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2. Sigmund Freud , Malaise dans la civilisation. traduit par 1. Odier, P. U .F .. Paris. 1976 , 5( ed ition.

3. Freud. Ibid P, I2 4.lbidP.13.

5. Ibid P.14.

6. Walter Benjamin , Paris. CapitaJe du XIX sickle, Ie livre des passages, Iraduil par Jean


OOT Lacoste. Edition du Cerf. Paris, 1989 .

7. /bict P.479. 8. /bict P.65. 9. /bict P.243. 10 . /bict P.239. 11. /bict P.234. 12. /bict P.244. 13. W . Benjamin.

Essais 2 (1935路1940). Denoel/Gonthier. Paris , 1983. p.S! .

14. C. G. Jung. Probleme de I'ame moderne, BuchtlChastcl. Paris. 1960, p.341. 15 . W . Benjamin, Charles Baudelaire. un pocllyrique il /'apogee du capitalisme, Payot. Paris, 1974. p.205.

16. Henri Stierlin. /spahan , images du paradis. Bibliotheq ue des arts. Paris , 1976. p.56. 17. /bict P.61.

18. Oaryush Shayegan, Espace persart Pierre Mardaga. Liege. 1986. p.23-24.


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I. Syria, 1921, pp. 161 If. •c:'1.i ~ p JJI J~

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5. Oxford, 1923, pp.118-119. 6. E. W., Pahlav; texts, part I. The Bundahis, Bahman Yasl, andSMyasl Na-Shtiyast (The Sacred Books of Ihe East, ed. by F. Max Muller, V), Oxford, 1880. I.5kJ <J!.L:....JI.J":,,, "'! v.IJUI J L.. J;' J4; J-I >h.l".oit..l.5U:- J,jL...S ISLA r\,;J v..jIJjl~;'. ,jJ:.b} J'.Y . v

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8. Pahlavi texts, Chap. VII, pp. 25-28 9. Ibid., Chap.XIII,pp.41,43. 10. Ibid, Chap. XI, P. 32.

II. Ibid. , Chap. XII. P.35. 12 . Ibid., Chap. XXVII, P.99. 13 . Ibid., Chap. XIX, p . 71.

14. Avesta, II , Sir6zah I, pp. 11- 12, and Zamyad Vast XIX, pp. 286 and 309. 15. Ibid .. 11 , Astfid Vast. p.284.

16. Masalik wa a/-Mamalik, Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, ed. by M.J. de Goeje, I, Leiden. 1870, p.IOO. 17. Ibid., p. 139.

18. MukkadasT, Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicarum, III , p. 423.


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1979. 4. R. Pechere, Etude des jardins hisloriques (Iran),1fJ73, pp.4-5. 5. Andre Godard, L 'art de I'ITan , 1962, p.IIS. 6. A. J. Arberry, The Legacy of Persian Art,Oxford, 1953. 7. Andre Godard, L 'artde I'lsJam (Iran),1%2, p.223.

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"Les Jardins de l' lslam" , dans Melange d'histoire et d'arche%gie de

/'occident musulman I , Paris, 1957.

18. G. Le Stang, Clavijo: Embassy to Tamer/an 1403·1406, London , 1928.


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Encyclopedia Iranica , Volume II , Edited by Ehsan Yarshater, Ce nter for Iranian Studies, Columbia University , New York (p .352) . jl

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: J"Salah Said , "An Approach to Housing Design for Low Income Groups," in C3iro, Egypt U.A .R.,The Catholic University of America Press, Washington D.C., 1964. Hassan Fathi, Architecture for Poor, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London ,

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4. Katleen Mc Nerney, Understanding GabdeJ Garcia Marquez, University of South Carolina Press, 1989, p.3. S. G. G. Marquez, A Hundred Years ofSoJitude, Aron Book, p. I.

.?! :.-..... ' 1.J~~.f w!J'~jl .;S..>t. ~..>I! ~.r.1! . r 7. Milan Kundera , The Art of the Novel, p 7. 8. Michael Wood , Landmarks of World Literature,Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 109.

9. Margaret Atwood, "A Slave to His Own Liberation ," The New York Times Book Review,September 16, 1990.


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61. Rg Veda. The S;lcred Hymns of the Brahmanes with the Commentary of S.1yanac8rya. Max Mi..iller. London. 1869-74.21214. Le Veda. PremierlivresacrederInde. trad.J. Yarenne . Paris. 1967,2/67.

62. Upanishads.6 Yols .. Adyar Library. Madras. n.d .. vol4. p. 85. Sept Upanishads. trad .. comment. J , Yarcnnc. Paris, 1981. "hymne a l'atman". pp. 57-58. 63. Upanishads. Ibid .. 21141; Sept Upanishades. Ibid .. pp. 118-19. ) ,) I.S)~ j.,,:..o

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Satchakranirupana, English Transl : Sir John Woodroffe alus Arthur Avalon. The Serpent

Power. 3~ ed, Madras-London , 1941; trad.

fran~aise:

Tara Michael. Corps subtil er corps

causal. Les six chakra er Ie kunda/ini yoga. Paris. 1979. 65. Sept Upanishads, Ibid .. pp. 165-66. ,."I.f...,) "';"'\.;;5' ~ Tara Michael :),r.\'; "';"'1.:S "-: ,~jl ',)y if.)

,.:i "-: ..by,.r <f"'~1.:S." .)~.j!1 ~ . rr

Hatha-yoga-pradipika. Traite sanskrit de Hatha Yoga. Paris. 1974; Lilian Silburn. La Kunda/ini. L 'Energie des profondeurs.Paris. 1983. 67. Upanishads du Yoga. traduites du Sanskrit et annotees par J. Yarennc, Paris. 1971. "La vraic nature du Yoga", pp. 91-92.


68. Ibid ... ·la meditati on parfaite", 98-99. 69. Ibid .. pp. 113-1 5. 70. Upanishads (English tr.), Bombay, 1925. pp. 78-79. also, A. Wood, Raja-Yoga. The Occult Training of the Hindus.London, 3d. ed., 1958. pp. 124-25 .

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"Coeur," in Dictionnaire de spiritualite ascetique et mystique, vol. :.:.Jl.U ~ ~ ~J . v.,. 2,1953, pp 1023-51. :~

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I. Hausherr, " La methode d'oraison Hesychaste", Orientalia Christiana 9, 1927 , Rome. Id.

(alias J. Lcmaitre) , "Contemplation", Dictionnaire de spiritualite ascetique et mystique, Vol. 2, 1951-52; M.Jugie , " Lesorigines de la methode d'oraison des Hesychastes" , Echos d'Orient 30,1931.

A. Bloom, "Contemplation et ascese, contribution orthodoxe", Etudes CarmeJicaines,1 948; Id. , "L'Hesychasme, yoga chretien?", Yoga , science de / 'Homme Integra/, ed. J. Massin, Paris , 1953, pp. 177-95; M. Eliade, Le yoga, ;mmortalite et liberte, Paris, 1954, s.v. "hesychasme"; Petite phi/oca/ie de la priere du coeur, trad. et present. J. Gouillard, Paris , 1953.

74. Petite phi/oca/ie, Ibid. , pp. 151-53. Patr%giegrecque, Migre , vol 147 . p. 945. : ~.ly

~J (IIJ!.:? "':".#1) ...rJ} ~ .lJr Y

M. Jugie , "Note sur Ie moine hesychasteNicephore et sa methode d'o raison" , Echos d'Orient 35,1936.

75. Petite phi/oca/ie, Ibid., pp. 128, 228; Patr%gie grecque, vol. 120, pp. 603-93; I. Hausherr, "La methode d'oraison Hesychaste", p. 107.


Henry Corbin L'Iran et /a Phi/osophie, Fayard, paris , 1990. Daryush Shayegan Henry Corbin La Topographie spirituelle de /'Is/am Iranian, Edition de la defference, Paris, 1990.

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Fasl-e Ketab, Chief Editor M. Ajoudani

P.O. Box 387, London W5 3UG England , U.K


IRANBOOKS PERSIAN & ENGUSH BOOKS ABOUI' IRAN

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Persian Journal for Science and Society P.O.Box 7353 Alexandria, Virgina 22307


TIIE ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION OFTIIE FOUNDATION FOR IRANIAN STIJDIES

Edited by Gholam Reza Afkhami and Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

With a Foreword by Elizabeth B. Mason

FOUNDATION FOR IRANIAN STIJDIES

1991


51

through this path can one grasp the mystery of creation and approach the knowledge of the Imams. It is this inner process that ties shi'ism to Sufism. According to Imamiyyeh teaching, the Imam is the prime reason or !he Light of Lights, and !hose believers who are enlightened by his knowledge enter the ranks of gnostics. Thus is created, in shi'ism and Sufism, the relationship between !he illuminationist philosophy and perception of God, between the heart and the prime reason, and between man's soul and God. Finally, the author turns to the notion of a science of the heart in Sunni and Shi'ite Sufism and explains !heir philosophy of light and briefly explores the idea of !he "perception in the heart" in !he Indian and Christian mystical traditions . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman.


50

The Imamology of Early Shi'ism (II) Mohammad-Ali Amir-Moezzi In this section of his article, the author examines the hidden dimensions of twelver shi'ism and their relation to mysticism and Sufism. According to this teaching. the existence of God is unequivocally superior to any form of thought, image and speculation and, in its absolute state, incapable of being encompassed by the imagination. God's existence is also ineffable, except for what He himself says in revelation. Therefore, the word "shay"', which is semantically neutral, can be used in reference to God. But, God, in his infinite mercy, has willed to reveal himself to his creatures through several names and attributes such as: The Living. The Omniscient, the Omnipotent, The Just, and The Perceiver. God is, thus, knowable on two levels. First, on the level of his innate characteristics which escape both description and imagination. Second, on the level of his attributes and actions which in reality refer to the emergence of God from the absolute unseen world into the visible world. Imam is the medium for this emergence. God becomes manifest in the Imam who is, therefore, called "proof," ''khalifa,'' "path" and "gate" of God . Thus, the "visible" side of truth is manifest in the Imam, in an existential and cosmogonical as well as in an historical sense. The cosmogonic Imam represents all the Imams down through the ages. KnOwing the Imam is knowing what is knowable about God. And to obey the Imam, therefore, is to obey God. The purpose of creation is to know the Creator. And since the Imam, as a divine human being. represents the most knowable side of God, then the purpose of creation is to know the Imam who is the intermediary between the Creator and the created. On the question of seeing God, the Imams have emphasized that He can be seen only with the inner eye, i.e., with "the heart." God will appear in the heart of the believer if it is truly purged and purified. Clearly, to reach this stage one needs Imam's help and guidance. Only


49 uprooting of all the norms and values, undergoes dramatic changes. It is not a matter of sheer coincidence that the "magical realism" of Marquez cuts way deep into the literary currents of Iran. A good number of novels and short stories-the most recognized among them, Touba and the Meaning of the Night, The Drowned, and The Book of the Absent People-have appropriated their own approach to Marquez' One Hundred Years of Solitude, at the level of structure, character, theme, etc. The Latin American "self" as represented in One Hundred Years of Solitude is trapped between a magical "past" and an oppressive "present" reality. This global vision is either sacrificed when socio-political issues are localized in The Drowned or the quest for "stable" meanings is dramatized in the prolonged night of Touba's existence and her search for "truth" in a world from which assurances have already departed.

The Drowned fails to look at the world in its present entirety and elaborates upon the eternal battle of "good" and "evil". "The Iranian "self" as represented by The Drowned is wrapped in the black shroud of ideology and authority. The contemporary "Iranian", living in a world without stable "truth", a world in which no claim can be placed on ultimate knowledge, does not recognize the literary representation of his "self" which is still embattled with the already-shattered values and mythS .

â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract prepared by the author.


48 properties of words from which he is free to choose, his use of rhyme and rhythm, and his sensitivity to the musicality of language are not only informed by a specific and arbitrary psychological mood, but also are the necessary instruments for the representation of a certain mode of the Being which is totally experiential in the poetic way of living . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract prepared by the author.

The "Novel" and the "Self": Marquez and Post-Revolutionary Fiction in Iran Houra Yavari After 1979, the process of revolutionary change has, alongside numerous other factors, contributed substantively to an upsurge in the popularity of the novel as well as the short story in Iran. To characterize this trend as a byproduct of the revolutionary process is not intended as a denial of the legacy of earlier writers and their contribution to the flourishing of the Persian novel. The point of emphasis, rather, lies elsewhere. Cultural encounters, protracted wars and political revolutions are generally enumerated among circumstantial factors instrumental in the formulation of a society's need to re-think itself objectively. The post-revolutionary years in Iran could be roughly divided into two distinct yet related sub-periods. The first few years are characterized by the emergence of novels which depict the endless potentiality of human practice and reflect an Iranian "self' in unison and harmony with the world. A few years later such a clear, cohesive voice is no longer discernible. The fictional representation of such a "self', experiencing the glorified revivification of faith and simultaneously the


47

Language; Language of Poetry, Poetry of Language Daryush Ashouri This article, in an aphoristic style, presents some philosophical thoughts on the nature of language which is the essential link between man and the world and whose basic function is to reveal particular worlds to human beings. Language constitutes the essence of man as a "presence in the world", in the Heideggerian sense of the phrase. Furthermore, the article makes some observations on the different levels and regions of the language-- as representations of different levels and modes of the human presence and activities in his/ her "world- including the level and region of the poetic presence. The poetic usage of language is not a mere arbitrary and playful act unrelated to "objectivity", but an act which represents a certain mode of the "presence in the world", which, by necessity, demands its own Specific level and region of the language. Through his own specific usage of language, the poet represents the world in a certain mode of experience which is alien to the "rational objectivism" of the scientific mind and, inevitably, to its language. The scientific mind represents the world by dismantling it and reducing it to parts and molding the parts into the conceptual, definable language which is devoid of aesthetic sensibility. The poet, on the other hand, not only doesn't avoid ambiguities and equivocations of the language but uses them in his linguistic domain. The poet, in a sense, appropriates the ambiguities and elusiveness of the metaphorical language in order to express the ambiguities and indefinableness inherent in the world as a whole. The world in its wholeness, as experienced existentially, finds its best expression in poetic language. Thus, in contrast to his wandering life in the world of Objects and human beings, the poet's purposeful search in the world of '1inguistic objects" , his acute sensitivity to the aesthetic


46 their mutual internal rapport and how the harmonic structure of Iran's music provides the pattern for the structural spaces of her architecturejust as the architecture of the Renaissance, for example, was patterned on Greek harmonics. This harmony of space and sound is intrinsic to the mentality and nature of the people who inhabited the land. Continuing the conversation, Music reflects on how it developed over many years in a wide geographical range and was nurtured by many peoples, Iranians and others, in cities and villages, all adding to a tradition that was passed on from musician to musician until it reached us. Past generations of musicians have incorporated that tradition into musical schemes (dastgah) or melody types (maqam) or the basic melodies (/ahn) and, later, shaped it into modes (gusheh) and other musical elements, always building on the heritage of the past. Persian music is thus endowed with a historical uniformity that stretches from the five-fold harmonies of the gahan, the Zoroastrian liturgical music, to the songs of the Sassanian minstrels, to the maqams of the Islamic period, and finally to the modes of today. Architecture also speaks of its own continuous past, citing first the structures that have survived from the Sassanian period, then the caravanserais, religiOUS schools, and houses built in later periods. However, the current dissection of this type of architecture into such components as form, proportionalities and decorative features has robbed it of its unity and diluted its integrity. Today, by separating these elements and incorporating them into other architectural forms, traditional Iranian architecture seems to be in the process of revival. Mere utilization of decorative features, however, does not lead to the recreation of the spiritual space of Iran's architecture . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman.


45 speak of their past, present, and future. Music begins with the words of Zoroaster, speaking of the Gahan songs, of the lofty position which they held in the remote past and how the Iranians of the Sassanian period had a different melody for each day of the year; and how for each of the twelve houses of the zodiac, they had developed twelve melody types (maqam) that were played each hour of the day. Music also mentions that Avicenna referred to it as a structural part of the human body and that every mode (gusheh) is in harmony with a particular human mood. Though in today's changing circumstances, music is facing a crisis and its place in the spiri tual milieu of Iran is uncertain, it feels that its continued popularity is a hopeful sign for the future. Architecture, however, faces a somewhat different situation. This sublime art which is a product of Iranian genius and in the past combined form, harmony, and artistry to produce spaces that represent the spirit of civilization, is being threatened and is nearly forgotten because of new social conditions, urbanization and modem building practices, all of which are the byproducts of expediency and economic imperatives. In the party, Architecture emphasizes the values that governed its past environment. In that environment attention to internal human needs led to imaginative innovations and the function of architectural space was considered not only from a material but also spiritual point of view. Today, however, the paramountcy of profit and expedience has led to the creation of savage and unfeeling monoliths. Given present conditions and circumstances, it is no wonder that there is no room for the architecture of the past, an art branded as "traditional" and thus driven from contemporary scene. For, such an artistic and patient approach to the craft of design is inconsistent with the prevailing logic of today's market and technology. During their conversation, Architecture and Music also speak of


44

pattern. What is this unique concept which, from the early settlements to the medieval towns and from Safavid and Mongol imperial cities to the decorative gardens of the 19th century, has, like an invisible pen, guided the architects and builders in their design of gardens, the layout of terraces and canals and in the architecture of garden pavilions? This article searches for the archetype of such gardens in the ancient tradition of Persian kings and in the significance that they attributed to the construction of gardens as the guardian of their realm. It suggests that during the evolution of the urban structures, the archetypal garden has served as a model for the spot where man extracted water from plains or mountains in order to bring it to the City. Situated between the desert and the city, this was the symbolic spot where the individual could be with himself and look beyond the horizon. The author also suggests that a survey of the architectural typology of imperial gardens, public parks, and courtyards throughout history, point to the existence of an archetypal theme, in the form of the heavenly garden to which references can be found in various religious texts. The article concludes with an architectural promenade between the real and imaginary gardens accompanied by an analysis of the structure of the Islamic city and its evolution . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract prepared by the author.

An Encounter with Iranian Music and Architecture

Mohammad Reza Ha'eri [n this article, the music and architecture of [ran have been invested with human form and invited to sit down with the author in an imaginary party where these two distinguished representatives of the Iranian art


43 elements of material fonn in these rruniatures must be those mentioned in the Bundahis such as mountains Alborz, Hugar and other peaks "on which the source of Aredvivsur and other divine seas are located, and whose waters flow through golden channels into the wide-fonned ocean at the foot of Alburz." In the rruddle of this ocean, according to this text, grows the original tree whose seeds, rruxed with the rain water, fall down on the earth, on which the plants grow like "hair upon the head." These plants are, in the main, the cypress, which was the holy tree of Zarathustra, the date-palm, which was the holy tree of the land of xvarrwh, grape vine, the pomegranate and other species of plants mentioned in Bundahis. On the trees sit sparrows and magpies, and these latter, through a recital of the Avesta, keep the evil spirits away from nature. These rruniatures, the author concludes, still stand unparalleled. They represent pure landscapes without romantic or epic overtones, and their content and artistic and coloristic conceptions bear little affinity with those developed in the post-lslarruc period. They, therefore, occupy a special place in Persian book-paintings as a whole and accordingly lay claim to a specific cultural and art-historical significance . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract prepared by the staff of Iran Nameh.

The Nature of Persian Garden Nasrine Faghih From the Indian continent and the Middle East to North Africa and the heart of Spain, and across centuries of Islarruc civilization, has developed an art of gardens. Gardens, conceived in different eras and developed in often diverse climatic conditions, have always followed a common


42 spaces . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman.

The Landscape Miniatures of an Anthology Manuscript of the Year 1398 A.D. Mohammad Aga-Oglu This article describes, in some detail, the unique nature of twelve miniatures found in a manuscript of anthology of Persian poets belonging to the Museum of Turkic and Islamic Arts in Istanbul. According to the author, in their treatment of form and color, these miniatures differ markedly from the rest of the known representations of landscapes in Persian painting, and display an unusually artistic thought for the fourteenth century. It is evident that these landscapes do not as a whole resemble, either in their peculiar compositional treatment or in their fantastic coloristic effect, any known example of Persian miniature painting of the fourteenth century. Although they follow, in general, the style of the period and serve as illustrations to Nezami's famous romances, these miniatures exhibit a certain artistic thought quite unique in its kind, which must have originated as the manifestation of a certain conception unrelated to the subject matter of Persian-Islamic literature. The origin of the underlying concepts in these miniatures must be sought, in the opinion of the writer, in the weltanschauung of the pre-Islamic Iranian culture. Borrowing extenSively from the Zoroastrian religious text, Bundahis, and its description of the creation of the world in its principal

features, the author attributes the unusual representations of these miniatures to the concept of xvarnah . He then suggests that the principal


41

if devoid of their original reality, are present in his unconsciousness. In the author's view, Baudelaire was the poet who could best portray Paris as the capital of 19th century Europe. He is the definitive boundary. On one side of the divide are those who preceded Baudelaire and on the other those who followed him. The author then goes from Paris to Isfahan where the notion of space takes on a completely different meaning. In the confines of Isfahan, not only have large industrial plants not come into being, not only are the great tensions of modemity-such as those between man and society and between the internal and external selves--nowhere to be seen, and not only civil institutions remain absent, but also the vision and spirit which are the creative energies of the city flow from other life sources of the human being. Allegory which was the outstanding characteristic of the reality of 19th-century Paris has no place here because throughout its space a city hovers at the heart of a magical halo. In this place, the alphabet of space is not allegorization or parable, but the logic of epiphany which is a vision stemming from the very essence of the imagination. Here, in short, the subject is not the urbanite but a believer who obeys the king and God, the king being the deity's representative on earth. Urban space hovers in a magical atmosphere which makes Isfahan an allegorical city. The only poet who could symbolically depict such a city was Hafez (1325-1389), a poet possessing a broad iIIuminationist vista, and not Baudelaire. However, apart from these metaphysical differences, the writer generally believes that modern urban architecture weighs upon a mangled space bereft of content and devoid of any organiC ties with man's loftier talents. The growing ugliness which can be seen both in the countries given the rubric "third world" and in post-industrial societies, bespeaks the spiritual ruin of the contemporary man. Today's urban space has been divorced from humanity. Thus, man has to be content with an environment devoid of all feelings and emotions. To create livable places we must journey to the unseen worlds in search of lost


40

In Search of Lost Spaces

Daryush Shayegan "In Search of Lost Spaces" is a passage through various urban spaces each of which belongs to a particular cultural milieu. In comparing these spaces, the author, relying on architectural features, tries to demonstrate the fundamental cultural differences among them. He is convinced of the principle that there is an undeniable formal harmony between the dwelling, i.e., architectural and intellectual space, and the space within the heart itself. This hannony is such that one of its components cannot be disturbed without disrupting the others and that it is the inner space that shapes and builds the physical structure and the soul of a city. In the author's view, "passing through Benares and Isfahan and from there through Paris and then Los Angeles is not merely a journey through diverse urban spaces, but an encounter with ways of life and thought that are often at odds with each other; In other words, it is through this journey that we come to grips with heterogenous worlds." If man is able to map these various temporal and spatial confines, it is because they are an inseparable part of his natural world and are the chosen scenes of his spiritual vision, which, although suppressed, are capable of popping up at any moment. The issue that is not addressed by modern architecture is the emergence of these buried spaces, which for want of appropriate structures are able to reemerge only in indirect ways. Thus, it does not come as a surprise that in the poetry of Baudelaire, arise disassociated, twisted, and repressed spaces. As a serious student of modernity, Baudelaire took the search for "lost" spaces in every direction, just as, a while later, Proust would use the powerful force of remembrance in his unconscious memory to unearth bits of the buried past. This is to say that man's consciousness is not limited to spatial dimension but encompasses, relative to his state of mind, all different qualitative spaces which, even


Dialogue on the Garden Shahrokh Meskoob This dialogue between a writer and a painter is part of a longer work. In this imaginary conversation the writer views the painter's depictions of the garden in its various outward forms as well as in its many motifs. The conversation shifts from the paintings to the garden of childhood and its memories, and then to youth which is the garden of life from which they tum to the "garden of gardens," i.e., the garden of Eden and its representations in miniature paintings. They then discuss the "garden of the soul" where human spirit flourishes like the spring found in such works as the Zoroastrian Calhas, Divan-e Shams and Soleyman's Song of Songs. Then comes the tum of the "garden of the body," which is found in the real world, in places like Isfahan and Shiraz and in other spots on the edge of the deserts in Iran's arid landscape. Next, the dialogue focuses on the oneness of body and soul in some people. They also speak of those who have strayed from their familiar surroundings and have to live, isolated, in strange lands, and of those who have left behind their garden of youth. In all of these conversations, people, despite the constant change wrought by time and circumstance, revolve around the axis of "garden", the garden of body and soul, the retreats of physical and spiritual selves. The part of the article published in this issue deals mostly first with the conversation about the garden of heaven and its representations in the Iranian paintings and miniatures and then with the real gardens in Qasrol-dasht in Shiraz and elsewhere . â&#x20AC;˘ Abstract translated by Paul Sprachman.


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Contents Iran Nameh Vol. IX, No.4, Automn 1991 Persian:

Articles Book Reviews Communications English:

Dialogue on the Garden SkahrolchMeskoob In Search of Lost Spaces IJaryush Skayegan The Landscape Miniatures of an Anthology Manuscript of the Year 1398 A .D . MokammadAga-Oglu The Nature of the Persian Garden Nasrine Faghih An Encounter with the Iranian Music and Architecture MokammadRezaHa 'eri Language; Language of Poetry, Poetry of Language IJaryushAshouri The "Novel" and the "Self": Marquez and post-Revolutionary Fiction in Iran Houra Yavari The Imamology of Early Shi'ism (II) Mokammad-Ali Amir-Moezzi


Editor: Daryush Shayegan Managing Editor: Daryush Ashouri Book Review Editor:

A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies

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A Publication of the Foundation for Iranian Studies

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The Foundaeion for Iranian Studje~ is a non. profit, non -political, educational and restarch Ctnler, dedicated to the pruc:rvatlon, study and

S. H. Nasr, George Washington University

rr3Mmission of Ine cultural heritage of Iran

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The views

express~

In the articles are Ihose of the lIuthors

and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Journal. The System of transilleralion used b~ Jran Nameh is Ihe Persian Romanizallon developed for the Library of Congress and arproved by Ihe American Library Association and the Ca nad,:m Library Association All contribUlions and correspondence should be addressed to : Editor, Iran Nameh 4343 Montgomery Ave., Suite 200 Bethesda, MO 20814, U .S.A .

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FOUNDMION FOR IRf\NIf\N STUDIE:S

'Jra1U A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies

D ialogue on the Garden SkakrokkMeskoob In Search of Lost Spaces Daryusk Skayegan The Landscape Miniatures of an Antho logy Manuscript of the Year 1398 A .D . MOkammadAga-Oglu

The Nature of the Persian Garden Nasrine Fagkik A n E nco unter with the Irani an Music and Architecture Moltammad RezaHa 'eri Language; Language of Poetry, Poetry of Language Daryuslt Asltouri T he " Nove l" and the "Self": Ma rquez and post-Revolutionary Fiction in Ira n Houra Yavari T he Ima mology of Earl y Shi'ism (IT) Mokammad-AliAmir-Moezzi yoLlX, No.4, Automn 1991

Vol. 9, No. 4, Fall 1991  

سال نهم، شماره ۴، پاییز ۱۳۷۰ Published regularly since 1982 Editor-in-Chief: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Foundation for Iranian Studies Dep...