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3. Ch. Bartholomae , Zarathustra's Leben und Lehre, 1924; A. Meillct , Trois conference


Jes Gathas de l'A vesta, 1925.

4. SMSR 36, 1962-3,3 sq. 5. H. Nyberg, Die Religionen des Alten Iran ,1939. 6. H. Schaeder, Gott und Mensch in der Verkundigung Zarathustra's ,1937. 7. Pietro Taecchi Venturi (ed.) Storia delle Religioni, I, 1949, p. 88. 8. Gershevitch, "Zoroaster's own Contribution ," JNES , 1984, p. 12-38. 9. H. Lommel , Die Gathfisdes Zarathusrra,mit einem Anhang von E. Wolff, Iml . 10. Marijan Mole, Culte, mythe et cosmologie dans I'lran ancien , 1963. II. Mary Boyce, "The Continuity of Zoroastrian Quest," in W. Fay (ed.), Man 's Religious Quest,London,J977, p. 604. 12. J . Narten, Die Ameshaspencas im A vesta, 1982. 13. J . Narten, Der Yasna haptan hati, 1986. 14. J. Duchesne-Guillemin. " Agnus Dei," Gilgul Essays ... Werblowsky,1987. p. 49.


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27. Chronique,Ibid. , Tome 3 , pp. 84 , 88-90,101.

28. The Apology of ai-Kindy, Written at the Courtofal-Ma 'mun, in DefenceofChrisrianity against Isiam ,ed. and tr . by Dr. Tien , London , 1882, pp. 13-15, 19,22-25, 37-38. : ...:-1 •.J..oi tSjSJ ~L..) If-I .;J l.S.J...:.SJl ~L..) jl

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124. Sadighi, Ibid.,p.273. 125. Sadighi, Ibid.,p. 273.

126. Sadighi, Ibid.,p.236. .YIIOif ..... li-=-~"-!~.l!; .\YV

128.

M.

Azizi,

nationaJe en Iran (de 651

La

domination

a 900),

arabe

et

J'eponouissement

du

sentiment

Paris, 1938.

129. Ibid.,pp. 156-180. 130. Ibid.,pp. 192,193. i f ,\ c.,JI/.lj.>..:..~:JI~Jt. ,1.oi..,..4il1 ~~ !,nll .JI.* ,I' ,,~.IIISL..IJW '.?jl~ .In

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161.

Abbas Zaryab.

"Some

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2. Comle de Gobineau. Religions el philosophies dans J'Asic centrale. Editions d'Aujourd'hui. 1979. p.98.

3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7.1. A. de Oobineau. Trois ans en Asic. voylJgc en Pen-ian,Edition Mc tuillc Paris. 1980.

p.330 H. Ibid.p .33 1

9. Ibid. p.331-336 10. Ibid.


I I. Gobineau. Religions. Ibid .. P. 83. 12. Ibid .. p. 110. 13. I bid. p. 111 · 11 4

14. Janine Bu enzod. La form ation de fa penseede Gobinc.1 u. LibrairieA.·G. Nizet, Paris.

1967. p.337. 15. Religions. Ibid .. p. 11 4.

16. Trois ans en Asie. Ibid .. p.323. 17. Ibid .. p.322. .'\/

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In rcading the otherwise interesting and

.:,1r..1

detailed review of the book Arts of Per-

~ ..l:-; r----~~ -S ~:;L...! )JI,)""'y.t. ( ... )

sia in your Summer 1990 issue, I was

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indeed disappointed to see no mention

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of lacquerwork among the list of subjects

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treated in this work.

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J think all connoisseurs and students of

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Persian art will agree that it is one of its

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most beautiful art forms. After many

,;~,

years, nay centuries of neglect. it is now

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being considered seriously enough by

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the scholarly community to warrant a

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separate chapter in thi~- important new

J.Sf- J J.S;)\...o t.S.Jp. ~ ~ ,J.;J/. .j:-'; 0LiL>-

review of persian art. A publication

;,1!.,;,}r' ;";5 ~ .sl;e W

which I hope will also increase the popu-

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.sjL.."-'"..;r' 0L•.a>d,

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lar appreciation for persian art and lacquerwork in particular.

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Having devoted many years of scholarly

.-'!I "':';'I.!

research to this field. I therefore feel all

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intellectual trend provided the theoretical guidelines for the revolutionary movement that swept to power in 1979.

In identifying the Iranian intellectuals' means and modes of cultural identification, the author has followed the maxims of methodological pluralism by drawing upon post-structuralism and sociology of knowledge. The study has relied upon personal interviews, oral history files, and a variety of primary as well as secondary textual sources.


10

Oriental ism in Reverse: Iranian Intellectuals and the West, 1960-1990* Mehrzad Boroujerdi

ABSTRACT This dissertation seeks critically to deconstruct the ontological and epistemological premises underlying the process of identity formation of contemporary Iranian intellectuals. The study concentrates on the emergence of a new mode of thinking described as "Orientalism in Reverse," which came to dominate the political and intellectual panorama or pre- and post-revolutionary Iran. Drawing upon the works of Michel Foucault and Edward Said on how the " constitution of otherness" permeates any process or identity formation, the author examines the two dominant problems confronting Iranian intellectuals: identity per se, a nd encounter with the West. He maintains that since the Iranian intellectuals' vision of their "self" was constrained by their perception of the "Western other," they did not and indeed could not experiment the same types of ontological and epistemological ruptures that their Western counterparts experienced in the aftermath of the Enlightenment. As a result, Iranian intellectuals in the last three decades have increasingly turned toward nativism , traditionalism , and politicized Islam. This

*The seventh recepienl of Foundation for Iranian Studies' annual award for the best Ph.D. dissertation in the field of Iranian studies was Mehrzad Boroujcrdi. He received the 1990 prize for his work entitled "Oriental ism in Reverse: Iranian Intellectuals and the West. 1960-1990," submitted to the School of International Service of the American University in Washington, D.C. The above is an abstract of the dissertation prepared by the author.


9

informs the author's review of the poem: "The Return to Borgio Verzzi, ,. by Esma'il

Kho'i. The style of many an Iranian writer or poct, the author believes , has been transformed under the burden of censorship or through life in exile. While complex systems of hinting and oblique references are the techniques frequently used by pocts

faced with censorship in Iran, the usc of international imagery and non~Persian loan words has become the hallmark of the Iranian poets and writers abroad. It is through an analysis of textual specifics of Kho' i's poem that the author attempts to search for clements which are characteristics of writing abroad. In this sea rch, the author paraphrases the poem which describes a specific biographical moment in the poet's return to Borgio Verezzi , a small coastal town west of Genoa. Focusing o n the style including the poet 's characteristic typogrphy , and parataxis as well as the narrative grain of the work, the author suggests that everything is arranged in the poem to force the reader to rethink the relations of one historical moment to the next. In the author's view, the two train trips, either described or alluded to in the poem, place the reader on either side of the Iranian revolution. The author further believes that , in a sense, the poem as a whole convey's Kho'i's anxiety of not reaching his reader , either at home or abroad. On the other hand , while at home it is the careful attention of the censor which threatens the work of the writer, abroad it is the benevolent and yet uncomprehending attitude of the audience which poses a similar, albeit structurally opposite, threat.


8 The Khorramdinid revolt was one in a series of social and religio-philosophical movements that appeared in the wake of the suppression of the Mazdakites (529 A.D.) and especially after the Arab invasion of Iran. As the most organized, widespread, and long-lasting of Persian rebellions against foreign occupation, the eighth-century Khorramdinid movement stands as a shining chapter in the social and political history of Iran. The revolt has been the subject of a great deal of valuable research. Despite the recent studies, based on reading of the ancient sources by Sa'id Nafisi and later by Dr. Oh. Sadighi, there is much to be said about the social. religious, and philosophical precepts of the Khorramdiinids. In his study, the author focuses on the influence of Mithraistic and Mazdakite beliefs on the Khorramdinid ideas. In hi s view, the Khorramdinid movement was a socio-political and religiou s response to the Arab invasion, reflecting social conflicts and civil discords of the time which challenged the Abbasid Caliphate. The writer divides the available classical materials on the Khorramdinid movement into primary and secondary sources. He then enlists modern studies by Iranian scholars. In the author's opinion a study of the primary so urces reveals, on the one hand , precious little on the causes of the Khorramdinid revolt and its sociopolitical and religio-philosophical doctrines , and, on the other hand , speaks volumes of misinformation and vituperation designed to discredit a moement which for twenty-two years posed a se rious threat to the Abbasid Caliphate. Nevertheless, the author believes that it is possible to cut through such vituperations and discover the original outlines of Khorramdinid beliefs which were labeled "apostasy ," "irreverence," "unbelief, and "blasphemy" by classical historians. tt

The Woman in the Train: The Esthetics of Exile in Kho'i's "Return" Michael Beard

The effects of exile and censorship on a writer's style and imagery is the theme which


7

in marked thematic contrast to the spiritualism of Hafez. According to the author, Nima's breaking of the outward forms of poetry was in fact necessitated by an internal change in poet ic vision, a transformation from a traditionalist point of view

to a modernist one. The author then points out that one of Nima's chief themes and feelings is nostalgia. His nostalgia runs from reminiscence of companions and homeland to a yearning for "humanity" in an age filled with brutality. One of the outstanding characteristics of Nima's poetry is his innovative imagery through which he expresses his emotions. The author analyzes several of Nima's

poems to demonstrate how the poct creates an objective atmosphere by his poetical imagery in order to transmit his inner feelings. With such images as an abandoned kiln, a silent wood. or a cold winter and the snow路bound windows of a mountain shelter. he was able to express his grief or his nostalgia or his yearning. To the generation of poets who followed him. Nima taught a new personal vision and new poetic forms in keeping with the state and atmosphere of modern poetry. Working in the innovative poetic atmosphere Ni rna brought about. several modern followers have been able to build a corpus of new Persian poetry.

The Revolt of the Red-Coats (Khorramdinids) A Study of the Sources and Studies, Ancient and Modern Ali Mir-Fetros

This article is the first part of the introduction to the author's unpublished study of the Red路Coat uprising started by Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 A. D.). The second part of the article will examine recent research by Iranian scholars on the topic, and the third will be devoted to a critique of studies carried out by non路lranian students of the Khorramdinid revolt.


6

intellect, time and thought, and the lustrous manifestation s of thought in

metaphysical time. The issue ofthought and the perfect being (spiritual pole, master) and their relationship to time is also discussed. The significance of the prophet

Mohammed and Shi'ite Imams is also treated in this context. Finally, the matter of the knowledge derived from universal intellect as opposed to that derived from particular is reviewed. Thus. the author not only discusses Rumi's parable in the light of its many metaphysical implications bUI also elaborates on its characters and didactic dimensions.

Nima and His Innovations Oaryush Ashuri

Nima Yushij is rightly known as the father of modern Persian poetry. He is the

person who revolutionized classical poetry, blazing a trail in the greatest Persian art that amounted to a renaissance in the field. Nima's experiments began with breaking the traditional poetic meters, which caused a great stir amongst the traditionalists. In addition to revolutionizing poetic forms, Nima introduced a new poetic vision that liberated poetry from the sclerotic content of old and broadened the Persian poetic horizon to include the themes of modernity. Years before he broke conventional poetic forms, Nima had demonstrated this new view of man and nature , which was influenced by European romanticism , in his first published work, Afsiina. It was this new vision which earned him a reputation and influenced a great traditionalist poet, Mohammad Shahryar. In this article, the author briefly examines Nima's innovations not only from the point of view of form but also from the vantage point of the content of his poetry. He specifically treats the dialogue found in Afsana between the modern poet and the 14th century Hafez , grcatest of lyric-spiritual pocts in Persian. showing that the author of Afsana-Iong before he began to break the conventions of form - had stood


5

extant Zoroastcrian commu nity and mentions his long-standing agreement with her emphasis on the inherent conservat ism of Zoroastrianism.

Particular and Universal Intellect: A Commentary on the First Parable of Rumi's Mathnawi Mohammed - Hosayn Sadiq Yazdchi

This article focuses on the opening parable of the first book of the Malhnaw; , the

monumental mystical rhapsodies by the 12th century mystic Jalal ai-Din Rumi Balkhi. The talc is about a king whose beloved slave girl - herself in love with a goldsm ith - falls ill . Realizing that the court physicians are unable to cure the girl, the king turns to God, whereupon a spiritual doctor appears and restores her health.

The aut hor co ncentrates on the problem of intellect which is divided by Rumi into particular and universal. He begins with a revicw of the charac!erist ics of particular intc ll ect. and follows with an cxplanation of Jalal ai-Din Rumi's view by treating the gist of the tale. According to Rumi. the phi losophers (doctors), in treating her, concentrated solely on particular intellect. Here. the aut hor briefly alludes to the poet's crit icism of Aristotle and his followers and refers to other parables in the poem to give the reader a better appreciation of this anti-aristotelian ism. This leads to a discussion of form and essence. Particular intellect. the author writes. operates in the world of forms. the phenomenal world. whose real esse nce can not be revea led to that intellect. An explanation of the universal intellect is the focus of the seco nd part of the article. Here one finds the distinctions betwecn animal soul and human sou l. The author then turns to the relationship between so ul and universal intellect and to various aspects of that relationship. Furthermore, the author treats a number of other co ncepts in Rumi's parablr.:: including thought and its relationship to universal


Thoughts on Zoroaster J . Duchesne-Guillemin

This article is the text of a lecture delivered at the Paris Ecole Pratique des HaUles Etudes in the spring of 1990 by Professor Duchcsne-Guillemin, who gave permission (0 print a Persian translation before the publication of the original French. Duchesne-Guillemin begins by pointing out that Zoroaster was the first of all Asian spiritual figures to be adopted by the West; Buddha and Confucius made their way to Europe long after him. Earlier, the West saw Zoroaster , whom the Greeks called Zoroastres. as the main figure of oriental wisdom and attributed a great deal of the Mesopotamian heritage of science and magic to him. The author then slates

that research on the history of Judaism, Christianity, and many other fields of interest to Western scholars is not possible without an acquaintance with the gigantic figure cast by this Iranian prophet, because his influence on many of the elements of Christianity, Judaism, and Paganism is beyond dispute. The author then turns to the history of European research on Zoroaster. which began in the 17th century and whose object was to use the prophet in a covert struggle with the Church. Thus the French Encyclopedistes hoped to use AnquetilDuperron's translation of the Avesta in their anti-church battle. Duchesne-Guillemin points out how the haphazard nature of the sources on Zoroaster has resulted in a multiplicity of scholarly views on his life and various aspects of his doctrines. These variations of opinion extend from Zoroaster's biography to the relationship between his views and what is found in the Gathas and the non-Gat hie Avesta. Scholars have come to the conclusion that the Gathas form the oldest part of the Avesta and can be considered direct gleanings from the sayings of Zoroaster. For this reason they have relied on them to derive the original beliefs of the prophet uncontaminated by later and alien beliefs. In the later non-Gathic Avesta. one sees a return to many Indo-Iranian ideas and beliefs in gods that Zoroaster was trying to counter. But there is some dispute about the interpretation of the Gathas themselves. Scholars disagree on such subjects as whether Zoroaster countenanced drinking the intoxicant haoma . Here the author cites various interpretations of the text made by European and American scholars. He includes such scholars as M. Haug, J. Moulton, A. Meiller, H. Schraeder, E. Herschfield, H. Lammel, H. S. Nyberg, and R. Zaehner. However, the one scholar whose research has achieved a consensus is Mary Boyce. The author praises her researches on the


DARYUSH SHA VEGAN

HENRY CORBIN LA TOPOGRAPHIE SPIlUTUELLE DE L'ISLAM IRANIEN

EDITIONS DE LA DIFFERENCE

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Contents Iran Nameh Vol. IX, No.1, Winter 1991 Persian:

Articles Selections Book Reviews English:

Abstracts of Articles:

Thoughts on Zoroaster J Duchesne-Guillemin

Particular and Universal Intellect: A Commentary on the First Parable of Rumi's Mathnawi M - H. Sadiq Yazdchi

Nima and His Innovations

Daryush Ashuri The Revolt of the Red-Coats (Khorramdinids): A Study of the Sources and Studies, Ancient and Modern

Ali Mir-Fetros The Woman in the Train : The Esthetics of Exile in Kho 'i's "Return"

Michael Beard


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FOUND~TION

FOR

IR~NI~N

STUDIâ&#x201A;ŹS

CJratO A Persian Journal of Iranian Studies

Thoughts on Zoroaster J Duchesne-Guillemin

Particular and Universal Intellect: A Commentary on the First Parable of R umi's Mathnawi

M -H Sadiq Yazdchi Nima and His Innovations Daryush Ashuri

The Revolt of the Red-Coats (Khorramdinids): A Study of the Sources and Studies, Ancient and Modern Ali Mir-Fetros

The Woman in the Train: The Esthetics of Exile in Kho'i 's "Return"

Michael Beard

Vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1991

Iran Nameh, Vol. 9, No. 1, Winter 1991  

سال نهم، شماره ۱، زمستان ۱۳۶۹ Published regularly since 1982 Editor-in-Chief: Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi Foundation for Iranian Studies D...