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Oral History: New Ways of Gathering Primary Material for the Study of History·

The article points out the imponance of oral history as a method of compiling source material for research on topics in the field of Iranian Studies. A brief review of the historical roots of oral history and its beginning in the United States is followed by a repon of the expansion of the programs throughout the United States and the world and enumeration ofthe variety of subjects and approaches in this new field of historical research. Since Alan Nevins began the first program ' of oral history at Columbia University in 1948, that university alone has compiled over four thousand hours of interviews and more than half a million pages of transcript. More than two hundred and seventy researchers have drawn upon this collection for material to complete their work. The author points out that oral history makes possible the preservation of the life experiences · of ordinary people-material which has not been accessible to past historians. The author, referring to the destruction of documetns and sources as well as the loss of leading personalities following the 1979 revolution in Iran, stresses the significance of recording the experiences of decision makers and others who were witness to significant events in order to preserve this first hand source material for historical research on contemporary events in Iran. The anicle then describes the methodology and techniques used by the program of oral history at the Foundation for Iranian Studies, which aims to preserve memoirs of statesmen, academic personalities, journalists, women leaders, anists, diplomats, economists, businessmen and others for archival reference. The Foundation program which began with the assistance ofthe Oral History Research Office of Columbia University has produced three hundred and fifty hours of interviews in the past two years. These have been transcribed, edited, partially translated into English, audited, edited by the interviewee • Abstract tra.DSlued by the jounars aft.


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Ancient Aeronauts: man's early urge to fly as reported in legend and revelation·

by M. Dj. Mahdjoub ( I)

Though man's first notion of heaven as an insurmountable home of the gods was an assumedly aU-pervasive and potent one, it appears not to have been strong enough to ground the imaginary flights of men living in the ancient and early Iranian, Christian, and Islamic worlds. This article is the first part of a survey of legendary and revelatory ascent into the heavens. It examines the mythopoetic aeronautics of preairplane man as found in Iranian mythology, the Old and New Testaments and 'the Koran. Prophets and Priests . Islamic sources reveal that the first man was created on earth and was later borne to heaven by angels. About Eve the record is ambiguous. Some relate that she was created on earth, others say that she was made in heaven. However, all reports concur that, after tasting forbidden fruit, both"Adam and Eve were expelled from' heaven by a wrathful God. Islamic ~onrces attached such importance to the accounts of Adam and Eve and other prophets that historians divide their works into two parts: one 011 prophets, the other on kings. In the Old Testiunent, howeVer, th~re is no refeience"to the . ". . . . first couple's space flight: ' Idri"s (:::OT EnOCh) was the second inan to reach heaven.-Llk~EIijail:~e journeyed to ..the·kingdoin of God without dyingfrrsi.The Old Testamenr.(2 Kings l"l) account of Elijah's ascent is remarlCably detailed: - '... '. ' '. ' . ~-: " . ~... "' • Abs,';'cI trtlns/QJ~d by Paul Sprac~man, Un;t'f'siry of C/:riC'IIfO Ub,.y¥ . '

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MAZANDARAN in Kay

KiVlis and Rustam's Battles against the Divs.â&#x20AC;˘

by

Jala} Matini

The account of king Kay Kiviis military expedition to Mizandarin forms one of the better known and engrossing episodes in the Shahniimah. In this episode Kay lei viis and his army are captured and blinded by the dreaded White demon (Div-i"sepfd). largest of Mazandarin's fiends. Rustam, the Iranian hero, having passed through seven trials known as the Haft Khv(fn. and destroying demons and witches, comes to the king's rescue. During the course of his ordeals, Rustam kills the White demon and restores the captive Iranians' sight with drops of blood from the monster's eviscerated liver. After the liberation ofthe Iranian army, in a ferocious battle Rustam kills the king of Mazandarin, and Kay Kaviis, his troops, and their great hero return to Iran in triumph. This article explores the ancient world to locate the Mazandanin mentioned in this episode. Some Iranian and European scholars consider the Mizandarin that was invaded by Kay leiviis to be the present day Mazandaran which rings the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Others identify the Mizandaran of this episode as a region in India. This article contends that the site of Kay Kivlis' capture corresponds neither to the Caspian Mizandarin nor to any part of India. This contention is sustained by several facts. First, in Firdawsi's time "Tabaristio" was the traditional name used to designate the southern Caspian region; "Mazandarin" did not enter geographical parlance until after the 5th/ 10th century. Second, it is important to recall that "Mazandarin" appears in two separate sections in the ShlzhniimDh; namely, â&#x20AC;˘ AbstrllCt t7t1Nwud by hal Spr~ lIIriwnitJ

0/ ClUc4ro li/w,y.


Nuzhat-Namah-y; 'A IG"-

41

festivals, such as Now-Riiz, Mihrigan, etc. There are at least II manuscripts of this book in various libraries. 6. Nuzhot-Namah. Nuzhot-Niimah which has survived in ten manuscripts is one of the earliest Persian encyclopaedia of natural sciences. It was written in imitation of Diinish-Niimah-yi 'A/Q'i by Abu Ali Sina; but while DanishNamah only dealt with Logic, Metaphysics and Natural Sciences, NuzhatNamah contains many more subjects and can more appropriately be called an encyclopaedia. Nuzhot-Nlimah consists of two books called Qism, each divided into six sections called Maqalah, each of which is variously subdivided into smaller parts called Bilb, FIJ!.I or Nau'. In addition, it contains an Introduction, a Table of Contents and a concluding chapter. The first book deals with man and various types of minerals, vegetables and animals, emphasizing the magical qualities of each; while the second book is concerned with several natural and theoretical sciences, such as geography, arithmetic, mathematics, astronomy (astrology), logic, geometry, physiognomy, meteorology, dreams, dyes, alchemy, oil-making, sword-malc:ing, talismans, tricks, perfumes and eye-medicine. It also contains a chapter on the exploits of Rustam and other ancient Persian heroes, which are somewhat different from the version given in Firdawsi's Shilhniimah. They seem to have been based on the ShQhniimah by Abii al-Mu'ayyid-i Balkhi, as well as on GurdnDmoh by Rustam Laljaru and on Piriizan's translations from Pahlavi sources.

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"Everything is an exchange fo.r fire, and fire fo.r everything; just as go.ld for wares, and wares fo.r go.ld." .

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",;....,.. w,., "The One which alo.ne is wisdom wishes and does no.t wish to. be caned by ' tbe name o.f Zeus ..."

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P1atolived ina period o.fwan 8Dd of:political strife ·wliich·was, for 'aD we


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His beloved teacher Socrates, whom he later made the main speaker of most of his dialogues, was tried and executed. : oJ..!

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