path for users to walk through., while metaball in metaball creates interesting formations.

METABALL-IN-SLENDER-GEOMETRY

METABALL-IN-METABALL

CRITERIA DESIGN

81


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C1

70%

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C2

80%

C3

65%

C4

70%

C5

90%

C6

65%

C7

85%

Total score 75%

The first hybrid merges: [S1 V2] low point count X [S2 V6] sparsity X [S11 V3] culled planar panels together, as it could increase interactivity as occupants explore and weave around the sparsed forms, looking into the ambient, glowing balls at the captured litter that was made possible by culled surfaces.

PLAN 82

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S H

The second successful hybrid merges:

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[S2 V5] flat geometry X [S3 V4] Large Threshold x [S9 V5] delauney patternation 2 X [S24 V5] metaball in metraball

PLAN

This hybrid<?XML forms an interactive and experiential VERSION="1.0" ENCODING="UTF-8" STANDALONE="YES"?> tunnel in which occupants could journey <ARCHIVE NAME="ROOT"> through while observing captured litter from <!--GRASSHOPPER ARCHIVE--> the webbed<!--GRASSHOPPER frame beneath the glass flooring. AND GH_IO.DLL ARE COPYRIGHTED BY ROBERT MCNEEL & ASSOCIATES-->

<!--ARCHIVE GENERATED BY GH_IO.DLL FILE UTILITY LIBRARY {0.2.0002}--> <ITEMS COUNT="1"> <ITEM NAME="ARCHIVEVERSION" TYPE_ NAME="GH_VERSION" TYPE_CODE="80"> <MAJOR>0</MAJOR> <MINOR>2</MINOR> <REVISION>2</REVISION>

C1

72%

C2

60%

C3

65%

C4

65%

C5

40%

C6

40%

C7

65%

Total score 58% CRITERIA DESIGN

83


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CLOSED VALVES

The third hybrid merges: [S2 V6] Sparse X [S11 V2] some culled panels X [S13 V2] valve oriented geometry This design is intended to be kinetically interactive, where users can activate it (releasing litter) by opening the valved geometry.

C1

85%

C2

85%

C3

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C4

67%

C5

90%

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Total score 71% 84

CRITERIA DESIGN

OPENED VALVES


S E L E C T E D

T E C H T O N I C S

OPPORTUNITIES

&

L I M ITAT I O N S

OPPORTUNITIES

LIMITATIONS:

• Metaballs are highly versatile, customizable and flexible. They can be used as repeated modules with low point numbers or a sea of merged metaballs with a large point number.

• A METABALL IS NOT A SPHERE. Edges and planar surfaces are not regular and consistent, making the custom and complex metaballs difficult to fabricate.

• Metaballs could be divided into many components, including: planes, nodes, frames, surfaces and infill. This makes the geometry highly customizable and versatile, where new systems (such as my partner’s mesh relaxation tectonic) could be combined easily • Within the parametric space (not fabricated as part of the real world), it could serve as an input to self-organizing structures, which could become a starting point for plans or a means of biomimicry; seeking natural flow within natural systems. • In terms of construction, load distribution of metaballs are in equilibrium, making it strong in tension, and eliminates the need of external support.

• Surfaces have to be composed of tessellated planar surfaces. Hence, they need to be triangulated in order to prevent doubly curved surfaces. This can affect the design intents and desire aesthetic effects. • Metaballs may be strong in tension, but weak in compression. The hollow internal space makes it easily collapsible when external force is applied from the outside. This can largely affect the structural integrity. However, as my design involves a flexible/movable structure and comes in contact with water, the external forces from water flow and human intervention could become a opportunity for the design.

CRITERIA DESIGN

85


FROM SCREEN TO THE OBJECT: TRANSITION FROM DIGITAL DESIGN TO DIGITAL FABRICATION While digital design enables limitless generative and form finding methods, the translation between designing on screen to physical fabrication is immensely broad, as digital software have tolerances and neglects real world forces. Hence during the conversion from screen to model may significantly affect the form, function and constructability, which may align with or counteract with design intents. Although a smooth, curvilinear surface may be mapped out digitally on screen, perfected to optimal and ideal formation, it may not be exactly replicated physically through digital equipment and fabricating means. For example, while my Metaballs (or blobs) appear as smooth mesh surfaces on the screen, the mesh surfaces must be planarized and tessellated in order to produce a developable surface. Although the large number of panels allow a ‘smoother’ aesthetic, there is still a need for a joint which connects the edges of panels together. Be it a gap or a implementing a new component, the intervention of joints could significantly alter the desired form. A smooth surface may no longer be ‘smooth’, instead a structure composed of frame and nodes. Furthermore, while lenient parametric software allows for tolerances and doubly curved surfaces, fabricating such is simply impossible (also depends on choice of materials). Given that we are limited to specific equipment such as laser cutters, 3d printers and CNC routers, our design is also limited, for example surfaces must be planar when using a 2D laser cutter. Utilizing recycled and readymade materials also pose as a barrier between digital 86

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design and digital fabrication. Although the form of the selected readymade could be customized and replicated in Rhino, this methodology lacks precision and lacks data on material properties. Hence, it becomes difficult to foresee the material performance under manipulation. Lastly, plugins like Kangaroo allows for virtual physics that does not exist in the real world, creating scope for design such as self-organizing systems. This merely accentuates the distance between the real world and the digital workspace. Yet, utilizing digital fabrication as a means of construction and assembly has an array of advantages over traditional handcraft, such as accuracy/precision and efficiency. As my project mainly focuses on the use of recycled materials, material performance plays an important role during the fabrication process. Parametric design investigates the fundamental material principles in relation to real world physics/real-world behaviour, allowing manipulation of simple geometries to evolve into rich and complex structures. In addition, although intervened joints may obstruct initial design intent, when strategically implemented, these ‘foreign’ joints can become an opportunistic and integral part of the design. Ultimately, it is upon the designer in which these digital tools are used for their custom design specifications. For example, for my own brief, I intend to create a kinetic and flexible form to increase scope for interaction. Hence, while my digital model is static, my fabricated model introduces pin joints to allow for movement.


[B5] D

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N O D E S - & - F R A M E

2 JOINT TYPES: 6 FRAMES AND 4 FRAMES 88

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LASER CUT TEMPLATE


This prototype examines the relationship between the nodes and frame of a metaball. As the metaball frame was extracted from a low number polygonal mesh (as opposed to a sphere), the joints are irregular and is composed of two types: 4 legged and 6 legged. If more polygons were used for the frame instead, a smoother metaball surface could be achieved Conceptually, to comply with the studio brief of utilizing recycled materials, I initiated this prototype by looking at ready-made objects. Although this prototype uses a transparent cap, I believe there is a strong potential to use unwanted waste material such as plastic bottle caps.

C1

70%

C2

50%

C3

40%

C4

65%

C5

30%

C6

75%

C7

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Total score 56%* *moderated criteria rating, please refer to appendix

ASSEMBLY PROCESS 1:LASER-CUT-FRAME

2:BOLT-FRAMES

3:FRAMES-INTO-CAP-&-FLANGE

4:SECURE-WITH-CAP

READY-MADE CAP TO SECURE JOINT

MDF FLANGE TO SECURE ANGLES

HALF FRAMES BOLTED FOR PIN JOINT

EXPLODED ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM OF JOINT

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JOINT DETAILS

BENDING BY BOLTS I strived to look at a movable frame to increase the interactive potential, especially for participatory and kinetic geometric forms. By bending the frames, the nodes could be moved, creating very interesting and diverse forms. However, there is still a lack of control in terms of flexibility as the irregular frame lengths transfers all load pressure into the nodes (especially high compressive pressure when bending inwards). PLAYING WITH LIGHT Although lighting is not a main component of my criteria, the sub-result casts considerably rich shadow patterns as it moves and forms various shapes. If the form is more spherical and regular, hints of Buckmister Fullerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Domes persist.

CRITERIA DESIGN

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C1

80%

C2

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70%

C4

60%

C5

35%

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Total score 55%* *moderated criteria rating, please refer to appendix

Rather than focusing on the framing system, this prototype looks at the nodes and surface of the metaballs. The form was generally created by 2 point charges with one large and one smaller threshold. Polypropylene was selected for its high in elasticity and flexibility, which could be bent under great tensile or compressive forces. Each of these panels were patternated and joined with tape, where each side could be bent and folded accordingly, achieving an almost origami paper-like quality. 92

CRITERIA DESIGN


The joints were connected through hammered metal snap fasteners, which allows rotation along the normal of the nodes, but not perpendicular to it.

METAL SNAP FASTENERS WERE HAMMERED ONCE ALL PANELS WERE TAPED AND SECURED TOGETHER. ASSEMBLY PROCESS

JOINT DETAILS

LASER CUT TEMPLATE

EXPLODED ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM OF JOINT

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BENDING PLANES

BY

ROTATING

Due to the elastic nature of polypropylene, rotating the planar panels along the nodes allow it to buckle and deform. As the panels attempt to repel or compress against each other, irregular geometries with controllable smoothness (or spikiness) could be generated. Although it appears to be seemingly spontaneous, the intuitive modification of these panels could become an integral part for the interactive specification. In addition, each panels include 3 foldable edges connected by fabric tape, where they could be folded and manipulated. Although these joints lack control (they are mostly dragged down by gravity), the flexible nature of it allows it to warp, twist and bend. PLAYING WITH LIGHT As each panel have hollow cutouts, casting of light produces unintended yet relatively rich shadows which flicker as the geometry is rotated and moved.

CRITERIA DESIGN

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JOINT DETAILS

P A N E L - & - I N F I L L

96

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LASER CUT TEMPLATE


1:LASER-CUT-FRAME

2:CABLE-TIE-FRAMES

3:TIGHTEN-AT-RIGHT-ANGLES

4:â&#x20AC;&#x2122;STIFFEN-FORM

LASER CUT TEMPLATE

ASSEMBLY PROCESS This prototype is modelled as a sphere rather than a metaball (or a blob), where all planar surfaces are equal and repetitive. This model is more involved with the planar surfaces in itself, as opposed to the edges or the node connections. As each side is touches one another at a customized angle (a somewhat ambiguous angle, not fixed and rigid), it is connected through a low technological medium of cable ties. Although each tie is tightened, it still allows for rotation and flexible movement.

C1

75%

C2

72%

C3

50%

C4

30%

C5

85%

C6

20%

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Total score 58%* *moderated criteria rating,

EXPLODED ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM OF JOINT

please refer to appendix

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ENTIRELY COLLAPSABLE FORM CABLE TIES X FLEXIBILITY Although cable ties enable high customizability (e.g. what if some ties were extremely tightened and some loose?), it lacks a strong sense of control. Each time the prototype is placed on a surface, a different geometry is generated. The formation not only alters in plan, but various parts could be protruded or hidden. Since it was created as a sphere, the spontaneous inputs generate unexpected organic and rich formations, in a similar manner to issey miyake’s ‘bao bao’ bag series. If implemented underwater, perhaps the motion of water could manipulate its freeflowing form. However, if a rigid structure is desired, perhaps this connection method will not be utmost suitable. POTENTIALS WITH PLANAR SURFACES Each surface includes holes in which thin materials could slit through, making tectonics such as weaving, paper strips, slotting or even surfacing with tensile membranes possible. Introducing new materials into this system further allows for a second type of joints, whether with ready-mades, recycled materials or digitally fabricated. Hence, this prototype hold high potentials within its planarized surfaces as well as the joint between the edges of each panel. PLAYING WITH LIGHT In a similar manner to the other two prototypes, the hollow and flexible nature of the geometry allows light to be intrinsically incorporated into the design. Especially if there is development within the panels, such as weaving with translucent material, layered shadow patternation could be projected.

CRITERIA DESIGN

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OUR APPROACH TO PART C Originating from our studio brief, we decided that our design will mainly strive to achieve three attributes: educational, environmental (in a form of a water filtration system) and interactive, aligning with the CERES mission statements and foreseen opportunities upon site visit. Ideally, the three will counter-balance within our solution. However, to converge into a more specific goal, our combined design will prioritize interaction as the most important feature. WHAT IS INTERACTIVE TO US? As a group, we saw the term ‘interaction’ to be an ambiguous one; interaction could occur with the existence of an input and an output as a feedback. Although interaction in our design brief could denote the interaction with the natural surroundings as well as people that occupy the space, we decided to narrow down our interpretation of ‘interaction’ exclusively to

humans, where interaction with nature could persist, but shouldn’t be the main driver of our design. Among interaction with users, we categorized 3 potential typologies:  * Kinetic interaction, where the design obtains input through motor and sensors and signals feedback by moving or generating kinetic movement *Participatory interaction, where the input is predominantly driven by the user’s initiation and will to engage with design *Experiential interaction, where architecture interacts with users through the atmospheric and experiential qualities. Eventually we decided to focus on Participatory interaction, as experiential interaction is considerably abstract and difficult to evaluate against our criteria and kinetic interaction (the type with sensors) may be difficult to achieve within the spatial, technical and timely

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MERGING WITH ANOTHER TECHTONIC: MESH RELAXATION By looking at the fundamental components of a metaball and a meshed surface, including: *plane *frame *nodes *infill I examined ways in which these attributes from both tectonics (metaball and mesh relaxation) could be generally merged to form hybrids as a starting point of our design. Ultimately, we decided to either: *borrow frame of metaballs along with the essence of mesh relaxation as infill *or metaball nodes with meshed surfaces.

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[B6.2]

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Having discussed with my partner, we decided to more specifically implement our design to the suspended bridge adjacent to Sumner Park and Merri Park. The bridge connects two active trails along scattered patches of occupied areas, serving as a location with high interactive potential.

SPECIFIC SELECTED SITE: THE BRIDGE

HUMAN-DENSITY&FLOW

WATER-FLOW-DIRECTION

We investigated mainly two components: Analysis of natural context (flow direction and waste movement) and social context (human flow and human activity). Above all, we saw the bridge as an ideal location where there is high levels of human activity, occupied by dominantly families or sole travellers. River flows from north west to south east, where litter water pollution flows in the same direction.

HUMAN-ACTIVITY&TYPOLOGY

WATER-POLLUTION-LEVELS

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[B6.3]

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We considered implementing [01] our interactive design above and across the bridge as a tunnel for a more experiential type of interaction or [02] submerged into the water to increase interaction with the natural surrounding such as water flow and natural marine inhabitants. Ultimately, we decided to implement our design mainily in the [03] threshold between the bridge and Merri Creek, where users can indirectly connect with the creek through our interactive design, The site also allows for high potential for catenary/minimal form finding and optimization methods.

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[B6.4]

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Having further disscused our design, we developed 2 prototypes to experiment with our design direction. Above all, we decided to pursue developed prototype 02. However, instead of a small spherical module, we will formulate an organic, almost cloud-like array of metaballs which gradually varies in material (some rigid, some flexible), size, form and pattern. In terms of functionality, at a relaxed stage, the clous will submerge in water and trap litter before various parts are interactively tugged by strings above, almost in a similar manner to a fishing net.

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 01

OVERLAPPING FABRIC CREATES SHEER QUALITY AND RICH LAYERING

108

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our prototype development #1 makes use of my previous prototye 01 as the metaball frame. However, new screw hooks were added to the joints to hang tensile fabric membrane within the nodes, bringing the essense of mesh relaxation into the infill of the geometry. these fabric pieces were cut into tringular surfaces.


similar mechanism to a fishing net (fao.org, 2016)

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 02 our second prototype development cuts the geometry directly in half, merging rigid MDF panels with flexible PP plastic. The metaball collapses within itself when internal string is tugged from above. This could serve as an interactive element.

our design will largely put emphasis on

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OBJECTIVE 1 “INTERROGAT[ING] A BRIEF” Through collaboration and site analysis of Merri creek, we analysed the opportunities and limitations around the site and derived to a design brief that strives to achieve environmental responsibility, educational value and most importantly, interactive potential. As Merri creek holds as strong correlation to the river system, our interactive design will involve connection with water.

I experimented with a vast range o including graphic communication journal and sketchbook, physical m through prototyping and digital commu through rhino and grasshopper. Yet, th presentation posed as the most valua of translating ideas into 3d media in a manner, converting the fundamental p our design and ultimately ‘selling’ what w for to the intended audience.

OBJECTIVE 2 ABILITY TO GENERATE A VARIETY OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES FOR A GIVEN SITUATION

OBJECTIVE 4 UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS B ARCHITECTURE AND AIR

Having generated multiple iterations to my reverse engineered iterations (to the point they were unrecognisable from original form), I discovered an array of methods to achieve a controlled effect through multiple means. It was more a matter of which definition would be more efficient over others, and which allowed greater flexibility, control and constructability. Through creating a matrix, I began investigating the potentials of attractor points, orienting geometry, patternation (esp voronoi and delauney), metaball thresholds, box morphing etc. However, I am eager to further investigate kangaroo and potential to create kinetic design through implementing physics components.

Although the virtual nature of the proje us away from the existing site, we were to the physical site through primary and first-handed observation. Every our design takes consideration of and its implications on the natural an surroundings.

OBJECTIVE 3

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‘SKILLS IN VARIOUS 3D MEDIA’

OBJECTIVE 5 ABILITY TO MAKE A CASE OF PROPOSA

Initially, this posed as a challenging radically new ideas and new tectonic assigned partner) were introduce intervened with my design. However, compensation and discussion, we de some interesting ways in which both t


of media, through modelling unication he interim able form a concise points of we stand

BETWEEN

ect steers exposed research step of the site nd social

ALS

task as cs (from ed and , through erived to tectonics

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could be merged; ultimately, it enabled me to see the immense potential of both tectonics and allowed me to indicate the strongest and most successful attributes and deliver them verbally and physically (via prototyping) through the interim presentations. The proposals allowed us not only to explain our brief, but also the progress in which we derived to decisions.

design at the beginning of the course, constant assistance with technical help (especially with technical sessions) further broadened the scope of development by introducing new component and more advanced means of manipulating such components. I am beginning to be able implement a programmatic mode of thinking into my design process.

OBJECTIVE 6 CAPABILITIES OF CONCEPTUAL, TECHNICAL AND DESIGN ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTUAL PROJECTS

OBJECTIVE 8 DEVELOP PERSONALIZED REPERTOIRE OF COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES SUBSTANTIATED BY THE UNDERSTANDING OF ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND AREAS OF APPLICATION

Not only was I exposed to various precedent projects by reverse engineering my design, collaborating with my assigned partner also exposed me to more existing parametric structures. It was very inspiring to see how simple definitions could achieve such complex and aesthetically rich effects that large manipulate the experiential aspects of architecture. OBJECTIVE 7 DEVELOP UNDERSTANDING OF COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY, DATA STRUCTURES AND TYPES OF PROGRAMMING Introduction of parametric design and computation through weekly videos and tutorials enabled me to see the potentials of digital design, especially for repetitive elements such as patternation or modular formations. Although I was new to the realm of computational

Initially by analysing the precedent project itself (whether it was successful or not) and iterating the definition into a form that suited my personal design brief (of an interactive filtration system), I was not only able to implement new geometries and components (such as attractor points) to match the desired outcome, but also allowed me to foresee the limitations and opportunities of parametric design itself. Although computational design allows for performative generative design and optimize material performance, it is restricted into the programmatic language and restricted by fabricating means (such as doubly curved surfaces).

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PROJECT PROPOSAL


PROJECT PROPOSAL C1 1.1 INTERIM FEEDBACK 1.2 OBJECTIVES AND CONCEPT 1.3 CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATION 1.4 FORM FINDING 1.5 TECTONIC ELEMENT C2 2.1 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 2.2 RATIONALISATION AND REFINEMENT OF GRASSHOPPER SCRIPT 2.3 RATIONALISATION AND REFINEMENT OF FABRICATION PROCESS C3 3.1 FABRICATION PROCESS 3.2 CONNECTION DETAILS 3.3 FINAL MODEL AND EFFECTS 3.4 DIGITAL MODEL 3.5 TAKING IT FUTHER

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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[C1.1]

I N T E R I M F E E D B A C K

Having briefly combined my groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tectonics together and discussed our general approach, feedback mainly drove the way in which we can more specifically develop our design in part C.

does it differentiate to educating?

CONCEPT

PROTOTYPES

In terms of concept, the main suggestion was to derive a more condensed, specific objective. At the current stage, we are striving to achieve three functions: interaction, environmental filtration system and educational sculpture. However, while achieving all three would be utmost ideal, given the time frame, perhaps such an ambitious approach would deem to be unviable. Hence, we decided to retain all three goals in mind, yet prioritize the interaction of the piece. Executing one simple tectonic in a detailed level would be preferred over an abundance of ideas. Post-interim presentation reflective questions include:

In terms of prototypes, two main elements were favoured. The elastic, self-supporting and translucent behaviours of polypropylene [from my partnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prototypes], and the use of ready-made components as a joint [refer to B5.1-prototype 1]. As we both investigated the behaviours of polypropylene, we are likely going to further develop through analysing its material properties. However, we will further investigate the joints and how it may inform our geometric form.

* How do users interact? Do they gain something? Modify something? Perhaps interact emotionally or more conceptually? *what do you want the users to feel, what is the desired atmosphere? *how would users approach your design? Visually? Or perhaps through touch? *viewing may indeed raise awareness to our wasteful actions, but how

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*the users who interact with the design are unlikely the ones who caused water pollutionwould this have an additional purpose? How does it tie in with personal design agendas?

SUGGESTIONS Further recommendations were provided, including: *as we selected the bridge as our site, our design could conceptually draw a historical reference to the expansion joints which were popular in 19th century industrial European bridges. This could be a starting point for form finding *geometrically, a metaball resembles blobs and clouds. As we are striving to achieve gradation and softness, our design could serve as a poetic metaphor as a reflection of the clouds in the water.

REFLECTION OF CLOUDS AS AN ANALOGY


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Our main objectives envision users to see hints of the design as is peeks out, alluring users to discover the design. upon entering the bridge, users will see and pull the design with entrapped litter within. ideally, the individual visits for the design, but ends up admiring the picturesque landscape.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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[C1.2] FISHING METHODS

SITE CONTEXT

FORM

SYSTEM

‘AQUA CLOUD’’

DESIRED EFFECT

OPTIMIZATION OF ANGLED PULLEY (BRIDGE AS SHIP)

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HOW ARE WE PLANNING TO ACHIEVE OUR AIMS? * Context specific – here and now – immediacy *interactive installation.  -We are aware of disrupting natural inhabitants but our project, hence, will prioritize and focus on the interactivity *Form -Metaball geometry with emphasis on meshed panelled polypropelene surfaces in active bending motion as an execution - predominantly driven by natural context, including natural obstructions, river flow direction and water velocity. *System/program is Driven by the principles of fishing (due to the strong correlation with water, capturing smaller modules and suspended under a bridge)- whether by net capturing a collection of material or individual fishing methods for capturing singular suspended material. *Overall effect is Desire a overall picturesque ‘gradient’ effect, a ‘dipped’ cloud. Reference to cloud also in motion, light, soft

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1.3 CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATION Presuming a 1:1 scaled model is to be built and brought to the site, there are various conditions which need to be revised:  It is difficult to assemble each piece of custom size together on site, especially in the water so likely prefabricated as modules- balls as modules and cloud into 3-4 parts These parts will then be transported to site and connected together before slowly suspended beneath bridge Because river is shallow (around 30-40cm in depth), can get in river just to adjust into allocated positions *Pulley system nailed to each column *Strings then connect to pully systems at the very end and tightened to tension.

WHO IS INVOLVED? Our design focuses on interactivity, so the types of users, activity and density of site is very significant. As conducted within site analysis, a lot of parks around, resulting in many families (people with a range of demographics, but usually in groups) or active users (individual bikers/joggers). We presume these will be the main users- building relationships between user groups and between users and nature.

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1.4.1 OBSTRUCTIONS > METABALL POINT LOCATIONS upon site analysis, we observed and recorded the location of obstructions such as rocks and branches (indicated in turqoise). The negative areas, indicated in blue, represent the free areas in which our design could be placed. 10 points were placed in the midst of the blue area. Hence, the location of obstructions informed our metaball locations

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1.4.2 WATER FLOW DIRECTION > METABALL SIZE We conducted an experiment to record water direction by dropping an inflated control variable and recording its path. Although the methodology is imperfect (no multiple readings, only one point in time, unrepresentative of flow in different times of the year), we used it as a guide to our design. direction of water right after the bridge will inform the size of these points (large where closet to bridge, smallest as water flows away,

LEAVE: SMALL

ENTER:LARGE PROJECT PROPOSAL

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1.4.3 WATER SPEED > PANEL CURVATURE our third experiment investigates the stream flow rate via the bucket method (appropedia.org). Utilizing a weir, an overflow is created for a constant flow into the bucket. A 2L bucket is used as a control variable, and three readings were recorded to investigate the time in which it took to fill the bucket. Results show that flow rate on the west is much faster than the right (almost doubled). Hence, this informs the gradience of panel curvature, where slower flow rates have less cuvature and rapid rates have greater curvature.

RAPID: GREATER CURVATURE (MORE POROUS)

READ ING

TIME/MIN

1 2 3

2:22 3:46 2:18

READ ING

1 2 3

AVG 2:47

120

SLOW: SMALLER CURVATURE (LESS POROUS)

TIME/MIN 6:09 5:02 4:46

AVG 5:19

PROJECT PROPOSAL


[C1.4]

T E C T O N I C E L E M E N T GRADIENTED P A N E L S The gradation of panels would remain as they key, repeated elements within our design. While our joints will be kept simple and constant throughout the whole model, the cloud itself will involve ‘gradiance’ in 3 main areas: PANEL SIZE

Gradiance in panel size – given naturally though mesh subdivision The difference in panel size would be informed directly and automatically from the metaball form as it already calculates the optimum structural performance according to how each panel co-joins in relation to each other. We may, however, reduce the overall number of panels to keep a feasible size for fabrication (allowing it to be large enough to fabricate and laser cut). Even so, the reduced number of panels would still retain its ratios and structural integrity. Gradiance in panel curvature – given 1.3 analysis

PANEL CURVATURE

Panel curvature will vary according to the speed of waterflow, where panels will be more porous at areas of rapid waterflow and impermeable at areas of slower waterflow. As illustrated in the Psuedo code description, we used kangaroo physics to undergo structural optimization, imitating the [predominantly] tensile behaviour within an elastic material as polypropylene. Utilizing kangaroo, we were able to determine the limit of curvature as it fits within our subdivided blob mesh surfaces. However, the fabrication process will use attractor points and curves instead, while referring to results from obtained from kangaroo. Gradiance in sparsity – given 1.2 analysis Sparsity, generated through the threshold/radius size of metaballs, is informed by the water flow direction and velocity. The points will be more collated where flow approaches site, and spreads out according to the direction it leaves. These sizes are customizable with each point.

WHOLE SPARSITY

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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1a

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[C2.1]

E V O L U T I O N O

F

P R O T O T Y P E S The final form was derived through constant prototyping and iterations. My initial prototypes involved investigating the connections between triangulated, polypropylene panels while my groupmate investigated the self connecting quadrangle panels using polypropylene. As we both held interest in the elastic yet flexible nature of polypropylene, we decided to merge these concepts and introduce a kinetic mechanism: a pulling motion. We used MDF on the top for rigidity and strength and pp at the bottom, connected through cable ties. However: PROBLEM /01: MDF limited the bending capacity of pp SOLUTION /01: we decided to rationalize and simplify the design by eliminating MDF PROBLEM /02 using cable ties as a connection was less than sufficient SOLUTION /02 purely use one rigid and aesthetically intricate joint type.

IMPLEMENTING THE PULLEY SYSTEM

PULLING IN FRONT [GREATEST MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE]

PULLING ABOVE

The next prototype strives to introduce the interactive and kinetic potentials in a more controlled manner â&#x20AC;&#x201C; through a pulley system. Hence, we investigated the optimal position of the pulleys in accordance to the form type and water flow. Sprayed MDF, ply sticks and string were predominantly used as we began to fabricate via our finalized script (embedding gradient and subdivided mesh surfaces into geometric form). The prototype includes the free flowing ball and part of the cloud, which has screwed fixing to base. However, many issues (both issues in algorithmic script and fabrication methods) arose from our connection prototype, which would be discussed in C2.2 refinement to script and C2.3 refinement to fabrication methods.

PULLING BEHIND [UNFEASIBLE] Ultimately, we decided to opt for front as direction of water flow will align with the cloud instead of opposing it, and there is no need for a fixed connection for free floating balls as they are designed to be picked up and played with before PROPOSAL 123 randomly droppedPROJECT into the river.


[C2.2]

REFINEMENT TO S

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The following are the rationalisation, modification and simplification process to our grasshopper script to treat realized issues that were discovered while fabricating our connection prototype.

01 02 03 04 124

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROBLEM- script did not allow for panels to unroll without exploding and tags not in order, causing wrong connection between panels â&#x20AC;&#x201C; overall a failed form. Some panels were flipped while others were not. Need a more certain way to reference and connect panels. panels were incorrectly connected, the whole geometry couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t comfortably replicate desired blob form

SOLUTION- Need to unroll, explode and retag accuratelty for highly customized panels

PROBLEM- cannot input base panels into default triangulated mesh

SOLUTION- triangle to quad mesh (catmull)

PROBLEM- prototype panels too small and refined in relation to the obtrusive connection tips

SOLUTION-

PROBLEM- using the mesh relaxation tectonic in kangaroo physics [limitation of grasshopper, cannot fabricate the elastic properties of calculated, springy mesh

reduce

mesh

number to even out ratio and retain lightness use optimized SOLUTIONstructual form of real life elastic membrane and transform them into nurbs curves and surfaes] via attractor curve, size, catmull patterns for smoother surface


PROBLEM

SOLUTION N PS MK N PTMKN U K P MN PVMKO M K P M O PNMK NO S MK N O TMK N O UMK N O VMK O O MMK O O NMK NN S MKN T K N MN N UMKN V N K OMMMNOK N K NM NM S MK N M TMK N M UMK N M VMK O MMK O M NMK

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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[C2.2.2]

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Ultimately, our script used for our connection prototype was fixed and finalized, not only increasing time efficiency, but also allows constructing tolerances (for mistakes) and more accurate, calculated formation.

SET METABALL NUMBER OF POINTS & LOCATION

CHANGE SIZE OF RADIUS/ THRESHOLD ACCORDING TO FLOW DIRECTION

REDUCE MESH NUMBER (90% REDUCTION)

TURN TRIANGULATED PANELS INTO QUADRANGLES THROUGH CATMULL CLARK SUBDIVISION

BASE GEOMETRY OF METABALL

STRUCTUAL OPTIMIZATION (VIA KANGAROO PHYSICS)

THE BROADER IMAGE: PROS AND CONS OF USING PARAMETRIC DESIGN This process allowed me to see that using parametric design is not perfect; while same results could be achieved in various different ways, once a direct solution is unavailable and options become limited, the scripting process begins to become rigours and complex. Examples may include constant baking and re-input geometry, relying on other ‘templates’ for reference, or relying on exclusive rhino commands (such as reduce mesh faces) before re-inputting in grasshopper. However, the previously failed connection prototype also allowed me to see the importance and usefulness of parametric design, particularly when repeated elements and joints are involved. The structural rigidity and gradual curvature is calculated, elevating precision and ease of assembly. Grasshopper is also fast to modify and adapt to sudden changes (such as radius of inner holes for smaller eyelets), which would be laborious if undergone manually.

126

PROJECT PROPOSAL

NEW APPROACH FOR FABRICATION (VIA ATTRACTOR CURVES)

FOR FABRICATION

CREATE CONNECTION HOLES

PULLEY SYSTEM

UNROLL BASE GEOMETRY OF METABALLS EXPLODED

TAG PANELS

UNROLL BASE GEOMETRY OF METABALLS UNEXPLODED

TAG PANELS


H N

LEGEND INPUTS

GET QUADRANGLE MESH SURFACES

STEPS

OUTPUTS

CHOSEN PATH

CREATE A MESH RELAXED SURFACE

FIND POINTS ON METABALL

INPUT PLUGIN PANEL THROUGH BOX MORPH

MODIFY STRENGTH OF TENSILE FORCE ACTING ON PANELS TO SEE ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR

SET ATTRACTOR POINT/CURVE

FIND POINTS ON METABALL

ORIENT TAG ONLY TO SQUARE GRID

ADJUST PANEL THICKNESS (BENDING DEGREE OF ARC) ACCORDING TO PROXIMITY TO ATTRACTOR CURVE

DRAW ARC BETWEEN END POINTS

163.0

173.0

183.0

162.0

172.0

182.0

161.0

171.0

160.0

170.0

181.0 180.0

193.0 192.0 191.0 190.0

203.0 202.0 201.0 200.0

SELECT ‘X’ PANELS

213.0 212.0

ORIENT PANELS TO SQUARE GRID

COMBINE THROUGH BAKING

211.0

UNROLL GEOMETRY, EXPLODED TO EXTRACT INDIVIDUAL PANELS

210.0

UNEXPLODED TEMPLATE TO BE PRINTED 1:1 AS REFERENCE FOR FABRICATION

CREATE SQUARE GRID

FIND END POINTS OF TIPS

DESIGN PULLEY SYSTEM WITH RAKED TIP X 6

DRAW INNER (RADIUS OF EYELETS) AND OUTER CIRCLE

TRIM OVERLAPPED CURVES THROUGH REGION INTERSECTION OF OUTER CIRCLE AND PANEL TIPS

FILLET KINKS BETWEEN OUTER CIRCLE AND EDGES

JOIN CURVES

POSITION TO TEMPLATE, READY TO LASER CUT

POSITION TO TEMPLATE, READY TO LASER CUT

PROJECT PROPOSAL

127


[C2.3]

REFINEMENT TO FA B R I C AT I O N P R O C E S S

The following are the rationalisation, modification and simplification process to fabrication methodology to treat realized issues that were discovered while fabricating our connection prototype.

01 02 03 04 05 128

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PROBLEM- eyelets forms permanent and rigid joints, but no tolerance to mistakes (which constantly happened)

SOLUTION- change from just using eyelet to using brads x eyelet as base for constructing tolerances

PROBLEM- Grey spray caused material expansion and diminished surface bond, resulting in difficult fixing of pulley.

SOLUTION- perspex instead of MDF for pulleys, bonded through plastic cement

PROBLEM- the additional base panel layer becomes the activating point with highest stress instead of directly from the panels

SOLUTION- simplify by removing extra base panel, replace with simple joint with washers and capping (as experimented in my initial prototype 1

PROBLEM- 6 X 3mm MDF layers per pulley as some were slotted to the bench plate. However, it was too fragile and tended to buckle under shear force.

SOLUTION- increase pulley thickness by doubling panel members and creating a mere bench top instead of a boxed frame. However, rigid fixing to ground or table is required for final model.

PROBLEMPulleys did not work smoothly as radius of centre hole of outer panels was too small and caused ply sticks to become stuck and nonrotatable.

SOLUTION- increase size of inner pulley hole of outer panels


P R O B L E M

S O L U T I O N

1 2 3 FIT

TIGHT

TIGHT

LOOSE

TIGHT

5

PROJECT PROPOSAL

129


[C3.1]

F R O M D I G I T A L T O P H YS I C A L

Once the fabrication was ready, it was laser cut into individual pieces, ready for assembly. Pulleys are of Perspex, Panels as translucent polypropylene, and various connection details include metal brads, eyelets and cylindrical plywood sticks. 130

PROJECT PROPOSAL

01 individual pieces were sorted into units of 10 according to their tag (ranges from 0-330) 02 the unrolled unexploded template laid out 1:1 for reference 03 panels placed on top, connected one by one via template reference, brads and eyelets 04 connecting joints beyond flat template, cloud begins to take form 05 cloud form completed and finished off 06 surface of perspex pulley pieces is sand and treated (for cement bond) 07 plywood sticks cut to perfect length with hax-saw 08 pulley pieces connected with plywood sticks 09 selected points connected to pulley through fishwires.


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9 PROJECT PROPOSAL

131


need eyelet base and brads top to form rigid joint, if not will buckle and slip under constant tensile stress under pulling motion

connection 01 Exploded connection diagram: top

Specially ordered unconventional eyelet size of inner circle diameter to retain lightness. brads need thin, but long legs to stop buckling yet retain lightness.

connection 02 Exploded connection diagram: base

Plastic cement includes acetone which permanently corrodes surface( including its dust) before drying, creating an irreversible, permanent joint that could resist constant rotation. Hence, requires a great surface area, achieved through sanding 132

PROJECT PROPOSAL

connection 03 Exploded connection diagram: pulley


[C3.1]

FA B R I C A T I O N I S S U E S

Although the script and fabrication methods were refined, rationalized and fine-tuned, unforeseen fabrication problems persisted. While the tag references were accurate, the template itself had overlaps which was visually confusing. Some panels were flipped in the computerising stage as they were oriented to a square grid. Lastly, some text etchings were too shallow. They were illegible, meaning we required manual etching through referencing digital files.

cloud

UNROLLED TEMPLATE FOR BALL (SMALL)

UNROLLED TEMPLATE FOR BLOB (MEDIUM)

CONFUSING OVERLAPS REQUIRED REFERENCE TO DIGITAL MODEL

UNROLLED TEMPLATE FOR CLOUD (LARGE) PROJECT PROPOSAL

133


[C3.1]

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LIGHT EFFECTS WITHIN FORM PROJECT PROPOSAL

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INSIDE THE AQUA-CLOUD

PROJECTED LIGHT PATTERNATION

LIGHT EFFECTS OUTSIDE FORM

the model was experimented with light to create captivating projections through the negative spaces between gradiented panels. Translucent nature of Polypropylene provikes a sense of ambience and illumination,. Although not a specification in our criteria, perhaps this effect could be applied to different realms such as lighting design.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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GRADIANCE TR ANQUILLIT Y S O F T N E S S M Y S T I Q U E PROJECT PROPOSAL

137


There are 3 main types within our design: THE BALL: is freefloating, regular spherical geometry THE BLOB: blob composed mainly with two large point thresholds with a sudden kink THE CLOUD: structurally tied to ground, composed of irregular and highly customized panels

138

PROJECT PROPOSAL


THE BLOB THE BLOB

THE CLOUD

THE BALL

PROJECT PROPOSAL

139


SOUTH ELEVATION

SECTION- RELAXED STATE

SECTION- PULLED STATE

B

SECTION B

C1

filtration

50%

C2

interactiveness

90%

C3

educational

67%

C4

aesthetics

85%

C5

adaptability

85%

C6

structual

65%

C7

constructability

70%

Total

A

PLAN 140

PROJECT PROPOSAL

B

A

score

HOW SUCCESFUL IS OUR DESIGN? The design is relatively successful within the new weighting criteria compared with the prototypes explored in part B. While it is interactive (our main objective), it perhaps lacks in structual stability. Perhaps changing the joints may aid this issue.

74%


These sections juxtaposes when the design is in use and when in a relaxed state. When unoccupied, all forms float on water surface trapping litter, and when pulled from above, ball is wholesomely lifted and cloud is tugged from selected points, deforming the structure.

[C3.2]

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S E CT I O N S E L E VA T I O N S

PERSPECTIVE

PROJECT PROPOSAL

141


D A Y - T O - N I G H T - M O N T A G E how the design may react to time. transparent through the day, ambient in the night

142

PROJECT PROPOSAL


PROJECT PROPOSAL

143


144

PROJECT PROPOSAL


[C3.2]

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The site model showcases a more dynamic relationship between the user, the bridge, the river and our cloud. Making use of 3d printers, we fully replicated our intended exterior form (instead of one type each as created in our physical model), as well as the intended number of pulleys (6 on site). Trees were included to indicate the journey of veiling and unveiling as the design is constantly exposed and covered as users approach the bridge. This provokes our intended sense of secrecy and allurement.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

145


[C3.3] DESIGN EVALUATION: EXPERIENTIAL ANALYSIS

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The stop motion strives to simulate the experiential journey as users approach the bridge from Merri Park or Sumner park, showing how the cloud undergoes a process of constant exposure and veiling before it is fully exposed under the bridge. As our design focuses on user interactivity, we emphasized on the notion of mystery and secrecy with an attempt to draw attention and interest, where the sculptural quality could only be fully viewed once users stand directly above the cloud.

146

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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PROJECT PROPOSAL

147


[C3.3] DESIGN EVALUATION: STRUCTUAL ANALYSIS

S T A Y

T R U U A N A S I

C L L S DETAILED ANALYSIS

MATERIAL PROPERTIES PROPERTY

VALUE

DESCRIPTION

POLYPROPYLENE

DENSITY

9.1E-10 MG/MM3

ELASTIC MODULUS

1300 MPA

POISSON RATIO

0.45

DEFAULT TENSILE YIELD STRENGTH

FAILURE CRITERION

33.1 MPA

VON MISES

FORM PROPERTIES INDIVIDUAL PANEL TENSILE STRESS ANALYSIS

This analysis indicates the tensile levels of each panel. Through colour gradation, it appears that the tips of each panel bear the largest stress.

QUANTITY

148

PROJECT PROPOSAL

UNIT

VOLUME

1.01886E+08 MM3

SURFACE AREA

1.41783E+06 MM2

MASS

0.0927166 MG

BOUNDING BOX MIN. CORNER

{1932.95, -724.033, 343.719}

MAX. CORNER

{2983.7, 19.6977, 127.173}


PARAMETRIC DESIGN - MORE THAN A GENERATIVE TOOL? Digital tools not only assist generative design but also for evaluative purposes; hence, it is useful to analyse the structural performance of our cloud, particularly as the structure is constantly morphed and tugged. Evaluating stress levels allow us to see which areas are structurally weaker, so we can provide additional reinforcement to joints in problem areas.

On the other hand, this analysis looks at the overall stress distribution through analytical plugin ‘scan & solve’. As indicated, kinked areas hold the largest stress, followed by concave areas and flattest area being most structurally rigid. Hence, this analysis informs us for extra reinforcing among concaved and kinked areas. DISPLACEMENT- HOW FORCE DEFORMS GEOMETRY

PULLED STATE: DESCRIPTION

RESTING FORCES:

TYPE

PULL

VECTOR FORCE

{-3,-3,10} N

WATER FLOW

VECTOR FORCE

{5,5, 0} N

DISPLACEMENT SUMM

AMOUNT

DESCRIPTION

DEFINITION

MINIMUM

1.34483E-11 MM

MAXIMUM

5.55898E-05 MM

{2388.99,-626.482,83.5097}

DEFINITION

GRAVITY

{0,0, -4} N

WATER FLOW

VECTOR FORCE

{5,5, 0} N

DISPLACEMENT SUMM

LOCATION {2330.04,41.5733,65.2182}

TYPE

DEAD LOAD + GRAVITY

AMOUNT

LOCATION

MINIMUM

4.94361E-11 MM

{2830.4,598.255,29.3632}

MAXIMUM

9.02852E-05 MM

{2796.7,-515.498,343.719}

GENERALLY NO SIGNIFICANT DANGERIOUS AREAS TO BE PARTICULARLY CONCERN ABOUT

PROJECT PROPOSAL

149


[C4.0]

T A K I N G I

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FIG.1A ‘HOPPY’ LIGHT BY

F U R T H E R

FIG 1.B INSTALLATION X FURNITURE? STOMATA BY R]ED[U]X LAB

FIG.2- LIMITING PANELS TO PREDETERMINED LENGTHS

150

PROJECT PROPOSAL


PARAMETRIC DESIGN: FUTURE OF DESIGN OR DESIGNING FOR THE FUTURE? Although our ‘aqua-cloud’ project may have been, for the most part, completed through the aid of parametric design, the potentials do not end here. There are many possibilities in which our design could be brought further. Although the form of our design is predominantly informed through site analysis, the form itself is non site specificthe flexible nature of metaballs means that it could be implemented outside of Merri creek, implemented anywhere as more than just an underwater filtration system. Particularly as we looked at its illuminating lighting effects, perhaps the aqua cloud could be applied into other fields like light design, or with material modification, even furniture (Fig.1 a-b). At the current stage, each panel is highly customized with varying lengths on each edge. Hence, each panel have to be rightfully positioned before the smooth cloud would be assembled. However, this further makes the fabrication process complex with low tolerance for mistakes. Hence, mass customization could be achieved by reducing the shapes of panels into a limited range of set edge lengths

(Fig.2) for ease of assembly. However, elevating the regularity of panels into standardised, uniform members may limit its overall formation. Lastly, to achieve mass customization, the grasshopper script could be refined to a level where point location is inputted (according to variables such as existing obstructions), and the script would automatically generate the optimal form, exclusive to its site. This makes a ‘custom’ design for different areas in Merri creek possible, or even in sites out of Merri creek. This further highlights my argument in part A, where the future of design sees a rapid growth in designing programs as a means of generating our designs rather than simply relying on computerised methods to directly visualize or model our designs. Above all, I was able to see the high flexibility of parametric tools, and how simple theories could be implemented to aid real life issues with design. While parametric design and its transition from the digital to physical is imperfect, it poses as a powerful tool in which allows great scope for countless applications in the real world.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

151


OBJECTIVE 1 “INTERROGAT[ING] A BRIEF” While we generated our own brief in the initial stages of the final design, the brief changed incrementally throughout the development process. Computational methods allowed us to see that while our tectonics may conceptually align with our design agenda, it may not be physically probable or viable. For example, while parts of our intentions were to use our design as a water filtration system, we quickly realized that our proposal may not successfully trap litter (due to an overly static porous surface). Hence, we decided to stress on the participatory interaction instead. OBJECTIVE 2 ABILITY TO GENERATE A VARIETY OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES FOR A GIVEN SITUATION Having formulated our own brief, we kept our tectonic elements broad enough to allow scope for a variety of design possibilities, where form is predominately informed through detailed site analysis, including the location of the metaballs, radius of metaballs, panel size and panel curvature. We underwent a process of diversion, such as experimenting with planar patternation, folding, collapsibility, material hybrids and membrane forces before converging into a comparatively more feasible design through a rationalization and simplification processes.. OBJECTIVE 3 ‘SKILLS IN VARIOUS 3D MEDIA’ In addition to augmentation of graphic communication and prototyping skills as developed in part B, our focus

152

PROJECT PROPOSAL

on the kinetic notion of interactive architecture allowed us to newly implement mechanical elements into our design, enabling us to see our design as a system rather than a static object. Attempt to form evaluative analysis through parametric software further assisted the structural optimisation of our design, highlighting areas of highest risk and where extra structural support would be needed. OBJECTIVE 4 UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS ARCHITECTURE AND AIR

BETWEEN

Our design is largely shaped by the existing site, with consideration to existing obstructions, vegetation in relation to views, waterflow, topography etc. While the design may not fully respond to various attributes of the site (such as natural inhabitants and climatic response), it is influenced by, and strives to manipulate the experience as users pass by the selected site within Merri creek. Design goals include provoking interest, raising awareness of environmental impact, slowing users down to admire surroundings and elevating interaction, and effects was simulated through site models and stop motion animation. OBJECTIVE 5 ABILITY TO MAKE A CASE OF PROPOSALS Once the design bridges between our group’s tectonics, we underwent an extensive process of rapid prototyping and experimentation. Yet, consideration of the constructability, stakeholders and assembly process allowed us to realize the feasibility of our design, enforcing us to rationalize and simplify not only for aesthetic and functional reasons, but also for ease of


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assembly and solve real-world issues. OBJECTIVE 6 CAPABILITIES OF CONCEPTUAL, TECHNICAL AND DESIGN ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTUAL PROJECTS Precedent studies were predominately explored in Part B. However, parametric definitions and fabrication processes referenced approaches of existing projects, solving technical issues such as turning membrane materials into pieces suitable for fabrication. OBJECTIVE 7 DEVELOP UNDERSTANDING OF COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY, DATA STRUCTURES AND TYPES OF PROGRAMMING Development of the prototype to the final design provided us both with vast understanding to the limitations and potentials of parametric design. While we developed a whole range of computational techniques that provide us with information on material behaviour, structural performance and surface manipulation (especially through plug-ins like kangaroo physics, weaverbird), the prototyping and fabricating process proved us that parametric software also has its limitation. This was particularly prominent as elastic behaviour of membranes (via kangaroo) cannot be unrolled as individual pieces, and how morphed mesh faces cannot be unrolled without exploding (because each face touches point-to-point rather than edge-to-edge). Alternative methods (such as using attractor curves) either replaced the previous approach or replicated to simulate a similar behaviour. Furthermore, as we introduced the mechanical pulley system, it allowed

me to see how while parametric tools like grasshopper are efficient in created repeated elements, it in contrast hinders the design generation process for more customized geometry such as the pulley. Above all, while these tools are immensely powerful when implemented strategically, we are enforced into generate designs according to the logic behind these programs. OBJECTIVE 8 DEVELOP PERSONALIZED REPERTOIRE OF COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES SUBSTANTIATED BY THE UNDERSTANDING OF ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND AREAS OF APPLICATION Our design is simultaneously customized and universal. It is customized in a sense that it is generated specifically to our site yet universal as inputs could be manipulated flexibly. While this allows us to develop a site specific, personalized repertoire, it also poses as an issue as it is greatly complex to replicate. As each panel is created with different size, orientation and curvature, each panel needs to be assembled to perfection (through referencing a template). If our project was to be scaled up or number of panels was to be multiplied, the construction process would increase in difficulty- challenging the overall feasibility and constructability. However, while the inputs are very much site specific, the computational approach and application is considerably universal; inputs could be applied to any custom location and be applied with different functions.

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C4.0

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Ultimately, although I began studio air with no prior knowledge

to manipulate geometry through parametric software (especial

see that it poses more than just a generative tool. The ability to

to be a very powerful tool for fabrication and evaluative process

geometrical types labelled unsuitable for fabrication or geomet

parametric design as something that will play an important role

or even out-of-world simulation opens up endless new possibili

the future of parametric design, I believe there is a growing tren

Above all, the studio was insightful and allowed me to experime

Vanessa and Sonya who assisted my thoroughly enjoyable jour

end

154

PROJECT PROPOSAL


to Grasshopper, the course not only taught me how

lly for repetitive elements), but also allowed me to

o simulate real life forces enables parametric design

ses. However it still has limitations, such as certain

tries not capable of carrying certain outputs. Yet, I see

e in our future. Its ability to simulate flows of system

ities, particularly within the virtual world. In terms of

nd with designing software to inform design.

ent like never before. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to additionally thank

urney into the realm of parametric design :)

PROJECT PROPOSAL

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COINNECTING RECYCLED MATERIALS

“Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something - the omelette at the cost of the egg, the table at the cost of the tree, through to fossil fuel generated energy at the cost of the planet’s atmosphere” (Fry, 2008, pp.4) To initiate the first step into a sustainable future, we may need to revert Anne-Marie Willis’ ‘dialectic of sustainment’ theory. Rather than destroying something to create others, we shall approach with existing waste: repurposing readymade, unused, yet overlooked items. Hence, I looked into how the versatility of cardboard could be iterated into developable components. 5 methods of connecting cardboard pieces were explored, some with found components while others were cut and manipulated before connected. The general mechanisms of connection joints were: stacking, slotting (profile and section), weaving, looping system and hexa-grids   158

CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION 159


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The stacking method is a simple yet flexible mechanism. Utilizing existing, slottable modules, they were piped together into an elongated rail. The joint allows the form to expansion, shrink, twist and warp. How could it be explored further? A gradual scale or perhaps modifying the angle in which each module shift can significantly alter its potential movements and vector. Kinetic motion could also be perhaps implementing implemented by adding flexible connection throughout all modules, such as a string or even elastic bands. The modular nature of this joint indicates that there is potential to grow and reproduce, spreading out or seeping into existing environments- almost like parasitic architecture.

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Slotting with section and profiles are a classic example of connecting pieces of planar, rigid material like basic cardboard together. In this model, each of these pieces were cut into curved profiles. When waffled together, not only is there increased structural rigidity (that resists shear, tension and compressive forces), a developable, curvilinear surface is created. This mechanism allows planar surface to conjoin into one new cohesive surface. How could it be explored further? What is surfaces were connected in 3 or 4 axis instead of just U and V axis? Furthermore, surfaces could be connected through tessellation or folding.

CONCEPTUALISATION 161


W

E

A

V

I

N

G

Weaving is another classic example of joining materials together. Although it follows one system, it is highly adaptive and versatile. Due to the interlaced stripes, It has the ability to warp, twist and buckle into complex surfaces, almost as if it was ‘breathing’, a ‘living surface’. Like slotting, there is a strong structural rigidity and could easily be manipulated and transformed. How could it be explored further? Currently, one piece of cardboard was not fully cut into strips, while another piece was. This resulted in a ‘fanning’ effect, where interlacing stretches beyond two axis. Hence, it would perhaps be really interesting if surfaces were merely cut in certain areas, and perhaps weaved in various ways. What if weaved components merged with another connecting mechanism? How would this affect its structural build?

162

CONCEPTUALISATION


L

O

O

P

I

N

G

The looping tectonics is similar to weaving in ways that it could interlace between gaps and slots. However, as the strips do not follow a set grid, it is much more freeform. This connection utilized an already created base of a cardboard box, where existing cut and fold lines acted as the parameter of the connection. Hence, there is potential to interlink strips through them, though more slots could be created manually.

How could it be explored further? The form reminds me of the Mobius strip, a continuous surface with self-interlocking effects. However, rather than a strip, it further involves a flat plane, which merges two typologies together. Furthermore, at the moment, although it explores the same interlocking system found in chains, it fails to achieve the same flexibility. Perhaps if the surface was interlocked in a softer, fluid surface, the geometry would be able to move and produce dynamic effects. CONCEPTUALISATION 163


H

E

X

A

-

G

R

I

D

The hexa-grids rely on adhesives to connect at points with equal spacing, leaving hollow spaces between each connection. As cardboard holds the same properties as paper, it is high in flexibility, and a hexagonal grid allow the junction to expand and contract- again, much like breathing. This results in an interesting and developable surface. How could it be explored further? Rather than hexa-grid, what will happen if it is connected with another shape, perhaps even a gradual geometry? (E.g. from circle to triangles) what if the length of the surfaces differ?

164

CONCEPTUALISATION

S


CONCEPTUALISATION 165


/01 A LG O R I T H M I C SKETCHES

R E C R E A T I N G

V A S E S

VORONOI, PIPE AND SOLID DIFFERENCE

166

CONCEPTUALISATION

POINT TO PROFILE, LOFT & TWIST


DIVIDE SURFACE & LOFT

CONCEPTUALISATION 167


/02 A LG O R I T H M I C SKETCHES

T E X T U R E

I N

GRASHOPPER SCRIPT

168

CONCEPTUALISATION

N A T U R E

M E T H O D 0 1 : B O U N D I N G B O X The bounding box method allows the initial geometry to stretch along the surface. Hence, each surface may have controlled variables (such as rotation angle and shape) but scale and stretch may differ.

TAR FIS


RGET TEXTURESH SCALE

SURFACE

BOUNDING BOX

MORPH GEOMETRY INTO BOX

CONCEPTUALISATION 169


SURFACE

DIVIDED POINTS ON SRF

GRID FROM POINTS

PLANES GROM GRID

METHOD 02: PLANE AND ORIENT geometry must be aligned to the planes that were divided from a surface. Hence, only the base point/line of the geometry will follow the surface. this allows geometry to fit tightly to the surface, but causes gaps to incur between each module. In order to imitate the overlapping texture of fish scale, the surface had to be copied and moved.

GRASHOPPER SCRIPT

170

CONCEPTUALISATION

GEOMETRY ON PLANES


CONCEPTUALISATION 171


S E L F

R E P E AT I N G

BASIC TETRAHEDRA GEOMETRY

SMALLER TETRAHEDRAS FITTED INTO ONE MODULE

NEGATIVES SPACES

NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE HYBRID

172

CONCEPTUALISATION

G EO M E T


RY

&

T E T R A H E D R A

Imitating the works of Aranda Larsch, repeated geometries (in this case, tetrahedras) were created and oriented in a way that becomes a repeated, almost evolving creature which twists and warps. Through patterning and repeated steps, interesting geometries begin to form, resulting in a magnitude of interesting compositions.

TETRAHEDRA SCRIPT

CONCEPTUALISATION 173

ARANDA LARSCH'S RULES OF SIX, MOMA INSTALLATION


I M A G E - S A M P L I N G

H A

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T

O

S

B

H

I

UNROLLING GEOMETRY

GEOMETRY FROM RHINO

E

Having sampled an image on a 2D surface through the image sampling component during tutorial, I attempted to recreate the essence of Hitoshi Abe's 'soft wall' by projecting the image samples onto a brep surface.

EVALUATING EDGE PO

DIVIDING AND CULLING POINTS ON UNROLLED GEOMETRY

FINDING NORMALS

IMAGE SAMPLING ON BREP SCRIPT

2D IMAGE SAMPLING SCRIPT 174

CONCEPTUALISATION

The 'equalise' component as shown in the video did not run as expected. Hence, I used 'smaller than 0.0004' component (parameter of a number really close to 0) to cull points that were overlapping.

APPLY IMAGE TO SURFA

REPLACE RADIUS

WITH

CUST


OINTS

IMAGE PROJECTED ONTO BREP

IMAGE USED FOR SAMPLING

CIRCLES EXTRUDED ACCORDING TO RADIUS

ACE

TOM CONCEPTUALISATION 175


B2.2 - SELECTED SPECIES species 1s

pecies 2s

c1 filtration ability c2 interactive c3 educational c4 aesthetics c5 adaptability c6 structual ability c7 constuctability

c1 filtration ability c2 interactive c3 educational c4 aesthetics c5 adaptability c6 structual ability c7 constuctability

weighting 20%1 15%1 10%5 5% 10%8 20%1 20%7

total score (of 100 )5

c1 filtration ability c2 interactive c3 educational c4 aesthetics c5 adaptability c6 structual ability c7 constuctability total score  (of 100 ) 176

CONCEPTUALISATION

80 75 70 50 80 45 35

21 0.51 .4 2.25 .3 09

69 1.25 78 2.52 83

weighting 20% 15% 10% 5% 10% 20% 20%

pecies 4 45 85 85 45 35 40 30

70 55 40 60 85 60 56

12.758 .5 .253 .5 81

76 5.45

B4.2 - SELECTED ITERATIONS

pecies 3s

60 70 54 45 83 50 35

SELECTED 1

60.755

SELECTED 2

06

SELECTED 3

70 80 65 70 90 65 85

72 60 65 65 40 40 65

85 85 60 67 90 50 65

14 12 6.56 3.53 94 13 17

14.4 91 .5 .253 81 13

17 2.75 6 .35 9 0 13

75

58.157

1.1

14 .25 4 8.5 2 11.2 0.95


C

R

W

E

I

I

T

G

E

H

R

T

I

I

A

N

G

C3 FINAL DESIGN

B5 - INTERIM PROTOTYPES prototype 1

prototype 2 80 50 70 60 35 30 75

final design

prototype 3 70 50 40 65 30 75 56

50 90 67 85 85 65 70

75 72 50 30 85 20 67

87 12.5 74 33 3.53 61 15

7.51 18 51 .5 8.51

54 11.2

13.4

55

55.955

7.9

c1 filtration ability c2 interactive c3 educational c4 aesthetics c5 adaptability c6 structual ability c7 constuctability

weighting 20% 15% 10% 5% 10% 20% 20%

12.5 .251

0% 25% 0% 5% 0% 20% 20%

5 22.5 6.7 4.25 8.5 13 14 73.95

NEW WEIGHTING

10% 25% 10% 5% 10% 20% 20%

total score  (of 100 ) CONCEPTUALISATION 177


B I B L I O G R A P H Y

178

CONCEPTUALISATION


Aec.at. (2016). Corpora in Si(gh)te Human Nature – Ars Electronica Festival 2009. [online] http:// www.aec.at/humannature/cyberarts/corpora-in-sighte [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Ahr-global.com. (2013). Al Bahr Towers - AHR. [online] http://www.ahrglobal.com/Al-Bahr-Towers [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Campkin, B. (2010). Bugs, Bats and Animal Estates: The Architectural Territories of ‘Wild Beasts’.Architectural Design, 80(3), pp.34-39. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Frearson, A. (2014). Asif Khan designs a “Mount Rushmore of the digital age” for Sochi. [online] Dezeen. http://www.dezeen.com/2014/01/10/asif-khan-mount-rushmoreof-the-digital-age-sochi-winter-olympics/ [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Gray, D., Brown, S. and Macanufo, J. (2010). Gamestorming. Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly. “How To Measure Stream Flow Rate - Appropedia: The Sustainability Wiki”. 2016. Appropedia. Org. http://www.appropedia.org/How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Iart.ch. (2016). The Kinetic Facade of the MegaFaces Pavilion - Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics - Projects - iart.ch. [online] http://iart.ch/en/-/die-kinetische-fassade-des-megafacespavillons-olympische-winterspiele-2014-in-sotschi [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Mark Burry, Scripting Cultures, John Wiley and sons (Chicheser), 2010, p.8. “Merri Creek & Environs Strategy”. 2016. Mcmc.Org.Au. http://mcmc.org.au/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=15&Itemid=236. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Special.ycam.jp. (2016). Corpora in Si(gh)te by doubleNegatives Architecture. [online] http://special.ycam.jp/corpora/en/outline.html [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Stott, R. (2015). The Computer vs The Hand In Architectural Drawing: ArchDaily Readers Respond. [online] ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/627654/the-computer-vs-the-handin-architectural-drawing-archdaily-readers-respond [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016].

CONCEPTUALISATION 179


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