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A Persian JoumaI of bauiaD Studies Published by the Foundation [or Iranian Studies

Advisory Board:

Editorial Board (Vol. XXIII): Farzaneh Milani Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Turaj Atabaki Book Review Editor: Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami Editor: Hormoz Hekmat

Gholamreza Afkhami Alunad Ashraf Guity Azarpay Ali Banuazizi Simin Behbehani Peter J. Chelkowski Richard N. Frye

William L. Hanaway Jr. Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak Farhad Kazemi Seyed Hossein Nasr Hashim :f>esaran Roger M. Savory

The Foundation Cor Iranian Studies is a non路 profit, non-political, educational and research center, dedicated to the study, promotion and dissemination of the cultural heritage of Iran. The F01mdation is claSsified as a Section (501) (C) (3) organization under the Internal Revenue Se-mceCode. The views expressed In the articles are those 0' the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Journal.

All contributions and correspondence should he nddrcssed to: Editor. Iran Nameh 4343 Montgomery Ave., Suite 2m Bethesda, MD 20814. U.S.A. \

Telephone: (301 )657-1990 b:m Nameh is copyrighted 1998 by the Foundation for Iranian Studies Requests for permission 10 reprint more than short quotations should be addressed to Ihe Editor Annual subscrition rates (4 issues) are: SSO Cor individuals, S30 for students and 80 for institutions The price includcs postage in the U.S. For foreign mailing add $7.50 for surface mail. For ainnail add $ 16.00 for Canada. $25.00 for Europe. and S32.OO for Asia and Africa single issue: SIS


FOUND~TION

FOR

IR~NI~N

STUDIE:S

OratV A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies Special Issue on

The Centennial of Iran's Constitutional Revolution Guest Editor: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi

Reflections on the Constitutional Revolution Ahmad Ashraf The British Role in Iran's Constitutional Revolution Mansour Bonakdarian The Press and the Public Sphere in the Constitutional Era Negin Nabavi Civil Liberties and the Making of Iran's First Constitution Janet Afary The Revolution that Spearheaded Iran Toward Modernity Daryoush Homayoun Modernity and Constitutionalism in Ottoman Empire and Iran F ariba Zarinehbaf . Nineteenth-Century Oajar Women in the Public Sphere Susynne M McElrone Satire in Iranian Constitutional Press Ali Gheissari Mythical Birds and the Mystical Discourse in Persian Poetry Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak Vol. XXIII, Nos . 2-3, Fall & Winter 2007


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Grey to Cecil Spring-Rice, \ Y August' '\. '. in Gwynn, p. VA; PRO. FO fV l f \ \ 1, Anhur Nicolson to Grey, I August 1'1.' . A Grey to Grant Duff, ibid.,Y August 1'1.' ;"' ...5 . U . Grey to Grant Duff, ibid., H. Jul y' 'I .' :4.j •...5.~.1 E. G. Browne, Tht.PersianRevoJution , p. \YY, n.1 :"' ....s .u .'· Abrahamian, p.Ao ;"' ....s.6 ." PRO, FO rVI /I I Y, Grey to Grant Duff, v September \ 'I . ' :"' ....s .6. ,.

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~1fT ~ "! 4 .~ .... ,. . .; .Jlp "! ~f- lS""Ui~ 'j~ J~ """u... lSl,r. ,f ~.b:- lSj~ 6 ..11,; P u'..1.J ~J ~~ ~t...:.J" ,-:,",lij~ • ..I~ J~ ~.; Jf" y .w... ~ :.J1;..1 Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi, Refashioning Iran: Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Historiography, St. Antony's series (Hampshire: Palgrave, f ' • \ ) . :"! ...5 ..J .0 Badr ol-Moluk Bamdad, From Darkness into UIJht: Women's Emancip.ation in translated from the Persian by F.R.C. Bagley (Hicksville. NY: Iran, Exposition, \\w), V_A.

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Sima Bahar, -A Historical Background to the Women's Movement in lran Women in Iran, ed. Farah Azari (London: Ithaca, \\111"). IV._",. :"'1 ...5

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Haleh Esfandiari, Reconstructed Lives, Women and Iran's Islamic Revolution (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, ,\w), f,-n. :'"'! ..5 ..J.l1)

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0; jl01f.c5 d.r ....... JJ..li1 ' '>'y' :"! ~ .~ ..l,;J..!. <J' ....... t..- ~ J-..o JJ ....jl6:... ~ Parvin Paidar Women and the Pofitical Process in Twentieth-Century Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "o.tI). f.V,yI\Nf.; Afary, The (ranian Constitutional Revolution, IAV. jl,)L.::. d

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' ,)J\,) IS~ ~ ...s::.-I4 J (.i 'u) "-! j~ ~ ~ .....IS" Afary,The Iranian Constitutional Revolution; Paidar, Women and the Polit{cal Process; Amin, The Making of the Modem Iranian Women.

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Iran Nameh Vol. XXIII, Nos. 3-4 Fall & Winter 2007

Special Issue on

The Centennial of Iran's Constitutional Revolution Guest Editor: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi

Reflections on tbe Constitutional Revolution Ahmad Ashraf

The Britisb Role in Iran's Constitutional Revolution Mansour Bonakdan'an

The Press and the Public Sphere in tbe Constitutional Era Negin Nabavi

Civil Liberties and the Making ofTran's First Constitution JanetA/ary

The Revolution tbat Spearheaded Iran Toward Modernity Daryoush Homayoun

Modernity andCoostitutionalism in Ottoman Empire and Iran Fariba Zarinehba/

Nineteenth-Century Qajar Women in tbe Public Sphere Susynne M McElrone

Satire in Iranian Constitutional Press Ali Gheissari

Mythical Birds and the Mystical Discourse in Persian Poetry Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak


ENCYCLOPIEDIA lRANICA Edited by

Ehsan Yarshater Center for lcanian Studies Columbia University

VOLUME XIV Fascicle 1 ISFAHAN IX-GAZI DIALECT Published

Fascicle 2 GAZI DIALECT路ISRAEL n In Press Published by ENCYCLOP!EDIA IRANlCA FOUNDAnON

New York Distributed by EISENBRAUNS INC.

Winona Lake, Indiana (574) 269路20\1

Please visit our website at www.iranica.com


Reflections on the Constitutional Revolution Ahmad Ashraf

There seems to be twp main theories about the origins and motivating forces behind Iran's constitutional revolution, as set forth by either historiographers or those who had participated in the events sWTounding it. This essay will attempt to elaborate on the thrust of these theories. Most of the historians or participants who sympathized with the main objectives of this revolution tend to construct it as the outcome of a self propelling social and political movement set into motion by Iran 's internal developments, particularly in the decades prior to the revolution. A number of other analysts believe, in varying degrees, in the primacy of British conspiratorial role in bringing about the revolution in the context of England's traditional rivalry with Tsarist Russia. The latter theory has particularly been endorsed by those who seek to denigrate and debunk the very ideas that infonned the constitutional revolution by emphasizing the role of the great colonial power of the time, Great Britain. The evidence, however, points clearly to the fallacy of the latter theory which is based on the assumption that the age old Anglo-Russian rivalry was the reason for British encouragement and support of Iran's constitutionalists against the Qajar dynasty the traditional client of the Russian government. Yet, the preponderant historical evidence point to the fact that at this particular juncture of history, the British were more concerned about the rising power of Kaiser's Gennany than Tsarist Russia. The 1907 Anglo-Russian agreement, purporting to divide Iran into zones of influence, is among an number of developments that confinn the suspension of the old Anglo-Russian tensions in Iran.


3 The British Role in Iran's Constitutional Revolution Mansour Bonakdarian By the tum of the twentieth-century, Great Britain's apprehension over Germany's rising global ambitions resulted in an important shift in British imperial policy, especially vis-a.-vis Russia. Traditional British fear of Russian designs in India and the continuation of the Great Game over influence in Central Asia gave way to a desire to fonn warm relations with Russia in order to counter Germany. One arena in which this transfonnation had noticeable consequences was Persia. The 1905 Constitution Revolution in Persia was opposed by Russia and the Russian delegation increased its transparent support for the anti-revolutionary camp when Muhammad Ali Shah gained the throne in 1907. British acquiescence to Russia's continuing meddling in Persian affairs was contrary to its long-standing strategy and was vociferously attacked by groups both outside and inside Britain. British Foreign Secretary Grey, however, remained steadfast in his quest to avoid antagonizing a potential ally against Germany and his efforts culminated in the famous 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention . Thi" agreement fonnali zed Anglo-Russian cooperation and provided for a Russian zone of influence in the north of Iran, a British zone of influence in the south, and a narrow band of neutrality in the middle . Though 1918 saw a successful royalist coup d'etat, Revolutionary forces were able to take back the capital and force the abdication of Mohammad-Ali Shah on July 14, 1909. The legacy of the change in British foreign policy remained, however, with Russian military presence in the north continuing uahated.

Modernity, the Press and the Shaping of Public Opinion in Constitutional Iran Negin Nabavi In recent years, a growing number of historians and sociologists have begun to re-appraise the Iranian encounter with modernity in its early stages. These approaches have ranged from an examination of the <discourses of modernity' as represented in the


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writings of a range of Iranian intellectuals and refonners, including writers, diplomats, merchants and travelers in the mid-19th century, to the more imaginative study of how concepts such as 'nation' and ' homeland' begin to be rethought and redefined from the late 18th century onwards. While such studies certainly make a valuable contribution to our understanding of the early attitudes towards modernity, they do not always impart the full picture. That is, they do not necessarily allow us an insight into the broader context where such refonnulations were discussed, give us a sense of how pervasive they were, or more importantly, how the wider community may have perceived, wtderstood and absorbed them. This paper tries to address this lacuna by focusing on the public conversation that came about in the aftennath of the constitutional revolution, in particular between 1907 and 1908, a time which saw the flourishing of independent and critical newspapers. By examining the more popular and renowned newspapers published at this time and focusing on the social and political messages conveyed in their articles as well as the 'open letters' that appeared in their pages, this paper will explore the role that the press may have played in the process of negotiating and defining new concepts and in shaping public opinion in what was widely considered to be a new era. Civil Liberties and Iran' s First Constitution Janet Alary

Though the men responsible for creation of the Iranian Constitutional laws of 1906-07 looked for guidance in a number of other constitutions, their must important model was th~ Belgian Constitution of 1831. Along with the commercial and political ties that several of Iran's framers had to Belgium, the success of the Belgian Constitution in codifying new rights without creating an entirely new social structure attracted Iranian reformers confronted with a conservative and powerful Islamic clergy. The document that was created combined the modem desire for a secular nationalist identity with a new form of institutionalized


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authority for the clerics, inaugurating a bybrid legal code that contained multiple points of ambiguity. By far the most important accomplishment of the 1906-07 constitution law was to limit the authority of the shah while boosting that of the Majles. The Shah, upon taking office, was required to uphold the rigbts of the nation. The shah was stripped

of his power over the nation's fulances, could not unilaterally dissolve the Maj les, had to obtain the signature of a cabinet minister in order to exercise his executive powers and could not refuse to sign and promulgate resolutions that had been ratified by the Majles. The reduction of the powers of the shah, however. was coupled with the codification of the many powers of the Islamic clergy. Besides the absence of any provision granting freedom of religion and speech or specifying equality before the law. the constitution conditioned the passage of laws in the Majles to compliance with sharia law and fonnalized a two-tired system of justice with secular courts handling matters within the public domain and sharia courts having jurisdiction over private matters. In may ways these contradictions have proven to bc thematic in

Iran's subsequent political evolution

T he Revolution that Spearheaded Iran Toward Modernity

Daryoush Homayoun Iran's constitutional Revolution was the inevitable consequence of two main developments. The first was the widespread awareness of the deteriorating internal situation in their country and recognition of the ways and means to redress it. Their main slogans clearly reflected their objective: Freedom, independence and progress. However, once victory over the despotic old regime was secured. the victors could not really govern and with, a number of exceptions, the revolution's objectives, particularly in the realm of democratic governance, were not realized. The heavy burden of centuries of stagnation could not easily be lifted. However, the ideals of the constitutional revolution forever left their imprint on the consciousness of generations of Iranians.


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Moreover, in the modernizing efforts of the Pahlavi period. the administrative, economic and educational foundations for the eventual realization of the goals of Iranian constirutionalists were created. The sobering experiences of the last few decades have reawakened the Iranian intel1ectual elite that had for long succumbed to the ephemeral lures of leftist totalitarian ideas and ideologies. Thus, one can detect in

contemporary Iranian society the urge to revive the struggle for the unfulfilled objectives of the constitutional revolution. Of these objectives two appear to be the most salient for the prevailing conditions: The establishment of a secular and democratic order, which was the primary objective of the constitutional revolution; and reordering Iran's foreign policy priorities in order to extricate it from its current isolation in the world ..

Modernity and Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire and Iran Farlbo Zarinehbaf

In recent years, much scholarly attention has been paid to the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 , especially as the opening of consular archives sheds light on the role of Western powers in those events. At the same time, much less attention has been paid to the development of constitutionalism in the late Ottoman period. Despite two divergent historiographies, a comparative study of the Ottoman and Iranian constitutional movements is just beginning to get some attention. By the late 19111-century, nwnerous Iranians (most of Azeri background) had settled in Ottoman cities as traders and merchants. They were joined by Iranian bureaucrats and reformists who spent time in Istanbul and were exposed to Ottoman reformist trends. Among them was the future prime minister and important modernizer Amir Kabir. The first Ottoman constitution they witnessed was the culmination of modern reformist principles of state building, demand for equal rights by Ottoman etlmic and religious minorities and a response to European pressures to carry out legal and political refonns among the empire's non-Muslim subjects. The content of the Ottoman constitution and the elections to the parliament was discussed in several issues and


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the paper began infonning the Iranian readers about the benefits of a constitutional type of government. Despite its shortcomings and short life (one year), the first Ottoman constitution had a major impact on political developments in the empire by inspiring not only the Young Turks who engineered the 1908 revolution but also the Young hanians who came into contact with Ottoman political thinkers in Istanbul and played a major rolc in the constitutional revolution in Iran.

Nineteenth-Century Qajar Women in the Public Sphere Susynne McElrone Conventional historiography has placed the beginning the burgeoning women 's liberation movement in Iran as an derivative of the 1905-11 Constitutional revolutionary period. This reductionist treatment has coincided with a dearth of scholarship on earlier, indigenous women's movements. This standard narrative, however, overlooks the evidence that the roots of the modem movement stretch farther back to

the early 18005. The origins of the Iranian women' s movement can be traced to girls' education and women 's public political activity.The beginnings of girls' education were the missionary schools that were started in the 18305 by Americans and EW"Opeans. Though, at first, these schools were mainly populated with religious minorities, over time, Muslims began to represent a growing and significant proportion. Furthennore, the curricula of these schools broadened the landscape of acceptable subject matter for females. Political activity among women also began to take shape before the political wtrest of the early 19005 as sizable segments of

the majority lower-class female population, and a percentage of the growing middle class, set out daily to some sort of work or at least ventured to the bazaar. Both developments affected by three, sometimes overlapping currents: the growing knowledge of. and interaction with the West; the heterogeneity of Iranian women with respect to etlmicity, religion, lifestyles, life expectancies, and cultural values; and a mostly middle路and路upper class urban Muslim female reaction to and expression of a change in individual and national consciousness.


8 Satire in the Iranian Constitutiooal Press: Introducing the Majalleh-ye Estebdad Ali Gheissari

The modem history of the satirical press in Iran narrates the rapid rise and fall of papers against the background of strict censorship interspersed with short spaces of comparative freedom. This essay focuses on a relatively Wlknown periodical, Maja/leh-ye Estebdad (The Jownal of Despotism), which was published in 1907-1908 in Tehran by Sheikh

Mehdi of Qom (a.k.a. Sheikh al-MamaJek) who was also its writer and editor. 'Through a comprehensive survey of its various aspects against the bac~drop of events and opposing factions, the essay examines the recurrent tension between overriding ideological tenets and the role of the satirist as a perceptive if allusive chronicler of complex and turbulent times.

Often a broad range of sharply chiseled busts in the pTOconstitutional satirists' gallery offered them suitable examples to juxtapose various social types, such as members of the Qajar nobility who represented pomposity, sloth and venality; pseudo-modernists, who encouraged cultural alienation by aping European vogues; individuals in secretarial and bureaucratic professions, regardless of rank, portrayed as obedient martinets; Muslim clergymen, regardless of learning or social status, often epitomized as ossified and obscurantist guides incapable of seeing a way forward; women acting as infants, neither involved in nor relevant to the tumultuous events encompassing them all; ordinary townspeople who were forced to struggle with difficulties imposed on them by corrupt tyrants within and exploitation and greed from abroad; and peasants who seemed thoroughly abused and perplexed by all change, since every change brought them only a fresh harvest of misery and hardship. By way of contrast, the figure of the constitutionalist is portrayed as holding the torch of progress, shedding the light of wisdom on the murky surroundings and striving to imbue the stagnant atmosphere with a strong whiff of patriotic ideals and projects. An easy conversational style often allowed the satirists to isolate and magnify contradictions and instilllife into these petrified poses. In the context of the Iranian constitutional press, however, Majalleh-ye Es/ebdad represents a complexity: it is neither a true constitutionalist paper nor a true anti-constitutionalist one. It represents a


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quaint maneuvering between various standpoints, and that is perhaps why it has been forgotten and slipped into obscurity, as compare with periodicals such as Sour-e Esrafil or Nasim-e Shomal which have survived in public memory well beyond their time. Also, in spite of all potentialities of satire, the jownal's satirical dimension soon dries up. The fact that the journal, for the most part, had a single writer may have had something to do with Sheikh al-Mamalek's unwillingness to bring others in, or perhaps with the possibility that others did not come forth; in either case, the character behind the journal seems to have been a decisive factor. Perhaps its single authorship, its recurrent dullness, and its author/editor's hesitation to take a side helped to eliminate the satirical dimension- and thus, in this case, satire fails.

Mythical Birds and the Mystical Discourse in Persian Poetry Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak Simorgh has from the very beginning of its appt:acance in extant preIslamic records of ancient Iran - i.e., texts in Ancient and Middle Persian - has been characterized by three features, a bird of large size, a healer and protector of sorts, and possessor of certain secrets which, being inaccessible to ordinary mortals, tum the bird into a prime sign of transcendence, physical or intellectual or spiritual. Let me address this last issue, the matter of transcendence, first, as it goes to the most general attributes of mythical winged creatures, therefore separating birds from the other animals in many primitive cultures, bestowing on them a uniquely distinguished status in matters that lie beyond natural elements or physical domains. We know, for example, that in the language of classical Persian poetry, asses are associated with innocence of the sort you do not wish to be associated with, and that dogs, as signs of our animal instincts, are emblems of angry outbursts. It is through Carl Gustav Jung that we have been made aware of certain half-forgotten universal tendencies that still reside in our mind but are neither accessible to any singJe individual nor recorded in any tribal or Simorgh has from the very beginning of its appearance in extant preIslamic records of ancient Iran - i.e., texts in Ancient and Middle Persian - has been characterized by three features, a bird of large size, a healer


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and protector of sorts, and possessor of certain secrets which, being inaccessible to ordinary mortals, tum the bird into a prime sign of transcendence, physical or intellectual or spiritual. Let me address this last issue, the matter of transcendence, first, as it goes to the most general attributes of mythical winged creatures, therefore separating birds from the other animals in many primitive cultures, bestowing on them a uniquely distinguished status in matters that lie beyond natural elements or physical domains. We know, for example, that in the language of classical Persian poetry, asses are associated with innocence of the sort you do not wish to be 路 associated with, and that dogs, as signs of our

animal instincts, are emblems of angry outbursts. national memoIY. Jung has given the sum total of those the name "collective unconscious


Iran Nameh, Vol. 23, No. 3-4, (Fall & Winter 2007)  

سال بیست و سوم، شماره ۳ و ۴، پاییز و زمستان ۱۳۸۶ Published regularly since 1982 Editor-in-Chief: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Foundation for...

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