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Meaningful Experiences: Meaningful Innovations for Behavior Change


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For my parents, the endless sources of support and love in my life

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“Designers occupy a dialectical space between the world that is and the world that could be. They are oriented towards the future, and informed by the past and present.� Victor Margolin

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INTRODUCTION ............................... 07


WHY BEHAVIOR CHANGE .............. 08

Trends & innovation .......................................... Design for Sustainable behavior ................... Objectives ............................................................ Research questions ........................................... Design process ...................................................



Publication Research ........................................ Key Facts .............................................................. Subject Matter Interview .................................. Ten types of Innovation ................................... Intent Statement ................................................

10 11 12 13 14

17 21 30 34 40


FRAME INSIGHTS ...................................


Observation to Insights ........................................... Insight Sorting ..........................................................

51 52


EXPLORE CONCEPTS ............................


Persona Definition .................................................... Concept Sketch ........................................................

56 58



61 74 76


Concept Linking Map ............................................. Innovation Brief ........................................................ Platform Plan .............................................................



KNOW PEOPLE .................................. 42

Research Participants Map .............................. 43 Research Planning Survey ............................... 46 Maslow's hierarchy model ......................... 48




APPENDIX ................................................


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Throughout history, designers’ endeavours in understanding human needs have extended their responsibilities. Today, challenging the current functional objects, reconsidering the product aesthetics and creating more enduring products are all among responsibilities of designers. These responsibilities that are in some ways the reliable foundations for developed or developing countries are grounded in a sustainability context. Sustainability as a dynamic goal suggests longevity and endurance in design (Walker, 2006). My passion about sustainability started during my education as an Industrial designer. Designers’ perspectives like Victor Papanek and Ezio Manzini informed me about situations of neglected people and environments that were affected by inappropriate designs. I became quite fascinated by Manzini’s ideas, such as promoting socio-cultural diversity and empowering participation of people with products. I learnt about the power of designers while they created harmony with growth patterns of urban environments, consumption of natural resources, and human well-being in a sustainable manner.

Nowadays the conventional goal of sustainable design as designing energy efficient and recyclable products has altered and a sustainable designer must be capable of changing users’ behavior. Sustainable behavior emphasizes on user’s behavior during the phase of use of the product life cycle. It empowers designers to directly modify users’ experiences and behaviors and convert their individual interests to the collective interests of the society. This study focuses on guiding principles for brands to empower customers in adopting sustainable behaviors by creating meaningful experiences for them. The project process was adopted from "101 Design Methods" by Vijay Kumar. It starts with discovering the current intent, context, and the involved target group. New Customer is a movement, about conscious and powerful customers with a strong effect on other groups of customers. The results of all these studies transforms into insights. Based on the insights, concepts will be generated. Consequently, a framework will be proposed based on the results of previous phases.

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WHY BEHAVIOR CHANGE Trends and innovation Design for Sustainable Behavior (DfSB) Objectives Research questions Research methodology

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"Sustainability represents not so much an environmental crisis, but a crisis of meaning; it prompts us to reassess many of our most fundamental assumption, and to re-examine and change our approaches." Stuart Walker

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Trends and innovation

Emerging shifts in customer consciousness, cultural, economic and technological trends related to sustainability are forcing brands to think differently. Conscious customers with their money and power determine the path brands have to take. These new trends demand brands that care about the bigger picture, can be champion, create more out of less, and invite customers in. (Bemporad, 2011)

factor for engaging new customers. Brands should use their innovation to change their customers' behavior toward sustainable choices and the more innovative the interaction, the stronger its power to break current habits. With emergence of experience economy, user experiences are the key for innovation and engaging customers, (Shedroff,

These new groups of customers are seeking authentic and useful interaction with their brands and shifting the question from "How can you help me impress others?’ to ‘how can you help make my life better, easier or more meaningful?" (Johnson,

But, we no longer change these behaviors only through information, but through learning the context that is effecting these behaviors. Context is the stronger factor in experience creation. Design


By looking at the mega companies like Unilever or Nike, we can sense the shift of brands toward attracting these conscious customers through supporting their sustainable lifestyle. Leading brands in the following years will expand their concentration into the use phase of product lifecycle and customer behavior changes will be the focal point for innovation. Inspiring sustainable behavior change is a key

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has the power to influence the context and create product service systems to empower customers in making sustainable choices. Continous, dynamic, and discontinuous are three types of innovation for changing customer behaviors that in order, are stronger in making difference. Continous are minor alternations, dynamics are new products and services based on existings, and discontinous innovations are totally new product types. (Zachrisson, 2012)

Design for Sustainable Behavior

The importance of user behavior in terms of sustainable design has created the concept of “sustainable behavior�. Changes in user’s behaviors and habits could create unbelievable and impressive results in protecting our natural resources. Thomas Dietz, a professor at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee and his colleagues have estimated that, it is possible to reduce total US Carbon dioxide emissions by 7.4% over the next ten years through programs that target residential energy use and nonbusiness travel. (Dietz & et. al, 2009). Due to the fast and sporadic evolution of our urban environments, designers are responsible for concentrating on shaping the behavior of users to a sustainable way that benefits the society and the

user simultaneously. Designers are now society centered, as opposed to user-centered designers whose objective is to create a harmonization between individual and collective concerns with the key element of behaviors. Collective concerns like safety or responsibility are concerns we have for society, organization, family, or any other social group that are often the time in conflict with our individual concerns, like efficiency or comfort. The significance and popularity of behavior change content becomes more considerable as sustainable advocates such as Sustainable Brands and triplepundit have a special section on behavior change. The common point among all these articles is the future of innovation is behavior change, changing consumer perception.

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Considering current trends this project will study the required factors for changing behaviors through creating meaningful experiences. The goal is How deign can empower customers to make informed decisions? These intended customer experiences are the combining factors for innovation and promotion of sustainable behavior change. Designing

meaningful experiences will add value to customer's daily life and engage her/him in a meaningful level with a product. The objective is creating guiding principles for innovations that empower customers toward sustainable behaviors and merge individual and collective concerns of customers.

Your brand is built on trust and familiarity. Innovation is not just about putting the right new feature into a product and getting it on the shelf faster than the next guy. Innovation comes from an intense collaboration with your customers through which you can influence the behavior that will keep you (and your products and services) relevant for a long time. Robert Fabricant

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Research Questions

• What are the different behavior

• How behavior change has been

change strategies and frameworks? • What is experience and what are the influencing factors in creation of an experience? • What is a meaningful experience? • How behavior change strategies might be connected to design process?

used as a innovative strategy among companies? • How might meaningful experiences inspire users interactions with products toward reducing products’ environmental and social impacts?

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Research Methodology

(Kumar, 2013)

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“101 Innovation Method” book by Vijay Kumar was used as a source for the project process. The process is consisted of 7 steps from exploring intent to proposing offering. The project commenced with sensing the intent and knowing the context phases simultaneously and the gathered data from each method continuously enriched the other methods data. 1. Sense Intent • Key Facts • Ten Types of Innovation • Intent Statement

5. Explore Concepts • Persona Definition • Concept Sketching

6. Frame Solutions • Morphological Synthesis • Concept Linking Map

7. Realize Offerings • Platform Plan • Innovation Brief

2. Know Context • Publication Research • Subject Matter Interview 3. Know people • Research Participants Map • Research Planning Survey 4. Frame insights • Observation to Insights • Insights Sorting

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SENSE INTENT AND KNOW CONTEXT Publication Research Key Facts Subject Matter Interview Ten Types of Innovation

Intent Statement

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In this chapter methods from the first two steps of “101 Innovation Method”; Sense Intent and Know Context were combined. As it was essential for the project to have a solid and rich foundation of the existing frameworks in both behavior change and experience design approaches, Publication Research from Know Context step was selected.

The second method is Key Facts that presents key facts and information from behavior change and meaningful experience contents. The third method in this chapter is Subject Matter Interview from Know Context step. With Ten Types of Innovation methods, five case studies and finally the intent statement of this project are presented.





Exploring behavioral psychology to support design for sustainable behavior research

Johannes Zachrisson* and Casper Boks


Norwegian University of Design behavior Intervention Model Science and Technology )DBIM


Design for sustainable behavior: strategies and perceptions

Debra Lilley


Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University

Interventions which raise awareness by drawing attention to a problematic behavior were seen as more acceptable and empowering. (These interventions, many felt, would encourage behavior change without reducing the user’s ability.

Design for Socially Responsible behavior : A Classification of Influence Based on Intended, User Experience

Nynke Tromp, Paul Hekkert Peter-Paul Verbeek


Delft University of Technology Design issue

Design for Socially Responsible behavior can happen based on Influence on Intended User Experiences in four categories: 1.Strong and apparent (Coercive and forced): 2.Apparent and weak (persuasive) 3.Weak and Hidden (Seductive and Tempting) Optimal conditions for specific behavior 4.Hidden and strong (Decisive)

Making Meaning

Steve Diller & et al


New Riders publishers

The book considers accomplishment, beauty, creation, community, duty, Enlightenment, freedom, harmony, justice, oneness, redemption, security, truth, validation, and wonder as Meaningful Experiences.

Publication Research table. Page 17

Publication research I Behavior Change Intangible

More than 18 different methods, frameworks, strategies, and proposal from different universities, technical labs, and individual models were studied that 18 of them has been presented in this page. They have been categorized in the spectrum based on their tangibility (product base content) or intangibility (theory base content). The same approach was taken in understanding current studies related to experiences design content in the next page.

The Stages of Change Model

Planned behaviors

UC Berkeley

One of the most significant models of health behavior change that proposes strategies or processes to assist someone through the stages of change.

Sustainable decision is based on whether person is in favor of doing the behavior, the amount of social pressure, and whether he/she in control of the action.

Promoting sustainable behavior needs attention attraction, persuasive messages, fostering strategies, consistent delivery, and careful consideration of audience.

The Models in Real Life

Social cognitive theory


Triggers raise environmental awareness and need tools to invoke actions in customers. When a change occurs, it definitely requires maintenance to reach to meanings level.

It is relevant to health programs and stresses on importance of environment, behavioral capability, and situation in people patterns of acquiring and maintaining behaviors.

It is about elegant and practical moves toward sustainable practices adoption.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

The ABC behavior

Minnesota P.C. Agency

The environment directly influences the behvaior and results in a consequence.  Design can influence the way people behave by shaping the environment they function within.

For changing behaviors a program need to make sustainable behavior the social default, emphasize personal relevance, expose information, create opportunities and positive visions.

People have Selfactualization and transcendence needs that are characterized by problem solving, personal growth, and the ability to have peak experiences.

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Health Apps To affect behavioral change using a website or application, designers should consider these steps: determining the target behavior, selecting a trigger, and testing that trigger.

** Norwegian University of Science and Technology Comprehensive action determination model suggests individual, sustainable behavior is directly determined by intention, habits, and situation.

Design with Intent It is a toolkit that suggests 8 enabling lens of Architectural, Errorproofing, Interaction, Lusic, Perceptual, Cognitive, Machiavellian, and security influence users' behaviors.


Simplicity, hot triggers, and daily habits are the most significant factors to be considered in behavior change and daily habits are the most powerful factor.

“Successful change comes from a real understanding of people.” Five Levers for Change are: Make the behavior understood, easy, desirable, rewarding, and a habit.



Brunel University

The changing behaviors strategies are related to three types of users: Pinballs (They don't care!), Shortcuts ( They prefer an easier option.), and the thoughtfuls (They have high motivations).

Delft Universty of Technology

• • • •

B.J. Fogg, Stanford Lab

* Loughborough *

Stanford Tech. Lab

Don’t bombard users with data Consider the gaming experience Convenience and comfort are keys Icons are important ...

" The best design solutions today change human behavior. Yet despite decades of research, challenges remain for people who design to influence. Behavior change is a step-by-step process."

Seven design interventions that in order a user lose her/his control to a product: information, choice, feedback, spur, steer, technology, and clever design.

Choosing behavior change strategies should be based on intended users' experiences.

The planned behavior theory or Icek Ajzen’s theory is one of the most predictive persuasion theories that introduces attitude as the main factor to influence a person intention and behavior. According to this theory attitude is affected by both subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Page 19

* **

The study is the most influential research for this project. These studies are presented as an example in Publication Research table.

Publication research I Meaningful Experiences Intangible

Experience Des. Cards These cards are design tools help designers address experience issues when developing products, services, and events.

Stanford Tech. Lab Users experience three levels of satisfaction related to cost and benefit they get in interactions with products.


Tangible Sustainable by Design A sustainable solution can be understood as one that possess enduring value in terms of its meanings and characteristics.

* *Making Meaning It is essential to encourage customer's to participate in co-creation experiences that will results in deeper user connections to the product and company.

These studies are presented as an example in Publication Research table.

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* * Delft Universty of Technology “Inscriptions,” refer to the effects on user’s actions intended by the designer, from “prescriptions,” which concern the actions a product allows the user.

Sense Intent I Key Facts

The gathered data from this method created an organized file of all the related facts to the projects with supporting definitions and knowledge for each separate fact from multiple sources.




Data type

Keywords & facts


Further research

Behavior change



Research base



What are the criteria for successful communication?

Behavior change




Trigger- Hot triggers are the most powerful element in changing behavior.

Stanford Tech Lab

What are the different categories of triggers?

Meaningful experience



Research base

Adoptability- Customization Making allows customers to choose Meaning options that tailor a product, service, or experience to their needs, and desires. It is easier than personalization, because its options are finite and controllable

How might adoptability be incorporated into service offerings or design process?

Meaningful experience

Strategy & design process


Research base

Usability- involves goal attainment, which, in appraisal theory, is one of the main dimensions of emotion eliciting assessment

How can I connect this strategy to strategy parts of behavior change?

Delft, Design Journal

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Page 22 training mood





After Real time



create a vision



Information and education








Visible waste


confidence Pleasure


Peak experiences



Incentives and

Technical oriented and Clever design intervention


Surveillance and security

System thinking Scarcity




Steer and Script


social rejection.

context Social norms Social diffusion

Simplicity social acceptance



Understanding People






Human-Ceneterd Design Monitor



Signaled (high motivation, high ability)

Trigger future




Identifying barriers






Sequence of activities




Sense Intent I Key Facts I Behavior Change Design and innovation Strategies criteria Experience design


Sense Intent I Key Facts I

Meaningful Experiences





Coercive and forced



Seductive and Persuasive


Consistency & harmony affect


Know market








Design process

Productivity Feedback

Personal possession-ness

Understanding People



enduring Adoptability

Design and innovation Strategies criteria Experience design

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Behavior change I Deeper look: Delft University of Technology

Design for Sustainable behavior (DfSB) is an emerging activity under the banner of sustainable design which aims to reduce products’ environmental and social impact by moderating how users interact with them.

In addition, in a framework by Delft University of Technology that was published as a paper in Design Issue Journal “Design for Socially Responsible Behavior : A Classification of Influence Based on Intended User Experience” ,in which eleven design strategies were introduced based on intended user experience and where a lot of overlaps can be sensed with the previous proposed interventions. Adversely, in this framework and in all the strategies, the user consciously or unconsciously makes the decisions in all the strategies. 1. Create a perceivable barrier for undesired behavior (eco-spur’) 2. Make unacceptable user behavior overt (eco-spur) 3. Make the behavior a necessary activity to perform to make use of the product function. (eco-steer) 4. Provide the user with arguments for specific behavior (eco-information) 5. Suggest actions. (ec0-choice) 6. Trigger different motivations for the same behavior.

7. Elicit emotions to trigger action tendencies. 8. Activate physiological processes to induce behavior. 9. Trigger human tendencies for automatic behavior al responses. 10. Create optimal conditions for specific behavior 11. Make the desired behavior the only possible behavior to perform. Again, this project’s focus is on the apparent part of the framework to empower people consciously to make sustainable decisions.

The highlighted parts are focus of this study. Page 24

Behavior change I Deeper look: Loughborough University

Design behavior Intervention Model (DBIM) is a behavior change intervention model that has been introduced in a research by Loughborough University in the design journal. This model suggests 7 design interventions in 2008 based on control distribution to a user or product: •‘eco-information’ interventions deliver information to the user, •‘eco-choice’ provides options for the interaction, •‘eco-feedback’ notifies the user about the consequences of his/her behavior in the real-time •‘eco-spur’ inspires the intended behavior through

rewarding incentives or penalties •‘eco-steer’ facilitates adoption of a new habit through making an intended behavior easier or unintended behavior more difficult. eco-technical’ controls user behavior automatically by design combined with advanced technology and •‘clever design’ does the same without raising awareness or changing user behavior. Again, the concentration of this project regarding to current trends of the ‘human being’ as the core for brand interaction and value is on three first interventions.

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Meaningful experience I Deeper look: Delft University of Technology

Experience is shaped by the characteristics of the user, like personality, skills, and cultural values; and those of the product. In an interaction between a user and a product, three levels of experience are involved that the focus of this study is on the third one: A Aesthetics: is related to emotions and applied triggers in designs. This is the part a product considered beautiful or ugly from different individual perspectives.

User product interaction


M Meaning: At the level of meaning, people recognize metaphors, assign personality or other expressive characteristics, and assess the personal or symbolic significance of products.




Emotional: In order to understand emotional responses to human-product interaction, one must understand the users’ concerns considering the context in which he or she interacts with the product.



The aesthetic and emotional levels have a constant effect on experience of meaning and should be considered in the designing process. (Desmet, P. M. A., & Hekkert, 2007)

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Delft University of Technology

Meaningful experience I Deeper look: Nathan Shedroff Function: Does this do what I need? Price: Does this do what I need at the price that worth it? Emotion: Does this make me feel good? Meaning: Does this fit to my world?


The significance of an experience

Meaningful experience is introduced by Nathan Shedroff as the mind construction of reality that assesses values, disregards, and desires. He believes meaningful experiences are more powerful than price and performance, last more than emotions, are personal, and finally have the deepest connection with a user. In a framework he suggests the significance of an experience is shaped in four levels with meaning as a core.

Nathan Shedroff is one of the pioneers in Experience Design approach. He speaks and teaches internationally and has written books such as Experience Design 1 and Making Meaning. At the level of meaning, cognition comes into play. Through cognitive processes, like interpretation, memory retrieval, and associations, we are able to recognize metaphors, assign personality or other expressive characteristics, and assess the personal or symbolic significance of products. Also, the aesthetic appreciation of an object that is tied to meaningful experiences is based on cognitive stock of a customer(Desmet, 2007)

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Meaningful experience I Deeper look: Nathan Shedroff

1. Accomplishment: A sense of satisfaction that can result form productivity, focus, or status.

2.Beauty: Appreciation of qualities that give pleasure to the senses or spirit.

3. Creation: Contribution in making sth original.

4. Community: A sense of unity with others around and a general connection with other human beings.

9. Justice: The assurance of equitable and unbiased treatment, fairness and equality.

10. Oneness: A sense of unity with everything around.

11. Redemption: Derives people from a less desirable condition to a more pleasing one.

12. Security: The freedom from anxiety of loss like identity theft protection services

In “Making Meaning: How Successful Businesses Deliver Meaningful Customer Experiences� book 15 different meaningful experiences are suggested. Although the authors mentioned these are a few experiences and based on customers' needs, new experiences can be created. (Diller, & et al, 2009). These meaningful experiences have been considered for studying the successful case studies.

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5. Duty: The willing application of oneself to a responsibility. Also, relate to responsibilities to oneself and family “good for you”

6. Enlightenment: Clear understanding through logic or inspiration.

7. Freedom: The sense of living without feeling unwanted constraints.

13. Truth: A commitment to honesty and integrity.

14. Validation: The recognition of oneself as a valued individual worthy of respect.

15. Wonder: Beyond one’s understanding!

8. Harmony: The balanced relationship of parts to a whole.

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Know context I Subject Matter Interview

Sample of questions: 1. What is your common design process? 2. What are the problems with this proposed design process? 3. How co-creation can be incorporated in design process? How design with them can be incorporated in design process? 4. How do think a brand can attract environmentally and socially conscious customers? 5. Current trend in innovation is about behavior change rather than creation of new products? How do you think a brand can change its customer perceptions and value from possess to access? (Collective consumption values) 6. How brands can leverage their loyal and conscious customers? 7. How do you think a favorite brand has the power to change customers’ behaviors toward behaviors with environmental and social benefits? 8.Regarding to importance of experience economy, do you think what the required criteria to consider in design process are or company strategies, so delightful experiences for customers can be resulted? 9.Can you remember any company that is successful in changing customers’ behaviors toward conscious environmental and social behaviors with creation of innovative and delightful experiences? What are their criteria of success?

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Cari Clark Phelps Designer and Creative Director Salaciasalt Savannah, GA

• • • • • •

Information is all about the right time and context. Playfulness and accessibility are essential. The biggest challenge are in distribution and sale touchpoints. Gaining trust is the main factor of success. Storytelling should be engaging and unique. In design elements beauty has a strong effect.

• •

• •

Bob Fee Professor of Design Management, SCAD Savannah, GA

Michael Felix

Savannah, GA

Transparency and trust iare essential for a brand loyalty Creating familiarity help to attract attentions and the next step is about narrowing down the information and strong presenting A couple of disasters are enough to create dishonesty Trust will be created through consistency.

Professor of Interaction and Industrial Design SCAD

• • •

• • •

Brands can change customer’s perception by engaging narratives. It is all about storytelling skills. Transparency and loyalty to first promises will result in strong membership and community. Engaging emotional and being consistent in communications can help in attracting loyal customers. “My favorite brand is not a business to me, it is my family.” Meaning should be considered in a design process for reaching delightful experiences. Accessible and personalized information is one of the key facts of companies that are successful in creating meaning.

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Robert Bau Professor of Service Design SCAD

Secondary research It is essential the new framework be created based on a strong analysis and synthesis of current studies. Strong visualization conduct a side-by-side comparison of existing frameworks, and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses, supports a more specific and understandable narrative in presenting the focus of the project. In addition, the new framework should be the result of in-depth and strong case studies and their criteria of success. These criteria should be consistent with the objectives of this project. Target group It is important to create a specific description of the target group. Who are these powerful customers? How do they make decisions? What are their values? Lifestyles? Tools like 2x2 grids and personas can help you bring to life customer groups with different needs.

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Design process The proposed design process seems to be linear/circular in nature but should be more iterative. Your design steps should be labelled in a consistent manner - preferably by using action words. It is not clear how the notion of cocreation is incorporated in your design process.

Systemic thinking and branding A brand is delivered through an orchestrated sequence of touchpoints over time. Systemic thinking can help you identify these touchpoints. Furthermore, a brand needs to act consistently and transparently in order to build trust and forge strong relationships.

3)With context as the most important factor affecting behavior, my

Nathan Shedroff The chair of CCA's MBA in Design Strategy One of the pioneers of experience design

assessment is that elements within any system, connections, social norms,

most important from the others that are just noise. Human behavior is,

rules, environment, and market conditions all inform that context. Do you feel like I have missed anything, and how can I leverage these data to better plan the co-design phase? No, that’s it. Of course, there are a LOT of moving parts. The trick is finding them and then separating the first, human so the qualitative data will be MUCH more important that the

1)During these years after writing Making Meaning book, do you have any

quantitative--at least, at first.

extra insights about the importance of meaningful experiences in changing

4)I believe identity and sense of membership to a special community

customer behaviors? To me, it’s getting more and more important. My

have the strongest value in behavior change frameworks. Based on your

latest book takes these ideas further and integrated them into the need for

experience framework, are their criteria that would suggest one of the

creating cohesive narratives for customers: wavelines, using scriptwriting

financial, economic, emotional, or identity values take priority over the

and music composition tools. My students have used all of these strategies,

others? I don’t see it that way. I think that identity is incredibly important but

frameworks, and tools, and regularly create products, services, events,

our identities are constructed from many elements and we’re, essentially,

an strategies for all of these, around core meanings, triggers, and (now)

many identities, not one. We’re not the same person to our friends, family,

narratives. We’re learning a lot about the tools and process.

co-workers, online buddies, sexual partners, children, neighbors, etc. This is

2)Is there any specific step within your Making Meaning process to

where Facebook is in trouble and has done everyone a disservice. Instead,

incorporate behavior change strategies? You have to see behavior-change

it’s how we view the world that sets the most resonant tone for how we

as a system of complex interactions. You need to find the leverage points

behave and what we believe. That’s where core meanings come in. Based

or pressure points in any system to know where to push (and inject your

on the core meanings we prioritize and how we express them, we create

experience). Meaning becomes a strategy to build successful experiences

our identities in relation to how these intersect the world we experience.

but we must still, first, identify needs, understand contexts, and figure-out

It can be any element that forms the basis of our personality or the thing

where to push in order for those experiences to have influence. Once you

we latch onto in telling ourselves a story of how to make sense of the

know where to push, and you’ve identified for whom, the next step is to

world--it can be financial for some, emotional for others, etc. You can’t

understand what core meanings they prioritize and how they express these.

focus on one or expect one to be more important across a lot of people.

Then, you have the materials to shape the experience to actually change

However, core meanings shade all of these because they represent how we


understand the world, which is why it shades everything else.

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Sense Intent I Ten Types of Innovations (Case Studies)

The following four case studies have been considered because they are changing their customers’ behaviors by empowering them and creating desirable experiences. This approach has

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resulted in extraordinary innovations among all these brands that will be presented in the 10 innovations method.

Growth does not have to cost the earth

"Consumers should be part of the movement for sustainable change." Unilever is one of the pioneers in behavior change that has a specific behavior change lab and works directly with customers. Unilever advocates fundamental changes in attitudes and behaviors across society for reaching to a sustainable future. Marketing and market research, and campaigns are among the brand activities to raise awareness and encourage changes in behaviours. Unilever publishes behavior change approach annually since 2011. Five Levers for Change is a set of principles, which, if apply consistently to behaviour change interventions, will increase the likelihood of having a lasting impact: Make it understood, easy, desirable, rewarding, and a habit. • • • • • Delivered meaningful experiences based on Making Meaning book by Nathan Shedroff: • Accomplishment • Validation • Enlightenment

Transparency Information & education User generated context Community activities Especially focus on behavior change strategies

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Growth does not have to cost the earth

Nike is one of the successful companies in incorporating environmental strategies and human health concerns into corporate strategies. The reason for adopting sustainable behavior strategies by Nike was a weak PR initiative due to its child labor activities that forced the brand to change its image. Nike is one of the few companies focuses on experiences instead of products. For example, current collaboration with Apple has created successful product service systems with strong effect on changing customer health and exercise behaviors. In addition, Nike considers a product’s entire life cycle from employees to material and packaging, and by creating meaningful experiences attracts customers and provides high quality sustainable products. Nike is also one of the pioneers in social activities. Nike Foundation and Girl Effect are among its significant achievements to communicate emotionally with its customers and prove its sustainable initiatives.

Delivered meaningful experiences based on Making Meaning book by Nathan Shedroff: • Accomplishment • Freedom • Beauty

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Ipod is chosen as the case study because it was one of the first products that created a product service system by focusing on the context and experience instead of product itself. It changed the way users experience music; it reduced the material extraction and production, and made music accessible to broader group of customers. Although Ipod benefits from different ecological strategies such as dematerialization, transparent information presentation, and post-execution support, Apple does not expand its activities to social sphere of sustainability such as wellbeing and democratic participation.

Delivered meaningful experiences based on Making Meaning book by Nathan Shedroff: • Creation • Freedom • Beauty

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Among all the presented case studies Method is the most innovative and comprehensive brand. It certainly relies on user-generated context. It has consistent and transparent systematic thinking in all its touchpoints. Method initiated its activities by incorporating ecological and human health concerns into corporate strategy in all the products life cycle touchpoints. But, what makes method an extraordinary case study is using Blue Ocean strategy that changes customer experiences of cleaning and concentrates on desirable experiences through creation of sense of community with peers with shared values. Method delicately uses emotional design principles with: "People against dirt" Delivered meaningful experiences based on Making Meaning book by Nathan Shedroff: • Oneness • Enlightment • Beauty

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Ten Types of Innovation Framework demonstrates the nature of different types of innovations in presented case studies in detailed four groups


Business Model




Core process

Criteria learned from Ten Types of Innovation Framework and related case studies: • • • • • • • •

Transparency Information & education User generated context Community activities User generated context Emotional design Collaboration Experience oriented

of finances, process, offerings, and delivery or experience. The hardest innovations to achieve in order is experience group.


Product performance

• • •

Product system




Customer experience


Consistent touchpoints Incorporating ecological and human health concerns into corporate strategy Entire product life cycle from employee to material and packaging

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Sense Intent I Intent Statement

Today, many responsible companies have built their knowledge to fully incorporate the natural environment into their business framework. These evolutionary corporations comprehend that competitive advantage requires sturdy development of environmentally restorative products, services and systems (Nattrass & Altomare, 1999). These corporations demand designers who are aware of their responsibilities. Despite the significant of sustainable life cycle thinking, current market more than ever in

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the history of design, has created enormous pressure on innovation that resulted in competitive atmosphere, conspicuous consumption patterns, and obsolescent relationships between users and their possessions. Therefore, changes in user’s behaviors and habits could also create unbelievable and impressive results in protecting our natural resources. According to University of Delft,

the user experience of products and services is an important factor in the user motivation to alter his or her behavior. Creating desirable and meaningful experiences require innovative engagement and valuable relationship between user and products.

Consequently, this project will identify and address opportunities to incorporate consumers’ needs and behaviors at a deeper level in design process and raise

users ‘ awareness about sustainable choices. There is opportunity for designers to develop strategies and frameworks for creation of more social and active collaboration between consumers, their communities and trusted brands. Companies that are able to operate at greater levels of transparency and responsiveness to their consumers’ desires will perceive improved brand image. (Senge, & et al, 2008)

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KNOW PEOPLE Research Participant Map Research Planning Survey

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Know people I Research Participants Map + Awareness

Infectious Agent

Enthusiastic Explorer


Infectious Agent -

+ Knowledge


Infectious Agents are powerful customers who have a strong influence on other groups. This group have thorough knowledge and awareness about sustainability and actively and collectively work in communities to persuade people toward socially and environmentally friendly behaviors. They are eager to develop their sustainable behaviors and prefer brands that support their lifestyles

Enthusiastic Explorer Active

Enthusiastic Explorer

Infectious Agent



Enthusiastic Explorers are amongst the powerful customers who have a high awareness about sustainability, but despite Infectious Agents who do not work in communities and do not try to persuade others people toward sustainability. This study will propose a framework to encourage this group to join the Infectious Agents. Infectious Agents and Enthusiastic Explorer have been introduced as "New Customers" by Sustainable Brands. They bridge the gap between the Greeners and more mainstream customers.



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Know people I Sustainable Brands

Since 2004, sustainable brands has offered news and views from thought and practice leaders, live and on-line events, peer-to-peer learning groups, a library, and solutions provider directory. According to this engine new customers are bridging the gap between mainstream costumers and Greeners and for attracting this group brands should develop their value proportions based on trip[le bottom line.

These New Customers: Demand total values Create their own solutions Seek meaningful experiences Demand active co-creation of content, product, and experiences

• • • •

Improve my life


m sto





Make a difference in the world

Representing 30 percent of U.S. Population, New Customers bridge the gap between very green and more mainstream consumers. By empowering these group and providing meaningful experiences, they can be ambassadars of behavior change.



Connect to community with shared values

Value propositions should be consistent with the Triple bottom line to attract these early adopters

Future of Brands Presentation, Sustainable Brands, 2011

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Know people I LOHAS

The Rise of Ethical Consumerism "LOHAS stands for Lifestyles Of Health And Sustainability. It refers to a wide range of industries, corporate activities and products/services that are designed to be environmentally conscious, sustainable, socially responsible, and/or healthier— both for people and the planet. The LOHAS consumers are the leading-edge portion of the population and are used as predictor of upcoming trends, as they are early adopters of many attitudinal and behavioral dynamics." LOHAS presents following trends among New Customers:

. Greener than Ever: Customers are

increasingly engaged in purchase and lifestyle behaviors with different motivations such as health, community connectedness, and cost savings.

. More Motivated . Bullish on the Future: The growth rates in purchase and lifestyle behaviors will extremely grow and lead in demand for new brands, products, and services.

"The business strategy sums up simply as: Stay True. Get Paid. Do Good." "It's all about making connections, collaborating, and most importantly, creating a community of shared values. That means to find customers, you will have to do more than speak their language, you will have to have an ongoing conversation." "Listening's great. Responding is better, If you're not responding, you become irrelevant very fast."

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Know people I Research planning survey (Customer Insights)

Customer insights survey A pilot survey were created in the initial weeks to guide the process for the customer insights survey. A sample of the results: • Desirable sustainable behaviors: Gardening, Biking, & recycling • Meaningful products: Bikes, rings, mattress, jeans, iPod • The greenest products: bike, household cleaners, bulbs, reusable water bottle • Trusted company: Transparency of practices • Products with unsustainable impacts: cars, laptops, and phone • Resource for sustainable behaviors: Waste and Energy • Resources for unsustainable behaviors: Food and transportation • Trusted source for a sustainable products: Friends and family, and customer reviews • Resource in maintaining sustainable behaviors: Suggestions, education, and convenience

• Total number of respondents: 36 • Employment status: Student: %64 Professional: %33 • Strongest qualities effects on purchasing decisions: Price %71 Alignment with your personality and style %59

• The majority of customers, %32, often encourage others to buy from environmentally and socially responsible companies, comparing to %20 of somewhat. • %62 of customers think they should consume less to protect our nature. • Motivations to behave in a way that benefits the environment and society:(two choices) Protecting the planet %62 Improving my health and lifestyle %61

• Trusted informing sources about environmental and social benefits of products (two choices): Certification and labels %48 Customer review %64

• Trusted criteria for a company's sustainability claims (three choices): Creates innovative and sustainable products and services %70 Actively engages their customers in the research, design, and development process %58 Measures and demonstrates positive social and environmental impacts %45

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• Reasons for engagement with a product (Pick two): The product represents your identity and personality %48 Aesthetic connection %37

• Favorite brand encouraging role in adopting environmentally and socially beneficial habits (three choices): Provide thorough sustainability information %55 Make desirable behaviors more convenient %52 Provide feedbacks about the environmental and social consequences of your behavior %48

• Main barriers in adopting environmentally and socially beneficial behaviors: I can not afford environmental and social choices. %46 I usually prefer easier options. %46

• Supporting factors to purchase a product with environmental and social benefits (three choices) Performs better than regular products %62 Lower price %52 Convenient access %52

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Know people I Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

The Maslow's hierarchy model (1943) that was discussed in Publication Research, describes people's motivations in their actions and goals. People in the growth levels of cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and Self transcendence seek information. Self-actualization: Finding self-fulfillment and realize one's potential; and Self-transcendence: Connecting to something beyond and helping others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. This project believes, the goal of any behavior change program should be creation of Selfactualizied and Self-transcendent ambassadors (Infectious Agents) who are able to lead self-resilient communities of future. These groups are searching for peak experiences, meaningful experiences.

 Self transcendence

Self-actualization Aesthetic needs Need to know and Understand needs Esteem needs Belongingness and Love needs Safety needs Physiological needs

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Growth needs

"The emphasis on meaningful experiences reflects the slow extinction of the ‘consumer’ and the triumphant return of the ‘human being’ as the focal point for brand interaction. More importantly, we are seeing the return of the human condition as the crucible of brand value, not the economic transaction." Steven Johnson

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GENERATE INSIGHTS Observation to Insights Insights Sorting

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Generate Insights I Observation to Insights and Insight Sorting

All the insights were generated through the lens of system thinking as the main element in any behaviour change program. Insight sorting method affinities generated insights from previous research into logical clusters that have been presented in the pictures by dark purple posit-its. Samples of insights are presented in the next page.

Intangibility, potential participation of users in the process of production, and simultaneous production and consumption are among the main features of the nature of services. A product service system is a socially constructed system of products and services with cooperative capability of fulfilling a user’s need (Mont, 2002 & Morelli, 2002). It is a powerful director in transforming needs to practical concepts and changing user’s behavior toward sustainable manners. Insights and Insight Sorting

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The new product’s ability to break old habits will be related to the novelty of the interaction with the product. S

The extent to which a user considers the implication as personally beneficial defines what type of influence is possible or most appropriate. C

Designing for use we should consider, usability, simplicity, accessibility, and meaning. M

The design of meaningful experiences begins by identifying the opportunity for new or improved connections to meaning and concludes with the expression and ongoing support of that meaning through a multitude of consumer touch points. D

Although the design of the product can form the circumstances to trigger change, the context of the behavior is often hard to control. S The goal of any behavior change program should be creation of self-actualized and self transcendence people or self-resilience ambassadors who feel responsible to help others and spread the change. D

Brands should create value for their customers through a positive product experience and lasting brand loyalty. M

Product interventions can be accepted, if the target behaviors are already socially accepted as norms. C

A movement from informed purchasers has been started who are using their increasing commercial power and control to obtain what they want from companies. Customers sense their power and participate in the process of innovation. S

S Strategy

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Design process


M Meaningful experiences

Strategies Criteria


EXPLORE CONCEPTS Persona Definition Concept Sketch Concept Sorting

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The first step in Exploring concept was developing a persona that guided the design concepts. The persona is a representative of the project target group. Infectious Agents are the target group that was introduced in the Know People chapter. This group are active customers who have a strong influence on other groups of customers. After generating concepts there were combined and sorted into six clusters. These clusters generated six frames of the project proposed framework, presented in chapter 6.

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Explore concepts I Persona Definition

Zach, 28 Infectious Agent Single, Student at SCAD Savannah, GA

Attribute Zach describes himself as "hyperactive, non-judgemental, friendly, and outgoing!" He loves to hang out and cares about his personal relationships and tries hard to keep his connections. Improving his health and lifestyle and protecting the planet motivates him to behave in a way that benefits the environment and society. He loves nature and hiking. He enjoys hiking because he feels that he is merging with nature. He really cares about the environment and likes to have a role in protecting it. He often visits his favorite brand social media and web page. His motivation to choose Sustainability as a major is finding a career that he doesn't feel ashamed of and can feel good about himself and enjoy his daily life. Also, he can be a good role model for his future children. He does not like to be in a greener group; he cares about other people's decisions. So, often he encourages others to buy from socially and environmentally cautious companies.

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I think without the strong communities the other parts of sustainability, profit and planet, will not be achieved.

Expectations He likes his favorite brands to directly connect with him and connect him to a community of other people similar to himself. He trusts companies which not just present information on their websites, but also prove their efforts. He really likes to have Co-creation options such as Customizing or Do it yourself during purchasing products. He is a skilled craftsman and a products' performance is very important to him. So, function, besides alignment with his personality and style, are the factors he considers for purchasing new products and making meaningful connections with products. Life goals Finding a career that he doesn't feel ashamed of and makes him feel good about himself and enjoy his daily life. Also, he can be a good role model for his future children.

Possess durable and functional items

Feel organized and crafty

Connect to a community with similar values

Feel supported and enjoy daily life

Motivators Rewards and incentives, connection to a community or peers with shared values, and performs better than regular products strongly support his decisions to purchase a product with social and environmental benefits.

He can feel good about himself and enjoy his daily life.

End goals

Life Style Zach is satisfied about his personal sustainable behaviors, but he likes to be connected to other group with similar beliefs. He likes to develop his skills in spreading the word, because he cares about increasing people's awareness, but at the same time he does not like to push people. He has been spending his summers in Nantucket Island since his childhood. The Island is a very environmentally conscious place and they are lots of conservations that all helped him to grow up with a conscious mind about sustainable lifestyles. It is important for him to eat healthy and he buys his groceries from fresh stores. He thinks companies in their sustainability activities should prioritize social efforts. Organic cloths, reusable water bottles, and the iPhone are among the products that have helped him to make more socially and environmentally beneficial decisions.


Experience goals Function, besides alignment with his personality and style.




His brands should encourage him with transparency claims and feedback about his behavior, and make related behavior more convenient.


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Explore concepts I Concept Sketch

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FRAME SOLUTIONS & REALIZE OFFERINGS Concept-Linking Map Morphological Synthesis The Innovation Brief Platform Plan

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Based on insights gleaned from previous chapters, a framework has been designed as a solution that has been derived from generated concepts. In creating this framework 6 frames were defined. The first two frames present the required knowledge in the areas of behavior change and meaningful experiences, which were derived from key findings, and an iteratively designed Concept-Linking method. The Concept-Linking map links different groups of ideas in order to create solutions as defined by the post-its. At the heart of this project is the behavior change frame, which has been categorized into six sections: attracting attention, essential factors, habits, context, triggers, and promotions. Meaningful experiences is a second frame, with six sections of its own: customer's value, needs, collective consumption, unified system, required criteria, and usability.

of general factors to in details aspects were mapped with Platform Plan method. The proposed framework provides guiding principles for brands and designers to create innovative product service systems that empower customers to cautiously adopt sustainable behaviors by building meaningful experiences. Therefore, the resulted innovations are meaningful with ability to connect deeply to customers’ lifestyles. The framework has 6 overlapping frames. Arrows in the framework display that at any level in a project, you can move between these frames. The objective of this framework is creating fundamental guiding principles to provoke further research depending on a project scope.

Generated concepts from previous phases were then organized into different user-centered categories, and, as a third frame, were connected together to create four steps for the proposed design process through a Morphological Synthesis method. Strategies for the design process are presented in the fourth frame of this framework. The Innovation Brief and Platform Plan were selected for products and brand frames. Required criteria of product innovation for all the stakeholders were generated through the Innovation Brief method into three groups: empower, connect, and expand. All the required factors for a successful brand in order Adopted Concept linking map

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Frame Solutions I Six Frames



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The future of innovation is not products, it is behavior change. So, this framework starts with behavior change as the heart or foundation of this framework. This frame provides the main criteria in understanding "human behaviors."

A strong design process is one of the foundations for a successful brand. The proposed design process includes a four-step method to connect behavior change criteria to the creation of meaningful experiences.

Design process is one of the foundations for a successful brand. The design process to the right represents a 4 step method to connect behavior change criteria to the creation of meaningful experiences.

Strategies are the fourth frame that are derived from the design process and result from behavior change and meaningful experience. They have been presented through a company’s before, during, and after execution touchpoints.

New products that result from the previous four stages will be the messenger of behavior change A sample set of criteria is presented in this frame phase. The main attribute is a connection to a broader system: the product service system.

And the last frame is brand as the inclusion of all the other frames. It presents the required criteria for a successful brand that facilitates sustainable behavior change. Page 63













The most effective strategies are upstream... something in the performance environment will be changed (Verplanken and Wood, 2006). These changes in the experienced outcome of the behavior will break the habit. (Zachrisson, 2012)

Attracting attention

Essential factors


Successful behavior change begins with unique and memorable ways of attracting attention. Contemporary advertising techniques can be applied, from surprising the audience to the novelty of the context, and emotional triggers. The ensuing results stand out, creating durable, long lasting, and recognizable memory.

Motivations (intentions), ability (control), and opportunity/triggers are required to illicit the adoption of new behaviors. This project’s primary target group— infectious agents—require a trigger, while enthusiastic explorers—the secondary target groups—require the ability as well as the trigger.

Awareness, consideration, and practice are three steps in adopting new habits. Efficiency and convenience are strong elements in attracting attention to new behaviors. People cycle in and out in adopting new habits, so any behavior change program requires constant delivery and augmenting programs.




Intention, habit, and context are the three primary influencing elements of behavior change, with context possessing the strongest influence. Context defines our daily habits. Elements within any system— connections, social norms, rules, environment, trends and market conditions— all inform this context.

In designing triggers, two factors should be considered: interaction between customer and touchpoint; and aesthetic and emotional nature of these interactions. Triggers can be associated with sensible influences: emotional ties, status associations, and personal identifiers that have increasingly stronger effects, and are harder to achieve.

1. Thorough understanding of the engaged customers 2. Right time, place, and context 3. Supporting social norms 4. Smart and informed changes in the default context 5. Systematic and holistic solutions 6. Engaging storytelling 7. Reciprocation

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According to Appraisal Theory 3 universal key variables should be considered in the process of

The extent to which a user considers the implication as personally beneficial defines what type of influence is

emotion elicitation: • Concern • Stimulus ( Triggers) • Appraisal (Connection &feedback)

possible or most appropriate. between individual and collective concerns plays a prominent role. (Tromp, & et al, 2011)

Desmet, 2007)

Customer's value


Collective consumption

Meaningful experiences can happen when a customer has a visceral connection as she/he interacts with a product service system that mirrors her/his values.

These needs should be satisfied in a meaningful experience that, in ascending order, have a stronger effect: aesthetic, sensibilities, social acceptance, self-esteem, and personal growth.

A product with ability to connect to the existing meanings of customers’ lives has the potential to create sustainable behavior, and results in creative consumption patterns.

Unified system

Required criteria


Meaningful experiences engage customers through a unified system of touchpoints that evokes a constant sense of integrity and familiarity to people’s perspectives of the world.

Creating meaningful experiences for behavior change require motivations, awareness, insightful triggers and strategies based on the context and the level of user intentions.

Ease of use, effectiveness, and efficiency are three aspects of usability which enhance a user's goal attainment, resulting in positive emotions, and meaningful experiences. Beauty is a critical factor in usability assessment because an individual's like or dislike of a particular product is affected by perceptions of beauty.

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The design challenge revolves around helping customers make better choices for their lives and for the planet. The value of design is in its power to connect these personal and collective concerns. The design process presented on the right page is a suggestion for effective steps to connect these two concerns through design.

What will motivate the users?

Systematic immersion: As with many other design processes, the first step involves understanding the current context through systems and lateral thinking. Systematic immersion is about studying all the influential factors of a behavior. The focus is on understanding the connections between a product, the user, and a behavior in a specific context. Knowledge, intents, beliefs, values, habits, rituals, current level of user control, and eWxperience should all be considered in user immersion.

Synthesis, simulation, and evaluation: In the third step, the appropriate strategies for defining different touchpoints through the product lifecycle will be determined. The iterative co-design and prototyping sessions provide direct communication between a brand and its infectious agents.

All the entities and their connections, social norms, rules, environment, trends, market, and economic factors are essential aspects of exploring the context. All the entities and their connections, social norms, rules, environment, trends, market, and economic factors are essential aspects in exploring the context. Analysis: The results of analysis helps to find leverage points in system where experiences can have a strongest effect. The data from systematic immersion helps a designer through the analysis phase to respond to these questions:

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How can design attract attention? Through this process, the right trigger can be selected based on the user's intentions and awareness, and defining a scope for the behavior change project.

Delivery and constant refinement: Adopting new behaviors is a time consuming process that requires constant and long-term delivery and refinement. The delivered experiences should constantly be developed based on trends and customer needs. Maintaining offering phase requires strong connection to customers, direct feedback from customers, and empathy among all employees,

Frame Solutions I Design Process

1. Know the

people & context

Systematic Immersion

4. Delivery &

constant refinement

Decision & Offerings

2. Opportunities,

motivations & scope


3. Strategy, co-design, &iterative prototyping

Synthesis, Simulation & evaluation

Design for behavior change is an iterative, transparent, and collaborative process that requires a holistic view and systematic considerations.

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Infectious agents generate their solutions to solve their own problems and follow the brands that support their life style. In defining strategies to communicate with these agents, two maps were created; the first is a systems map of key considerations, strategies, and tactics; and the second one, which is featured on the next spread, shows the distribution of strategies based on different touchpoints. A customers' willingness, responsiveness, and control on the existing context such as environment, social norms, and rules that will be explored in the first stage of the design process are guiding factors in selecting any of the presented strategies. Approachability and effectiveness: According to behavior change studies, there is conflict between approachability and effectiveness of different strategies. Most of the approachable strategies like 'informing' are not that effective in creating long term changes in behavior. But, according to this project objective, approachable strategies are more supporting and preferable due to their ability to empower the infectious agents and explorers to adopt more socially conscious behaviors without reducing their own power to interact with products (critical factor in designing triggers). A very important factor to consider is the successful creation of an experience that reaches into behavior change decisions, requiring a unified strategy system of touchpoints.

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Co-creation strategies significantly are effective in recognizing objective and subjective barriers that influence context and remove them through designing informed product service systems. As mentioned before, context has the strongest effect in ecological behaviors.

Frame Solutions I Key Considerations, Strategies and Tactics

Social norms

Social attraction



Badges Causes


e ativ on e r ti C mp u s s con ttern pa






Pattern recognition

Goal base & tailoring




ion icat

Social networking

un omm



Emotions Create action tendency

Attract attention



Rew s








Transparency sign




Adoptability Personal possessioness


Key consideration Strategy Tactic

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Frame Solutions I Behavior Change Strategies and Touchpoints

Strategies in different touchpoints

Strategies that are related to all the touchpoints.

Strategy criteria/Tactic

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bl e


ay f


ne ss

Sim p

t en







After e xe c Prompts








Dir ec

Et h




t ien

term Long tenance main


en nv Co

of a ty cy rie uen e Va eq nc fr sse e

l identification

Adju sta resp ble to onse s


Information providing




e str Up

Fam ilia r

Support and support by the context


Track system


ib an ility d of re u su se lts

Social diffusion



Vi s

ution xec

Social Norms

Sample of behavior change strategies in different touchpoints



w Re




Be f

n io Status

ee or



a at pe


of oll

Effi c





tifi Jus


Unde rstan da


t sis


Ea s


et t al s Go

n Co

D es

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Adoptability & Personal Identification

Initiatives to promote behavior change are often most effective when they are carried out at the community level and involve direct contact with people. This is because it could powerfully affect how people view themselves (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). Consequently, it will have a huge impression on their support for policy changes or moving toward a new paradigm.

Adoptability that can be part of the co-creation strategy gives direct voice to customers. It allows them to modify products and services to their needs which will result in valuable experiences. Adoptability enhances personal responsibility, because the customer takes an active role in the creation of the product and she/he will thus feel more connected, and eventually will more likely take better care of her/his possessions.

Moreover, by encouraging self-organization and removing the burden from the intervenor, the members of communities will be connected to each other based on shared ways of doing things and relating these practices to one another. This will allow them to achieve their common value as a more sustainable community. Also, over time, the resulting practice becomes a recognizable bond among those involved toward a strong sense of community as has been called “dynamics of culture” (Capra, 2002). These communications help customers to be heard, feel satisfied and respected, and result in meaningful experience.

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It is a powerful strategy to enrich, the "I-you" relationship between a customer and her/his possessions, rather than an "I-it" relationship. Adoptability is also tied to a sense of identity because customers can add their values to their favorite products.

"‘I-It’ relationship is a subject-object relationship by which we view products with ‘an ethic of alienation, exploitation, and disengagement’. The alternative is an ‘I-you’ relationship that is mutual, reciprocal, and profound." Stuart Walker



Among all the mentioned strategies, storytelling is the most effective strategy that thoroughly connects the behavior change context to creating meaningful experiences. We are surrounded with an overwhelming amount of information everyday, and only that information with strong and consistent storytelling is able to initially attract the required attention, keeps curiosity to transfer the message, and possesses enough pattern recognition to be remembered.

As human beings we like to be associated with and are likely to be influenced by the group of people who share the same values, see the world with similar perspectives, and have similar identities with us. Generating experiences according to shared identities is a strong strategy for a company to create a group of members who will be infectious agents and representatives for their valuable causes or meanings and eventually of a company which support these causes.

Creating cohesive narratives is an extraordinary strategy for communicating with customers, and keeps this communication personal, elicits delightful emotions, and creates triggers and finally convey deep awareness. Therefore, an engaging narrative is a strategy for creating experiences that are inspiring and have stimulating elements to create action tendencies toward sustainable behaviors. In addition, if a story is consistent and honest, it will create trust for customers.

These experiences depend on a unified system of symbols and images based on special personal and social beliefs. Our causes come from what we respect in life, our social beliefs, rituals, and social norms in the society. Personal norms have a strong effect on our habits and intentions and are affected by the social norms and our values. A company can use visible touchpoints to communicate these identities among its members. For example, a company that supports water protection can create credit cards with different colors for Ocean protection, drinking water in developing countries, and other related causes. Strong memberships can create valuable bonds that will change a company's position from a business to a family for its members and earn their commitment.

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Information & feedback


Healthy and transparent information flows is a required trait for all of the strategies; although, it may not be successfully achieved without a clear storytelling framework or communication strategy. Finding an apt audience and presenting the information in a consistent and organized manner helps companies create effective triggers for the aware customers—our infectious agents.

Engaging playfulness and creating pleasure are extremely effective tactics. They keep customers' attention, and maintain their sustainable bahavior with engaging experience. Delightful experiences help people learn new patterns of behavior. Positive incentives, games, goal-based activities, gifts, and badges are different persuading tactics and strategies.

Information should be presented in a personally engaging and accessible fashion, and it should be aspirational and future-oriented. The best way to present information is with persuasive messages that are normative, and refer to perceptions of what should or should not be done by individuals. The most effective messages should be presented during the behavior (in close time and space proximity) in the context that is called upstream information. This feedback should be coherent and consistent.

Gamification creates entertainment, competition, visual attraction, and rewarding incentives.

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The innovation brief method helps in combining different innovation plans that have been resulted from previous methods in a map that is understandable for all the stakeholders. So, the required attributes for behvior change products in three levels of empower, expand, and connect 1. Empower

has been presented. In empower level, a product support basic needs of a customer such as safety. The second level is extending the customer's power with a strong product service system and in the third level customers is connected peers with shared values.

2. Expand

3. Connect

Respect safety of environment, workers, & customers Expose the resources use & embodied resource efficiency Create usable & environmental friendly interactions (Human-centered Eco-design)

Be part of a product service system

Avoid functional, aesthetic, & technological obsolescence (Durability)

Support with customers’ values

Create emotional & aesthetic engaging experiences

Provide tangible incentives

Connect customers with shared values

Respond to customer behvaior changes

Has ethical, trustful, & transparent lifecycle such as intent & outcomes

Create benefits for local communities

(Provide feedback in real time)

Provide tangible & measurable outcomes

Has justifiable performance & criteria

Respect cultural diversity

Create healthy habits

Enhance customers knowledge

Connect individual & social concerns

Be economically viable

Fit in customer personality & lifestyle

Collective consumption (Repair, remake, reuse,

(Produced & maintained locally)

share & exchange instead of buying new products)

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Transparent communications Visible life cycle thinking, honest measuring and demonstrating of environmental and social impacts, loyalty in initial claims, and constant enhancement of customer knowledge will result in invaluable trust.

Meaningful identity Meaningful identity and sense of membership among customers can be generated by addressing shared values in different touchpoints.

Reframed experiences The focus should shift from products to the experiences and context through consistent product service systems, and meaningful storytelling in a unified system of touchpoints.

Enhanced empathy &social efforts Efforts should be commenced from the brand itself with creating or enhancing corporate social responsibility and then investing in social innovation projects and working closely with related organizations.

Behavior changes will be applicable through brands if they have transparent and trustworthy business practices, and the essence of trust is all about familiarity and consistency. Innovation is no longer just about new product, but is more and more about intense collaboration at all the touch points.

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Sustained meaningful innovations Concentration on product service systems, collaboration consumption patterns, green innovations, and enriching sustainable strategies (reduce, reuse, recycle, & restore) are among the guidelines in this category.

Self-evolving communities Through consumer collaborations, user-generated contexts, fostering powerful leadership and infectious agents, companies can assist in creation of resilient communities.

These collaborations create ideal opportunities for influencing behaviors and providing effective, actionable and meaningful feedback. Also, these communications keep the relationship alive and the resulting products and services remain viable for a long time.

Frame Solutions I Brand Criteria

sense of membership fostering powerful leadership and infectious agents

Addressing shared values in different touchpoints. enhancing corporate social responsibility

Meaningful identity

consumer collaborations

Enhanced empathy &social efforts

Self-evolving communities


constant enhancement of customer knowledge

loyalty in initial claims

Sustained meaningful innovations

Transparent Communications

Reframed experiences

Visible life cycle thinking

green innovations

Product service systems


collaboration consumption patterns

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Sustainable living in organizations In the context of our modern and complex society, organizations possesses some of the best opportunities to design sustainable behavior change. It is common to hear that people in organizations resist change, but in reality, as Fritoj Capra suggests, people do not resist change; they resist having change imposed on them. In bringing sustainable behaviors to these complicated systems, the designer could apply the principles of living systems in eco-systems, which are the basis of sustainability. According to a study by Harvard Business School, large, resilient, and long-lived corporations that have survived major changes in the world around them, commonly exhibit the behavior and certain

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characteristics of living entities. The study identified two sets of characteristics that are helpful in encouraging sustainable behaviors in organizations: • Strong sense of community and collective identity around common values- In these companies, members know that they will be supported in their endeavors to achieve their own goals. Like communities in the neighborhood, a strong feeling among the employees of a company that they belong to the organization is essential for its survival. • Openness to the outside world- These companies have the required tolerance for new individuals and ideas and a manifest ability to learn and adapt to new circumstances.

To encourage sustainable behaviors in a company designers should consider special responsibilities for leaders as source of influence. Leaders should be able to recognize emergent novelty and create a fostering culture of freedom to make mistakes. In such a culture experimentation is encouraged and learning is valued as much as success. Therefore, the most effective way to enhance an organization’s sustainable learning potentials is to support and strengthen its communities of practice. Designers could help these leaders to integrate the challenges of ecological sustainability into their strategies by shifting their priorities toward developing the creative potential for employees

and enhancing the quality of the company’s internal communities. (De Geus, 1997) Bringing life into human organizations by empowering their communities of practice not only increases their flexibility, creativity and learning potential, but also enhances the dignity and humanity of the organization’s individuals, as they will be connect with those qualities in themselves. So, mentally and emotionally healthy working environments in which people feel that they are supported in achieving their own goals and do not have to sacrifice their integrity to meet the goals of the organization will be accomplished.

“In an organization that is alive knowledge creation is natural.” Fritjof Capra

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This study was an exploration in Design for Sustainable Behavior approach with a special focus on practical empowerment for brands toward changing customers' behaviors. Our modern society and complicated urbanism in relation to global economy have created new responsibilities for designers. A shift from user-concentration to society-centered design is required. We as designers are shapers of the future society. This critical task is about changing behaviors and habits of the citizens toward sustainable patterns. Changing customer behaviors is a complicated process, but if it is done thoroughly, we will have an impressive positive impact toward protecting our nature, improving our economic matters, and encouraging social innovation. In other words, customers' behaviors is the key to developing sustainable communities of the future. Therefore, collaborations and practices between brands and

consumers toward collective consumption patterns and social paradigms are critical steps.collaborations and practices between brands and consumers toward collective consumption patterns and social paradigms are critical steps. Systematic thinking, lateral and non-linear thinking, multi- stakeholders' engagement, multidisciplinary teams, service-value and customer-value oriented are the principles for successful and sustainable brands of the 21st century that have been incorporated in the proposed framework. Designing sustainable behaviors is a new topic and it is the designers’ task to incorporate relevant experts, such as sociologists and policy makers as well as citizens. Consequently, it is the designer’s quality and expertise that can create a connection between these groups and translate the individual concerns to individual concern by means of design.¬¬¬

“The shift to a conception of value based on meaning rather than message, empowerment rather than persuasion; value that is co-created with consumers in the context of their lives, rather that embedded within a product or transaction. Fundamentally, value that is designed rather than communicated.” Steven Johnson

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Bhamra,, T., Lilley, D., Tang, T., (2011), Design for Sustainable behvaior: Using Products to Change Consumer behvaior, Loughborough University, UK, The Design Journal, Vol. 14, ISSUE 4, PP 427–445 Bemporad, R., Baranowski, M., (2011 ), Meet the New Consumers: Five Marketplace Trends That Will Shape the Green Economy and Change the Future of Branding, Sustainable Brands

Margolin, Victor, (2009), “Design, the Future and the Human Spirit”, Design Issue, Vol. 23, No. 3

Margolin, Victor and Margolin, Sylvia, (2002), " A Social Model of Design: Issues of Practice and Research", Design Issue: Vol. 18, N. 4

McKenzie-Mohr, Dough, (2011), Fostering Sustainable Behaviour; An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing, New Society Publishers, Canada

Capra, Fritjof, (2002) The Hidden Connections, A Science for Sustainable Living, Anchor Books, New York

Meadows, Donella, H., (2008), Thinking in Systems, Chelsea Green Publishing, US

Chic, A., Micklethwaite, P., (2011), Design for Sustainable change, How Design and Designers Can Drive the Sustainability agenda, AVA Publishing, Switzerland

Morelli, Nicola, (2002), “Designing Product/Service Systems: A Methodological Exploration” Design Issues, Vol. 18, No. 3.

Dietz, T., Garner, G.T., J. Gilligan, P.C. Stern, and M.P. Vandenbergh, (2009). "Household Actions Can Provide a Behavioral Wedge to Rapidly Reduce U.S. Carbon Emissions,"Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 18452-18456

Nattrass, B., Altomare, M., (1999) The Natural Step for Business; Wealth, Ecology, and The Evolutionary Corporation, New Society Publishers, Canada

Schultz,P.W., Nolan, J., Cialdini, R.B., Goldstein, N.J., Griskevicius, V., (2007) “The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms”, Association for Psychological Science, Vol. 18, NO. 5

Schultz, P.W., (2007), Examples of Behavior Change, California State University. Senge, P., & et al, (2008) The Necessary Revolution; Working together to Create a Sustainable World, Broadway Books, New York.

Desmet, P., Hekkert, P., (2007), Framework of Product Experience, Department of Industrial Design, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Diller, S., Shedroff, N., Rhea, D., (2006), Making Meaning; How Successful Businesses Deliver Meaningful Customer Experiences, New Riders, USA

Goldstein, N.J., Griskevicius, V., & Cialdini, R.B. (2008), “A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels”, Journal of Consumer Reaserch, Vol. 35

Hawken, P., Lovins, A., Lovins, L., (1999) Natural Capitalism; Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Little, Brown, and Company, NY.

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Shedroff, Nathan, (2009), Design is the Problem; The Future of Design must be Sustainable, Rosenfield, US

Shedroff, N., (2009) Experience Design 1.1, ISBN: 9780982233900

Shedroff, N., (2001) , Experience Design 1, ISBN: 9780735710788

James, R., (2010),Promoting Sustainable behavior A guide to successful communication, UC Berkeley

Kumar, V., (2013), 101 Design Methods; A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organiztion, John Wiley & SOns, Inc, New Jersey, USA.

Tromp, N., Hekkert, P., Verbeek, P., (2011) “Design for Socially Responsible Behavior: A Classification of Influence Based on Intended User Experience”, Design Issues: Vol. 27, No. 3.

Walker, S., (2006), Sustainable by Design, Explorations in Theory and Practice, Earth scan publishers, UK.

Lilley, D., (2009), Design for sustainable behavior: strategies and perceptions, Loughborough University, Elsevier Ltd.

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Stanton , N., (2010), Design with Intent: 101 patterns for influencing behavior through design

Wevera, R., Kuijkb, J. Boks, C. (2008), User-centred Design for sustainable behavior, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., (2012), Models of the user: designers’ perspectives on influencing sustainable behavior, Brunel University, Journal of Design Research, Vol. 10, Nos. 1/2

Zachrisson, J., Boks, C., (2012), Exploring behavioral psychology to support design for sustainable behavior research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Journal of Design Research, Vol. 10, Nos. 1/2

As Consumers’ Demands Change, Designers Are All in the Behavior Business, Fastcompany, http://www.fastcodesign.

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com/ • how-change-ordinary-into-meaningful al-change-in-health/ meaningful_service.pdf

20 Tech Trends for 2013, frogdesign, http://designmind. -designing-for-persuasive-behavior -change health-promoters/ -change/ al-change-in-health/ behavior change.html +relatio nship+a+test+of+three+models+of+the+moderating+role+ of+behavior al+difficulty_7738 attachment_data/file/3226/toolkit.pdf

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LOHAS LOHAS describes an integrated, rapidly growing global market for goods and services that appeals to consumers who have a meaningful sense of environmental and social responsibility and incorporate those values into their purchase decisions. NMI has quantified the LOHAS market and consumer since 2002. The LOHAS market is consist of individuals with one shared characteristic: values-based purchasing decisions. The LOHAS market is a primary driver of current positive changes in business. An extensive primary and secondary research was done over a six-month period in 2006 and denotes data from industry groups, the U.S. government, and other sources. According this research, U.S. consumer LOHAS spending by the five general segments for 2005 is as follows: • Personal Health: $118 billion (includes natural/ organic foods, supplements, personal care, alternative medicine, yoga, health/fitness, media) • Eco-Tourism: $24.2 billion (includes eco-travel and adventures, new age/spiritual travel) • Alternative Energy: $400 million (includes green pricing programs, renewable energy certificates (RECs)) • Alternative Vehicles: $6.1 billion (includes hybrid vehicles, biodiesel, car sharing) • Green Building: $49.7 billion (includes ENERGY STAR products and homes, other green-certified

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homes, materials and solar panels) Natural Lifestyles: $10.6 billion (includes home furnishings/supplies, natural pet products, cleaners, apparel, philanthropy)

NMI NMI is an international strategic consulting, market research, and business development company specializing in the health, wellness, and sustainable marketplace. Since 1990, NMI has provided unparalleled insight to hundreds of clients around the world. NMI is the only source for global LOHAS data.

% US General population who has done the following at least monthly

(% General population who agree completely/ somewhat that when given the choice to buy a product or service they will usually buy products from companies with values like their own

% US General population stating their perceived Involvement in protecting the environment on a 7-point scale: 7=Very Involved and 1=Not at All Involved.

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Pilot Survey

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c Emotional connections d e f g

c Alignment with your personality and style d e f g

8. Which criteria most strongly describe you? (Pick three­Question is adopted from Sustainable Brands) c I support brands that support social and environmental causes. d e f g

c I pay more for products with social and environmental benefits. d e f g

c I avoid products/brands that have social and environmental damages. d e f g c I often try to repair, make, or reuse instead of buying new products. d e f g

c I encourage others to buy from environmentally and socially responsible companies. d e f g c I think I should consume less to protect our nature. d e f g

9. When selecting a brand, how important to you are its environmental and social qualities?

Customer insights Customer Insights Survey 1. 

Extremely important

Very important

Somewhat important

Slightly important

Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

10. How often do you encourage others to buy from environmentally and socailly responsible companies?

1. What is your gender? j Female k l m n j Male k l m n




Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

11. How often do you research the sustainability efforts of your chosen brands?

2. What is your age? j 18 to 24 k l m n j 25 to 34 k l m n j 35 to 44 k l m n j 45 to 54 k l m n j 55 to 64 k l m n j 65 to 74 k l m n



Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

c Improving my health and lifestyle d e f g

c Personal growth d e f g

c Being a part of a special community with shared values d e f g Customer insights

13. How do you like your favorite brand connect with you? (Pick two) c Campaigns d e f g

c Workshops d e f g

j Married with children k l m n

c Emails d e f g

c Phone calls d e f g

4. What's your employment status? j Professional k l m n

j Unemployed k l m n

c Social Media d e f g

14. Which of the following sources do you trust to inform you about environmental and social benefits of products and your associated behavior? (Pick two)


c Certification and labels d e f g c Media d e f g

5. When purchasing products, how loyal are you to your favorite brands? Extremely loyal

Very loyal

Somewhat loyal

Slightly loyal

Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

6. How eager are you, typically, to suggest your favorite brand or product to others? Extremely eager

Very eager

Somewhat eager

Slightly eager

Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j insights k l m n Customer

7. Which of the following qualities often have the strongest effects on your purchasing decisions? (pick two) c Function d e f g

c Following acceptable norms of society d e f g

j Student k l m n

c Protecting the planet d e f g

j Married k l m n

j Retired k l m n


j k l m n

(Pick two)

3. What is your marital status? j Single k l m n


12. What motivates you to behave in a way that benefits the environment and society?

j 75 or older k l m n

c Price d e f g


c Customer review d e f g

c Friends and families d e f g

c Company website or social media pages d e f g c Company campaigns d e f g

c Company advertisement d e f g

15. Which of the following help you to trust a company's sustainability claims? (Pick three­ Question is adopted from Sustainable Brands)

c Works closely with NGOs on social and environmental issues d e f g

c Emotional connections d e f g

c Increased transparency of business practices d e f g

c Alignment with your personality and style d e f g

c Measures and demonstrates positive social and environmental impacts d e f g

c Creates innovative and sustainable products and services d e f g

8. Which criteria most strongly describe you? (Pick three­Question is adopted from

c Actively engages their customers in the research, design, and development process d e f g

Sustainable Brands)

c Actively engages with communities d e f g

c I support brands that support social and environmental causes. d e f g

c I pay more for products with social and environmental benefits. d e f g

16. What is a product that you had an engaging experience with?

c I avoid products/brands that have social and environmental damages. d e f g c I often try to repair, make, or reuse instead of buying new products. d e f g

Customer insights

17. What was the reason for this engagement? (Pick two)

c I encourage others to buy from environmentally and socially responsible companies. d e f g c I think I should consume less to protect our nature. d e f g

c Aesthetic connection (product physical criteria such as color, form, …) d e f g

c Emotional connection such as memories d e f g

c The product represents your identity and personality d e f g

9. When selecting a brand, how important to you are its environmental and social

c Previous experiences with similar products d e f g

qualities? Extremely important

Very important

Somewhat important

Slightly important

Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

10. How often do you encourage others to buy from environmentally and socailly

c Price d e f g

c Anticipated functions d e f g

18. What makes an experience meaningful for you?

responsible companies? Always




Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

11. How often do you research the sustainability efforts of your chosen brands? Often



Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

12. What motivates you to behave in a way that benefits the environment and society? (Pick two)

c Personal growth d e f g

20. Please write down products that helps you make more environmentally and socially

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beneficial decisions.

c Connect you to a community or peers with shared values d e f g

c Following acceptable norms of society d e f g


21. How can your favorite brand encourage you to adopt environmentally and socially beneficial habits? (Pick three)

c Protecting the planet d e f g

19. What is a brand that helps you make more environmentally and socially beneficial


c Improving my health and lifestyle d e f g

c Transparent environmental and social claims d e f g


c Provide thorough sustainability information d e f g

Customer insights 17. What was the reason for this engagement? (Pick two) c Aesthetic connection (product physical criteria such as color, form, …) d e f g c Emotional connection such as memories d e f g

c The product represents your identity and personality d e f g c Previous experiences with similar products d e f g c Price d e f g


c Anticipated functions d e f g

18. What makes an experience meaningful for you?

19. What is a brand that helps you make more environmentally and socially beneficial decisions?

20. Please write down products that helps you make more environmentally and socially beneficial decisions.

21. How can your favorite brand encourage you to adopt environmentally and socially beneficial habits? (Pick three) c Connect you to a community or peers with shared values d e f g c Transparent environmental and social claims d e f g c Provide thorough sustainability information d e f g

c Provide feedbacks about the environmental and social consequences of your behavior d e f g

c Rewards d e f g

c Make desirable behaviors more convenient d e f g

c Create a self­monitoring and goal­oriented system d e f g

22. How much do your prefer to have Co­Creation options such as customization or Do It Yourself options during purchasing a product? Extremely




Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

Customer insights

23. What are your main barriers to adopting environmental and social behaviors? c I usually forget. d e f g

c I usually prefer easier options. d e f g

c I do not have full control over my decisions because of barriers which may include physical, environmental, and social d e f g c I do not have enough time. d e f g

c I can not afford environmental and social choices. d e f g

24. How often do you visit your favorite brand's social media or web page? Always




Not at all

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

25. Which of the following will more strongly support your decision to purchase a product with environmental and social benefits? (Pick three) c Rewards and incentives d e f g c Convenient access d e f g

c Connection to a community or peers with shared values d e f g c Lower price d e f g

c Performs better than regular products d e f g c Makes you feel good d e f g

c The beauty of the products d e f g

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Savannah College of Arts and Design Spring 2013

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Meaning innovations for behavior change  

For my final project I decided to focus on design innovation from the perspective of creating new behaviors among users. Innovative engagem...