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ISSN 1757-2517

Featuring extracts from nano Magazine Issue 21

Nanomedicine New Organs for Old PLUS: The German attitude to nanotech‌.


NORTHERN EUROPE

Nanotechnology In Regenerative Medicine ❞

New Generation Wind Turbine Blades

Northern Europe An overview of nanotechnology in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

Nanocomposites Meet the Challenge

Blake Branson

Vaclav Vanecek, Sarka Kubinova, Eva Sykova

DENMARK (Pop. 5.5 Million)

The regeneration, replacement and repair of damaged tissues are the major aims of regenerative medicine. Thanks to their exceptional properties, nanodevices and nano-scale materials are gaining a significant position in medicine, in areas such as tissue engineering, cell therapy and drug and gene delivery. For example, magnetic nanoparticles enable cell labeling and can be tracked non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the case of nanofibres, the tremendous interest currently shown in them is motivated in particular by their ability to mimic the extracellular matrix, the natural environment of cells in the tissues. There is no doubt that advances in the nanometre realm will revolutionize medicine, and some promising products and approaches using nanotechnology that may help in regenerating the tissuesof the human body are highlighted in this article.

Denmark established its foothold in nanotechnology in the 1990s with the help of support from the Danish Foundation for Basic Research, and the Danish Research Councils. The country is now host to several prominent international centres, including the MIC in Copenhagen. Other Danish international nanotech centres include the Nano Science Centre at the University of Copenhagen, the iNANO Centre, NanoBioCentrum and the Danish Polymer Centre. Research organisations reflect the country’s economy, which is based on supplying high-quality specialist items, rather than mass production, due to a lack of raw materials and a small home market.

Support for nanotechnology research today comes from a number of sources. The Danish Council for Strategic Research, part of the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation is one of these, although the council itself does not authorise funds for research, dependent instead on the Programme Commission which covers Nanoscience, Biotechnology and IT (NABIIT). The Strategic Research Programme for the Interdisciplinary Applications of NABIIT technologies supports the establishment of networks and research initiatives. Research support also comes from the Danish National Research Foundation, the Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health’s inter-ministerial working group on Nanotechnology and Human Heath, and the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation.

Year-on-year there is a marked increase in the numbers of transplant procedures across the world, but organ donations cannot keep pace with the demand. In the US alone, there are over 130 deaths a week of individuals who have not been lucky enough to receive a donor organ. Today nanotechnology is leading to a breakthrough in the capability to grow and regenerate organs and tissues. The following article reviews the areas of new research and development that offers hope to patients experiencing organ failure, that will be realised in the very near future.

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NANO MAGAZINE

Superhydrofobic coating on the casing of a hearing aid system deposited by molecular vapour deposition of FDTS (perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane).

Research Centres The Danish Technological Institute is an independent, not-for-profit institution which leads two groups: the Centre for Microtechnology and Surface Analysis and the NanoFactory, a commercial Molecular Vapour Deposition facility. (dti. dk)

DECEMBER 2010

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DECEMBER 2010

DFM, the Danish National Metrology Institute, is a private company within the Technical University of Denmark. The DFM acts to support industry with calibration, reference materials and know-how on metrology at an international level. The Institute develops and maintains national standards within mass, length, nano, electricity, acoustics, electrolytic conductivity, pH and optical radiometry. (dfm.dtu.dk) DTU is also home to the internationally acclaimed research centre, MIC, the Department of Micro and Nanotechnology. Work within this centre includes Lab-on-a-chiplasers and nanoimprint lithography, nanointegration, nanoprobes and theoretical nanotechnology concentrating on nanoelectronic components. (mic.dtu.dk) Rounding up the DTU’s nanotech activities is the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy where work is conducted on polymer surfaces and interfaces, nano and micro structured interfaces, superconductors, magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructured materials and ceramics. (risoe.dk )

NanoNetworks There are two main Danish nanotechnology networks: NaNet, and Nano Øresund. The purpose of NaNet is to build bridges between the Danish industry and research institutions

20

within the area of nanotechnology. NaNet’s mission is to create platforms for the exchange of information on nanotechnology to facilitate the utilization on all levels of society, from research and education to industrial application and development. (dtu.dk/ Centre/NaNet/English.aspx) Nano Øresund brings together and promotes the nano resources in the Øresund region. It is a network organisation concentrating on intensifying the commercial development of nanotechnology in the Øresund region, the network had recently been renamed Nano Connect Scandinavia, with centres in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. (oresund.org) (The Nanometer Structure Consortium is a joint venture between Denmark and Sweden, and described below in the Swedish section).

Universities Nanotechnology research in Denmark takes place primarily within the main public universities and research institutes in Denmark, such as the nanocentres and networks already mentioned: mainly within the Technical University of Denmark, University of Aarhus, University of Copenhagen and Risø National Laboratory, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Denmark, Ålborg University and Southern Danish University.

41NANO MAGAZINE

NanoVation

nanotechnology for Danish industry – with a twist Top Danish companies work together on product improvement through the application of advanced nanotechniques Daniel Nilsson Lindstedt and Leif Hoejslet Christensen, DTI

The objective

Introduction

The Danish Technological Institute (DTI) has recently launched a new initiative, in the form of an innovation consortium, in which the DTI partners up with nine Danish companies and six international universities/institutions. The goal of this highlevel consortium is to develop novel multifunctional surface coatings. This includes coatings that would render the surface of an existing material super-hydrophobic/oleophobic, scratch resistant, and / or corrosion resistant.

The overall objective of the project is to develop and implement a number of physical and chemical nano engineering methods and processes which offer novel functional properties to both new and existing products – properties that are either unattainable or extremely difficult to obtain with naturally occurring bulk materials and conventional processes.

The twist is given by the fact that several of the participating companies are part of the Danish design tradition who wish to develop surface coatings that either preserve the intended design aspect, or even offer new design features previously not available. To help merge nanotechnology and industrial design, the consortium is utilizing models from the field of convergence research, where previously distinct industry or market sectors merge to form a new competitive environment.

Industrial design and human perception will be included in the development process in order to devise solutions that are not only technically relevant but lead to products where the perception and emotional impact are especially agreeable to the users. Therefore, NanoVation will bridge the gap between the new enabling technologies and the more mature technologies, and be integrated with macro-based processes into a coherent process line, operated as often as possible outside a dedicated cleanroom.

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NANO MAGAZINE

If you like this issue of NANO magazine, you may want to read some of the articles in our archive. These cover topics as diverse as nano in food and drink, nano for military applications, nano regulation and potential risk, nano in medicine and health care, nano for the automotive and aerospace industry, nano for advanced textiles, nanocharacterisation and much more! Subscribe now and get new issues and full access to our archive, as follows:

Subscribe for our standard online package, which includes online access to NANO Magazine, and get: • 12 months searchable access to our online archive, plus • pdfs of the print version of each new issue of NANO magazine, for one year

Price only £30 (plus UK tax, if applicable) or alternatively... Subscribe for our online plus package, which includes online access to NANO Magazine, and get: • 12 months searchable access to our online archive, plus • pdfs of the print version of each new issue of NANO magazine, for one year, plus • Full access to all back issues of NANO magazine in pdf format

Price only £59 (plus UK tax, if applicable) In the next issue - due out February 1st 2011: Japan Nanotech 2011 – arguably the most important international event of the nano calendar; nanotechnology in Iran; nano for security and crime prevention; light-activated cancer therapies; the applications of nanotechnology in aerospace, plus a review of nanobiocharacterisation techniques, and read how nanotechnology is being communicated in the media. Regular features include the latest nanotechnology news, along with our regular interview with a leading nanopersonality, new nano art – and lots more! 2

NANO MAGAZINE

DECEMBER 2010


CONTENTS

Issue 21, December 2010

Managing Director: Ottilia Saxl ottilia.saxl@nanomagazine.co.uk Assistant Editor: Fraser Shand fraser.shand@nanomagazine.co.uk Sales and Marketing Assistant: Jana Pelet jana.perlet@nanomagazine.co.uk Design: Smith Design Solutions www.smithds.co.uk Website design: Tobias Haag tobias.haag@nanomagazine.co.uk Sales Liaison: Scott McMillan scott.mcmillan@nanomagazine.co.uk Contact: Print and Online Advertising: chris.arnold@nanomagazine.co.uk Subscriptions: scott.mcmilland@nanomagazine.co.uk Contributors: TA-SWISS – The Swiss Centre for Technology Assessment; Eva Sykova, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and Charles University, Prague; Sarka Kubinova, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague; Vaclav Vanecek, Charles University, Prague; Mark Lohmann, Astrid Epp and Gaby-Fleur Böl, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany; Blake Branson, sp3 nanotech, USA. ©2010 ION Publishing Ltd 6 The Alpha Centre, Stirling University Innovation Park, Stirling, FK9 4NF, Scotland, UK

Article contributions to NANO magazine come from a range of sources and while we always strive to ensure accuracy in reporting, NANO accepts no responsibility for inaccuracies that may arise. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect the views of NANO magazine or ION Publishing Ltd.

NEWS

MATERIALS

Nanoparticle-based therapy wins a Gates Foundation grant – Breakthrough in detecting explosives – Harvesting energy from pavements and roads – Generating electricity to permanently power small devices – Progressing a lead-free society – Fish gelatine in tissue engineering – Danish project helps traditional industries adopt nano – Nanopore arrays speed up drug discovery – The Iran Nanofestival reaches out to industry, the public and schoolchildren – Star Wars telepresence: not science fiction any more.

FOOD

29 FEATURE TITLE

Nano in Food and Food Packaging: Selecting the best possible course is a key decision to make, and often a challenging one! The Nano, Enabling and Advanced Technologies Post-Graduate course directory can help in choosing the right course for you! • Refine your course search.

a very Swiss Perspective Nanotechnology is now already in the food industry. What are the promised benefits specifically for nano particles, and what are the risks that could arise for consumers as a result? What sort of effects might nano particles have on food packaging? These are the questions considered in a study conducted by TASWISS – The Swiss Centre for Technology Assessment.

• Use the interactive map to view courses in your country of choice. • Compare course content online. The Institute of Nanotechnology, in collaboration with a consortium of course-providing academics and industry representatives, is engaged in enhancing, supporting and benchmarking the quality of education at the masters level in nano, enabling and advanced technologies.

Further information please contact Gemma McCulloch Email gemma.mcculloch@nano.org.uk or Tel: +44(0)1786 458075

Nanoparticles - already on our tables? We take it for granted that the salt and pepper that we use doesn’t clump together and block the dispenser, but can be sprinkled finely over our chips – one of the welcome comforts we have modern food technology to thank for. This is due to silicic acid, also known as amorphous silicon dioxide, or E 551. This powdery material is able to bind moisture, thereby preventing the grains sticking together, and has been used for decades in different seasoning mixtures. This long-established separating agent is at the heart of the debate over nano-applications: its components are between 5 and 50 nanometres in size (where 1 nanometre is 10-9 metres), which therefore puts them into the same order of size as so-called nano particles. That is the name given to particles that are between one to one hundred nanometres in size. Nano particles are produced in the manufacture of this separating agent, and rapidly aggregate into larger particles. Although this mixture of small and aggregated particles has been tested, there are some 28 29

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DECEMBER 2010

Nano in Food and Packaging – a very Swiss perspective

New Generation Wind Turbine Blades Nanocomposites Meet the Challenge

Blake Branson

DECEMBER 2010

In Switzerland, as in Europe generally, food cannot contain any engineered nano particles – such as those derived from metallic or mineral substances, even though the same substances may be permitted in a larger, macro-scale form. The study by TA-SWISS, the Centre for Technology Assessment, therefore focused its attention on additives that have been used in food production for years in the country. In particular, the additives researched are silicon dioxide, which has already been referred to above, together with corotenoids and micelles. The latter are often used in the form of nano capsules as sheathing for lightsensitive or fast-oxidising substances. Food scientists want to use this trick to help products take on new properties; these new kinds of foods are what TASWISS focused on in its study. Although adding nano-scale metallic or mineral additives to foods themselves is prohibited in Europe, foods can still come into contact with them. The reason is that the packaging industry is taking

a growing interest in the advantages that can be derived from nano particles embedded in plastic. These can be metallic or mineral nano particles, and are found, for example, in PET bottles, or in the foil wrapped around chocolate bars. The TA-SWISS study did not therefore limit itself to exploring the opportunities and risks of nano in food, in the narrower sense. It aimed to clarify where the potential of nanotechnology lies in the food packaging industry – and to what extent there is a possibility of food picking up nanoparticles from direct content with packaging, and whether dangers might arise from this.

Interest on the world market – caution in Switzerland There are widely differing views on the economic potential of nano in food and nano in packaging. The fact is that in Switzerland people are sceptical about a food that relies heavily on technology in its preparation. On the other hand, nanotechnology can come into its own, as it does offer the potential of innovative and environmentally friendly packaging.

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DECEMBER 2010

The results of a recent study on the Swiss attitude to nano in the controversial areas of food and food packaging.

Nanomaterials for Wind Turbine Blades The challenges of larger and larger blades are being met by novel nanocomposite materials.

INTERVIEW

Maria Losurdo NANO Magazine’s interview this month is with Dr Maria Losurdo, senior research scientist at the National Council of Research, in Bari, Italy. Her specialism is the use of light in characterising nanoparticles and surfaces, as a way to understand and define their properties.

Since 2008, Dr Losurdo has put her knowledge and experience to good use by creating and co-ordinating the NanoCharM project, www.nanocharm. org. During this time, NanoCharM has provided training and awarenessraising, facilitated networking amongst researchers from both industry and academia, and encouraged the sharing of ideas and innovations in optically-based nanocharacterisation techniques, across Europe and beyond. NanoCharM may prove to be one of the most important nanotechnology projects funded by the EU, as the ability to effectively and efficiently characterise nanoparticles and surfaces is critical to the success of nanotechnology-based industries. Maria’s profound knowledge as a scientist has not only inspired her co-workers and project partners, but has also made her much sought after internationally, with visiting professorships in the US and Japan, and

invitations to lecture all over the world. She has recently returned from a threeweek stint in China, with the aim of learning from, and sharing knowledge with the much respected Chinese nano community.

D

r Losurdo, would you tell the readers of NANO magazine something about yourself as a young person, the kind of family environment you grew up in, and why you were inspired by science?

I grew up in a typical Italian family with a younger sister and brother, none involved in science, but always asking questions, like “how does this work?” or “how would it work if....?” Those questions made me think “it would be nice if I had the answers”…. Of course, as a result, I was always trying out experiments in our kitchen, and often, as a result, setting things on fire!

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DECEMBER 2010

MEDICINE Nanotechnology In Regenerative Medicine ~

Vaclav Vanecek, Sarka Kubinova, Eva Sykova

The regeneration, replacement and repair of damaged tissues are the major aims of regenerative medicine. Thanks to their exceptional properties, nanodevices and nano-scale materials are gaining a significant position in medicine, in areas such as tissue engineering, cell therapy and drug and gene delivery. For example, magnetic nanoparticles enable cell labeling and can be tracked non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the case of nanofibres, the tremendous interest currently shown in them is motivated in particular by their ability to mimic the extracellular matrix, the natural environment of cells in the tissues. There is no doubt that advances in the nanometre realm will revolutionize medicine, and some promising products and approaches using nanotechnology that may help in regenerating the tissuesof the human body are highlighted in this article.

~

Year-on-year there is a marked increase in the numbers of transplant procedures across the world, but organ donations cannot keep pace with the demand. In the US alone, there are over 130 deaths a week of individuals who have not been lucky enough to receive a donor organ. Today nanotechnology is leading to a breakthrough in the capability to grow and regenerate organs and tissues. The following article reviews the areas of new research and development that offers hope to patients experiencing organ failure, that will be realised in the very near future.

32

16

NORTHERN EUROPE

Maria Losurdo, senior research scientist at the National Council of Research, in Bari, Italy. A profoundly intellectual academic, driven by the needs of industry.

36

17

Nanotech in Northern Europe

Research organisations reflect the country’s economy, which is based on supplying high-quality specialist items, rather than mass production, due to a lack of raw materials and a small home market. Support for nanotechnology research today comes from a number of sources. The Danish Council for Strategic Research, part of the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation is one of these, although the council itself does not authorise funds for research, dependent instead on the Programme Commission which covers Nanoscience, Biotechnology and IT (NABIIT). The Strategic Research Programme for the Interdisciplinary Applications of NABIIT technologies supports the establishment of networks and research initiatives. Research support also comes from the Danish National Research Foundation, the Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health’s inter-ministerial working group on Nanotechnology and Human Heath, and the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation.

Research Centres The Danish Technological Institute is an independent, not-for-profit institution which leads two groups: the Centre for Microtechnology and Surface Analysis and the NanoFactory, a commercial Molecular Vapour Deposition facility. (dti. dk)

20

DFM, the Danish National Metrology Institute, is a private company within the Technical University of Denmark. The DFM acts to support industry with calibration, reference materials and know-how on metrology at an international level. The Institute develops and maintains national standards within mass, length, nano, electricity, acoustics, electrolytic conductivity, pH and optical radiometry. (dfm.dtu.dk) DTU is also home to the internationally acclaimed research centre, MIC, the Department of Micro and Nanotechnology. Work within this centre includes Lab-on-a-chiplasers and nanoimprint lithography, nanointegration, nanoprobes and theoretical nanotechnology concentrating on nanoelectronic components. (mic.dtu.dk) Rounding up the DTU’s nanotech activities is the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy where work is conducted on polymer surfaces and interfaces, nano and micro structured interfaces, superconductors, magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructured materials and ceramics. (risoe.dk )

NanoNetworks There are two main Danish nanotechnology networks: NaNet, and Nano Øresund. The purpose of NaNet is to build bridges between the Danish industry and research institutions

within the area of nanotechnology. NaNet’s mission is to create platforms for the exchange of information on nanotechnology to facilitate the utilization on all levels of society, from research and education to industrial application and development. (dtu.dk/ Centre/NaNet/English.aspx) Nano Øresund brings together and promotes the nano resources in the Øresund region. It is a network organisation concentrating on intensifying the commercial development of nanotechnology in the Øresund region, the network had recently been renamed Nano Connect Scandinavia, with centres in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. (oresund.org) (The Nanometer Structure Consortium is a joint venture between Denmark and Sweden, and described below in the Swedish section).

Universities Nanotechnology research in Denmark takes place primarily within the main public universities and research institutes in Denmark, such as the nanocentres and networks already mentioned: mainly within the Technical University of Denmark, University of Aarhus, University of Copenhagen and Risø National Laboratory, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Denmark, Ålborg University and Southern Danish University.

It may be a cold climate, but the heat is full on when it comes to nano.

Nanotechnology in Regenerative Medicine Innovations in the vital field of organ regeneration are reviewed by Czech experts in the field. 33

37 Risks and Opportunities of Nanotechnology and Nanoproducts

NANO MAGAZINE

DECEMBER 2010

Three different surveys on the perception of nanotechnologies by the Germans, and their (perhaps unsurprising) conclusions. 37

REGULARS

DENMARK (Pop. 5.5 Million) Denmark established its foothold in nanotechnology in the 1990s with the help of support from the Danish Foundation for Basic Research, and the Danish Research Councils. The country is now host to several prominent international centres, including the MIC in Copenhagen. Other Danish international nanotech centres include the Nano Science Centre at the University of Copenhagen, the iNANO Centre, NanoBioCentrum and the Danish Polymer Centre.

DECEMBER 2010

32

RISK

COUNTRY PROFILE 20 An overview of nanotechnology in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

NANO MAGAZINE

41

INTERVIEW

Northern Europe experts who say that new studies on the risk to health, looking specifically at particle size as essential.

40

Editorial Events

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NANO MAGAZINE

3


EDITORIAL

The key to a successful future for nanotechnologies If you can’t measure it, you can’t control it. Measuring nanoparticles and understanding how their attributes relate to size and composition, is critical to the successful development of any nanotechnology application. The nanotechnology industry, in order to be successful, needs characterisation techniques that are non-destructive, easily repeated, and can be used in real time on a Ottilia Saxl, Director, NANO Magazine

The interview in this issue is with Dr Maria Losurdo, senior research scientist at the National Council of Research in Bari, Italy. Her knowledge, energy and enthusiasm has led to the creation one of the EU’s most critically important and hugely successful projects – NanoCharM (Multifunctional Nanomaterials Characterization Exploiting EllipsoMetry and Polarimetry). The project brings together international leaders in the field to; promote ellipsometry and polarimetry techniques for nanomaterials characterisation, identify bottlenecks, train new researchers, - in other words, ensure the necessary foundation is in place for the success of Europe’s nano industries. Year-on-year there is a marked increase in the numbers of transplant procedures across the world, but organ donors cannot keep pace with the demand. In the US alone, there are over 130 deaths a week of individuals who have not been lucky enough to receive a donor organ. Today nanotechnology is leading to a breakthrough in the capability to grow 4

production line. and regenerate organs and tissues. The article in this issue by leading Czech experts, Eva Sykova, Sarka Kubinova and Vaclav Vanecek, reviews the areas of new research and development that offer hope to patients experiencing organ failure, that may become mainstream therapies in the near future. Nanotechnology is already used in the food industry. What are the promised benefits, specifically for nano particles, and what are the risks that could arise for consumers as a result? What sort of effects might nano particles have on food and food packaging? These are the questions considered in a study of the Swiss nation, conducted by TASWISS, the Swiss Centre for Technology Assessment. Love them or hate them, wind turbines are here to stay, and need to meet greater and greater challenges in power generation. Blade manufacturers are pressured to build larger and larger blades, exhausting the capabilities of current composite materials. The

emerging field of nanotechnology can offer dramatic benefits for composites applications. This article by Blake Branson, president of sp3 nanotech, introduces the unique properties of nanoparticles, and why their small size is important in imparting new attributes to existing materials. Blake describes the technical hurdles for the use of nanomaterials, and how nanomaterials can improve the performance for new generation wind turbine blades. Given that nanotechnology is deemed to be one of the key technologies of the 21st century, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR Berlin) responsible for the assessment of risks in food, consumer products and chemicals, decided to gain a better understanding of how Germans view of the risks and opportunities of nanotechnology and nanoproducts. To this end they used three different survey methods. Read which applications the Germans felt were not particularly controversial, and where more transparency is sought. NANO MAGAZINE


LATEST NEWS

The latest news in the nano world is exciting, and in this issue we look at • a proposal to create a nanoparticlebased antiviral contraceptive gel that affords both contraception and HIV protection using nanoparticles that carry bee venom, an idea that won a 2010 Grand Challenges Explorations grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; • a powerful electronic sensor that is small, portable, and more sensitive and reliable at detecting many kinds of explosives than any sniffer dog; • a breakthrough in harvesting solar energy heat stored in pavements and roads to melt ice, power streetlights, heat buildings;

• a new nanoscale electricity generator technology that enables mobile phones and heart pacemakers to operate permanently by converting tiny movements of the human body into electrical energy; • modelling at the nanoscale in making progress towards a lead-free society; • fish gelatin for producing semisynthetic tissue that could be used to repair injured bone or cartilage;

• using arrays of nanopores to enable simultaneous testing to take place, in the search for new drugs; • the Iran Nanotech Festival promoting business, engaging with the public, and imparting the excitement of nano to schoolchildren; • where science fiction meets fact – a

• a Danish initiative which aims to communicate the possibilities of nanotechnology to traditional businesses;

breakthrough in 3D holographic imaging technology means that telepresence as seen in Star Wars is now close to becoming reality.

And coming soon…..

‘Inspiring Women’ NANO Magazine is creating a long overdue Hall of Fame on its website, focusing on ‘Inspiring Women’. For some reason, nanoscience and nanotechnology appears to be undeservedly male dominated. NANO magazine will be focusing on some of the dynamic women who are making a difference to the nanoworld, in industry and research. Send YOUR nomination for NANO Magazine’s tribute to ‘Inspiring Women’ to ottilia.saxl@nanomagazine.co.uk

Féréchteh Teherani is the gutsy CEO, Nanovation, France, a company she founded 1999 with the aim of developing a nextgeneration, bio-compatible, opto-semiconductor. According to a recent report from NanoMarkets, Nanovation is now one of the top twelve ZnO players in a world market which is estimated will be worth $2.3 billion by 2016.

LGC Standards introduces reference nanomaterials range With all testing regimes, reliable research requires the use of characterised reference materials. Investigations into the impacts and effects of nanomaterials are now supported by reference materials available from LGC Standards. The reference nanomaterials, released by the European Commission JRC, have been characterised using OECD recommended methods and may serve as:

• Testing materials for reference result and predictive toxicity testing

Professor Vicki Stone is a nanotoxicoolgy expert whose views are sought internationally. Amongst may other responsibilities, she is Director of the Nano Safety research group at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, and Editor-in-chief of the journal Nanotoxicology (http://informahealthcare.com/ nan). Her world–class research is focused on the effects of nanoparticles on cells from the lung, liver, gut and cardiovascular system. DECEMBER 2010

• Performance standard materials for

testing and test method development

• Control materials for safety testing For Nordic customers direct contact details are: LGC Standards AB Tel: +46 (0)33 209060 Email: se@lgcstandards.com For all other enquiries please go to www.lgcstandards.com for your local office. © LGC Limited, 2010. All rights reserved.

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INTERVIEW

Maria Losurdo NANO Magazine’s interview this month is with Dr Maria Losurdo, senior research scientist at the National Council of Research, in Bari, Italy. Her specialism is the use of light in characterising nanoparticles and surfaces, as a way to understand and define their properties. 16

Since 2008, Dr Losurdo has put her knowledge and experience to good use by creating and co-ordinating the NanoCharM project, www.nanocharm. org. During this time, NanoCharM has provided training and awarenessraising, facilitated networking amongst researchers from both industry and academia, and encouraged the sharing of ideas and innovations in optically-based nanocharacterisation techniques, across Europe and beyond. NanoCharM may prove to be one of the most important nanotechnology projects funded by the EU, as the ability to effectively and efficiently characterise nanoparticles and surfaces is critical to the success of nanotechnology-based industries. Maria’s profound knowledge as a scientist has not only inspired her co-workers and project partners, but has also made her much sought after internationally, with visiting professorships in the US and Japan,

and invitations to lecture all over the world. She has recently returned from a three-week stint in China, with the aim of learning from, and sharing knowledge with the much respected Chinese nano community.

D

r Losurdo, would you tell the readers of NANO magazine something about yourself as a young person, the kind of family environment you grew up in, and why you were inspired by science?

I grew up in a typical Italian family with a younger sister and brother, none involved in science, but always asking questions, like “how does this work?” or “how would it work if....?” Those questions made me think “it would be nice if I had the answers”…. Of course, as a result, I was always trying out experiments in our kitchen, and often, as a result, setting things on fire! NANO MAGAZINE


NORTHERN EUROPE

Northern Europe An overview of nanotechnology in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

DENMARK (Pop. 5.5 Million) Denmark established its foothold in nanotechnology in the 1990s with the help of support from the Danish Foundation for Basic Research, and the Danish Research Councils. The country is now host to several prominent international centres, including the MIC in Copenhagen. Other Danish international nanotech centres include the Nano Science Centre at the University of Copenhagen, the iNANO Centre, NanoBioCentrum and the Danish Polymer Centre. Research organisations reflect the country’s economy, which is based on supplying high-quality specialist items, rather than mass production, due to a lack of raw materials and a small home market. Support for nanotechnology research today comes from a number of sources. The Danish Council for Strategic Research, part of the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation is one of these, although the council itself does not authorise funds for research, dependent instead on the Programme Commission which covers Nanoscience, Biotechnology and IT (NABIIT). The Strategic Research Programme for the Interdisciplinary Applications of NABIIT technologies supports the establishment of networks and research initiatives. Research support also comes from the Danish National Research Foundation, the Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health’s inter-ministerial working group on Nanotechnology and Human Heath, and the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation.

Research Centres The Danish Technological Institute is an independent, not-for-profit institution which leads two groups: the Centre for Microtechnology and Surface Analysis and the NanoFactory, a commercial Molecular Vapour Deposition facility. (dti. dk) 20

DFM, the Danish National Metrology Institute, is a private company within the Technical University of Denmark. The DFM acts to support industry with calibration, reference materials and know-how on metrology at an international level. The Institute develops and maintains national standards within mass, length, nano, electricity, acoustics, electrolytic conductivity, pH and optical radiometry. (dfm.dtu.dk) DTU is also home to the internationally acclaimed research centre, MIC, the Department of Micro and Nanotechnology. Work within this centre includes Lab-on-a-chiplasers and nanoimprint lithography, nanointegration, nanoprobes and theoretical nanotechnology concentrating on nanoelectronic components. (mic.dtu.dk) Rounding up the DTU’s nanotech activities is the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy where work is conducted on polymer surfaces and interfaces, nano and micro structured interfaces, superconductors, magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructured materials and ceramics. (risoe.dk )

NanoNetworks There are two main Danish nanotechnology networks: NaNet, and Nano Øresund. The purpose of NaNet is to build bridges between the Danish industry and research institutions

within the area of nanotechnology. NaNet’s mission is to create platforms for the exchange of information on nanotechnology to facilitate the utilization on all levels of society, from research and education to industrial application and development. (dtu.dk/ Centre/NaNet/English.aspx) Nano Øresund brings together and promotes the nano resources in the Øresund region. It is a network organisation concentrating on intensifying the commercial development of nanotechnology in the Øresund region, the network had recently been renamed Nano Connect Scandinavia, with centres in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. (oresund.org) (The Nanometer Structure Consortium is a joint venture between Denmark and Sweden, and described below in the Swedish section).

Universities Nanotechnology research in Denmark takes place primarily within the main public universities and research institutes in Denmark, such as the nanocentres and networks already mentioned: mainly within the Technical University of Denmark, University of Aarhus, University of Copenhagen and Risø National Laboratory, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Denmark, Ålborg University and Southern Danish University. NANO MAGAZINE


Superhydrofobic coating on the casing of a hearing aid system deposited by molecular vapour deposition of FDTS (perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane).

NanoVation

nanotechnology for Danish industry – with a twist Top Danish companies work together on product improvement through the application of advanced nanotechniques Daniel Nilsson Lindstedt and Leif Hoejslet Christensen, DTI

The objective

Introduction

The Danish Technological Institute (DTI) has recently launched a new initiative, in the form of an innovation consortium, in which the DTI partners up with nine Danish companies and six international universities/institutions. The goal of this highlevel consortium is to develop novel multifunctional surface coatings. This includes coatings that would render the surface of an existing material super-hydrophobic/oleophobic, scratch resistant, and / or corrosion resistant.

The overall objective of the project is to develop and implement a number of physical and chemical nano engineering methods and processes which offer novel functional properties to both new and existing products – properties that are either unattainable or extremely difficult to obtain with naturally occurring bulk materials and conventional processes.

The twist is given by the fact that several of the participating companies are part of the Danish design tradition who wish to develop surface coatings that either preserve the intended design aspect, or even offer new design features previously not available. To help merge nanotechnology and industrial design, the consortium is utilizing models from the field of convergence research, where previously distinct industry or market sectors merge to form a new competitive environment. 24 25

Industrial design and human perception will be included in the development process in order to devise solutions that are not only technically relevant but lead to products where the perception and emotional impact are especially agreeable to the users. Therefore, NanoVation will bridge the gap between the new enabling technologies and the more mature technologies, and be integrated with macro-based processes into a coherent process line, operated as often as possible outside a dedicated cleanroom. NANO MAGAZINE


The project also addresses a number of clearly defined industrial needs, in relation to multifunctional surfaces. The multi functionality will be obtained by micro and nano structuring, and by chemical modifications of surfaces using world-class processing tools. A recent grant from the Danish Ministry of Science under the Research Infrastructure Programme will ensure access to such facilities.

guidance from NanoVation. The third is where the project actively combines the knowledge from the first two to achieve new functionalities. It also includes an exploitation of the possibilities of scaling up processes to meet the needs of the industry. The fourth package will focus on innovation and convergence concepts, and specifically convergence of product design and nano fabrication technology. The partners of the NanoVation project (see box) are from different markets, but in many cases common denominators in project goals can be found. Some of the project areas are listed below: • Protective super hydrophobic coatings (i.e. from sweat) for wearable consumer electronic devices • Anti corrosive protection of metals in electrical components

Research and innovation Structuring and chemically altering the interface between a solid and a fluid on a micro- or nanoscale can have a profound impact on the interfacial properties, as well as on electromagnetic interactions. In this case, classical design methods are clearly inadequate. One recent example related to hydrophobicity showed that overhanging structures further enhance the liquid repellent effect to a point where even oily liquids roll off the surface – something of high industrial interest. A novel tool for defining these structures is based on topology optimization -an iterative algorithmic design approach pioneered by DTU, the Technical University of Denmark. Consumer products have to fulfill a number of technical functionalities. However, it is often mandatory that they also convey a positive emotional impact to the user. Aesthetics is an important part of this. In this project, we will also ensure a convergence of design for emotional impact and multidomain engineering. The methodology will be based on the preparation of well defined samples that represents different combinations of functionalities (e.g. appearance, weight and thermal conductance) enabling consumer preferences to be established early on.

Research plan and expected outcome The working plan for NanoVation is divided into four work packages. The first two are in the existing research fields of physical and chemical nanostructuring, which NanoVation takes as its starting point. The R&D partners also have a strong background here, which they will be able raise to new levels under DECEMBER 2010

• Biocompatible surfaces for use in medical and/or food processing equipment • Easy-to-clean surfaces for medical and and/or food processing equipment • Anti-fingerprint coating of e.g. metal parts with a distinct design purpose • Novel user interface functionalities integrated in the surface. • Novel decorative design elements achieved by nano-structuring/coating We expect to follow up this article with a report on the conclusions at the end of the project, which is set to finish in the summer of 2013.

Partner facts R&D partners The Danish Technological Institute (DTI, www.dti.dk) has a clear focus on emerging technologies with a short to medium term impact on innovation possibilities for Danish industry. Nanotechnology is a significant example of this. The DTU Nanotech (www.nanotech.dtu.dk) is a center of excellence in micro- and nanotechnology, with a very strong focus on crossdisciplinary research. The DTU Nanotech research is strongly supported by the DTU Danchip cleanroom infrastructure (www.danchip.dtu.dk) equipped with >130 pieces of specialized equipment for material processing and characterization. DTI have established offices and laboratory facilities at DTU Danchip. The Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, iNANO, Aarhus University (inano.au.dk/) The iNANO center conducts interdisciplinary research within the area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. iNANO provides a framework in which leading-edge expertise in physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biology and

medicine is combined. Laser Zentrum Hannover (LZH, www.lzh.de) Research projects of the LZH Nanotechnology Department are focused on the development of novel laser-based nanotechnologies and their applications in photonics, biology, and medicine. ETH - Zürich (www.entrepreneurship.ethz.ch) The main research area is Entrepreneurial Management and Leadership focusing on the topic of Business Model Innovation, and the related topics of organizational culture and change management. Lund University, Industrial Design (www.ide.lth.se/research/) The department of design sciences pursues research and education focusing on the interaction between people, technology and design. The Institute of Nanotechnology (IoN; www.nano.org.uk) in the UK has since 1997 been a major player in the communication of the benefits of the new nanotechnologies. NANO Magazine (NANO; www.nanomagazine.co.uk) The magazine of choice of the nano community

Company partners Bang & Olufsen A/S is world renowned for its distinctive range of quality audio, video and multimedia products. DPA Microphones A/S is a leading manufacturer of high quality condenser microphone solutions for professional applications. Elos Pinol A/S is one of the leading manufacturers for the medical device industry (e.g. dental, drug delivery, orthopedics, spine and hearing aid). Widex A/S is among the world leaders in the development and production of hearing aids systems (e.g. the world’s first digital hearing aid (1995) and the world’s smallest hearing aids (1996)). Eva Denmark A/S focus on design, function, and material in their development of kitchen ware (introduced the Teflon coating on frying pans in 1964). Georg Jensen A/S a fore-figure in Scandinavian design style for consumer products. Varo Process Equipment A/S specializes in designing and manufacturing turnkey systems for food productions where gentle mixing and short processing times are required. Bilwinco A/S supplies fully automated weighing, filling and packaging systems for the food industry. Bjørnkjær A/S develops pressure vessels including e.g. reactor vessels, heaters and coolers for liquid and gas. 24 25


Nanotechnology in

Finland Green Semiconductor Disk Laser (SDL)

Famous to the outside world for its telecommunications, paper and wood industries, Finland surprises by the extent of its commitment to nanotechnology, and its remarkable achievements in aerosols, photonics, electronics and nanodeposition techniques. Nanotechnology is recognized as one of Finland’s future key technologies providing product improvement and added value. Nano know-how is embedded within about 170 research groups, and there are over 100 companies already selling their nanotechnology based products. In addition, there are at least 200 companies at the early stages of exploring the benefits of using nanotechnology. Basic and applied research, industrial R&D and related innovation activities have received 120 M€ public funding during the last few years. In the latest 26 27

large scale review which took place at the end of 2008 (conducted for the Tekes’ FinNano Programme – Tekes is the main source of R&D funding in Finland), industrial and private investment in nanotech already exceeded the amount of public funding. The same study revealed that the turnover of nanotech companies was over 300 M€, with 60% coming from exports; and the amount of skilled labour working in nanotech was around 3000.

businesses. Tasked by the Ministry of

In Finland, the Nanotechnology Cluster Programme focuses on supporting the growth of nanotechnology-based

or contact the Nanotechnology Cluster

Employment and Economy to know and understand the operational environment of nanotech businesses, the Cluster’s eight offices reach over 90% of Finnish nano, micro and new materials-related organizations, forming the ‘OSKE gateway to Finnish nano expertise’. For those interested in nano expertise in Finland, check www. nanocluster.fi, www.nanobusiness.fi Programme’s Coordination office nanocluster@culminatum.fi NANO MAGAZINE


Spearheading Finnish Nanotechnology Some of the leading Finnish nanotechnologies, research centres and companies are briefly introduced below:

Aerosols Finnish aerosol-related know-how is based on world class research carried out in the University of Helsinki (atmospheric aerosols), Tampere University of Technology (industrial applications for fine particle measurements like liquid flame sprays), Aalto University (new aerosol processes for producing carbon nanotubes and carbon nano buds), the University of Eastern Finland (health effects), the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (industrial aerosol processes and related safety), the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (safety issues) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (health effects). All the key players publish in highly regarded scientific journals and have been awarded numerous international prizes. Industrial aerosol applications include, for example, particle detection and synthesis, as well as coating applications. For more information on the aerosol community, including research organizations and companies, visit www.fineparticleforum.com

Nano surfaces and materials, including atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition (ALD) know-how was invented in Finland in the 1970s. Research in the Universities of Helsinki and Aalto. Research in these universities has continued to be critically important in supporting the ongoing development and commercialisation of the technology. The industrial relevance of this knowhow, demonstrated in an article published back in 1994 in Applied Surface Science by Professor Markku Leskelä, still forms the basis for some widely used processes for the fabrication of various compounds, and the fact that current line widths in the electronics industry are still achievable only by using ALD technology. The leading SME players in ALD in Finland are Beneq and Picosun, who both provide world class ALD equipment for various industrial and research needs. VTT also provides expertise in applying ALD, for example in MEMS, barriers, packaging etc. The Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory (ASTRaL) of Lappeenranta University of Technology has developed continuous ALD processes and methods

DECEMBER 2010

that allow deposition on moving flexible sheets. ASTRaL is working together with companies from the paper and packaging industries to develop roll-to-roll ALD system for their particular needs. Nano surfaces and materials have been identified as the basis of operation for the largest group of Finnish nanotech companies, with numerous different industrial applications. Examples of leading SME’s, in addition to Beneq and Picosun, are Picodeon, Carbodeon, DIARC-Technology, Millidyne and A. Graveolens. The main stakeholders in academia include Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology, the University of Helsinki, the University of Jyväskylä, the University of Eastern Finland and VTT. For more information, visit www.nanobusiness.fi or contact nanobusiness@culminatum.fi

Printed intelligence Printed Intelligence adds functionality to traditional paper and printing industry products, but also enables the creation of new types of user experiences through its disruptive manufacturing technology. To fill the gap between research and global end user companies and to speed up commercialization processes, the PrintoCent Pilot Factory was established in 2009 to support business development in the area of Printed Intelligence. The Pilot Factory offers a world class production environment, with a special focus on R2R and hybrid production, optical measurements and multiple applications ranging from printed passive and active electronic components to microfluidic solutions, photovoltaics, OLEDs, sensors, indicators and Point of Care diagnostics. PrintoCent is located in Oulu, in the premises of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, the University of Oulu and Oulu University of Applied Sciences. In addition, high level know-how on printed intelligence is also found in the Turku, Tampere and Helsinki Regions. At the moment, industrialization is taking its first steps. For more information, visit www.printocent.com

Photonics Finland has a strong photonics cluster, with over 50 SMEs working in optoelectronics and optics, with a combined turnover of 300 M€ and

1700 employees. Traditional business areas since the 1970s have been optical instrumentation for the paper & pulp and wood industries, as well as analyzers for medical and environmental applications. Newer business areas from the 1990s have included diffractive optics (Nanocomp), and lasers (CoherentFinland, Modulight, EpiCrystals, Corelase, and RefleKron) for various applications. The key research players are in the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) at Tampere University of Technology, the University of Eastern Finland, Aalto University, the University of Oulu and VTT. As an example, ORC employs 50 researchers and has made investments in scientific equipment of over 22 M€, being the largest university-based research centre in Europe in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) crystal growth technique. Furthermore ORC has played a seminal role in creating a new laser manufacturing industry in Finland (for example, the above listed laser companies). For more information, visit www.orc.tut.fi

Nanotech in electronics and MEMS Nanotechnology in electronics and in MEMS forms the largest cluster of scientific nanotech know-how in Finland. The core of this know-how is at Aalto University, VTT and the University of Helsinki. In addition, the University of Eastern Finland has notable graphene related activities. On the whole, Finnish electronics-related commercial applications are well-known internationally. Descriptions of the research activities of these organisations can be found at www.nanobusiness.fi

Forest products and nanocellulose VTT, Aalto University and UPM have kicked off the Finnish Centre for Nanocellulosic Technologies, which is a well resourced, world class unit focusing on related research and applications. In addition, the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä is actively commercialising some of the first products based on nanocellulose.

26 27


FEATURE TITLE

Nano in Food and Food Packaging:

a very Swiss Perspective Nanotechnology is now already in the food industry. What are the promised benefits specifically for nano particles, and what are the risks that could arise for consumers as a result? What sort of effects might nano particles have on food packaging? These are the questions considered in a study conducted by TASWISS – The Swiss Centre for Technology Assessment. Nanoparticles - already on our tables? We take it for granted that the salt and pepper that we use doesn’t clump together and block the dispenser, but can be sprinkled finely over our chips – one of the welcome comforts we have modern food technology to thank for. This is due to silicic acid, also known as amorphous silicon dioxide, or E 551. This powdery material is able to bind moisture, thereby preventing the grains sticking together, and has been used for decades in different seasoning mixtures. This long-established separating agent is at the heart of the debate over nano-applications: its components are between 5 and 50 nanometres in size (where 1 nanometre is 10-9 metres), which therefore puts them into the same order of size as so-called nano particles. That is the name given to particles that are between one to one hundred nanometres in size. Nano particles are produced in the manufacture of this separating agent, and rapidly aggregate into larger particles. Although this mixture of small and aggregated particles has been tested, there are some DECEMBER 2010

experts who say that new studies on the risk to health, looking specifically at particle size as essential. In Switzerland, as in Europe generally, food cannot contain any engineered nano particles – such as those derived from metallic or mineral substances, even though the same substances may be permitted in a larger, macro-scale form. The study by TA-SWISS, the Centre for Technology Assessment, therefore focused its attention on additives that have been used in food production for years in the country. In particular, the additives researched are silicon dioxide, which has already been referred to above, together with corotenoids and micelles. The latter are often used in the form of nano capsules as sheathing for lightsensitive or fast-oxidising substances. Food scientists want to use this trick to help products take on new properties; these new kinds of foods are what TASWISS focused on in its study. Although adding nano-scale metallic or mineral additives to foods themselves is prohibited in Europe, foods can still come into contact with them. The reason is that the packaging industry is taking

a growing interest in the advantages that can be derived from nano particles embedded in plastic. These can be metallic or mineral nano particles, and are found, for example, in PET bottles, or in the foil wrapped around chocolate bars. The TA-SWISS study did not therefore limit itself to exploring the opportunities and risks of nano in food, in the narrower sense. It aimed to clarify where the potential of nanotechnology lies in the food packaging industry – and to what extent there is a possibility of food picking up nanoparticles from direct content with packaging, and whether dangers might arise from this.

Interest on the world market – caution in Switzerland There are widely differing views on the economic potential of nano in food and nano in packaging. The fact is that in Switzerland people are sceptical about a food that relies heavily on technology in its preparation. On the other hand, nanotechnology can come into its own, as it does offer the potential of innovative and environmentally friendly packaging. 28 29


Nanotechnology In Regenerative Medicine â?ž

Vaclav Vanecek, Sarka Kubinova, Eva Sykova

The regeneration, replacement and repair of damaged tissues are the major aims of regenerative medicine. Thanks to their exceptional properties, nanodevices and nano-scale materials are gaining a significant position in medicine, in areas such as tissue engineering, cell therapy and drug and gene delivery. For example, magnetic nanoparticles enable cell labeling and can be tracked non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the case of nanofibres, the tremendous interest currently shown in them is motivated in particular by their ability to mimic the extracellular matrix, the natural environment of cells in the tissues. There is no doubt that advances in the nanometre realm will revolutionize medicine, and some promising products and approaches using nanotechnology that may help in regenerating the tissuesof the human body are highlighted in this article.

â?ž

Year-on-year there is a marked increase in the numbers of transplant procedures across the world, but organ donations cannot keep pace with the demand. In the US alone, there are over 130 deaths a week of individuals who have not been lucky enough to receive a donor organ. Today nanotechnology is leading to a breakthrough in the capability to grow and regenerate organs and tissues. The following article reviews the areas of new research and development that offers hope to patients experiencing organ failure, that will be realised in the very near future.

32

NANO MAGAZINE


A German view of

the risks and opportunities of nanotechnology and nanoproducts Edited by Mark Lohmann, Astrid Epp, Gaby-Fleur Bรถl

Nanotechnology is deemed to be one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The hopes and expectations placed in it as a driver of innovation are enormous. At the same time, knowledge about the impact of nanotechnology on human health has been largely speculative up to now. The fact that new materials produced on the basis of nanotechnology are increasingly being used in the production process and in consumer products, means there is a growing need for an urgent examination of the safety and risk issues of nanotechnology. By using three different survey methods, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR Berlin) responsible for the assessment of risks regarding food, consumer products and chemicals, has been able to demonstrate that nano is not particularly controversial, in automotive applications, textiles, and to a lesser extent, medicine and cosmetics, especially where benefits are perceived; but transparency is sought for nano in foods.

1. The experts view: Results of a Delphi Study To pre-structure the technology area, nanotechnology, on the basis of potential risks through the involvement of various social groups, a Delphi Expert Survey of the use of nanomaterials in food and consumer products was carried out in 2006. The Delphi method is founded on the assumption that experts assess risk on the basis of information which may be of differing quality (e.g. own research, literature, media reports) and which comes from different assessment contexts (e.g. scientific discipline, interests, attitudes). The anonymous exchange of knowledge over several rounds has the advantage that feedback processes are possible which encourage DECEMBER 2010

participants to re-examine their own evaluation. The process in this case, was repeated two times. As a rule, as the spectrum of assessments is reduced, trends become clearer. Seventy experts from research, industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations were systematically questioned, and identified current or potential uses of nanomaterials, and assigned them to concrete applications.

Based on the knowledge available on exposure and hazard potential, the applications were classified according to the level of probable risk. Concerning the hazard potential of nano particles, the experts did not think that overall harmful effects are to be expected from nanoproducts. When it comes to the use of nanomaterials in food, degradable or well-documented substances like silicon dioxide are deemed to be safe. 37


New Generation Wind Turbine Blades Nanocomposites Meet the Challenge

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