ISSUE TWENTY OCTOBER 2010
THE MAGAZINE FOR SMALL SCIENCE
Featuring extracts from NANO Magazine Issue 20: Nanotechnology - changing our perception of disability Inkjet Printing A longâ€“awaited breakthough by Eastman Kodak in the speed of inket printing techniques
Nanomedicine â€“ Offering more than new therapies? Donald Bruce asks us to think about the medical dilemmas of advances in diagnosis and monitoring
The Editorial More about the exciting content of Issue 20
Issue 20 also features:
Printed Organic Electronics ISORG aims to capitalise on this new technological field
Carbon Nanotubes On the threshold of realising their promise?
Interview Markus Antonietti, the deceptively charming and relaxed director of the Max Planck Institute of Surfaces and Colloids, reveals his steely side
Country Profile Germany tops the nanotech funding league in Europe, unwavering in its commitment to nano for the benefit of industry
Medicine Work on electrospun nanofibres offers less scarring from burns and wounds
PLUS: SOME ETHICAL DILEMMAS EMANATING FROM ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSIS AND MONITORING
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Read articles from Issue 16 - FREE ONLINE
Cantilever nanosensors – a breakthrough in the fight against drug-resistant infectious diseases Read what’s driving the development of new Technologies to combat hospital ‘superbugs’.
PLUS... Interview with Peter Singer Why nanotechnology should be for the benefit of the many, not the few. Read articles from Issue 17 - FREE at www.nanomagazine.co.uk
Clean coal - an oxymoron, or a nanoreality?
PLUS... Designing Your Meal... One Atom at a Time!
Read about how the whole field of clean coal technologies has become a national research and development priority in Australia, China, USA and the EU.
If only you knew what was involved in the making of your next meal!
Read articles from Issue 18 - FREE at www.nanomagazine.co.uk
Carbon Nanomaterials for Transport Read how carbon nanotubes, nanofibres and graphene are becoming increasingly important in many transport applications including aerospace, automotive, marine and rail.
PLUS... Prizewinning nanoparticlebased ‘sharkskin’ for aeroplanes, ships and wind energy plants.
002 www.nanomagazine.co.uk to read these articles - and more - FREE! Visit
In this month's full issue of NANO
nano Issue 20, October 2010 Managing Director: Ottilia Saxl firstname.lastname@example.org Assistant Editor: Fraser Shand email@example.com Sales and Marketing Assistant: Jana Perlet firstname.lastname@example.org Business Development Manager: Chris Arnold email@example.com Design: Different Voice www.differentvoice.co.uk Website design: Tobias Haag firstname.lastname@example.org Sales Liaison: Scott McMillan email@example.com Contact Print and Online Advertising: firstname.lastname@example.org Subscriptions: email@example.com Contributors Laura Cabrera, Charles Sturt University; Professor El Rafaie Kenawy, Tanta University; Ed P Furlani, Eastman Kodak; Jana Perlet, Nanoposts.com; Laurent Jamet, ISORG; Donald Bruce, Edinburgh Ethics; Ottilia Saxl, NANO Magazine. ©2010 ION Publishing Ltd 6 The Alpha Centre, Stirling University Innovation Park Stirling FK9 4NF Scotland UK Article contributions to NANO magazine come from a range of sources and while we always strive to ensure accuracy in reporting, NANO accepts no responsibility for inaccuracies that may arise. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect the views of NANO magazine or IoN Publishing Ltd.
014 from electronic and optical devices to catalytic and lightweight materials.
only on projects which may lead to curing the ills
Printed Organic Electronics – ISORG Rides the New Technology Wave ..........................034 Market reports predict a brilliant future for printed organic electronics, with revenues similar to the semiconductor industry within 15 years! ISORG is a company that aims to capitalise on this new technological field.
Surgeons in Florida perform first knee surgery using new nanosensor technology ....................................................013
Carbon Nanotubes .......................................037 Carbon nanotubes are on the threshold of realising their promise for adding functionality, conductivity and strength to many existing and future products. What are the real projections for this exciting nanomaterial?
faster healing of burns and wounds.
Nanotechnology and the Disability Paradigm ....................................014 Laura Cabrera argues that nanotechnology is not about turning disabled people into superhumans, but about providing them with the means to become fully integrated into society.
Ultrafast Continuous Inkjet Printing ........031 Ed Furlani describes a breakthough by Eastman Kodak in the speed of inket printing techniques, courtesy of observations made by a Scottish physicist way back in 1855!
Robots could have feelings too - with new artificial skin ..................................................08 Would a molecular horse trot, pace or glide? ................................................09 Window panes that could double as solar panels .............................................010 Graphene may hold the key to DNA sequencing .....................................011 Nanoporous gas storage that’s good enough to eat! ....................................012
INTERVIEW MATERIALS EAM - Excellence in New Material Design ............................................029 Read how a German cluster focussed on the Engineering of Advanced Materials is closing the gap between fundamental research and realworld applications in technology fields ranging
Markus Antonietti, Director, Max Planck Institute of Surfaces and Colloids, Potsdam-Golm ............................024 Deceptively charming and relaxed, Professor Antonietti is as unremitting in his drive to keep the Max Planck Institute at Golm at the forefront of world class research, as he is determined to work
of the planet.
Germany .......................................................019 Top of the nanotech funding league in Europe, Germany is unflinchingly committed to nano-based innovation to ensure its industry retains a competitive edge in global markets.
Electrospun Nanofibres – Less Scarring from Burns and Wounds .............................032 Professor El-Refaie Kenawy describes pioneering work in the use of nanofibres as a drug delivery system, and their potential for reduced scarring and
ETHICS Nanomedicine – Offering more than new therapies? .....................................................027 Donald Bruce asks us to think about the medical dilemmas of advances in diagnosis and monitoring.
REGULARS Editorial..........................................................004 Events .............................................................006 What’s new in nano ......................................008 Nanoart...........................................................042
L IA R ITO D E
Nanotechnology – changing the perception of disability The potential for nanotechnology to create superhumans is the subject of much debate and controversy. There are few people who could be termed perfect physical specimens, however they are defined, and many of us seek to have what we perceive as our less than perfect physical characteristics, repaired or camouflaged. This kind of intervention is becoming increasingly desirable, and, as we understand more about how the body works, increasingly effective and undetectable.
So, as some look to the applications of nanotechnology to medicine to make the ageing process more bearable, while others look to it in terms of dealing with battlefield wounds quickly and effectively, while others yet again see nanomedicine as essential to a successful conquest of space. However, few give much thought to what it might mean for a very large section of the population, namely those that are classified as disabled by society. There are estimated to be 650 million people who fall into this group, and who, because of this labelling, may in some way or other be excluded from making their rightful contribution to that society. By being classified as disabled by society, does this condemn so-called ‘disabled’ people less likely to be able to fully participate in that society? Furthermore, what is the role of nanotechnology, in addressing the needs of the disabled. Is it to ‘right’ physical or mental deviations from the human ‘norm’ (in whatever way that ‘norm’ is defined), or to enable the
disabled in other ways to participate fully in society? On page 14 of this issue of NANO magazine, Laura Cabrera of Charles Sturt University tackles this issue head on, by discussing what defines disability today, and explores the role nanotechnology may have in overcoming what is termed the ‘disability paradigm’. She argues that what nanotechnology offers is not about turning disabled people into superhumans, but about providing them with the means to become fully integrated citizens of the planet. On the subject of nanomedicine, Professor ElKenawy, working in the University of Tanda in Egypt, describes on page 32 how we might better treat wounds and burns using nanofibres produced by electrospinning. With the aid of an electric field, fine fibres of biodegradable polymer can be directly sprayed/spun onto the injured skin to form a fibrous mat dressing. This lets wounds heal by encouraging the formation of normal skin growth and eliminate the formation of scar
tissue which would occur with traditional treatments. These polymer nanofibres can also carry and deliver antimicrobials to the site of the trauma, reducing the potential for infection. Other nanomaterials used for drug delivery include carbon nanotubes, but that is not their only application, by a long shot! On page 37, Jana Perlet of Nanoposts.com, the wellrespected nano market research organisation, reviews the properties of carbon nanotubes and their myriad potential applications, only held back by problems of up scaling, impurities and characterization – as are many other novel nanoparticles. However, with decreasing prices, better production methods and a willingness to incorporate them in products, carbon nanotubes are beginning now to realise some of their early promise. Investors take note! On the theme of accelerating the industrial applications of nanoparticles, Germany (see page 19) is the subject of our country focus.
PRINTED ORGANIC ELECTRONICS IS PREDICTED TO BE THE NEXT BIG WAVE FOR THE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
There is no doubt that nanotechnology is viewed as an important facet in maintaining the competitiveness of German industry, and presently Germany is the largest provider of public funds for nanotechnology research in Europe. The 2010 Action Plan is specifically aimed at encouraging companies to explore the potential of nanoparticles in product innovation through overcoming the hurdles to their adoption. Targets include the production of sufficiently large quantities of nanoscale particles for industry use; new processes to produce thermodynamically stable dispersions that can be integrated in the process chain (as the stable dispersion of nanoparticles is a great problem in a large number of industrial applications); and improved industrial processes for applying novel nanoparticle coatings. Reliable online analysis is also essential in order to make the processes and procedures reproducible, and the development of methods to better characterize nanopowders. The success of the German industrial engine depends on the innovations emerging from its many research Institutions. One of these ‘innovation suppliers’ which has grown remarkably in status since its founding in 1992 is the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces. Although members of the Max Planck Society are charged with early stage rather than commercially applicable research, interfaces and colloids are what producers of almost every kind of good that you can think of, from household products to foodstuffs, cosmetics, industrial paints and coatings, needs to know about. So they were tapping a rich seam of interest from the very beginning. Much of the success of this particular Max
Planck is also due to its founders. Professor Markus Antonietti, interviewed on page 24, one of Germany’s leading materials scientists, has been involved since the beginning and is now Director with overall responsibility. Read about his secrets for success, and of the early days of the Max Planck, and why Professor Antonietti sees his research future in better methods of energy generation. Still on the topic of nanotechnology success in Germany, the development of a Cluster of Excellence (EAM) based in the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, focussing on the Engineering of Advanced Materials exemplifies the level of commitment to and investment in high-performance materials for application in everything from electronic and optical devices to catalytic and lightweight materials. So convinced is the German Government in the importance of this area to business, that a colossal 40 m euros was initially invested which enabled the engagement of 120 new doctoral and postdoctoral scientists, 13 new professors, and the purchase of state-of-the-art scientific equipment! Further funding from alliances with leading firms such as Bayer, as well as 22m euros from the Bavarian state and federal government, has enabled investment in infrastructure such as laboratories. Read more about this exciting initiative and what it offers industry on page 29. Printed Organic Electronics is predicted to be the next big wave for the electronics industry. Over the last ten years, the major organic chemistry industry players have been investing significantly in the technology which enables multiple applications and can address a wide range of markets, such as displays and
lighting with OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes), energy generation and storage from organic photovoltaics and printed batteries, packaging with RFID tags and healthcare, using low cost sensors. First market reports predict a brilliant future to this technology with revenues similar to the semiconductor industry within 15 years. Read on page 34 about one company, ISORG, spun out of CEA Nanomaterials Technologies at Grenoble, specially created to capitalise on this new technological field. In this issue of NANO Magazine, readers will notice that more space has been devoted to news of novel nano-based products and applications, as evidence of the increase in exciting new applications of nanotechnology in healthcare, energy and the environment. We are also pleased that our nano art draws its inspiration from the natural world, and shows that something as unprepossessing as a horsefly, possesses amazing natural beauty in the form and function of its organs and tissues when viewed through the microscope. We looked forward to showing more nanoart inspired by nature in future issues. n
Apology In the print edition of last issue of NANO magazine, the name of the author, Professor Bharat Bhushan, was omitted from the article entitled ‘Biomimetics – turning Nature’s Successes into Gold’. Professor Bhushan
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Events Calendar EVERY MONTH WE HIGHLIGHT THE LEADING CONFERENCES AND SUMMITS WHERE INDUSTRY EXPERTS, ACADEMICS AND POLICY MAKERS CONVENE. October 5 Nanotechnology in Medicine and Biotechnology, London The event will explore the role of nanotechnology in advancing medicine and biosensing techniques. Questions addressed in the presentations include: What are the recent developments in nanotechnology? What are the current medical and healthcare needs? What are the existing and future applications of nanotechnology in medicine and healthcare? What can Nanotechnology offer medicine and healthcare in the future? www.events.imeche.org/EventView.aspx?EventID=772 October 10-13 ‘Year of Nano’, presented by Lockheed Martin and the Richard E Smalley Institute, Rice University On the 25th anniversary of the discovery of Buckminsterfullerene, the Smalley Institute has declared 2010 the ‘Year of Nano’. The Smalley Institute is expanding its program line-up from standard seminars and short courses to include the Houston Art Car Parade, a DC Congressional Reception and an 8-week Continuing Studies Course. www.buckyball.smalley.rice.edu October 12-14 NANOCON 2010, Olomouc, Czech Republic Oriented on nanomaterials, their properties, characteristics and applications in different areas, including biotechnology and medicine. NANOCON 2010 will hold five sessions, divided into subsessions, depending on the focus of registered papers. The conference will include a plenary session with leading foreign and Czech nanoscientists. www.nanocon.cz/en October 19-20 MicroManufacturing Live UK, Coventry An event for manufacturers of precision micro or nanocomponents. The show is a global showcase for everything to do with the mass manufacture of small to micro precision parts, including making-toorder, or the supply the machinery to mill, cut or mould. www.micromanu.com/x/mmliveuk.html October 19-20 Mid-Atlantic Micro/Nano Alliance Symposium, John Hopkins University This Special Topics Symposium explores the commercialization of micro- and nano-technologies and microsystems research. The symposium is intended for anyone interested in aligning research programs with current market and customer needs, in developing, marketing and transitioning current technology, or in fostering and nurturing innovation for commercial adoption. www.midatlanticmana.com October 19-21 MATERIALICA 2010, Munich Europe’s top event for material-driven and provider-oriented product innovations, focussing on the important sectors of engineering and materials such as composites, lightweight metal design, high performance and functional ceramics and surfaceand nanotechnology. www.materialica.com
October 20-22 NanotechItaly 2010, Venice An international conference jointly organised by AIRI/Nanotec IT, the National Research Council (CNR) and Veneto Nanotech. It will provide a comprehensive picture of nanotechnology activity, perspectives and needs in Italy; present the latest developments and worldwide trends in research, applications and governance; and foster debate amongst representatives of industry, research, the finance and government. www.nanotechitaly.it October 23-28 Nanomedicine: Reality Now and Soon, ESF-UB Conference, Sant Feliu de Guixols, Spain This conference aims to discuss the clinical utility of those areas of nanomedicine which are close to application or already clinically applied / on the market. Invited international experts active in nanomedicine development from industry, clinic and academia will give in-depth lectures on the state-of-the-art, including a critical analysis of the likely impact on human healthcare. www.esf.org/activities/esf-conferences/details/ 2010/confdetail329.html?conf=329&year=2010 October 23-25 NanoMedicine 2010, Beijing With the theme of “Integrative Nanotechnology for Biomedicine”, this is a dedicated event for the nanotechnology community, and aims to offer professionals in the field of nanomedicine a multidisciplinary platform to learn more about the latest scientific updates and current industry standards. www.bitlifesciences.com/nanomedicine2010/ October 25-29 Iran Nano Festival 2010, Tehran The event covers discovering the research and industrial potential applications of nanotechnology and introducing them to the market, fostering research-industry linkages and collaborations in the field of nanotechnology, providing nanotechnology companies with the opportunity to participate in international markets, and raising public knowledge of nanotechnology. www.festival.nano.ir/index.php November 02-04 BioNanoMed 2010, Krems, Austria Focussed on the use of nanotechnology in medicine and biotechnology, the main topics of this meeting will be “Nanoparticles and Nanocarriers”, “Nanostructured Materials”, “Nanotoxicology” and “Synthetic Biology”. Leading experts from the European and US nano communities will present on current knowledge related to these areas. www.bionanomed.at November 8-9 NanoIsrael, Tel Aviv, Israel It is our great pleasure to invite you to join us at NanoIsrael 2010. This showcase for Israel’s excellence in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology will cover: energy, water and the environment, nanomaterials, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. www.kenes.com/nano
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â—Šnano November 16-18 NANOSAFE 2010, Grenoble, France The objectives of the conference will be to make available the latest progress and future trends in the domain of the safe production and use of nanomaterials. Topics include: Exposure Assessment, Characterization, Detection and Monitoring, Nanomaterials Life Cycle, Toxicology and Environmental Impact. www.nanosafe.org December 8-10 Nanotechnology Innovation Summit, Washington, DC In celebration of its 10th anniversary, the National Nanotechnology Initiative will hold a summit at the Gaylord National Convention Center, bringing together the nation's leadership in nanotechnology research, development, implementation, policy and finance along with a showcase of top technologies generated with NNI support. www.nsti.org/events/NNI December 8 3rd Bangalore Nano, India The conference will address a range of issues pertaining to research, technology development, skills requirement, institutions involved, risk issues, regulatory & governance structure, investment and collaborations between academia, R&D & industry. It will accentuate on the integrated roles of technologies, applications and market for successful commercialization of nanotechnology. www.bangalorenano.in
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Surgeons perform first knee surgery using new nanosensor technology he first advanced sensor-assisted knee surgery in the world has been performed at Holy Cross Hospital in Fort Lauderdale in Florida, USA. The new sensor technology is designed to improve patient recovery and overall implant function, and was used through a collaboration with OrthoSensor, Inc. in Fort Lauderdale.
According to Dr. Martin Roche, Chief of Orthopedic Robotics at Holy Cross Hospital and Surgical Director of the Orthopedic Institute at Holy Cross, whose team performed the surgery, “The most advanced intelligent knee surgery now incorporates computer assisted alignment, customized robotic implant positioning and optimized sensor assisted soft tissue balancing.” This is
good news for the 600,000 patients who undergo knee replacement surgery each year. The use of embedded nanosensors during minimally invasive surgery, coupled with robotic technology, allows the surgeon to customize the surgery for each individual patient's knee condition. The surgery is performed with a MAKO Surgical Robot which gives surgeons precise control via the robot to sculpt the knee, and replace only what is needed. First introduced in 2006, the MAKO robot has been used in more than 300 knee surgeries at Holy Cross Hospital. “At Holy Cross we are committed to bringing the most advanced technology to our patients to improve their surgical outcomes,” said Roche. “With this new technology, we can
customize the surgery to each patient and improve recovery times. As an example, through a small incision, we can resurface the diseased portion of the knee while keeping the healthy bone and surrounding ligaments. With a customized implant in the joint, the knee can move smoothly again.” A pioneer in minimally invasive techniques for joint replacements, robotics and sensor applications, Dr. Roche also specializes in advanced cartilage regeneration for the knee. Holy Cross Hospital has been ranked among the top two orthopaedic centres in Florida according to U.S. News and World Report and performs the most joint replacement surgeries in South Florida. n
QUANTITY IS KEY
With nanoscience contributing so significantly to the great energy challenges of the 21st century, companies are finding a new problem – insufficient supplies of nanostructured functional materials. This is where the NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum” (NETZ) in Duisburg, Germany can help. Approximately 650 researchers from different fields are working on developing new materials in large quantities for use in energy technologies like fuel cells or thermoelectric.
Contact: Dr Alina Leson email@example.com www.cenide.de 008
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NANOMEDICINE – offering more than new therapies? DONALD BRUCE OF EDINBURGH ETHICS ASKS US TO THINK ABOUT SOME POSSIBLE HEALTHCARE DILEMMAS THAT MIGHT AFFECT US ALL, QUITE SOON …
Too much information? A patient comes to a doctor’s surgery with a persistent cough. He’s asked for a blood sample to do a genetic test, to find which antibiotic will best match his genetic profile. “Because of nanotechnology” says the doctor, “we can do a complete analysis of your genetic profile on a computer chip and read the result in seconds.” The print-out tells her which drug to prescribe for her patient’s genetic profile. But this new method tells her a lot more. It shows defective genes which suggest the patient has quite a high risk of developing an incurable liver disorder. But it’s just a probability, depending on several other factors too. So it might never happen. If it did maybe there’s little he could do about it. And this man only came about his cough. What does she tell him? Does he want to know? Who else should know – his family, insurance company, employer…? The question of genetic testing isn’t new, of course. But here, as in many areas of medicine, nanotechnology is acting as an ‘enabling’ technology. It can turn medical research hopes into clinical reality and can make the advances widely available. In this case, the impact is on the scale of things. The speed and the amount of information provide both doctor and patient with ethical
dilemmas. And up to now, this sort of test has taken several days and was confined to known risk groups, typically where there was a disease already in the family. Now, nanotechnology extends this diagnostic analysis to more or less any patient and more or less their entire genome. This raises some important questions. What sort of counselling does this need? Can a family doctor cope with the range of tests and conditions she is now expected to know about, especially if, as some suggest, these tests should be commercially available at a pharmacy or even via the internet? What effect does this have on doctor-patient relationships, if we can find out so much more about our health. And is that a good thing… or not? Big Brother – watching our Health Take another example. The ability to put nanoscale devices in the body to monitor vital body parameters could warn us in advance when things are about to go wrong. In future, a nanoscale device might one day be implanted in my body during an operation, to enable doctors at the hospital to monitor the levels of vital chemicals in my body which can indicate how well I am recovering. As a result, I may go home sooner after an operation, freeing up a hospital bed more quickly. And if things start
going wrong the doctors can spot it and call me back in. Sounds great, but it means transmitting a signal from my body at home, back to the hospital. How much surveillance do I want in our home? Who else could detect it? How long would it stay in my body? But if I was a chronic heart patient or asthmatic, I might really welcome a device like this to forewarn me or my doctor of a life-threatening attack. Indeed, should we all have these one day, so that we can have our own diagnostic information? Might this be a condition of accessing state healthcare services? Or is there a point after which this sort of technically enabled health care goes too far? And suppose we really can measure so much information about our bodies at some time in the future, what do we mean by a ‘well’ person any more? Some of this technology is relatively close to market, much of it is still at the research stage. As a society how do we handle these potential developments? Who should sit at the table when decisions affecting our future healthcare are made? How do we balance the competing values of medical science, healthcare budgets, public justice and commerce, in a plural society with many different beliefs and views of the world? Tell us what you think…
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Ultrafast Continuous Inkjet Printing: a Breakthrough from Eastman Kodak
BY EDWARD P. FURLANI
Background The development of devices for the controlled generation and delivery of microscale droplets of fluid has increased dramatically in recent years, due in part to rapid advances in microfluidic, biomedical and nanoscale technologies. Novel applications are proliferating, and include printing functional materials for flexible electronics, microdispensing of biochemicals, the ordered deposition of biomaterials (e.g. cells, genetic material), and 3D rapid prototyping. A wide range of materials can be jetted for deposition such as liquid metals, dispersions of nanoparticles, electrical, and optical polymers, biomaterials, sealants and adhesives. Inkjet printing can be broadly divided into two distinct methods. The more common method is drop-on-demand (DOD) printing, which is used in personal desktop inkjet printers. The second is continuous inkjet printing (CIJ), which is typically used for large-scale, highspeed reproduction applications. In DOD, printing droplets are produced as needed (on demand) to form an image. The droplets are typically produced using a high-intensity, short-lived pressure pulse that is generated within a microfluidic chamber beneath an orifice. The duration and amplitude of the pressure pulse can be tuned to control the characteristics of the ejected droplet, i.e. its volume and velocity. The most common methods for producing DOD drop ejection involve the use of piezoelectric actuators or the generation of a thermally induced vapour bubble (bubble-jet). In contrast, CIJ printing involves the continuous production of droplets, but only a fraction of these are used to form the image. The unused droplets are deflected from the image path and guttered prior to reaching the image. The guttered ink is recycled to the printhead for further use. Conventional CIJ systems rely on piezoelectric
transducers for drop generation and electrostatics for drop deflection. Recently, Eastman Kodak has introduced a novel CMOS/MEMS-based CIJ technology that utilizes the thermo-capillary Marangoni effect for drop generation and air flow for drop deflection. This utilizes an array of individually addressable, thermally activated micro nozzles to enable colour printing with unprecedented speed and versatility. The breakthrough technology The basic device architecture consists of a pressurized reservoir that feeds a microfluidic nozzle manifold with hundreds of active orifices, each of which produces a continuous microjet of fluid (Fig. 1). Controlled thermal modulation of each jet is achieved using CMOS/MEMS technology where a resistive heater element is integrated into the nozzle surrounding each orifice (Figs. 1-3). To modulate a jet, a periodic voltage is applied to the heater, which causes a periodic diffusion of thermal energy from the heater into the fluid near the orifice. Thus, the temperature of fluid, and hence the temperature-dependent fluid properties, density, viscosity and surface tension, are modulated near the orifice. Using this technology, longer pulses produce larger drops, shorter pulses produce smaller drops, and different sized drops can be produced from each orifice as desired. For printing applications, a stream of large and small drops are produced from each nozzle of a stationary printhead in a sequence that
renders the desired image. Air flow is used to deflect the small drops in flight. The large drops travel to, and are deposited on, a moving substrate to form the image, as shown in Fig. 1. A fabricated prototype printhead is shown in Fig. 4. This device consists of a linear array of hundreds of active nozzles. It can produce variable sized drops from each orifice at frequency rates on the order of 100s of kilohertz. Fig. 5 shows a colour picture printed with this technology. The equivalent of an 8.5 x 11 in color image can be printed within a millisecond using this new CIJ technology! In summary, this new technology has distinct advantages both in terms of a higher level of device integration and the elimination of electrostatic deflection of non-print drops and holds substantial potential for use in low-cost, ultra high-speed inkjet printing - as well as many other applications. For an extended version of this article, visit www.nanomagazine.co.uk The Marangoni Effect was first identified by physicist James Thomson in 1855. The general effect is named after Italian physicist, Carlo Marangoni, who studied it for his doctoral dissertation in 1865. Since a liquid with a high surface tension pulls more strongly on the surrounding liquid than one with a low surface tension, the presence of a gradient in surface tension will naturally cause the liquid to flow away from regions of low surface tension. The surface tension gradient can be caused by concentration gradient or by a temperature gradient (surface tension is a function of temperature). Extracted from Wikipedia
Selecting the best possible course is a key decision to make, and often a challenging one! The Nano, Enabling and Advanced Technologies Post-Graduate course directory can help in choosing the right course for you! x Refine your course search. x Use the interactive map to view courses in your country of choice. x Compare course content online. The Institute of Nanotechnology, in collaboration with a consortium of course-providing academics and industry representatives, is engaged in enhancing, supporting and benchmarking the quality of education at the masters level in nano, enabling and advanced technologies.
Further information please contact Gemma McCulloch Email email@example.com or Tel: +44(0)1786 458075
Can novel and advanced technologies help to address the challenge of an ageing population? Can modern enabling technologies help provide improved treatments for conditions associated with ageing whilst remaining affordable to increasingly cash-strapped healthcare systems? In this highly topical and important Conference, the Institute of Nanotechnology brings together an international panel of expert speakers who will examine these challenges in several themes across two days.
The first day of the Conference will examine some of the medical challenges, focusing particularly on new approaches to diagnosing and treating degenerative diseases. The second day will focus on a range of new assistive technologies as well as analysing demographic trends and examining ethical issues and challenges.
For more information please contact Carrie Smith -Tel: +44(0)141 303 8444 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org Supporting Organisations:
Scottish Charity, No. SC025709
NanoArt: Nanotectonica anotectonica is an ongoing research project that pairs nanotechnology with algorithmic tools for a deeper understanding of natural systems. Electron microscopy, parametric modelling and digital fabrication are integrated into an experimental, architectural design process.
Nanotechnology and algorithmic tools enable expanded and deeper investigations into natural structures. At the same time, a new understanding of living systems emerges. The search is not limited to the phenotypical expressions of nature, but seeks to decipher its organizing principles. The analytical routines of an evolved scientific method allow us to speculate on the underlying systems of biological processes. Beyond the bionic, which idealizes living structures as resolved and completed systems, and beyond biomimicry, which strives to copy those systems in their full complexity, we are in search of procedurally optimized building methods and structural concepts employed in living systems. At nanoscale, the material properties of organizations change. Gravity is no longer the dominant force when the size of the system radically decreases. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) allows glimpses into organizational systems that work beyond the logic of primary gravitational considerations. The procedural operations of the scanning electron microscope
are followed by generative drawing and fabrication techniques that analyse, process and enhance the source material. Digital output models inform structural and tectonic propositions that are tested in the context of full scale installations. The process chain includes the following phases: •SEM imaging •species taxonomy •analytical drawing •generative drawing •parametric modelling •prototyping •digital fabrication •installation
The installation was developed at the Digital Design Department, G. Professor Jonas Coersmeier, University Kassel, during the summer of 2009. Teaching Assistant: Kathrin Wiertelarz; participating students: Giampiero Riggio, Roberta Ragonese, Ljuba Tascheva, Jan Weissenfeldt, Pat Taylor, Katja Pape, Rania Abdurahman, Christina Finke, Shahram Abbasian, Michael Quickert. All images © Studio Jonas Coersmeier