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STUDIO AIR JOURNAL Naomi Ng, 699616 2016, SEMESTER 1, SONYA


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INTRODUCTION

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A: CONCEPTUALIZATION

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

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APPENDIX APPENDIX 01: STUDIO EXCERCISE- CONNECTING MATERIALS APPENDIX 02: ALOGRITHMIC SKETCHBOOK WEEK 1 APPENDIX 03: ALOGRITHMIC SKETCHBOOK WEEK 1 BIBLIOGRPAHY

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HELLO

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Hi, I’m Naomi, a third year student in University of Melbourne. My interests lie in visualising architecture and architecture theory, particularly the complex and ever changing relationship between built environments and our society. The way architecture reflects our ever changing common beliefs, practices and attitudes throughout history really interests me.

As we live in the digital generation, digital Fabrication to me is a captivating realm in which allows me to develop intricate designs and innovative methods. Though I acquired the basis of digital fabrication during my Digital Design and Fabrication project, I am yet to experiment with technological parametric tools and algorithms. Eager to experiment with form finding, optimization and analytical methods, I strive to utilize digital technology to enrich my understanding of architecture, the roles of design today and the future.

FIG.1: MY DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICAITON PROJECT 2015 SEMESTER 1 ON ‘PERSONAL SPACE’

3D PRINTING IN STUDIO EARTH, 2015 SEMESTER 1 FOR PROJECT ‘MASS’

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Today, we live in the age of social media. We evolved into an apathetic culture that craves for immediate results. We are in essence, a numb society. Subconsciously, we understand our destructive potential to the environment; we have to, because we are continuously reminded of it. Yet, crisis like overpopulation, environmental pollution, and over consumption are taken as facts without attachment or immediate consequences. They no longer faze us, but in reality, they should be more alarming than ever before. O B S E S S I O N

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No one can envision the future. Although environmental activists constantly reinforce what they fear, the general public lacks involvement with our environment to feel under threat. Rather, many fantasize radical possibilities for new, innovative solutions to provide each one of us our ‘individualised utopias’. When picturing a ‘radical future’, our culture’s obsession with numbers, productivity and immediate response causes us to think of additive solutions: implementation of new technology, new automated systems or even new capitalism systems (Dune & Rabby, 2013). While this obsession with radial production provides us with hopeful insight, a picture of where we would like to be, the phenomenon is also a dangerous one. In Australia, striving to achieve a 6 green star rating has become a goal and a trend among architects. It has become a symbol of sustainability. However, as Stanislav Roudavski puts it, such results are based merely on how it was designed, and not based off actual performance. This illusory fools the public in thinking we are a step closer to a sustainable future, but we are still producing; we are still impacting the world’s biosphere. Conceivably, this sense of disconnection, the inability to view beyond the near future, is what caused us to become more apathetic than ever before, and it is ever so dangerous. As Tony Fry puts it, it trivializes design and our current environmental situation. When no clear solution could be envisioned, we can merely attempt to slow down the process of killing our earth (Fry, 2008). Architecture, however, has the power to make us slowdown from our rapid lifestyle and be involved with nature once again; this is the first step to a sustainable future.

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BIOMIMICRY, SUSTAINABILITY AND EDUCATION SHIFT IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODS Biomimetic architecture sets as an example in which technological advancement in the digital age can prepare us for the future. It not only mimics found forms in nature, but also examines the fundamental principles that operate natural systems. Although biomimetic architecture is sometimes criticised for seeing humans as distant relatives of nature, the philosophy behind it arguably brings people and nature together. The Eden project, Cornwall by Nicholas Grimshaw is a prime exemplar that showcases the power of architecture and its interpolation with nature. It doesn’t ‘produce’ new interventions, but rather protects the current environments. The form of iconic biomes derived from Fibonacci’s sequence and Buckminster fuller’s revolutionary domes through hexangle tessellation, while program emulates natural flow of ecosystems. It encompasses wind turbines, geothermal energy plants and controlled conditions that allow wildlife to prosper.

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Even till today, the structural composition and construction methods are deemed radial. With the aid of digitalization, stability and structural integrity could be calculated to fit harmoniously with materiality. As opposed to heavy and obstructive traditional methods of creating a dome, the expansive nature of hybrid materials like EFTE cushions allows construction industries to reach larger spans with lighter mass than ever before. This allows us to design comfortable and suitable environments while minimising man-made interventions posed upon our natural environment. The Eden project is was a radical and timeless piece; it was and is used as an environmental education centre and eco conservatory. It not only changed the way we saw how we could blend in unison with nature, but also inspired future eco-parks, such as Singapore’s ‘Supertrees’ in 2012.


FIG.2 INTERIOR OF THE EDEN PROJECT- BECOMING ONE WITH NATURE

FIG.3 THE STRUCUTAL HEXANGLE FORM OPTIMIZED THROUGH BIOMIMETICS

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SUSTAINABILITY TO WHERE IT IS NEEDED MOST Architecture does not, however, have to be as grand as the Eden project to bring humanity a step closer to nature. The comparatively humbling ‘Warka Water Project’, with first iterations in Ethiopia, started as a small scale project by architecture and vision. The project utilizes digital fabrication, local materials, biomimicry and references to traditional Ethiopian culture to draw drinkable water from the atmosphere for locals. Biomimicry forms derived from local Namib beetle’s shell, lotus flower leaves, spider web threads and the integrated fog collection system in cactus. This project borrows technology not into what we could see as a ‘green utopian future’, but brings functional simplicity into remote areas of the present. While many architecture projects today reinforce our state of ‘denial’ by implementing seemingly ‘green’ yet highly artificial ‘green solutions’ (e.g. a grass wall), this project brings our focus back to where the basic necessities are needed: rural communities. This project lies beyond environmental responsibility. It considers culture, ethical and social wellbeing, and this is precisely how architecture can and should aid our future. As architectural critic Ben Campkin mentions “attention to habitats and their occupation of manmade environments has the power to reveal architecture’s place within wider social and geographical processes…[it helps] rethink architecture and architects’ zones of influence” (Campkin, 2010).

FIG.3 IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

Ultimately, we need to instigate change, and architecture can be a powerful tool if implemented strategically. That is not to say, however, that sustainable future should be in the hands of the designer, but rather a result of collective effort. While we do need ‘reorientation’ in our current apathetic attitude, that alone is insufficient. We need to use design not only as a tool that raises awareness of our actions, but also ignite universal interest in humanity’s coexistence with nature before we can understand it and fantasize our utopian harmonic, sustainable future.

FIG.3 INTERPOLATED THROUGH BIOMICRY OF LOCAL ATTRACTIONS

FIG.3 FINE HAIRS COLLECT MOISTURE FROM THIN AIR

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79 PARK BY BIG ARCHITECTS

TANGIA BAY BY MALKA

LONDON CITY HALL

Ordos museum by MAD architects

ARCHITECTURE

TIMMERHUIS BY OMA

CORAL REEF PROJECT

THE BLOB, EINDHOVEN

GRAZ ARTS MUSEUM

VINCENT CALLEBAUT

FIG.10 TYPOLOGIES LIKE MODULAR AND ‘BLOBITECTURE’ ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY SIMILAR?

FLUCTUATING BETWEEN REVIVAL AND REBELLION Architecture is both a collective memory of our history and an expression to translate our envisioned future. We are constantly in a state of fluctuation: between revival and rebellion. Although technological advances are seemingly connoted to our future, the high flexibility of digital computerization provides the power to fulfil both parties when used carefully and correctly. CRITICISM F IN COMPUTERIZED DESIGN As computerized architecture and digital design is more common than ever before, it is inevitable for criticisms to arise with popularity. One of the major concerns relates to how technology is shaping us into thinking in a specific set of logic. Especially as similar software like Rhino (NURBS system) and grasshopper (algorithmic) are utilized by more users, we are moulded into thinking from a certain approach; from a point > curve > surface > solid. This arguably limits the way we approach design problems, where some argue that it ultimately hindering creativity. As we rely on the same technology, functions and constraints, there is a reoccurring theme; contemporary architecture since the new millennial are dangerously gearing towards similar tectonic expressions, such as inflation structure, domes, modules and blobitecture (fig 10). In our apathetic society, such examples and particularly ‘precedent based designs’ (Kalay, 2004, pp.23) face declining public interest and fading originality. High accessibility to this “new and popularly available software” (Oxman & Oxman, 2014, pp.3) further eliminates the need for specialists. The ways in which the general public can play around with similar digital parametric programs would perhaps blur the boundary between the ‘professional’ and the ‘hobbyist’. Lastly, due to the convenience and accuracy of digital fabrication, the ‘file to factory’ phenomenon (Oxman & Oxman, 2014) encourages a growing reliance on technology. This in essence, could be seen as distancing oneself from our own work.

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C A S E S T U D Y 0 1 ICD-ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION COMPUTERS BRINGING BACK CRAFTMANSHIP However, digital design can aid our future if it is exploited effectively and correctly. Computerisation in architecture stretches far beyond our preconceived misconception that it is merely for digital modelling purposes. Technological interventions could, and should be implemented in every stage of the design process, from feasibility studies (Kalay, 2004, pp.10) to evaluation. Rather than distancing oneself from our work, I believe digital design drives designers closer to our work than ever before. ICD-ITKE’s 2013 research pavilion and NED’s Chealsea Garden pavilion are complementary example. ICD-ITKE’s biomimetic project uses digital analysis to determine the genetic makeup of beetles before form optimization, while NED architects drew links between cellular leaf structure and photosynthesis system.

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DIGITAL FABRICATION BUT ALSO CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESIGNERS, STUDENTS AND THEIR WORK

Digital fabrication tools may have created modules in both projects, but the designers were seen closely involved with the designing and assembly processes. Following the mentality of the arts deco movement, digital fabrication allows designers to focus back on the beauty of craftsmanship. Once digitally designed, designers can craft their designs first-hand. Digital tools no longer pose as an industrial, mass customization tool. Rather, it acts as a tool to aid artistry.

THE PAVILLION REFERRED TO THE BIOLOGICAL STRUCTUR E OF BEETLES BEFORE IMPLEMENTING TO ARCHITECTURE THROUGH DIGITIZATION. DIGITAL AID IS IN RESEARCH, DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTING STAGES. CONCEPTUALISATION 17


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INTERIOR OF THE EUREKA PAVILION BY NED ARCHTIECTS

FORM DERIVED FROM DIGITALLY OPTIMIZED BIOMIMETIC STRUCTURE OF PLANT CELLS. IT IS THEN DIGITALLY FABRICATED TO CREATE A SENSE OF ILLUMINATION.

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PEICES WERE ASSEMBLED BY HAND WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF DIGITAL TOOLS

BIOMIMICRY IS MORE THAN THE FORM In addition to reinforcing the link between the creator and its work, digital design opens up new typologies, techniques, styles and approaches that were never explored before. Taking biomimetic architecture as an example, computerization not only makes mimicking natural forms possible, but also enables us to analyse and implement natural systems

into our built environment. Algorithmic technology explores the relationships between rational reasoning and logic. Plug-ins like Ladybug and Honeybee poses new possibilities to find shortcuts within nature, like sun path patterns and principles of physics. Ultimately, this allows us to determine the implication of our actions and find optimal solutions (Kalay, 2004, pp 6).

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AN EXAMPLE OF LOOKING BACK AT HISTORY AND MOVING INTO THE FUTURE AT THE SAME TIME 20

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RATIONAL COLLOINADE INSPIRED BY THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGE OF THE PARTHENON

SIMULTANEOUSLY GOING BACK AND INTO THE FUTURE While digital design could facilitate the ‘architectural rebellions’ or futurists by finding new approaches and innovative strategies, is also has large scope for revivalists or inventive traditionalists who strive to look back in time, especially for ‘rule based designs’ (Kalay, 2004, pp.21) such as renaissance architecture. Parametrical constraints from Palladio and Vitruvius’ books of architecture (1570) could be directly applied to designs with the aid of Digital software while retaining creativity. The acropolis museum for example, is both innovative and historical at the same time. To pay homage to ancient Athens, interior spaces follow the logical and rational language found in classical architecture such as symmetry and colonnades. Hence, digital design is highly flexible and manipulative tool capable of detailed iterations and repetition. It is to be used in the hands of the designer; as freeform or as restrictive as desired.

STRONG SYMMETRY AND LOGIC BEHIND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT, INFUSED WIWTH INDUSTRIAL MATERIAL LIKE CONCRETE

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DIGITIZATION AS A TOOL IN ALL STAGES

Ultimately, digital design is used beyond form finding. It is used in every stage of the design process. While some argue that our creativity is hindered by the parameters of the logic and approach of digital design, I see digital interventions as what (Gray, Brown and Macanufo, 2010) sees as a ‘game’. Inevitably, there are ‘rules’ to the game; they are unavoidable. But the ‘player/designer’ needs to willingly participate within such parameters and have a foreseeable/achievable ‘goal’ and understand when the design ‘ends’ (Gray, Brown and Macanufo, 2010). To elude from the dangers of designing architecture that is already created over and over again, design solutions must rely on the player/designer itself rather than digital tools that we use. If implemented correctly, I believe digital design can lead us a step closer to what Oxman (2014) refers to as the ‘second

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FROM PEN TO GENERATION TO...?

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Historically, architects are associated with pen and paper. Yet, ever since the introduction of the computer, pen and paper tend to merely connote with expressive illustrations and diagramming. Using freehand sketches for technical drawings or any means of precision, is deemed to be obsolete; as Rory Stott coined it, “the anachronism of the 21st century” (Stott, 2015). Even so, we as a culture have surpassed the stages of using computation as a compositional tool (such as CAD technical drawings and digital modelling). We moved into an era of generative computerization, and while we are already familiar with the generative abilities of the computer (that aids form finding and

optimization processes such as biomimicry), I believe we are approaching a new stage in algorithmic modelling, one that we are not quite accustomed to yet: using ‘software to design software’ (Burry, 2010). We evolved from using computer to translate designs we have in mind, next, to relying on computer to generate designs on our behalf, and now, utilizing computer to find flows, patterns and relationships in the world and implementing such systems in our designs as a method of generative computerization. Kinetic architecture is an emerging and expanding realm in architecture that feed our obsession with relationships and natural systems.

A DIAGRAM I CREATED TO EXPRESS HOW I VIEW THE SHIFT IN TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURE.

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USING SOFTWARE TO DESIGN SOFTWARE TO GENERATE DESIGN

LARGE SCALE OF HIGHLY CUSTOMIZED IMAGES HAS A STRONG AMBIANCE TO IT

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The notion of ‘designing software to inform design’ often utilizes mathematical models or games with simple rules as inputs of an algorithm. Direct results may be logical and linear, but even a slight change in parameters can evoke highly complex and highly compelling geometry, which not only translates our ‘flows’ visually, but also has the ability to mimic and manipulate the way we move or the system we operate in. For example, a kinetic façade, the Megaface pavilion for the 2014 Sochi winter Olympics by Asif Khan and iart is a playable and interactive façade that digitizes and real time facial scans into a 3d façade composed by 11,000 actuators that illuminate according to the image (Iart.ch, 2014). Projects like such are only made possible by Algorithmic technology and its rules, such as tessellation and mesh systems (Frearson,2014). Image sampling is another tool made possible by grasshopper, which, through computerization, allows built spaces to become highly customized, highly interactive and kinetically responsive.


PROTOTYPING THE FIRST BATCH OF FACADE, SHOWING MOTION OF ILLUMINATIVE AND RESPONSIVE OUTPUT FROM ALOGRYTHMIC PROGRAMMING

COULD MANIPULATE TO IMAGINABLE IMAGES, NOT LIMITED TO FACES.

ALTHOUGH NOT SPECIFICALLY USED IN THIS PROJECT, I BELIEVE THE IMAGE SAMPLLING GRASSHOPPER COMMAND COULD BE IMPLEMENTED IN A REACTIVE PROJECT LIKE THIS- FROM OUR EXPRESSIVE FORMS TO RULES AND CODES

DOMED BULBS ELONGATE AND RETRACT INDIVIDUALLY.ACCORDING TO INPUT

HOW THE PROGRAM WORKS: HAVING REAL TIME EFFECT AS USERS TAKE ‘SELFIES’ OVER THE INTERNET OR CLOUD AS IMAGE INPUTS..

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USING SOFTWARE TO DESIGN PROGRAM THAT INVESTIGATES NATURAL FLOWS Unlike the Megaface Pavilion, the Albahr Towers, Abu Dhabi by AHR architects is another example of kinetic architecture which automatically ‘breathes’ and reacts according to natural systems (as opposed to artificial programming). The biomimetic form of ‘mashrabiya’, a wooden lattice shading screen folds and unfolds according to light levels,

solar radiation and desired level of privacy, ultimately to achieve better visibility and reducing energy footprint (Ahr-global.com, 2013). The use of patternation along with analytical software like the ‘ladybug’ plugin for grasshopper now enables designs to easily react to real world natural conditions. This creates opportunities for humans to better adapt with nature, which is crucial to achieve a sustainable future.

FACADE IS REACTIVE TO LIGHT: IT AUTOMATICALLY SHRINKS AT NIGHT AND DURING SHADE, AND UNFOLDS AT TIMES OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT.

RELIES ON PARAMETRIC MODELLING TOOLS LIKE LADYBUG TO ANALYZE THE SUNPATH OVER YEARS

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EACH SCREEN ARE CONNECTED WITH NODES THAT FORM A PANELLED SURFACE/FACADE AROUND THE TOWER.

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In addition to making use of computerization to manipulate our flows and relationship between systems holistically within architecture, the idea of ‘computerization through software design’ could also provoke insight and new sensations for the individual. Computer is no longer merely involved with quantitative; by implementing it on a personal level, the shift in scripting culture is slowly becoming more qualitative. Corpora in Si(gh)te, (by double negative architecture, exhibited in Yamaguchi center for arts and media) is an art installation that deals with an interactive, ‘game like’ technology into autonomous architecture that responds to environment through information networking (YCAM, 2007). Sensors/seeds were implemented and connected into a meshed network in this virtual space, generating real time, ever changing geometries based on natural variables such as sunlight, wind, temperature humidity, acoustics and wind (YCAM, 2007). With experimental technological interventions as such, we are able to ‘feel’ the intended atmosphere/ ambiance and a strong sense of dynamic motion. Within our recent cultural history, Computation progressed from a static visual medium, to an expression through motion and sound (mainly flythrough and videos) and ultimately, to interactive and responsive software. However, the assumption that soft technologies like games are a means of architecture may be dangerous– as it blurs the boundaries between ‘virtual’ and ‘reality’. Nevertheless, it is exciting to assume that we are closer than ever before to achieving the fantasized ‘living architecture’ that breathes, reacts and responds with human interaction.


INTERACTED AS A ‘GAME LIKE’ INSTALLATION

That, however, is merely a hopeful vision. Currently, if physically built, such programmatic approaches to architecture are mostly seen as research pavilions or small projects. Commercialized architecture is still, in this aspect, ‘conservative’. Clients tend to seek for similar ‘brands’ or ‘styles’ we are familiar and comfortable with. It is not till we accept generative computerization as the ‘norm’ before this process could readily and steadily, and ‘naturally implemented’ (Peters, p15). We as a community need to accept initiate and participate in order to engage with such responsive, software-led architecture. SO...GENERATIVE OR COMPOSITION? COMPUTATION OR COMPUTERIZATION? THE HAND OR COMPUTER?

FORM PRODUCED BY ANALYSING SUN, SOUND, MOVEMENT, VIEW, WIND, ETC. HOW THE NETWORKS CHANGED OVER A COURSE OF ONE HOUR ACCORDING TO FLOWS OF PARAMETERS

In essence, our culture has simultaneously ‘shifted into a new age of computerization’ and ‘remained static’ at the same time. Much like how pen and paper could be seen as similar to one another as it could be polar opposites (Stott, 2015). They are both expressive algorithm outputs, in a similar manner that we think with our minds (Wilson, p.11). Comparing or using such methods as representatives of an ‘era’ is wrong to begin with. Both the expressive medium of pen and paper and computerization can co-exist, as long as employed suitably and strategically within design processes. Neither should be over-relied upon; as it is our thoughts, the poetics of architecture which raises questions and sparks conversations. USING PARAMETRIC SOFTWARE

+ SENSORS AS NODES

= GENERATIVE FORM BASED ON FLOW

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S I O N As we live in a society that constantly fluctuates between revivalists and rebels (or arguably, innovators), computer and digital tools hold the ability to satisfy both parties, by either implementing constrained parameters or as generative instruments. However, our envisioned, sustainable future does not have to fall into either groups. What if our ‘future’ is ‘here and now’? Architecture such as the Warka waters project successfully satisfied the needs for those who need it most through technological interventions. This project, in my opinion, is how we should envision the future; promote innovation using technology to satisfy current needs, sustaining current environments and bringing humanity closer to nature. While we live in the present, the idea of ‘innovation’ is a significant one- it brings us to our visions of the future. Innovation is unforeseeable; it is unexpected, almost acts as a ‘happy mistake’. As we shifted from compositional computation to generative computerization and now to ‘composing software to generate design’, computers can effectively generate unexpected results (Peter, p.10). This exposes us to new and ‘unexpected’ possibilities like Albahar towers and the emerging realm of kinetic architecture that encourages interaction with the built environment. Yet, although computers in architecture has assisted performance, questioned concepts and generated new processes, it shall not be over-relied upon. Our future is a collective responsibility; and as architects is one of the few groups of generalists, we need to be aware of the processes and relationships revolving how we live and how we interact with architecture. The digital age is capable of merging abstractivity in art with rationality in algorithms. We should use it purposefully, but should not expect it to choose our future for us.

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Within the architectural realm, I always saw computerization as a means of translating thought into physical, developable structures. It was merely a tool used within the design process, whether as a generative, visualisation, or a fabricating tool. However, having explored precedents the past, societal values of the present and visions of the future, I was able to see that computerization is much more flexible than I once thought, and the scope of potential is boundless. The way architecture is beginning to dip into the realm of virtual reality and interactive media really fascinates me; it allows me to see the exponential power of the digital age. Architecture is no longer static. It is dynamic, responsive and interactive. The algorithmic world is unavoidable, but currently, I am more aware of how close we are to the digitized utopia than we ever were. Taking my previous studio work as an example, if I had known the implications of digital tools, I would have approached them very differently. For example, my project ‘studio earth: secrets’ looks into the notion of secrecy, labyrinth, veiling and unveiling through a moire effect façade that submerges occupants from the ground, to the threshold, and eventually to the underground. I used freehand sketching, diagramming and a concept model as the basis of my design. Digital tools were merely used for composition and visualisation purposes. However, had I known algorithmic processes, I would have analysed human flow and the patternation of façade to really evoke the sense of secrecy, rather than be limited by my own creativity. Perhaps use of algorithmic software like kangaroo can further generate some kinetic motion as people make their way through the pavilion.

COULD HAVE ANALYZED HUMAN FLOW AND VISIBILITY

MY EARTH DESIGN IS PREDOMINANTLY ILLUSTRATIVE AND DIAGRAMMATIC

COULD HAVE ANALYZED FLOW WITH PATTERNATION

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“Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something - the omelette at the cost of the egg, the table at the cost of the tree, through to fossil fuel generated energy at the cost of the planet’s atmosphere” (Fry, 2008, pp.4) To initiate the first step into a sustainable future, we may need to revert Anne-Marie Willis’ ‘dialectic of sustainment’ theory. Rather than destroying something to create others, we shall approach with existing waste: repurposing readymade, unused, yet overlooked items. Hence, I looked into how the versatility of cardboard could be iterated into developable components. 5 methods of connecting cardboard pieces were explored, some with found components while others were cut and manipulated before connected. The general mechanisms of connection joints were: stacking, slotting (profile and section), weaving, looping system and hexa-grids   36

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The stacking method is a simple yet flexible mechanism. Utilizing existing, slottable modules, they were piped together into an elongated rail. The joint allows the form to expansion, shrink, twist and warp. How could it be explored further? A gradual scale or perhaps modifying the angle in which each module shift can significantly alter its potential movements and vector. Kinetic motion could also be perhaps implementing implemented by adding flexible connection throughout all modules, such as a string or even elastic bands. The modular nature of this joint indicates that there is potential to grow and reproduce, spreading out or seeping into existing environments- almost like parasitic architecture.

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Slotting with section and profiles are a classic example of connecting pieces of planar, rigid material like basic cardboard together. In this model, each of these pieces were cut into curved profiles. When waffled together, not only is there increased structural rigidity (that resists shear, tension and compressive forces), a developable, curvilinear surface is created. This mechanism allows planar surface to conjoin into one new cohesive surface. How could it be explored further? What is surfaces were connected in 3 or 4 axis instead of just U and V axis? Furthermore, surfaces could be connected through tessellation or folding.

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Weaving is another classic example of joining materials together. Although it follows one system, it is highly adaptive and versatile. Due to the interlaced stripes, It has the ability to warp, twist and buckle into complex surfaces, almost as if it was ‘breathing’, a ‘living surface’. Like slotting, there is a strong structural rigidity and could easily be manipulated and transformed. How could it be explored further? Currently, one piece of cardboard was not fully cut into strips, while another piece was. This resulted in a ‘fanning’ effect, where interlacing stretches beyond two axis. Hence, it would perhaps be really interesting if surfaces were merely cut in certain areas, and perhaps weaved in various ways. What if weaved components merged with another connecting mechanism? How would this affect its structural build?

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The looping tectonics is similar to weaving in ways that it could interlace between gaps and slots. However, as the strips do not follow a set grid, it is much more freeform. This connection utilized an already created base of a cardboard box, where existing cut and fold lines acted as the parameter of the connection. Hence, there is potential to interlink strips through them, though more slots could be created manually.

How could it be explored further? The form reminds me of the Mobius strip, a continuous surface with self-interlocking effects. However, rather than a strip, it further involves a flat plane, which merges two typologies together. Furthermore, at the moment, although it explores the same interlocking system found in chains, it fails to achieve the same flexibility. Perhaps if the surface was interlocked in a softer, fluid surface, the geometry would be able to move and produce dynamic effects. CONCEPTUALISATION 41


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The hexa-grids rely on adhesives to connect at points with equal spacing, leaving hollow spaces between each connection. As cardboard holds the same properties as paper, it is high in flexibility, and a hexagonal grid allow the junction to expand and contract- again, much like breathing. This results in an interesting and developable surface. How could it be explored further? Rather than hexa-grid, what will happen if it is connected with another shape, perhaps even a gradual geometry? (E.g. from circle to triangles) what if the length of the surfaces differ?

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S


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/01 A LG O R I T H M I C SKETCHES

R E C R E A T I N G

V A S E S

VORONOI, PIPE AND SOLID DIFFERENCE

44

CONCEPTUALISATION

POINT TO PROFILE, LOFT & TWIST


DIVIDE SURFACE & LOFT

CONCEPTUALISATION 45


/02 A LG O R I T H M I C SKETCHES

T E X T U R E

I N

GRASHOPPER SCRIPT

46

CONCEPTUALISATION

N A T U R E

M E T H O D 0 1 : B O U N D I N G B O X The bounding box method allows the initial geometry to stretch along the surface. Hence, each surface may have controlled variables (such as rotation angle and shape) but scale and stretch may differ.


TARGET TEXTUREFISH SCALE

SURFACE

BOUNDING BOX

MORPH GEOMETRY INTO BOX

CONCEPTUALISATION 47


SURFACE

DIVIDED POINTS ON SRF

GRID FROM POINTS

PLANES GROM GRID

METHOD 02: PLANE AND ORIENT geometry must be aligned to the planes that were divided from a surface. Hence, only the base point/line of the geometry will follow the surface. this allows geometry to fit tightly to the surface, but causes gaps to incur between each module. In order to imitate the overlapping texture of fish scale, the surface had to be copied and moved.

GRASHOPPER SCRIPT

48

CONCEPTUALISATION

GEOMETRY ON PLANES


CONCEPTUALISATION 49


50

CRITERIA DESIGN


CONCEPTUALIZATION

CRITERIA DESIGN

51


B I B L I O G R A P H Y

52

CONCEPTUALISATION


Aec.at. (2016). Corpora in Si(gh)te Human Nature – Ars Electronica Festival 2009. [online] http:// www.aec.at/humannature/cyberarts/corpora-in-sighte [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Ahr-global.com. (2013). Al Bahr Towers - AHR. [online] http://www.ahrglobal.com/Al-Bahr-Towers [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Campkin, B. (2010). Bugs, Bats and Animal Estates: The Architectural Territories of ‘Wild Beasts’.Architectural Design, 80(3), pp.34-39. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Frearson, A. (2014). Asif Khan designs a “Mount Rushmore of the digital age” for Sochi. [online] Dezeen. http://www.dezeen.com/2014/01/10/asif-khan-mount-rushmoreof-the-digital-age-sochi-winter-olympics/ [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Gray, D., Brown, S. and Macanufo, J. (2010). Gamestorming. Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Iart.ch. (2016). The Kinetic Facade of the MegaFaces Pavilion - Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics - Projects - iart.ch. [online] http://iart.ch/en/-/die-kinetische-fassade-des-megafacespavillons-olympische-winterspiele-2014-in-sotschi [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Mark Burry, Scripting Cultures, John Wiley and sons (Chicheser), 2010, p.8. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Special.ycam.jp. (2016). Corpora in Si(gh)te by doubleNegatives Architecture. [online] http://special.ycam.jp/corpora/en/outline.html [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016]. Stott, R. (2015). The Computer vs The Hand In Architectural Drawing: ArchDaily Readers Respond. [online] ArchDaily. http://www.archdaily.com/627654/the-computer-vs-the-handin-architectural-drawing-archdaily-readers-respond [Accessed 17 Mar. 2016].

CONCEPTUALISATION 53


s.air pt A  
s.air pt A  
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