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R E U S A B L E M AT E R I A L S O F I N N E R C I T Y COMMUNITIES EXPLORING THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ARCHITECTURAL BENEFITS OF REUSABLE MATERIALS AND ANALYSING THEIR USE IN THE INNER CITY COMMUNITIES

NAITA ELETHIA CHAMBERLAIN I.D. – 0210061 M. ARCH II

SEMESTER 2: RESEARCH AND DISSERTATION MONDAY JULY 19TH 2010


UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, JAMAICA

REUSABLE MATERIALS OF INNER CITY COMMUNITIES

EXPLORING THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ARCHITECTURAL BENEFITS OF REUSABLE MATERIALS AND ANALYSING THEIR USE IN THE INNER CITY COMMUNITIES

SPECIAL SUBJECT DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE CARIBBEAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE

BY NAITA ELETHIA CHAMBERLAIN

OCTOBER 2010

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Table of Contents Title Page ........................................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents ...........................................................................................................................2 Table of Figures..............................................................................................................................4 Table of Charts...............................................................................................................................6 List of Acronyms............................................................................................................................9 Glossary of Terms........................................................................................................................10 Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................................12 Limitations and Delimitations ....................................................................................................13 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................14 Affordability and Shelter of Housing .........................................................................................14 Traditional and Non-Traditional Materials in Construction Industry ....................................19 Chapter 1: “Garbage” As A Construction Material ................................................................20 Types of Garbage .......................................................................................................................20 Garbage as an Industry ...........................................................................................................22 Chapter 2: Waste .........................................................................................................................26 Amount of Waste ......................................................................................................................27 Types of Waste .......................................................................................................................29 Construction and Demolition Waste ..................................................................................30 Causes and Problems of Construction and Demolition Waste ....................................34 Chapter 3: Sustainability ............................................................................................................36 The Importance of Sustainability ...............................................................................................37 Sustainable Architecture .........................................................................................................38 The Measure of Sustainability .....................................................................................41 Chapter 4: Material Selection in Low Income Communities ..................................................43 Reusable Materials .....................................................................................................................43 Concepts of Collection of Reusable Materials .......................................................................44 Recycling Car Industry in Jamaica ..............................................................................45 Scrap Metal Industry in Jamaica ..................................................................................46 Limiting Material Choices within Local Industry .......................................................49 Partnership between Construction Industry and Reusable Materials ..................51 Chapter 5: ‘Stigma’ of Reusable Material.................................................................................53 The Perception............................................................................................................................53 Page | 2


The Life of Reusable Materials - Long Term/Short Term .....................................................55 Affordability ................................................................................................................56 Chapter 6: The Architectural Language of Inner City Communities ....................................... 57 Constraints on the Housing Fabric of Inner City Communities .................................................57 Chapter 7: Review of Questionnaires ........................................................................................60 Methodology - Questionnaires ...................................................................................................60 Charts of Questionnaire #1 – Residents of West Kingston ........................................................61 Study Area: Allman Town .........................................................................................................65 Charts of Questionnaire #2 – Residents of Saint Andrew ......................................................71 Commentary on Table 14 .......................................................................................................74 Analysis of Results from Questionnaires #2 ..........................................................................77 Charts of Questionnaire #3 – Architects and Contractors ...........................................85 Analysis of Results from Questionnaire #3 .................................................................90 Case Study: Commercial Project in Kingston .............................................................93 Chapter 8: Conclusion .................................................................................................................98 Chapter 9: Bibliography............................................................................................................106 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................109 Questionnaire #1: Residents of West Kingston ...........................................................................110 Questionnaire #2: Residents in Saint Andrew .............................................................................112 Questionnaire #3: Architects and Contractors .............................................................................116

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Table of Figures Figure 1: Image showing a typical inner city community Kingston (Allman Town) using recycled items to add aesthetic quality and artistic expression to the community. ...................... 15 Figure 2: Image showing trash being loaded and compacted in a landfill.................................... 16 Figure 3: Image of Wet Garbage consisting of fauna and flora. ................................................... 20 Figure 4: Image of Wet Garbage and Their Components. ............................................................ 21 Figure 5: Image of dry garbage such as plastics, papers metals cans. .......................................... 21 Figure 6: Image showing The Waste Hierarchy. This illustrates that reusing is more favoured than recycling and disposal. .......................................................................................................... 26 Figure 7: Image of Construction Waste such as of timber panels, old concrete blocks and metal sheeting. ........................................................................................................................................ 30 Figure 8: Image of construction waste such as of bricks, concrete blocks and timber. ................ 32 Figure 9: Image of a representation of sustainability showing how both economy and society are affected by environmental limits. ................................................................................................. 36 Figure 10: Image of Recycled denim used in the walls of the conference centre of Lewis

and

Clark State Office Building in Missouri for sound-proofing. ....................................................... 40 Figure 11: Image of structure made out of bamboo from Costa Rica. ......................................... 40 Figure 12: Image of scrap metals collected at a yard.................................................................... 46 Figure 13: Image showing the artistic and vocal expression of the community on the zinc fencing in Allman Town. ........................................................................................................................... 54 Figure 14: Map of Downtown Kingston highlighting the study area Allman Town, where Questionnaire #1 was conducted. Source: Shell Road Map of Jamaica ....................................... 65 Figure 15: Map of Study Area. ..................................................................................................... 65 Page | 4


Figure 16: Image of shop using plywood panels as walls. ........................................................... 67 Figure 17: Image of house using old timber panels in walls and old zinc sheets for gates. ......... 67 Figure 18: Image of house using metal sheets and wood shingles as walls. Source: Author ....... 67 Figure 19: Image of zinc fencing with graffiti and illustrations. .................................................. 67 Figure 20: Image of carpenter's old wooden boards ..................................................................... 69 Figure 21: Image of shed with carpentry made up of reused timber.Source: Author ................... 69 Figure 22: Image of carpenters in Allman Town. ......................................................................... 69 Figure 23: Map of Location of Site. Source: Shell Road Map of Jamaica .................................. 93 Figure 24: Image of Site on Corner of Windsor Avenue. ............................................................. 93 Figure 25: Image of demolished timber structure from Petrojam location. .................................. 94 Figure 26: Image of timber boards and panels from Petrojam location. ...................................... 94 Figure 27: Image of timber sanded and trimmed boards. ............................................................. 95 Figure 28: Image of timber boards in various sizes and lengths................................................... 95 Figure 29: Image of structural column/beam frame. .................................................................... 95 Figure 30: Image of clip angle joining column and beam. ........................................................... 95 Figure 31: Image of wood scab tying two columns together. ....................................................... 96 Figure 32: Image of window frames. ............................................................................................ 96 Figure 33: Image of 3D rendering of final product. Source: Mr. Trevor Donegal ....................... 97

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Table of Charts Table 1: National Solid Waste Management Authority's Disposal Sites by Watershed and Parish. Source: Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica's Centre of Excellence for Renewable Energy, April 2008............................................................................................................................................... 23 Table 2: Bar Chart of Question #2 - Specify Age ......................................................................... 61 Table 3: Bar Chart of Question #5 - How long have you been in the construction industry? ...... 61 Table 5: Bar Chart of Question #8 - Tick where you have used any form of reused waste materials into any of the following ............................................................................................... 62 Table 4: Pie Chart of Question #7 - Have you done construction in this community or outside the community?................................................................................................................................... 62 Table 7: Pie Chart of Question #12 = Do you think it is important to reuse materials in buildings? ....................................................................................................................................................... 63 Table 6: Pie Chart of Question #9 - Have any of your work called for reuse of materials or recycled materials for whatever reason? ....................................................................................... 63 Table 9: Pie Chart of Question #14 - Would you have used new materials instead of reused if the price was not so expensive? .......................................................................................................... 64 Table 8: Pie Chart of Question #13 - Can using old materials help in enhancing the quality of life in communities? ............................................................................................................................ 64 Table 10: Bar Chart of Questionnaires #2 & #2 - Specify Gender ............................................... 71 Table 11: Bar Chart of Question #2 - Specify Age ....................................................................... 71 Table 12: Pie Chart of Question #6 - Specify Occupancy ............................................................ 72 Table 13: Pie Chart of Question #9 - Would you be interested in reusing material wastes if you were doing a renovation in your households?............................................................................... 72 Page | 6


Table 14: Bar Chart of Question #10 - How would you rate the C & D material wastes as useful in new construction? ..................................................................................................................... 73 Table 15: Pie Chart of Question #11 - How often would you use old zinc in your house?.......... 75 Table 16: Bar Chart of Questions #12 - #17 - Do you consider the following materials as suitable materials for buildings?................................................................................................................. 75 Table 17: Pie Chart of Question #18: It is important to use C & D wastes into architecture (both in commercial and residential) ...................................................................................................... 76 Table 18: Pie Chart of Question #19: Designing with C & D wastes help in enhancing the quality of life ............................................................................................................................................. 76 Table 19: Bar Chart of Question #1 of Questionnaires 3: Specify Gender .................................. 85 Table 20: Bar Chart of Question #2 - Specify Age ....................................................................... 85 Table 21: Pie Chart of Question #5 - How often would you use recycled construction and other waste into new architecture? ......................................................................................................... 86 Table 22: Bar Chart of Questions #6 - Select the types of material wastes you have reused in new architecture .................................................................................................................................... 86 Table 24: Pie Chart of Question #8 - During construction projects, do you identify materials that can be salvaged for resale/construction?....................................................................................... 87 Table 23: Bar Chart of Question #7 – Select where you apply reused materials in new construction ................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 25: Bar Chart of Question #8 Part 2 - If yes, select how the collection is managed .......... 88 Table 26: Pie Chart of Question #9 - It is important to reuse C & D material wastes in the construction industry..................................................................................................................... 88

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Table 27: Pie Chart of Question #10 - Designing with C & D wastes help in enhancing the quality of life ................................................................................................................................. 89

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List of Acronyms C&D

Construction and Demolition Waste

CIRIA

Construction Industry Research and Information Association

JET

Jamaica Environment Trust

KMA

The Kingston Metropolitan Area and Saint Andrew

MSW

Municipal Solid Waste

NEPA

National Environment and Planning Agency

NSWMA

The National Solid Waste Management Authority

SDC

Social Development Commission

SIDS

Small Island Developing States

SWM

Solid Waste Management

UDC

Urban Development Corporation

UIA

The International Union of Architects

UN

United Nations

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Glossary of Terms Affordable Housing

Dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed "affordable" to persons with a median income.

Bricolage

The construction or creation of a work from a diverse range of things that are available, or a work created by such a process.

Construction and Demolition Waste

Waste generated from a surplus of discarded building materials obtained during new construction, renovation, land clearing or land development activities and demolition operations on houses, roads or other structures.

Dry Garbage

Waste that is dry and un-contaminated for example items such as: waste paper, metal cans, plastic bottles, floppy disks, batteries, glass bottles, old clothes, baskets, pens and shoes are all dry waste, which contain useful materials for recycling.

Garbage

Discarded or useless materials.

Hazardous wastes

Waste that contains certain substances determined to be harmful at or in excess of the maximum concentration.

Housing

Buildings or other shelters in which people live.

Landfill

A system of trash and garbage disposal in which the waste is buried between layers of earth to build up low-lying land also called sanitary landfill.

Low-impact construction

A term which examines traditional development practices and technologies and focuses on identifying project-specific site solutions that benefit the municipality, the developer, the home buyer, and the environment.

Recycling

Processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials.

Scrap metal

Discarded metal suitable for reprocessing which is no longer useful to the generator or owner. Page | 10


Solid waste

A waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area.

Sustainability

The capacity to endure; long-term maintenance of the wellbeing of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources.

United Nations

An international organization founded in 1945, whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and the achieving of world peace.

Waste

Unwanted or unusable materials.

Waste management

The collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials.

Wet Garbage

Organic waste which consist of food materials and agricultural waste such as: dairy products, meat scraps, eggshells, fruit/vegetable peels, grass cuttings and shrubs.

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Acknowledgements This project would not have been a reality without the guidance from my lecturers, peers and other persons. First and foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Bailey for his guidance on the direction of the project and his advice on the topic of the project. Secondly, I would like to thank the supervisor, Mr. Christopher Shaw for his devotion and his willingness to support the project at short notice and for volunteering his time and energy to improve on the research, analysis and the outcome of the argument. Also, I would like to thank Mr. George Aarons for his time and assistance in the early stage of my project. I would also like to thank Mr. Trevor Donegal for allowing me to use his construction site as an example and giving insight into the topic. My gratitude to the colleagues of M. Arch 2 for their advice and their continuing support during the project. And finally, thanks to the people who have contributed to the project: parents, advisors, and other persons during the last semester.

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Limitations and Delimitations The limitations for the project were based on the time frame of the study, the scope and the availability of information and resources. One of the major limitations was the late assignment of a supervisor for the topic. This was a major issue due to inadequate prospects available at the beginning of second semester. A supervisor was appointed eventually, but at a late stage in the duration of the project. Another limitation was the change of topic for course. The preliminary investigation into the first topic in first semester showed that there was limited and inadequate data available. Therefore, the topic was modified in late February leaving only three to four months to collect new data and information on the current topic. There are vast amounts of data on the current topic, however, some of the data were conflicting, and therefore surveys and questionnaires were required to test the validity of background data. This required time to conduct surveys from three survey groups and carefully analyse and report the findings as credible data. Accessibility to the study area, although conducted, was also a major limitation, due to the upheaval in Kingston in May, making it unsafe to venture into the communities by oneself without supervision or persons of influence.

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Introduction Affordability and Shelter of Housing Housing is an essential means for any human being, despite their financial and social status. It is a crucial aspect of healthy living for everyone; no matter the circumstances man, woman or child need shelter from all outside influences, whether environmentally and socially. Therefore, people will provide this means of protection by any means necessary. The United Nations held their annual summit in Rio, Brazil 1992 where environment and development were the main focal point. One of the main arguments discussed at the summit was that locals should develop alternative and creative means of dwelling. 1 This means despite their circumstances people have the desire to live with pride and to be able to afford basic amenities. For some people, their high incomes and financial stability afford them the luxury of providing the best for their families by providing the best shelter available. They have the ability to provide the best construction materials available in providing shelter and protection. However, for the lower income families, money and the trappings of luxury do not come easily, sometimes not at all. For certain, many constraints whether social, technical, institutional and financial prevent the lower social class from being able to afford expensive construction materials, simply because they have incomes that fall below the minimum wage. 2 According to the Statistical Institute of Jamaica, many persons from lower income families are unemployed. Therefore, they are not able to afford even the basic of amenities.

1

United Nations, Earth Summit 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janerio, London, (The Regency Press Corporation, 1992). 22 According to the report by the Statistical Institute of Jamaica, the minimum basic hourly rate of hourly rated wage earners in large establishments, by major industry groups for the year 2009 is $169.24 from the sector Community, Social & Personal Services (excl. Private Educational Services)

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Another constraint more social than economical, in today’s society, is the continual expansion of the gap between the housing solutions for upper and lower classes. The Government has attempted to provide ‘affordable housing’. However, despite its best efforts, affordable housing is only available to certain social classes, i.e. middle and upper classes. Even the housing solutions which are intended for low income families are beyond their reach. Therefore, low income families have sought alternative means of shelter using materials such as zinc or plywood which will be dealt with further in the paper. The issue of affordability is therefore an urgent problem for the lower income communities. The concept of ‘constrained affordability’ is the idea of providing what is available by any means. In many areas, particularly Central and Western Kingston, many persons use their creativity and imagination to bring quality to the face of their communities, with their expression and opinions on politics and cultural events. Another method used is to bring comfort to the needs of the people, through providing seating, shading and shelter from the environmental elements. Figure 1: Image showing a typical inner city community Kingston (Allman Town) using recycled items to add aesthetic quality and artistic expression to the community. Source: Author

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This is certainly the case for the low-income communities in Kingston and many other cities both regionally and internationally. In Jamaica, certain low income communities adapt the concept of using recycled materials from various sources, in particular waste. The ingenuity of reusing waste materials into useful building materials, finishes and forms is evident in those communities that depend on reusable materials. Waste is a critical issue in the Caribbean especially in Jamaica, where there are insufficient programmes that focus on recycling or reusing waste, particularly in the construction business. There are many drawbacks in the construction sector which prevent waste from being effectively managed and disposed of. One major constraint is that the construction sector in Jamaica is fragmented; consequently there is no specific material palette of any magnitude in the construction of buildings. There is a wide variety of material uses, some of which are unavailable locally and when demolished are highly unlikely to be recycled. Therefore, a high percentage of construction waste ends up in legal and illegal landfill dumps. With this issue affecting the environment, it is critical that humans solve the issues of consumption in all aspects of life. This study investigates the use of renewable materials in the

Figure 2: Image showing trash being loaded and compacted in a landfill. Source: National Solid Waste Management Authority

construction

industry and

how

a

concerted

effort

of

conservation will influence positive outcomes in the future. In

the field of architecture, it is a question of how designers can be efficient in their choice of design solutions without causing massive wastage and consumption.

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Architect William McDonough, and chemist Michael Braungart, in ‘Cradle to Cradle’ commented on the living organism: ants and their ability to be eco-effective: Consider a community of ants. As part of their daily activity, they: •

Safely and effectively handle their own material wastes and those of other species

Grow and harvest their own food while nurturing the ecosystem of which they are a part

Construct houses, farms, dumps, cemeteries, living quarters and food-storage facilities from materials that can be truly recycled

Create disinfectants and medicines that are healthy, safe, and biodegradable

Maintain soil health for the entire planet. 3 (McDonough and Braungart 2002)

This quote explains how one organism, significantly of a greater biomass than ours, has developed ways and means of conserving energy by providing different uses for their waste in a sustainable manner. Although humans are relatively of a smaller density, unfortunately we have not grasped the idea of reusing waste in all aspects of our lives. This disregard for the earth’s resources has resulted in the deterioration of both the environment (through global warming and lack of water resources) and the economy (high cost of materials). Individually we are much larger than ants, but collectively their biomass exceeds ours. They are a good example of a population whose density and productiveness are not a problem for the world, because everything they make and use returns to the cradle-tocradle cycles of nature. 4 (McDonough and Braungart 2002)

3 4

William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle. (New York: North Point Press, 2002), pg. 79 William McDonough, Michael Braungart editors, pg. 79, ibid

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As architects and in general, humans we should take the lessons and principles from nature and apply it to our aspects of life and try to conserve on the growing amount of waste, particularly in architecture. Although architects’ responsibility is to the client, their choices and decisions will have a lasting outcome on the environment. According to the UIA Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice, the fundamental requirements of an architect in relation to the environment are: •

Ability to create architectural designs that satisfy both aesthetic and technical requirements, and which aim to be environmentally sustainable

An adequate knowledge of the means of achieving environmentally sustainable design and environmental conservation and rehabilitation

Understanding of conservation and waste management issues

Understanding of the life cycle of materials, issues of ecological sustainability, environmental impact, design for reduced use of energy, as well as passive systems and their management 5 (Farrando and Keune December 2006)

Architects can learn from the low income communities, the architectural value of reusable materials in high concentration and their purpose in the industry. Architects should develop an appreciation for local materials and also their limitations.

5

‘Policy Issues for Fundamental Requirements of an Architect’ ,UIA (The International Union of Architects), UIA Accord on Recommended International Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice, Third Edition, (Balmer Solutions, 2006) pg. 16

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Traditional and Non-Traditional Materials in Construction Industry In the Construction sector in Jamaica, there are two distinct patterns of use of materials which contribute to the fabric of masonry of the country’s structures in the use of traditional and nontraditional materials. Traditional materials are made up of materials most commonly used in construction by all sectors of the economy/population. These materials can be classified as basic metal, timber and concrete. These materials are mostly manufactured locally and bring a standard quality and finish to construction. The most common traditional materials in Jamaican construction are as follows: timber (plywood), metals (steel and aluminium), stone, clay tiles as roof shingles, brick and cement. In the early 20th century, brick and wood were the most commonly used materials in the city of Kingston, until the 1907 earthquake and fire prompted the government to take drastic measures in the fabric of structures, by introducing Portland Cement. Non-traditional materials are usable wastes or other items which can utilised in the construction industry. These types of materials are commonly used by low income communities who do not possess the financial means to afford expensive traditional materials. In the local landscape of Kingston, the most common non-traditional materials are derived from the reuse of steel drums, which are cut open and used as roofing shingles, glass or plastic bottles used as fencing and walls, old zinc sheets as roof sheeting and gates/fencing to provide privacy and security in low income communities as well as construction sites The adaptive use of these materials requires skilled locals who possess the ability to transform these basic materials into items of aesthetic quality. Most people outside of these communities view these particular items as garbage, refuse and severally unusable items. However, the notion of garbage takes on many definitions and interpretations, by their types and their sources. Page | 19


Chapter 1: “Garbage� as a Construction Material Types of Garbage The general idea of garbage is discarded waste, whether it is food, unwanted or useless materials. In Jamaica, there is a wide variety of garbage; and there are two major distinct groups: wet and dry garbage. Garbage is made up of biodegradable products, in particular organic items which in time decompose while dry garbage is made up of inorganic items, which are not likely to decompose resulting in a potential environmental problem. Dry garbage may result in various kinds of pollution detrimental to both the natural and human environment. The natural environment defines the physical aspects: air, water resources (water quality and quantity; surface and groundwater), soil and climate (temperature and rainfall) while the human environment comprises of socio-economic aspects: local services (supply demand), health and welfare (physically; mentally) and socio-culture (lifestyles and quality of life) Wet garbage in Jamaica is most commonly made up of agricultural produce: fruit peels, bones, egg shells, fish bones, dry leaves and other biodegradable materials. Wet garbage is used in agricultural industry as fertilizers and biosanitizers. With the large amount of wet garbage produced locally, people can produce fresh produce and floral gardens without the use of harmful and hazardous materials.

Figure 3: Image of Wet Garbage consisting of fauna and flora. Source: Green LA Girl (http://greenlagirl.com/when-trash-is-art-i-viewthe-garbage-on-the-streets-as-sculptures)

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New Product - Feeds - Furnitures Structured

Bio Degradable Materials: Bulk Purchase of Collection

Processes

Wet Garbage Unstructured

Bio Degradable Material Kitchen Waste

Kitchen Garbage Compost Fruit & Vegetable

Figure 4: Image of Wet Garbage and Their Components. Source: Author

Dry garbage primary of man-made materials that is not wet or soiled. They can be certified as items that can be easily rinsed or wiped clean, recyclables and non-recyclables, all types of paper, cardboard, bottles, cans, metal and plastics etc.

Figure 5: Image of dry garbage such as plastics, papers metals cans. Source: Ecologic (ecologichomemakers.wordpress.com/2009/05/)

In general, the major items of wastes in Jamaica are as follows: 1. Biowaste – food waste and agricultural waste 2. Paper/Cardboard – newspaper, office paper, journals, magazines, books, bags 3. Plastic – bottles, bags, wrapping, packaging, records, compact disks, toys 4. Glass – bottles, scrap, mirrors 5. Metal/Tin – cans, scrap, nails, aluminium, construction scrap, wire, utensils Page | 21


6. Wood/Board – hardwood, furniture, construction scrap. 7. Textiles – fabric, upholstery, sheets, clothes. 8. Other: Ceramics (porcelain plates, tiles, fixtures and fittings, tubs), Tyres, Electronics (televisions, component sets, computers, accessories) and miscellaneous waste. Garbage as an Industry The garbage industry in Jamaica follows a plan similar to other countries: collection of waste and disposal of waste. The National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) have the responsibility for collection and the disposal, most of which ends up in landfills in the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA). The NSWMA responsibilities are: •

Establishing the standards, guidelines and criteria that must be attained by operators in the sector,

Licensing of operators of solid waste management facilities and solid waste collection companies,

Contracting collectors for municipal garbage collection,

Establishing collection zones

Establishing tipping fee structures and rates for the disposal of industrial and commercial waste at authorized disposal sites. 6

Jamaica has eight (8) authorized waste disposal sites islandwide, which are managed by the National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA). The largest landfills are Riverton CitySt. Andrew and Retirement – St. James, both of which covers over 45-50 acres of municipal landfill are two major landfills serving the major capitals of Kingston and Montego Bay. 6

Responsibilities of the NSWMA, National Solid Waste Management Authority Act, http://www.nswma.gov.jm/overview.htm

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Name of Disposal Site Location

Parishes Served

Riverton

St. Catherine Kingston, St. Andrew and St. Catherine and other sections of Clarendon

Church Corner

St. Thomas

St. Thomas

Doctor’s Wood

Portland

Portland

Tobolski

St. Ann

St. Ann

Haddon

St. Ann

St. Ann and St. Mary

Martin’s Hill

Manchester

Manchester and Sections of Clarendon

Myersville

St. Elizabeth

St. Elizabeth

Retirement

St. James

Trelawny, St. James, Hanover and Westmoreland

Table 1: National Solid Waste Management Authority's Disposal Sites by Watershed and Parish. Source: Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica's Centre of Excellence for Renewable Energy, April 2008

Each year, the company receives approximately 940,000 tonnes of garbage. The municipal waste dumped at the landfill has grown by an annual average rate of 6%. The 2001 Census by Statistical Institute of Jamaica states that the major methods of garbage collection are: regular collection by NSWMA and private collection by private companies. Jamaica’s disposal sites are divided into cells, and tractors are used to compact the garbage on a daily basis. The collection by garbage trucks and burning are the predominant methods of garbage disposal and treatment. In 2006, approximately 55.0 % of Jamaican households dispose of their garbage via garbage trucks while 38.0 % burned their garbage. At the landfills, hazardous wastes, such as motor vehicle batteries, are separated from the general waste stream. Additionally, work has been initiated to separate and bale used tires.

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However, in most low income communities, garbage collection by the NSWMA is particularly low resulting in residents illegally burning their waste. However, only 70% of garbage produced is properly collected and disposed of which indicates that the remaining 30 % is scattered and improperly disposed at other inappropriate disposal sites such as gullies, hillsides and drains, which in turn leads to poor health (the breeding of flies and vermin), air/water pollution and lack of control of informal waste. These issues are mainly caused by lack of resources and education. However, the garbage collection industry has another issue at hand. With the growing population, which in turn equals to more waste, there is the need for more landfills. Nevertheless, the availability of land is becoming limited. This may have serious economic and social effects on the industry. Overall garbage disposal for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) has not been high on the agenda for many Caribbean countries, which in turn leads to improper waste management thereby causing deterioration to both air and land environment. The Barbados Programme in Action identifies waste management as one of the top environmental issues in Caribbean. "The shortage of land areas and resources available for safe disposal, population growth and the increase in imports of polluting and hazardous substances combine to make pollution prevention and the management of wastes critical issues for Small Island Developing States. Wastes in those States tend to be highly visible, but due to their limited capacity to monitor the waste stream, the true extent of the problem remains

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poorly understood. For Small Island Developing States, the disposal of wastes is a serious constraint to sustainable development. 7" The reality is that in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad, despite programmes put into place to recycle and reuse waste, the majority of wastes generated are collected by waste management bodies and there is hardly any recycling at the landfills and the rest is inappropriately disposed of.

7

Document producing during The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1994, was the first follow-up meeting to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development which was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. www.sidsnet.org/docshare/other/BPOA.pdf

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Chapter 2: Waste Waste is defined as ‘unwanted or unusable materials.’ 8 More commonly, waste refers to the materials that are disposed of in a system of waste management. The United Nations Environment Program (Statistics Division) has defined as follows: Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded. 9

Figure 6: Image showing The Waste Hierarchy. This illustrates that reusing is more favoured than recycling and disposal. Source: Wikipedia - Sustainability ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability)

8

Wikipedia contributors, "Waste," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Waste&oldid=348555265 (accessed March 10, 2010). 9 Glossary of Statistical Terms.” 2003. OECD. 12 Oct 2009. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=2896

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Amount of Waste In the Caribbean context, according to the study by the World Bank’s Latin America and the Caribbean Region, the region has become increasingly urbanized, with its urban population expanding from the 61% in 1975 to approximately 78% in 2001. With the increase in the population in the region, there is a corresponding increase in economic growth and consumption associated with the rising population, hence the increased generation of waste. The World Bank studies have made certain predictions of the municipal solid waste to be generated: ... the region’s municipal solid waste will increase from 131 million tons in 2005 to roughly 179 million in 2030. The region generates about 369,000 tons a day of municipal solid waste – 56% of it in large urban centres, 21% in medium-size ones and 23% in small ones. The total per capita rate of waste generation is about 0.8 of a kilogram a day, though it can exceed 2.4 kilograms a day during peak tourism seasons in some municipalities. 10 (Giannelli and Hoornweg 2007) With this prediction of expansion, solid waste management is a critical issue in the region, which poses many difficulties in establishing policies in managing solid waste. If not treated properly, the growth in solid waste can have negative repercussions. Elizabeth Thomas-Hope & James Seivright Moss-Solomon (Snr.) Professors of Environmental Management both from the University of the West Indies, studied the negative effects of solid waste in the developing countries

10

Municipal solid waste includes residential, industrial, commercial, institutional, construction and demolition waste as well as municipal services waste (street sweepings, drain cleanings, yard waste).

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“Solid waste has become a major consequence of development and modernization, yet some of the greatest challenges to its management are felt most keenly in the developing countries.” 11 (Thomas-Hope, 1998) She further observed that... “Third World countries, therefore, face particular challenges in the management of solid waste, as in other aspects of environmental management...thus it is important that greater attention is focused on solid waste management within the wider context of environmental management ...” 12 (Thomas-Hope, 1998) Therefore, the Caribbean region, which comprises of developing countries, have to pay much more attention to the handling and management of waste since they do not possess the latest technology or have prescribed any mandatory programmes for recycling of waste. The types of waste from the region generally should determine specific programmes and protocols for proper management.

11

Elizabeth Thomas-Hope, Solid Waste Management-Critical Issues for Developing Countries,(Canoe Press: University of the West Indies, Jamaica 1998) , pg. 1 12 Elizabeth Thomas-Hope editor, pg. 1, ibid

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Types of Waste Depending on the nature and health risk that comes with the waste, waste comes in various types; Dr. Elizabeth Thomas-Hope categorized the different types of waste into two broad categories: 1. “General waste, comprising ordinary refuse, garbage, swill, rubbish, trash and ashes. As a substance, it may not directly pose any threat to health. 2. Hazardous waste, which by virtue of its quality, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may: a) Cause, or significantly contribute to, an increase in mortality or an increase in serious, irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness; b) Pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or otherwise managed.” 13 (Thomas-Hope, 1998, p. 48) The major types of general waste known in Jamaica are: •

Municipal solid waste (MSW)

Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D)

Institutional, Commercial and Industrial Waste The main types of Hazardous waste:

Medical Waste

Hazardous, Radioactive and Electronic Waste

Biodegradable Waste This study is focused primarily on construction and demolition waste. 13

Elizabeth Thomas-Hope editor, pg. 48, ibid

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Construction and Demolition Waste The Environmental Protection Agency of United States defines construction waste as: “Materials consist of the debris generated during the construction, renovation, and demolition of buildings, roads, and bridges. C&D materials often contain bulky, heavy materials, such as concrete, wood, metals, glass, and salvaged building components.� 14 (Wastes - Resource Conservation - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle - Construction & Demolition Materials, 2009) The construction industry anywhere in the world is a major consumer of energy and resources, as well as, a major producer of waste. This type of waste is one of the main contributors of hazardous wastes. Construction requires large amounts of materials and produces large amounts of wastes. If the waste is immovable, it will occupy space and cause disruption during disposal. If it is a hazardous material, it also has the potential to cause a health risk and widespread ecological harm.

15

Figure 7: Image of Construction Waste such as of timber panels, old concrete blocks and metal sheeting. Source: Environmental Protection Department: Hong Kong (http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/envir_ed ucation/envir_explorer/explorer_3_03.html)

14

Definition of Construction demolition wastes, Wastes - Reduce Reuse Recycle, U.S Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/rrr/imr/cdm/index.htm 15 Stephen Deeble, Post Graduate of University of Wales, A review of construction industry waste with particular reference to the wastage of ready-mixed concrete, http://users.aber.ac.uk/zwk/distlearn/virtlib/projects/deeble/deeble.html#B2%20Waste%20in%20the%20constructio n%20industry

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According to an article issued by Saint Lucia Waste Management Authority titled ‘How to Minimise Construction Debris’, there are two broad categories of construction and demolition waste: (a) Bulky and Special Waste which are solid waste items such as; appliances, furniture, trees and a variety of outsized wastes. Due to their size, they pose major problems for their management and normal solid waste processing and waste collection. (b) Special Waste: which is waste produced during the construction that may pose certain health, safety and environmental concerns. This type of waste consists of items made of lead based paint coatings, electronic devices and other chemical products used in the construction process (for example, Asbestos Waste). 16 Construction waste may be comprised of: building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar, as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble. 17 Waste is generated from a surplus of discarded building materials during new construction, renovating, land clearing or land developing activities as well as demolition operations on houses, pavements, buildings and structures. These types of wastes can also occur during both new construction and renovation/demolition. It is debatable which of the two produces more waste but it can be argued depending on the activities that a major amount of waste is produced during new construction. New construction waste is sometimes produced by the faults of the designer or the architect due to inconsistencies in design resulting in a high level of off cuts to timber panels, boards, metal 16

Saint Lucia Waste Management Authority, ‘How to Minimise Construction Debris’, Last Updated Thursday, 17 April 2008 http://www.sluswma.org/Articles/Articles/How-To-Minimise-Construction-and-Demolition-Debris.html (accessed Thursday March 11th 2010) 17 Wikipedia contributors, "Construction Waste," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Construction_waste&oldid=321689357 (accessed March 11, 2010).

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sheeting and floor tiles for example, most of those items comes in specific dimensions (24”x48”, 48”x48”, 48”x96”), however in some cases the architects do not take those measurements into consideration and design outside of those standards measurements. Renovation/Demolition which is waste from demolished structures and buildings consist of special waste type that can be hazardous i.e. asbestos roof tiles. However the most common construction waste both locally and regionally are: discarded bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during the construction process.

Figure 8: Image of construction waste such as of bricks, concrete blocks and timber. Source: Cass County Minnesota (http://www.co.cass.mn.us/esd/solid_waste/construction_and_demolition_waste.html)

Unfortunately in Jamaica, unlike the household waste, the National Solid Waste Management does not manage specific commercial waste such as construction and demolition waste. Therefore, there is no hard data to evaluate the amount of construction waste produced in the country annually. The data is both unclear and inadequate on the total volumes of waste generated by the industry, the materials that constitute the waste stream and the proportion of it available for recovery. 18

18

A statement by the CIRIA 1995 report on Waste minimisation and recycling in construction – a review, by Guthrie, P. and Mallett, H., Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London

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This may be a major issue in Jamaica as there are no established programmes in place to control and manage the increased waste disposal at the designated landfills in Kingston. According an article ‘Home Construction’s Dirty Secret: 8,000 lbs of Waste Per 2,000 Square Foot House’ by John Brittle, the director of RSI Green and a member of the St. Louis Home Builders Association Green Builders Council states that for every one 2,000 square feet home, an estimate of 8,000 lbs of waste is produced. 19 Therefore, in an area such as Allman Town, the building area in each lot is approximately 200 square meters (2153 square feet), therefore if ten (10) lots were demolished for new construction; an estimate amount of 80,000 lbs of waste may be produced. Unfortunately, like other household waste, almost all of the waste ends up in landfills and much of the debris are material that could be salvaged or recycled, such as scrap metal, barrels and timber boards. This raises a concern about the accessibility of waste which can be reused.

19

John Brittle, Home construction’s Dirty Secret: 8,000 lbs of waste per 2,000 sq ft house, Green Construction, http://greenbuildingelements.com/2009/01/08/home-constructions-dirty-secret-8000-lbs-of-waste-per-2000-squarefoot-house/

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Causes and Problems of Construction and Demolition Waste Like other waste, construction and demolition waste may pose serious health implications. Elizabeth Thomas-Hope points out the potential characteristics of some hazardous waste: “The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) lists four characteristics of hazardous wastes: Ignitability, which identifies wastes that pose fire hazard during routine management. It must be noted that fires not only present immediate physical dangers of heat and smoke, but can also spread harmful particles and gases over wide areas, with implications for respiratory conditions. These conditions may arise when containers with solvent residues are improperly disposed of. Corrosivity, which identifies wastes requiring special containers because of their ability to corrode standards materials, or requiring segregation from other wastes because of their ability to dissolve toxic contaminants. Such waste may cause irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes and skin on contact. Reactivity (or explosiveness), which identifies wastes that, during routine management, tend to react spontaneously, to react vigorously with air or water, to be unstable under shock or heat, to generate toxic gases, or to explode. Toxicity, which identifies wastes that, when improperly managed, may release toxicants in sufficient quantities to pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment. Toxic chemicals can enter the body by being swallowed, as in handling food after being

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in direct contact with toxic material, or inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.”20 (Thomas-Hope, 1998) Most wastes are potentially recyclable however they pose dangerous effects on the environment. These effects are as follows: •

Limited landfill space – space is becoming small due to the increase demand for placement of waste

Toxicity – some materials are considered toxic, therefore harmful residues are extracted from the materials and deposited into the earth’s soil.

Illegal Dumping – improper final disposal and management threatening the underground aquifers (groundwater)

Air pollution – spontaneous burning of waste material at disposal sites cause air pollution

In dealing with hazardous waste which can potentially pose great harm to the Jamaican environment, we need to set protocols to determine the types of items that are necessary in construction. The lifespan of the materials should be evaluated and the danger to the environment and humans determined. Once in place, the construction industry can take drastic measures in preventing certain materials from being used in construction due to their high levels of toxicity.

20

Elizabeth Thomas-Hope editor, pg. 50, ibid

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Chapter 3: Sustainability Definition of sustainability is the capacity to endure. The word is derived from the Latin word sustinere (tenere-to hold, sus – up). In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. For humans, it is the potential for long-term maintenance of wellbeing, which in turn depends on the wellbeing of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources. The construction industry is currently facing a major challenge to become more sustainable. Sustainability therefore has become a necessary consideration in architecture. For any architect, this consideration starts with the concept and continues to be at the forefront throughout the design process. Factors such as how the building will relate to its site, the efficiency of its energy-harnessing consumption, the material specification for the building’s construction, the construction techniques and other considerations will affect how sustainable a building is.

Figure 9: Image of a representation of sustainability showing how both economy and society are affected by environmental limits. Source: Wikipedia - Sustainability (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability)

Sustainable Architecture adapts many environmentally-conscious techniques. The issue of sustainable architecture looks on the wider issues of economy, politics and the environment of the world. Generally, sustainable architecture attempts to minimizes the negative impact on the environment by the built environment through developing ideas and solutions to enhance efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy and development space. The idea Page | 36


behind sustainability is to ensure the longevity of nature’s resources and to ensure that our habits and actions will not adversely affect future generations to come. Therefore, this term can be described as ‘an energy and ecologically conscious approach to the design of built environment.’ 21 The Importance of Sustainability Recycling saves not only landfill capacity, but also energy, water, forest and mineral wealth. 22 (Hart 1992, 13) The idea of sustainability requires humans to live within the limits of nature’s resources to provide the materials for our activities, and to absorb the waste, and pollution that our activities generate. The construction industry presents many challenges: The major one being the human impact on the environment. The direct impact is through the construction and demolition of buildings, with use of materials leading to energy consumption, waste and pollution. It is important to minimise the resource outputs, waste and pollution to protect the environment. The built environment should promote the upmost of sustainability in the field by the following measures: •

Use of resources effectively: to consume less amount of resources (e.g. money, land during material sourcing, construction, use of disposal, unnecessary waste of energy).

Minimise pollution: less dependency on pollutants, products and materials, energy and power.

21

Definition of sustainable architecture, Wikipedia John Hart, Saving Cities Saving Money: Environmental Strategies That Work, (Resource Renewal Institute: 1992), pg 13

22

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Peter Buchanan, author, architect and consultant in environmental design and planning, writes about the role architects should play in sustainable architecture in ‘Ten Shades of Green: Architecture and The Natural World’ Architects must take on the big questions of land use patterns and transportation and space standards and hyper consumption and waste, and challenge themselves to create positive visions of ways of living that protect the planet and still offer opportunity and comfort. 23 (Buchanan 2005) Sustainable Architecture With the age of globalization, architects in the Caribbean are eager to utilise imported materials in their construction. Our fascination with the development of technology and upcoming techniques to bring a new face to Caribbean architecture has sometimes steered us from what is critical to architecture, specifically in the region. However, we have to accept the fact that as a society’s economic status improves, its demand for architectural resources: land, buildings or building products, energy, and other resources will increase. This in turn increases the combined impact of architecture on the global ecosystem, which is made up of inorganic elements, living organisms, and humans. We must take into consideration the constraints in our architecture. With the grave financial situation in the region, one must consider whether purchasing imported, high cost, non indigenous materials is sustainable. In sustainable architecture, there are a number of factors which architects need to consider:

23

Peter Buchanan, Ten Shades of Green: Architecture and the Natural World, (The Architectural League of New York: 2005), pg.5

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Environmental Impact – this factor looks at how our design strategies impact on the human and ecological environment.

Health – how the architecture will affect the health of its occupants both inside and outside the buildings.

Price – the outcome determines the final cost which has a major impact on the economy.

Energy consumption – architecture is one of the largest consumers of energy in order to bring a level of comfort to its occupants but this can be detrimental to the environment. It is recommended that architects must design using alternate energy such as: solar, wind, water, and geothermal energy systems to reduce or eliminate the need for external energy sources.

Waste

Sustainable building materials are becoming more common in the field of architecture and many people are building homes and structures from reused and recycled materials. Some of these products are generally used in other industries such as: clothing, packaging, agriculture and manufacturing. Some examples of sustainable materials include recycled denim (as insulation), harvested wood, panels from paper flakes, cork, coconut, wood fibre plates and bamboo (as flooring materials). In particular, bamboo is a special type of material due to its lightness, its circular form and the empty cavities which make it easy to manipulate also it is easier to store and transport which let to build faster than using other type of materials.

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Figure 10: Image of Recycled denim used in the walls of the conference centre of Lewis

and Clark State Office Building in Missouri for sound-proofing.

Source:Green Building ConstructionDNR(http://www.dnr.mo.gov/greenbldg/construction2004-0621.htm)

Figure 11: Image of structure made out of bamboo from Costa Rica. Source: Bambu Tico, Construction, bamboo poles and furniture (http://www.bambutico.com/)

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The Measure of Sustainability The above terminology denotes the measurements used as the quantitative basis for the informed management of sustainability. 24 The increase of waste especially in construction is of grave concern in the industry. For materials, it is a question of practicality. In determining whether the materials are sustainable, certain questions must be asked: What is the resource base? – Resource base determines the original location of the materials. Most materials are originated by a natural resource. Most materials which are considered as sustainable are referred to as ‘local or regional materials’ which are manufactured and/or extracted within a defined radius of the building site. The term “local” is generally defined as within a day’s drive, therefore, the procurement of the building materials is one of the major factors in determining the sustainability of materials. This strategy reduces use of energy associated with the transportation of goods and in turn reduces transportation-related environmental impacts. The strategy also supports the local economy and the community goal of sustainable building. What is its impact in use? – This determines how the use of the materials impact on both the natural and human environment. The proper and appropriate use of the materials can significantly reduce the detrimental impact of materials usage and its effect on the environment. What is it final destination? – The final location of the materials determines the distance from the original location, in terms of time and distance.

24

Definition of the term Sustainability Measure, Wikipedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability

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With those questions in mind, many architects, both locally and internationally, are looking towards substituting rare, new materials with less rare or renewable materials. Reusable or recycled materials are becoming more common in the field of architecture and many people are building homes and structure utilising them in creative and unique ways. In Jamaica, one of the largest examples of the use of renewable materials in construction is low-income communities, especially in the urban communities of Kingston.

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Chapter 4: Materials Selection in Low Income Communities The strategy of choosing materials for construction has always depended upon the buyer’s financial and social status. It is of no question that social class has always played a dynamic role in how people from different classes select materials. From colonial times to the present, certain construction materials have always been associated with the upper and middle social classes, representing wealth, such as red bricks, clay shingles, limestone bricks and concrete. Reusable Materials It is important to note that there is a distinct difference between recycling and reusing materials. Materials from the waste stream for recycling are handled differently from those for reuse. Recycling involves collecting, segregating, processing and manufacturing their collected goods into new products, while reusing involves little or no processing, keep materials out the waste stream by passing the goods they collect on to others. Therefore, in this case, the use of reusable materials is the major topic of discussion. The use of reusable materials is a feature of sustainable architecture. In reducing the need for new materials and reusing materials from discarded structures can serve new purposes in new developments. When appropriately used, architectural salvage and reclaimed materials can bring about new possibilities. There are limitless sources to obtained reusable materials for new construction. The most common source is demolished buildings and other structures. Frequently, used in good condition, wood from demolished buildings can be reclaimed, reused and sold for many various purposes. Architectural elements such as, windows, doors, mantels and hardware from demolished buildings are also usable, thus reducing the consumption of new materials. These can bring a distinct quality or rustic character to new buildings. Page | 43


In an article by the Jamaica Gleaner, ‘Build on a Budget’, it talks about the potential use of recycled materials in remodelling projects: Recycled construction materials are earth-friendly and can also help take the bite out of building costs. Look for products like recycled steel, pressed straw panelling, and sawdust and cement composites. Also browse architectural salvage warehouses for doors, windows, lumber, light fixtures, plumbing fixtures, fireplace mantels and assorted architectural elements. (Build on a Budget 2010) The choices of materials to be used greatly depend upon the materials available in an area and the financial constraints of the individual. With the increasing prices of traditional materials such as: concrete, rendered timber and clay tiles, the lower-income communities have to resort to buying or collecting alternate reusable materials. In many inner city communities, particularly in Kingston, residents have developed different ways or methods in using these reusable materials to make viable alternative buildings. Concepts for Collection of Reusable Materials The industry can develop protocols in collecting reusable materials from different sources whether through construction, demolition or discarding old waste. Although it is not a widespread phenomenon, there are areas within the city which specialize in collecting construction and demolition waste from different construction sites. One example of such a place is a construction yard at the bottom of Marcus Garvey Drive, which specializes in sale of old bricks. However, the concept is not widespread unlike other industries in Jamaica such as the automobile industry which has a major business dealing in second hand car parts. Page | 44


Recycling Car Industry in Jamaica Many industries in Jamaica do not practice reusing waste from manufactured items. However, one industry in Jamaica which takes on the initiative of recycling is the automobile industry. There are many auto shops and dealers which specialize in supplying used auto parts for various car models. The replacement parts for different makes of cars are not always readily available and when available, their costs are sometimes prohibitive. In the United States, the car industry has provided the strategy in collecting old & used parts from different sources and has provided a protocol with car dealers and mechanics from small warehouses to sell used parts to buyers at affordable prices. Many automotive recycling facilities specialize in one activity, such as dismantling. This reduces the compliance burden by allowing the operator to concentrate on one activity and the characteristic waste stream of that activity. 25 One of the main strategies conducted in Jamaica is the storage facilities of old cars and used car parts, most commonly known as yards. Before being recycled, most cars and trucks are stored for some period of time in a salvage yard. Vehicles-in-storage give the automobile recycling facility its junkyard image. Vehicles can be stored under cover or in open yards exposed to the elements. Storage yards can range in size from a few thousand square feet to 30 acres or more. Then depending on the type of part requested by the buyer, the dismantling process may take on different stage: •

Fluid Draining - the fluids are drained from the vehicle including oil, antifreeze, coolant, brake fluid, transmission fluid, and washer fluid.

25

Chapter2: Automotive Recycling Industry. Technical Approaches to Characterising and Cleaning up Automotive Recycling Brownfields, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. January 2001, pg. 4 http://www.docstoc.com/docs/46322941/Technical-Approaches-to-Characterizing-and-Cleaning-Up-AutomotiveRecycling

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•

Parts Removal - removable parts of the vehicle, both interior and exterior, are stripped. The purpose of this step is to remove as many parts as possible so that only the frame remains. This includes seats, dashboard, carpeting, and windows. In the stage, many of the parts are plastic which can be recycled. 26

This industry provides revenue for the car dealers and local mechanics as well as reduces the output of fossil fuels in the environment through manufacturing of new parts. This procedure if adopted by the construction industry can benefit the construction business as well, in providing jobs for many builders, collectors, etc in selling salvaged and used materials whether from construction/demolition projects and sell them to contractors, builders and architects for profit. Scrap Metal Industry in Jamaica The major partnership of reusable material distribution in Jamaica currently is the scrap metal industry. The scrap metal industry has been a lucrative trade where every piece of metal whether domestic or commercial has value. The scrap metal industry earned more than $100 million in 2009. Figure 12: Image of scrap metals collected at a yard. Source: YardFlex.com (http://www.yardflex.com/archives/006165.html)

26

Chapter2: Automotive Recycling Industry. Technical Approaches to Characterising and Cleaning up Automotive Recycling Brownfields, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. January 2001, pp. 4-5

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Shelly – Ann Thompson, a reporter from Jamaica Gleaner Company, wrote an article on the benefits of scrap metal industry: In addition to motor vehicle parts, zinc sheetings, window blades, cylinder heads and gas tubes sell for up to $5,000 a pound. The scrap metal trade is profitable for a vendor when tonnes of items are sold...Each item of aluminium, copper, brass, stainless steel or iron is worth dollars. Naturally, motor vehicles fetch the most money. A car is worth about $6,000 per tonne. The seats and other non-metallic parts of the vehicle are removed before it is weighed. 27 (Thompson 2007) Unfortunately, due to the rise in scrap metal theft and illegal export of metals, the Government of Jamaica banned the scrap metal trade on April 28th 2010 with the exception of manufacturers who generate their own material, and do not buy from other sources. The reasons for the ban of scrap metal trade according to a press release by the Jamaica Information Service were as follows: The decision has been made in the wake of the theft of millions of dollars worth of infrastructure across the island, and most recently at the Colbeck Irrigation pumping station in St. Catherine, where scrap metal thieves vandalised critical agricultural equipment with losses estimated at some $5 million.

Hon. Mr. Samuda, who is the Minister of Industry, Investment and Commerce said the situation, which has intensified over recent months, was untenable, and that the current way in which the industry was operating, is not in the best interest of the country. 27

‘One man's trash …Scrap-metal trade proves good business in Jamaica’, The Jamaica Gleaner, Shelly-Ann Thompson, (Tuesday November 6, 2007) pg. 6

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The decision has been made in the wake of the theft of millions of dollars worth of infrastructure across the island, and most recently at the Colbeck Irrigation pumping station in St. Catherine, where scrap metal thieves vandalised critical agricultural equipment with losses estimated at some $5 million.

The ban does not apply to containers that are already on the ports. Other containers, which have already been packed, will be inspected by a special team comprising the Jamaica Customs Department, the police and other stakeholders, and then repacked. 28 (Ban on Scrap Metal Trade 2010) However, the ban was lifted on scrap metals exports on May 05th 2010, subject to certain conditions including a prohibition on export of all items made up of copper. Another condition was that only members of the Scrap Metal Federation will be allowed to export scrap metal. These exporters must confirm membership and demonstrate that their statutory obligations have been met, prior to being allowed to export. In addition, any dealer who is unable to provide details as to the source of the scrap metal, in keeping with the provisions of the Trade Act, will not be granted a licence to export.

28

‘Ban on Scrap Metal Trade’, Ministry of Industry, Investment and Commerce, Jamaica Information Service, (Monday, April 26, 2010) http://www.jis.gov.jm/commerce_science/html/20100426T1300000500_23742_JIS_BAN_ON_SCRAP_METAL_TRADE.asp

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Limiting Material Choices within Local Industry In the construction industry, new materials are created and developed every day for different uses whether windows, roofing, flooring or cladding. However, this may prove disadvantageous for some countries, particularly smaller countries. In any type of architecture, locality is crucial. Tropicality is one theory which has emerged from the role which locality plays on architecture. It gives a sense of identity to the fabric of the city and determines the types of materials which are appropriate to the location based on climate, geography and availability. In the Caribbean, this theory is of huge importance since the temperature and climatic conditions of the islands determine design concepts. Many regional architects advocate the importance of regionalism in architecture particularly Bruno Stagno, who practices in Costa Rica.

In his book ‘Tropical Architecture: Critical

Regionalism: In the Age of Globalization’, he writes about the influences of tropical climate on the architecture of the Tropics: Life in the Tropics is under the permanent dominion of sensuality. This is evoked by the presence of exuberant vegetation, under a sky inhabited by capricious clouds; by the hammock with its soft swaying; by the importance of the shade that gathers; by the breeze that refreshes and evaporates the sweat of the skin; by the rain, the bracing sun and the multiple mirages. 29 (Tzonis, Lefaivre and Stagno 2001) If the construction industry considers those concepts in every aspects of design, many protocols can be developed in restricting the different choices of materials within the local industry. These

29

Alexander Tzonis, Liane Lefaivre and Bruno Stagno, ‘Tropical Architecture: Critical Regionalism in The Age Of Globalization’ (Wiley-Academy: 2001) pg. 69

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methods would promote sustainable waste management principles for planning, design, and construction of large-scale residential and commercial projects. In Jamaica, unfortunately the industry has not developed certain protocols in limiting material choices in construction, therefore the output of construction/demolition waste is large and most materials due to their inability to be reused in the local context are discarded to landfills where they can become an environmental hazard. If the construction industry set up sustainability guidelines, data and product specifications, there are many benefits: •

Reduced up-front capital costs, annual operations, and maintenance expenses.

Recycling construction and demolition waste to save disposal costs.

Use of material for basic construction that can function as finish, eliminating the need for costly finishing materials.

Improved building value.

Improved occupant health and productivity.

In Jamaica, roof sheeting types are wide in variety, some of which are not suitable to this climate. Therefore, the roofing materials used in construction would be restricted to those available locally, and affordable.

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Partnership between Construction Industry and Reusable Materials As mentioned earlier, in the car industry, the major dealers have developed partnerships with local, smaller shops in collecting old and reusable parts from old cars to sell to consumers who are unable to find a specific car part in a conventional car shop. This type of partnership can be of great benefit to the construction industry. In some parts in the world, particularly the United States, some states have taken the initiative to implement this programme. In Boston, the construction has developed a guide for both architects and contractors on how to recycle construction and demolition wastes. 30 It contains instructions and guidelines for construction professionals (architects, engineers, specification writers, and contractors) who are interested in understanding the goals of job site recycling, but are not familiar with its practicalities. The guide declares the importance of recycling construction and demolition wastes: Recycling Construction and Demolition Debris (C&D) recycling is one of the most important aspect of this movement. C&D recycling is among the most visible commitments a developer can make to sustainable building, visible to every worker on the site and to every passerby. In providing materials to local vendors and processors, job site recycling creates employment and economic activity that help sustain local economies. And perhaps most important, on a lifecycle basis, recycling produces usable materials at much less environmental cost than materials from primary sources. (Lennon April 2005, 1)

30

The document “ Recycling Construction and Demolition Wastes: A Guide for Architects and Contractors� was done by the following organizations: The Boston Society of Architects, Associated General Contractors of Massachusetts and The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection in partnership with The Institution Recycling Network. www.architects.org/emplibrary/Recycling_Guide_11-19-04.pdf

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This guide serves as a prime example of different procedures, guidelines and documentations that can be established through partnerships between the construction companies and other organizations.

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Chapter 5: ‘Stigma’ of Reusable Materials In the world of architecture, there has always been a perception attached to certain materials in the industry. This is the case for most reusable materials used in low income communities. The Perception Designers as well as people from the upper social class look down on reusable materials as an indication of the status of persons, that is, poor, indisciplined and vulgar. Susan Strasser, an author and professor of history at the University of Delaware, talks about the association with trash and class in the book, ‘Waste and Want’: Reuse, recycling and bricolage became identified as activities of the poor during a time of rising consumption and of new possibilities for conventional disposal.

31

(Strasser

1999) Further, in Jamaica, the upper and middle classes regard ‘use of zinc’ as being synonymous with the inner city communities. To an outsider, the use of zinc is viewed as a political, territorial boundary separating different gangs or groups opposing each other as well as a sign of defragmented family values, indiscipline and immorality. Unfortunately, because of this preconceived notion, the other social classes avoid the inner city communities. The truth of the matter is that because of the affordability of zinc, it is the building material of choice for inner city communities. In addition, zinc is versatile as it can be transformed and fixed 31

Susan Strasser, Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash, Canada, (Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd.: 1999). pg. 136 Susan Strasser commented on waste conditions in the early 1900’s, although the poor collected waste for basic needs (heat, comfort, food), in contrast it was the households from neighbourhoods, private homes, hotels and restaurants produced the most waste.

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into different shapes. Further, for squatter settlements zinc can be easily moved from place to place. Nevertheless despite their inability to afford exquisite fencing materials, they use their creativity and talent to bring a sense of beauty to the zinc fencing. On his trip to the inner city communities in Kingston, Jacob Voorthuis, a lecturer in architectural history and theory at Rotterdam School of Architecture, Netherlands, commented in his article ‘Poverty and the Picturesque: Shantytowns and Architectural Quality’ on the artistic quality in Trench Town. Enjoying the visual texture of the shantytowns requires us to assume an inclusive view of societal progress, in which the poor are seen as an asset and where economic poverty is not denied its right to express a cultural wealth. We should find beauty wherever we can find it.32 (Voorthuis 1996)

Figure 13: Image showing the artistic and vocal expression of the community on the zinc fencing in Allman Town. Source: Author

The fabric of the inner city communities “... are like books, recording their concerns and events of their residents...” 33 adding to the definitive cultural identity of the low income people, further

32

‘Songs of Poverty and the Picturesque: Shantytowns in Jamaica’, Axis No. 5 Issue, (The Caribbean School of Architecture: 2001) pg. 43 33 Jacob Voorthuis, pg.45, ibid

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enhanced by the visual properties of the materials in compositions, rhythms, proportions, colours, and texture. The Life of Reusable Materials – Long Term/Short Term The life cycle of materials depend greatly on the nature of them. Therefore, architects, designers and builders should take into consideration the life cycle of most of these materials. This is where life cycle analysis comes into play. A life cycle analysis is an appraisal of the environmental impacts connected with a product or service through an examination of the product's environmental traits during the following stages: •

Pre-manufacturing - this stage which reflects environmental effects associated with all pre-manufacturing activities including raw material acquisition and intermediate processing.

Manufacturing - should measure inputs (such as energy consumption) and outputs (such as air and water effluents).

Distribution/packaging – this stage consider the total product volume it takes to accomplish an assigned task.

Use, Reuse, Maintenance; and Waste management – the stage determines both whether the product is reusable by nature and whether the product is recyclable.

The life cycle of materials covers the time from their manufacture to their recycling or disposal. For most paper materials, their life span is short term, due to its composition and characteristics, whether they are newspapers/magazines and other items. Although, its intended use is considered relatively short term, nevertheless paper materials are valuable resources even after its ‘useful life time’ and has a major input for insulation, wall and floor construction. Therefore, their use in architecture is valuable. Page | 55


The most common alternate materials which are considered as long term are metals since they are recognised as a recycled-content product by a mature recycling market with developed infrastructure of collectors and processors. Affordability Primarily, the concept of affordability applies to all people, but in particular low income families, where due to their inability to purchase conventional raw materials, they purchase recycled, used materials from various sources. However, to some persons outside the social class, they see it a sign of immense poverty and deprivation, and look down on them for their lack of finances. Susan Strasser, characterized Americans’ concept of disposal and reuse of waste based on social class: Various options emerged for disposing of unwanted stuff, and middle-class people learned to toss things in the trash, attracted by the convenience and repelled by the association of reuse and recycling with a new class of impoverished scavengers.

34

(Strasser 1999) This further supports the ‘stigma’ attached to those who use alternate, reusable materials. Nevertheless, the cost value of reusable materials is significantly lower than conventional, raw materials. However, there are many debates as to whether reusing materials is economically efficient due to certain considerations such as: the quality of the materials and the durability of reusable materials.

34

Susan Strasser editor, pg. 113, ibid The Chapter ‘Trash and Reuse Transformed’ how the idea of reusing waste came to life in American History.

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Chapter 6: The Architectural Language of Inner City Communities The global definition of inner city communities are ‘areas or parts near the middle of a city, especially where the buildings are in bad condition and the people are poor.’ Rivke Jaffe, the author of “The Caribbean City” and a Lecturer in the Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work at the University of the West Indies, Mona, writes about the different dimensions in which inner city communities are determined: Community as a functional spatial with meeting substance needs Community as a unit of patterned social interaction Community as a cultural-symbolic unit of collective identity. 35 (Jaffe 2007) Constraints on the Housing Fabric of Inner City Communities Kingston is a large collage situated on the south coast of Jamaica in the parish of Saint Andrew.’ 36 (Voorthuis 1996) The inner cities of Kingston have similar commonalities as inner cities around the world such as: high rates of unemployment, crime, low income, run-down infrastructure and inadequate housing. These problems are therefore translated into their housing or lack thereof.

35

Rivke Jaffe, The Caribbean City, Kingston, (Ian Randle Publishers: 2007) From the article by Voorthuis, Jacob, ‘Poverty & the Picturesque: Shantytowns and Architectural Quality’, http://www.voorthuis.net/Caribbean/Poverty.htm 36

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Rivke Jaffe, a lecturer in the Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work at the University of the West Indies, Mona, described the percentage of the living quarters as well as the housing fabric of the inner city communities and probable causes in his book “The Caribbean City” Shacks, built of recycled materials, comprised eight percent of Kingston’s housing in 1991 and remained approximately where they had been in 1960 and 1982 – on the West Kingston waterfront on the urban-rural fringe in pockets along the gully courses and vacant land, therefore shifting spots in central, west and east Kingston. The expansion of Metropolitan Kingston also witnessed the development of new shanty towns by 1991 following the alignment of the bypass and the other major roads in the outskirts of Spanish Town and at Portmore, notably on the fishing beaches at Port Henderson. 37 (Jaffe 2007) However, despite their social and economic problems, one cannot deny the rich cultural identity of residents living in those communities. Walking through the low income communities of Kingston, there are high levels of informal neighbouring, which bring a unique sense of place in the area as well as a sense of community. This sense of community and creativity is translated into the living quarters of these communities. For some, their dependency is on reusable materials and finding innovative means of reusing them in their architecture. Jacob Voorthuis stated in his article that:

37

Rivke Jaffe editor, pg. 143, ibid

Page | 58


Walking through the streets of these shantytowns, one is stunned at the way people have made do...its use of materials, its use of colour and its use of literature...it is the attempt to derive some dignity from their situation.38 (Voorthuis 1996) To prove the above statement, a study was done examining the usage of materials of one inner city communities, in addition to conducting a series of interviews and questionnaires with people of different social classes. The next chapter will showcases those interviews, the reasons for procedure and the analysis based on the results.

38

Jacob Voorthuis, pgs.44-45, ibid

Page | 59


Chapter 7: Review of Questionnaires Methodology - Questionnaires Three questionnaires were formulated for the residents of upper Saint Andrew and West Kingston, and architects. Each questionnaire had nineteen (19) questions and was administered to the following number of persons from each group: Residents of West Kingston – Thirty-Eight (38) persons

(Questionnaire 1)

Residents of Saint Andrew – Ninety-Three (93) persons

(Questionnaire 2)

Architects and Contractors – Sixteen (16) persons

(Questionnaire 3)

The choice of group was based on ensuring that a wide range of persons would be included in the study, therefore reducing any biased perceptions. The data collected was qualitative with questions allowing for sufficient calculation of the results for statistical analysis. The questions were set out to allow a variety of choices for different answers. Each questionnaire for different groups targeted different subjects, based on the type of data required to test the validity of the study. However, the nature of the questions was simplified for an ease in response by not being too technical or industry specific. The questions were derived from discussions with my Supervisor. Hopefully, the respondents were honest and clear as to the intention of the questionnaire.

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Charts of Questionnaire #1 – Residents of West Kingston The results indicate

Chart Showing the Age Group of Respondants (Questionaire #1)

that most of the respondents are in the age group 35-50 with

7

second largest age group being 50-65.

5 18 7

18 - 25 yrs

The possible reason

25 - 35 yrs

for that result is due

35 - 50 yrs

to their experience in

50 - 65 yrs

the construction

65 - 80 yrs

industry.

1

0

5

10

15

20

Table 2: Bar Chart of Question #2 - Specify Age The results indicate that the majority of the respondents have

5

worked in the industry between 5-10

6

years and over 15

1

years.

2

This illustrates the 6

degree of expertise in the industry.

0

1 Under 5 years

2

3 5-10 years

4 10-15 years

5

6

7

Over 15 years

Table 3: Bar Chart of Question #5 - How long have you been in the construction industry?

Page | 61


Inside the community

Outside the community

The results indicate

Both

that 44% of the group have worked both inside and outside of their community, while

24%

32% have worked in other locations.

44%

32%

Table 4: Pie Chart of Question #7 - Have you done construction in this community or outside the community?

The results indicate that the majority of the Walls

group have used

11

materials in walls, Floors

7

while in second are

Roofs

9

Doors

9

Windows

roofs and doors. It is submitted that the reason most respondents chose walls is because it is

7

accessibility and easy Gates & Fences

6

Plumbing Fixtures

to patch or repair. Also walls roofs and doors

7 0

2

4

6

are more prone to 8

10

12

damage than the other elements.

Table 5: Bar Chart of Question #8 - Tick where you have used any form of reused waste materials in any of the following

Page | 62


The results indicate that Yes

No

Sometimes

45% of the group have worked with recycled materials on projects, while 44% have not.

11%

Therefore, it appears 45%

there is a balance between those who have used recycled materials and those who have not.

44%

However, when one adds 11% to 44% (= 55%), there is still a significant number of respondents who have not used them Table 6: Pie Chart of Question #9 - Have any of your work called for the reuse of materials or recycled materials for whatever reason? Yes

No

for any means.

Sometimes The results indicate that 37% of the group agree that it is important, while the

34%

37%

29% opposes it. However, if you add that 29% to those of the group who feel it is important sometimes that equals to 63%,

29%

which is significantly greater than 37%.

Table 7: Pie Chart of Question #12 = Do you think it is important to reuse materials in buildings?

Page | 63


Yes

No

Sometimes

The results indicate that 45% of the group agree that it will enhance the quality of life, while 23%

23%

disagreed. This illustrates a

45%

different result from the previous chart which had a smaller

32%

result for those who agreed with the question. Table 8: Pie Chart of Question #13 - Can using old materials help in enhancing the quality of life in communities?

Yes

No

Sometimes

The results indicate that 71% of the group would buy new materials while the second largest group

3%

(26%) would use recycled materials.

26%

Once again, this result contradicts the previous charts, in that although they agree on the notion 71%

of reusing waste materials, they would prefer to purchase new raw materials.

Table 9: Pie Chart of Question #14 - Would you have used new materials instead of reused if the price was not so expensive?

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Study Area: Allman Town This section will be dealing with the local communities in the city of Kingston. The reason for choosing the community of Allman Town, which is located to the eastern side of the National Heroes Park in Central Kingston, is that, since it is an area of study for another course, the availability of and access to information would not pose much problems. The sample is also a good representation of the population targeted because of its similarities in socioeconomic status and of the existing material conditions. In obtaining information from the sample, certain procedures were taken to ensure the protection of the participants. The interviews were interactive between the researcher and participants and they were not required to give their full name. Figure 14: Map of Downtown Kingston highlighting the study area Allman Town, where Questionnaire #1 was conducted. Source: Shell Road Map of Jamaica

Figure 15: Map of Study Area. Source: Author

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According to the survey conducted by the SDC and the UDC in 2001, the population of Allman Town is 3,598. The approximate area is 366,995 m2 (90.6872 acres) and was a middle-class residential community before the 1966 Development Order for Kingston. Since the 1990’s the area has experienced a large-scale introduction of land use changes resulting in mixed uses of light industrial, commercial and residential. In examining the study area of Allman Town it was easy to identify the houses and buildings made out of reusable materials. The photos 39 illustrate different homes within the area that show the unique use of alternative materials in construction. Although Allman Town was initially a middle-class community, due to the high rise of migration of rural population to Kingston, the residents moved out of the community to reside in the upper side of Saint Andrew. Consequently, the housing conditions of Allman Town deteriorated over the years and became populated by lower-income families. Today, Allman Town is relatively an old residential community with buildings originally constructed with bricks and clay roofing; due to the deterioration of most structures the residents have leaned towards using alternate, reusable materials as infills on their buildings. The housing conditions present are typical of detached dwellings but in poor conditions. As stated above most homeowners rely on alternative resources and forms of construction to provide shelter. Most of these resources consist of recycled materials from either within or outside the community.

39

See photos on page 67

Page | 66


Figure 16: Image of shop using plywood panels as walls. Source: Author

Figure 17: Image of house using old timber panels in walls and old zinc sheets for gates. Source: Author

In some cases, the community contains architectural elements such as seating, shading devices and planters, which are made of reusable materials, traditional and non-traditional. Perhaps the most prominent use of reusable materials in inner-city communities is in the physical boundaries between the houses and the streets. The most common material used is the zinc metal sheets which serve as fencing or gates as shown below.

Figure 18: Image of house using metal sheets and wood shingles as walls. Source: Author

Figure 19: Image of zinc fencing with graffiti and illustrations. Source: Author

To evaluate their decisions in using those materials and whether it is because of preference or other circumstances, a questionnaire was prepared and interviews were conducted to determine the source of materials, the factors which influence their choice and whether, given the opportunity, they would prefer using new raw materials as oppose to recycled materials.

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The questionnaires were distributed among a sample group in Allman Town, however the format of questions was geared towards residents who have working experience in the construction field. Twenty-three questionnaires were handed out within the study area, in addition interviews were conducted with persons involved in construction both inside and outside the community. The questions were formulated to determine whether they had done construction, whether they had worked with C & D material wastes and to determine the importance of using them in the community. Consequently, based on the nature of the questions, most, if not all, of the respondents were male. The observation of Allman Town took place on Friday June 11th 2010. The purpose of the observation was to evaluate the residents’ opinion of recycled materials and how much they utilise them in the community. During that visit, certain observations came to light immediately. Although, the framework of the present buildings there are primarily brick, most of the households had infills using different materials. These materials ranged from metal, concrete to plywood sheets. Along the sidewalks of the streets, certain materials were utilized as landscape materials such as: old tires for planters and old wooden benches. During the interviews, 22 questionnaires were distributed to the residents, mainly those who have worked in the construction industry. The general trend emerging from the group were that they have used recycled material wastes from both inside and outside the community. When asked, in Question #7, to describe their work experience in the industry, it was discovered that some persons had worked for government agencies, particularly on the Ministry of Finance

Page | 68


building located in the community. Some of the respondents have also worked on masonry, foundations and site work within Allman Town and around the National Heroes Park. During the interviews, one of the respondents, who for the purposes of this paper I will refer to as Zin, is a carpenter and labourer who specialises in wood. He talked about how crucial recycled materials are to the people of the community, particularly those who do not have the financial means to purchase commercially. He has sheds storing used lumber which he distributes or sells to other people in the community.

Figure 20: Image of carpenter's old wooden boards Source: Author

Figure 21: Image of shed with carpentry made up of reused timber. Source: Author

There were other members in Allman Town who are carpenters, who use timber to design furniture and other construction elements. Based on the interviews, they stated that they have used old materials for personal use and for other residents within the town, however when it comes to projects for clients outside the community, they prefer to purchase new materials, due to their durability and long life span.

Figure 22: Image of carpenters in Allman Town. Source: Author

Page | 69


Based on the responses from the group, it can be concluded that they agree that reusing materials is an important activity, especially since the financial means to do otherwise are sometimes out of their reach. However, the responses to the final question of the survey proved that the group would prefer new materials, even with smaller cost, over reusable materials due to their durability, assurance of their safety and longer life span. Accordingly, it all comes down to the ability to afford certain materials, whether materials are within one’s means and the accessibility of materials to people in lower income communities.

Page | 70


Charts of Questionnaire #2 – Residents of Saint Andrew The chart shows the

Chart Showing the Gender of Respondants

gender of respondents. The results indicate that 47 respondents

46

were female while the

St. Andrew Male

47

Female

remainder were male. This illustrates a balance between the genders of respondents.

45.5

46

46.5

47

47.5

Number of Respondants Table 10: Bar Chart of Questionnaires #2 & #2 - Specify Gender

Chart Showing the Age Group of Respondants (Questionaire #1) 29

the respondents were 25-35 with the second

3

largest age group being

4

18 - 25 yrs

4

18 -25. For the females,

25 - 35 yrs

the largest age group

35 - 50 yrs

was 25 – 35 as well. For

50 - 65 yrs

both genders, the total of

65 - 80 yrs

the remaining age

8 27 Female

6 7

groups is still

1 0

for the males, most of between the age group

4 Male

The results indicate that

significantly smaller 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

than that age group.

Table 11: Bar Chart of Question #2 - Specify Age

Page | 71


Chart Showing Occupancy of Residents of St. Andrew Rent

Owner

Other

The majority of the group (43%) own their households while 37% rent their homes. The option ‘other’ indicates other

20% 37%

arrangements including if the person lives with their parents. However, 20% + 37% = 57% which is higher than

43%

the group that owns their households. Table 12: Pie Chart of Question #6 - Specify Occupancy

Chart Showing Respondents Interest in Reusable Materials Yes

No

The majority of the group (59%) would be interested, while

Sometimes

33% indicated that they would sometimes be interested in using

33%

59%

reusable materials.

8%

Table 13: Pie Chart of Question #9 - Would you be interested in reusing material wastes if you were doing a renovation in your households?

Page | 72


Broken Concrete

Old Bricks

Tiles (broken or old)

Ceramics

Timber/Plywood panels

Glass (bottles/blocks)

Plastics (bottles/plexiglass)

Scrap Metals (zinc, steel)

Wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards

Bathroom Fixtures

Gypsum (plaster boards)

Cabinets and Cupboards

Light Fixtures

Railings

Metal Grilles

0 1=Very Poor

5 2=Poor

10 3=Average

15

20 4=Good

25

30

35

40

5=Very Good

Table 14: Bar Chart of Question #10 - How would you rate the C & D material wastes as useful in new construction?

Page | 73


Commentary on Table 14 The results from Table 14 indicate the materials that the study group consider more useful than others. According to the results, the following materials which respondents consider useful are as follows: •

Old Bricks – 38

Light Fixtures – 35

Wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards – 35

Ceramics – 33

Metal Grilles – 33

Tiles (broken or old) – 31

Railings – 30

Therefore, the top five (5) materials which are useful are: old bricks, light fixtures, wood (beams, joists, studs), ceramics and metal grilles. On the other hand, there were some materials which the study group considered least useful. According to the results, the five (5) least useful materials are as follows: •

Plastics (bottles/plexiglass - 26

Gypsum (plaster boards) – 24

Bathroom Fixtures - 22

Cabinets and Cupboards - 19

The remaining materials were considered by the study group as useful in architecture sometimes.

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The chart shows the

Use of Zinc by Respondants Never

Hardly Ever

Sometimes

level of use of old zinc

Always

by the sample group. The results indicate that

3%

41% of the group has never used zinc in their households, while the

25%

second largest group

41%

(31%) hardly ever used zinc. 25% of the group has used zinc

31%

sometimes while only 3% always use zinc.

Table 15: Pie Chart of Question #11 - How often would you use old zinc in your house? The results indicate the

Chart Showing the Responses on Suitable Materials for Buildings Yes

No

material found to be most suitable is

Sometimes

plywood sheets. 29 28

Zinc

27 27

Scrap Metal Plywood Sheets

materials suitable sometimes: zinc, scrap metals and salvaged

38

wood. The materials

35

21

considered as

37 27

Glass Bottles

found the following 39 39

16

Salvaged Wood

However, the group

36

unsuitable are old tires and glass bottles.

34 32

16

Old Tires

52

25 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Table 16: Bar Chart of Questions #12 - #17 - Do you consider the following materials as suitable materials for buildings?

Page | 75


Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

The results indicate that 41% of the group agree that it is

14%

important, while the

7%

second largest group

8%

(30%) are not sure whether it may do so. 41% + 14% = 54%, which is slightly

30%

greater than the sum of

41%

the other responses (14% + 7% + 8% + 30% = 45%).

Table 17: Pie Chart of Question #18: It is important to use C & D wastes into architecture (both in commercial and residential)

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

The chart shows the respondents’ opinion on whether designing

11%

with C & D materials

7% 6%

can enhance quality of life. The results indicate that 43% of the group

33%

are not sure whether it 43%

will, while the second largest group (33%) agree that it is important.

Table 18: Pie Chart of Question #19: Designing with C & D wastes will assists in enhancing the quality of life

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Analysis of Results from Questionnaire #2 The general consensus, from interviews with residents from Upper Saint Andrew, on what they think of recycling was positive. Most of them thought that it is a necessity and that it should be practiced every day. Below are some of the responses to Question #8: What do you think about recycling? Some respondents even stated that reusing materials plays a vital role in sustaining the environment: •

“I think it plays a critical role in the preservation of this world. It is simply no longer possible for us to exist on a finite planet with finite resources, while embracing a ‘linear’ process of development and disposal. A cyclical process is key to our long-term survival”. Male Respondent from Barbican

“I think recycling is important because it saves energy, facilities the proper use and disposal of waste and also reduces pollution of the environment.” Male Respondent from Meadowbrook Estate

Some responses to the questionnaire referred to the benefits of recycling: •

“It is a good habit to establish, because recycling may lead to saving for both individual and the government in the long run.” Male Respondent from Meadowbrook

“Recycling is good as it saves cost, reduce waste disposal and provides employment.” Female Respondent from Stony Hill

“It is quite resourceful. It helps to save the environment, which in return helps to save us financially as well as health waste. Eliminating having to cut a tree down creates a

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healthier lifestyle and a healthier us. Less pollution, cleaner air. What more can we ask for?” Female Respondent from Pembroke Pines, Fl •

“It’s necessary especially considering the volume of garbage that is generated daily and the speed at which we are using our natural resources. Recycling creates jobs, but has huge start-up costs.” Female Respondents from Hughenden, St. Andrew

Some even went as far to say that reusing materials is not practiced enough in Jamaica and its method is essential for Jamaicans to do so: •

“Because humans produce a large amount of waste, recycling is very important to maintain a clean environment. I think we don’t recycle enough and should measures to make our waste non-existent.” Male Respondent from Norbrook, Constant Spring

“Too much of the worlds resources are being wasted. I would love to see Jamaicans becoming more active in recycling projects.” Female Respondent from Norbrook

“I think that it is good for the environment, but we here in Jamaica haven’t been exposed to it enough for it to be utilized properly and benefit us the way it is intended to.” Female Respondent from Aylsham (Off Shortwood Road)

There were even some that stated that it is a daily practice for them to reuse as much waste as they can for creative usage. •

“Excellent idea. I am an environmental warrior! I am very much in favour of recycling in whatever way. We compost, recycle household items, reuse things around the house to create items, things for the pets etc.” Female Respondent from Cherry Gardens

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However, there were some that questioned the necessity of recycling and whether it is truly beneficial to society: •

“There are positives and negatives, but the positives outweigh the negatives. We can reduce pollutants by recycling.” Male Respondent from Hillview Gardens

“If the cost of recycling is less than the perceived benefit, then it should be worthwhile.” Male Respondent from Norbrook

“Don’t do it...but see why it is important.” Male Respondent

The impression from examining the comments for this question is that in general the sample group understands that recycling is a good practice and that it is beneficial for the environment. In the responses to Question #9, which asked if they would be interested in reusing material wastes in a renovation in their households? According to the pie chart in Table 13, 59% said yes, while 8% of them said no and 33% said they would be interested sometimes. This indicates that the majority of responses would have an interest in reusing material wastes if they were to do renovation work to their homes, while the others would use this approach only once in a while. The major reasons why the majority of persons would be interested in using material wastes are that it will bring benefits to the environment and to the communities in terms of cost and affordability. •

“As long as the materials meet habitable standards and strength requirements, the cost to live in a sustainable environment is paramount.” Male Respondent from Red Hills

“With the high cost associated with households’ renovations, I will use whatever method that will mitigate cost.” Male Respondent Page | 79


To minimise environmental impact/ carbon footprint and to minimise construction cost. Also, because it can result in unique architecture. Male Respondent.

I would be interested in re-using certain materials, especially in this economic climate, because it would save money. Female Respondent from Meadowbrook Estate.

Some of them spoke on the importance of conserving the types of recycled materials that one would consider using: •

“They can be interesting in appearance. The only consideration apart from the usual is that no hazardous substances are involved.” Female Respondent from Mona.

“Help save the planet, providing the materials being used are durable.” Female Respondent.

“It is beneficial, durable, safe and be able to derive all benefits as oppose to buying new materials.” Female Respondent.

“If the materials are still in usable condition.” Male Respondent from Red Hills.

The reason for targeting the Upper Saint Andrew sample group was to determine the type of recycled materials they would use, how they rate them in construction and most importantly, which materials they consider suitable for new construction. In Table 14: Bar Chart of Question #10 - How would you rate the C & D material wastes as useful in new construction?, the results were based on the respondents’ ratings of specified recycled materials in the bar chart. One trend that was of significance was that for reuse of general materials such as: old bricks, tiles (broken or old), ceramics, light fixtures, railings, metal grilles and old wood beams and baseboards, the majority rated them as good for new construction. However, for the majority of materials: broken concrete, timber/plywood, glass,

Page | 80


scrap metals, bathroom fixtures, gypsum (plaster boards), cabinets and cupboards, the overall rating was average. This indicates for most materials, the sample group considers them sometimes useful in new construction. This primarily indicates a slight contradiction from the responses from the results of Question #9. This response could be due to the group’s lack of knowledge of the possibilities of what materials can do. As one respondent replied toPie Chart of Question #9 - Would you be interested in reusing material wastes if you were doing a renovation in your households? •

“This highlights my point that education/information is key. One would have to know what these materials come from and how they were recycled and treated to then be comfortable having them in one’s house. But with all that said, yes I would use them sometimes.” Female Respondent from Aylsham, Saint Andrew (Off Shortwood Road).

Based on Table 15: Pie Chart of Question #11 - How often would you use old zinc in your house?, 41% of respondents have never used old zinc in their homes and the second largest group (31%) has hardly ever used them. This illustrates the lack of use of recycled materials in everyday life, in particular construction. This becomes even more evident in the responses to the questions relating to different C & D wastes (see Table 14) and whether the respondents thought them suitable for new construction. The major re-used materials used by inner city communities are: old zinc, scrap metal, plywood panels, salvaged wood, glass bottles and old tires. In the questionnaire, Question #12 examined how the respondents rate the suitability of various materials in new construction. Table 16 illustrates that the only materials that they consider as suitable for new buildings are plywood boards. However, the majority of the group considers the following materials suitable

Page | 81


sometimes: zinc, scrap metals, glass bottles, and salvaged wood. The only materials that the majority of the group did not consider suitable for construction are old tires. The last two questions of the questionnaire were structured to examine whether the respondents consider the use of construction material wastes as being of major importance. Based on the results, the general view expressed by the group is that they think that it is important to use construction waste in architecture. According to Table 17, 41% of the sample group agree that the use of construction waste is important in new architecture, while the second largest group (30%) are uncertain. Some of the comments from the respondents who agree are as follows: •

“We have to try and maximise resources, many items can be reused such as concrete, broken up and used as part of foundations for ornamental ponds or pavers, metal can be reused in many ways. Timber, as long as it is termite free is wonderful reused as it has the traces of history marked on it...Reusing bottles as partition walls can be cool element in bars (the old Chilitos had this). We cannot afford to waste anything these days, but the reused materials have to be solid enough to accept reuse and aesthetically pleasing enough to warrant its reuse.” Female Respondent from Cherry Gardens

“It allows developers, architects and home-owners to explore the use of these materials to use as examples or modules for future generations.” Male Respondent from Stony Hill

“With the rapid depletion of our natural resources and future projections directed towards a steady increase, we are standing shakily on the verge of a potential world crisis which has led to the general acceptance of ‘green’ building as a normative response to architectural intervention. This process of a sustainable re-use of building materials is now a mandatory one.” Male Respondent from Barbican

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On the other hand, there are some who disagree with the notion that reusing materials can benefit both architecture and communities. Some of them expressed the following: •

“Life span of materials could pose a problem likewise prior expense.” Male Respondent

“Apart from some C &D waste providing good material for decorative elements, reusing faulty damaged materials, to my mind, cannot be a good thing and in some instances actually decreases the aesthetic appeal of the structure depending on where and how the materials are used.” Female Respondent.

In relation to the final question, according to Table 18, the largest portion (43%) of the sample group is uncertain as to whether designing with construction material waste can help enhance the quality of life in communities. While the second largest portion of the group (33%) agrees that reusing wastes can actually enhance quality of life. In conclusion, the results from the St. Andrew questionnaire indicate that the majority of respondents do think that reusing waste is of significant importance and can be beneficial to both individuals and communities. However, when it came to questioning their use of some of those same materials in their households and whether they consider them suitable in construction, the results displayed a slight contradiction. This demonstrates that, although they do not oppose it completely, they are uncertain of the possibilities which exist and therefore do not know the potential of using certain materials in construction. Table 16: Bar Chart of Questions #12 - #17 Do you consider the following materials as suitable materials for buildings?, indicates some of the general reasons for their choice. For old zinc sheets, the main reasons are that it is versatile and affordable. For materials such as salvage wood, which they consider suitable sometimes, the main reason expressed is that it is attractive, but can be unresourceful. However, for old tires,

Page | 83


which most of the group do not consider suitable in buildings, the main reasons given are that it is unavailable in hardware stores and unattractive. As mentioned before, these results indicate the lack of knowledge and education of C & D materials and their potential for use in construction. Therefore, education is key to inform the public of benefits of re-using such materials and the pros and cons for each material. Thereby equipping the general public with the knowledge to enable them to make informed decisions.

Page | 84


Charts of Questionnaire #3 – Architects and Contractors From interviews with sixteen (16) architects, it was discovered that most of them have used waste materials in some of their projects, depending on the type of project and types of materials being utilized. The charts below illustrate the results from the questionnaires and the analysis of the information. The results indicate that most of the respondents

11

(11 out of 16) were male. This illustrates an

5

imbalance as it relates to gender of

0

2

4

6 Male

8

10

12

respondents.

Female

Table 19: Bar Chart of Question #1 of Questionnaires 3: Specify Gender

This chart shows the age

Chart Showing the Age Group of Architects (Questionaire #3)

group of the sample group. The results indicate that most of the respondents

5

are between the age group 35-50 while the second

6

largest age group is 25-35.

1 3 1

0

1

2

3

4

5

25 - 35

35 - 50

50 - 65

65 - 80

6

7

Table 20: Bar Chart of Question #2 - Specify Age

Page | 85


The chart shows the

Use of Recycled Construction and Other Waste into New Architecture Never

Hardly Ever

Sometimes

use of recycled material in

Always

construction by the sample group.

6%

The results indicate that most of the respondents (50%)

44%

have sometimes used recycled materials in construction while 44% of the group hardly use them in

50%

their practice.

Table 21: Pie Chart of Question #5 - How often would you use recycled construction and other waste into new architecture? The results indicate

5

Concrete Bricks Timber/Plywood Scrap Metals Plastics Shingles Glass Gypsum based materials Tiles Ceramics Asphalt Wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards Cabinets and Cupboards Bathroom Fixtures Railings Light Fixtures

that the most used

8 12

material is

7

timber/plywood,

1

while the second 5

most used materials are bricks, tiles and

8

light fixtures. Scrap

2 2

metal completes the

5

list of the top five

4

most used materials.

6 5

Whereas the five

8 0

2

4

6

8

least used materials 10

12

14

are shingles, gypsum materials, plastics,

Table 22: Bar Chart of Questions #6 - Select the types of material wastes you have reused in new architecture

ceramics and asphalt.

Page | 86


Walls

The results indicate that

9

reused materials are utilized

Floors

the most in floors, than in

14

walls and windows. Reused Roofs

5

materials are used in roofs.

Doors

It is important to note that

6

the results are similar to

Windows

those in Table 4, which also

9

indicated that walls, doors

Gates

6

Plumbing Fixtures

6

and windows are the most fixtures constructed with

0

2

4

6

reused materials in West 8

10

12

14

16

Kingston.

Table 23: Bar Chart of Question #7 – Select where you apply reused materials in new construction

Yes

No

Sometimes

This chart shows the percentage of the respondents who identify materials that can be salvaged for resale/construction.

38%

62%

The results indicate that 62% of the group do indentify such materials while only 38% sometimes identify them during construction projects.

Table 24: Pie Chart of Question #8 - During construction projects, do you identify materials that can be salvaged for resale/construction?

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The results indicate that Reuse it on-site

the majority of the

16

material salvaged is reused on-site, while

Sell it from the job site

some give them to

2

employees or neighbours.

Give it to employees or neighbours

It is important to note

11

that these top two answers relate to on-site Donate them to non-profit organizations

distribution and use

2

(giving materials to 0

5

10

15

20

workers or reusing them on-site).

Table 25: Bar Chart of Question #8 Part 2 - If yes, select how the collection is managed

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

The chart shows the respondents take on whether reusing C & D

7% 6% 31%

materials is important in the industry. The results indicate that 31% strongly agree while the majority of respondents (56%)

56%

agree that it is important.

Table 26: Pie Chart of Question #9 - It is important to reuse C & D material wastes in the construction industry

Page | 88


Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Undecided

Agree

Strongly Agree

The chart shows the respondents take on whether designing with C & D materials can

12%

enhance the quality of life. The results indicate

44%

that while 44% of the group agree that it is 44%

important, another 44% are undecided as to whether it may do so.

Table 27: Pie Chart of Question #10 - Designing with C & D wastes help in enhancing the quality of life

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Analysis of Results from Questionnaire #3 The data collected from the interviews with the architects illustrates that most of the respondents have practiced some form of reusing material wastes in their projects. When asked what their stance is on reusing materials in new architecture, all were for the practice in the industry. Below are some of the responses to Question #4: What do you think about reusing materials in new construction? •

“Great Idea, some of these older elements are more durable and stronger than the ones recently produced.” Quote from Suzanne Spence, Architect from Urban Development Corporation

“Within the appropriate context, I am an advocate for material re-use. It promotes environmental sustainability.” Architect from Urban Development Corporation.

“Very prudent and cost effective approach once it can be used appropriately/creatively and accepted by the owner.” Architect from Taylor Architects.

Some of the respondents, although in agreement, have stated certain considerations to be taken when designing with recycled materials. •

“It is something that should be encouraged but can only be influenced with the approval of the Client for the building project.” Christopher Lue from Apec Consultants Limited.

“As long as the material is in an acceptable condition and meets the required standards, it may be reused.” Architect from Morrison and Woodstock Associates

“The idea is good in principle, but in this environment is it not cost effective or time effective (detailing time) to consider the reusing materials as a major mode of operation for me at this time.” Self Employed Architect from Trinidad

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•

“It depends on the specific material, its condition and its life.� Raymond A. McIntyre from Apec Architects

Based on the results from the professionals on Question #4, it is clear that there is a general understanding of the possible benefits of recycling materials in the construction industry. However, when asked how often they have used recycled construction and other waste in new architecture, the majority of the group (50%) indicated only sometimes they use them while the second largest percentage of the group (44%) indicated that they hardly ever used them. This indicates that the majority of them do not practice reusing materials in their architecture, despite the fact that they all agree that it is of upmost importance. For the 50% portion of them who utilise them sometimes, the following questions were asked to ascertain the types of materials used and where they are applied in construction. Table 22 indicates the types of materials and how often the sample group have used them. According to the results, the material being used the most by the sample group of professionals is Timber/Plywood. The following materials also moderately utilized are: bricks, tiles and light fixtures. These results demonstrate the limited knowledge of the professionals about different recycled materials, hence they may be more prone to using materials that are easier to handle.

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Therefore, this may influence their choice which is determined by the surfaces of materials. This notion was pointed out by William and Michael In ‘Cradle to Cradle’: Even as architects and industrial designers began to embrace recycled or sustainable materials, they still dealt primarily with surfaces – with what looked good, what was easy to get and what they could afford. 40 However, the types of materials being utilised by the group depends upon what they are used for. That is what the results from Table 23 indicate, the use of materials. According to the results, most of them were used for floors, while the second largest uses are for both walls and windows.

40

William McDonough, Michael Braungart editors, pg. 9, ibid

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Case Study: Commercial Project in Kingston There are not many cases of design professionals using recycled materials for new construction. In Kingston, Jamaica, one such project is currently under construction. Situated at the intersection of Windsor Avenue and Old Hope Road is a construction site that currently uses old timber members and panels as the structural frame.

Figure 23: Map of Location of Site Source: Shell Road Map of Jamaica

Figure 24: Image of Site on Corner of Windsor Avenue. Source: Author

The contractor/builder Mr. Trevor Donegal is the person responsible for the design and construction of the project. He has been in the construction business for over 20 years and has been part of numerous projects where he has experimented with the use of recycled materials in new construction. One of his previous works utilized old bricks as external walls and windows frames. He was formerly part of a construction company called Trevand Limited before branching off to do his own private practice. In this particular project, he is working with old timber members and boards to develop a commercial building. The materials were initially from an old timber framed fertilizer warehouse

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at Petrojam, Newport in Kingston, where they were purchased from an owner whose initial plan was to utilise them for a pig pen. However, Mr. Donegal had another unique plan for them.

Figure 25: Image of demolished timber structure from Petrojam location. Source: Author

Figure 26: Image of timber boards and panels from Petrojam location. Source: Author

Mr. Donegal decided to purchase them for the design of a commercial restaurant. He stated that the main reason for wanting old timber boards for the project was to do something new and ‘out of the ordinary’. He hopes to create a distinct look, not just through used recycled materials, but through timber. He commented that there are not many new timber structures in Kingston and he has a preference for these materials over concrete due to their ability to adapt to the climate and their aesthetic quality. One of his reasons for using recycled timber members was cost. The cost of constructing a timber building using new timber is more expensive than a typical concrete structure. Design was also a key factor in his choice to use old timber materials rather than new raw materials. He

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stated that new timber comes in specific dimensions, and it would be complicated to cut into different lengths. However, it was not difficult to manoeuvre the old timber due to the variety of dimensions the boards provided.

Figure 27: Image of timber sanded and trimmed boards. Source: Author

Figure 28: Image of timber boards in various sizes and lengths. Source: Author

The project is currently at the structural frame stage. Mr Donegal has utilised the materials in a variety of structural elements: for example the walls, roof (rafters, eaves, etc.), door and window frames, columns, beams and stairs. The framed structure is fixed using metal anchor plates and wood purlins are intersected to support the floor structure.

Figure 29: Image of structural column/beam frame. Source: Author

Figure

30: Image of clip angle joining column and beam. Source: Author

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Figure 31: Image of wood scab tying two columns together. Source: Author

Figure 32: Image of window frames. Source: Author

Mr. Donegal, as well as utilising recycled timber, intends to use recycled metal containers between the columns. He stated that the dimensions between the columns allow the containers to be placed parallel. Although the project is in its early stage of construction, the intended use of the building is for commercial use. In spite of Mr Donegal’s intention to use recycled materials in his project, it is questionable as to whether he will continue to be true to this principle, as it is not just limited to the structural phase, but throughout the entire duration of the project, from structural frame to final finishes. The reasons for the conclusion are based on the finished project he had presented and the interview. In the rendered view of the project (Figure 35), the proposed finishes of the building include the cladding of limestone brick on walls and possibly wooden shingles as roofing. It is rare to find reused cladding; in addition, depending on the method of removing the cladding from other demolished structures, they tend to break apart easily. Therefore, most professionals prefer to purchase new cladding materials for their externals walls.

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Figure 33: Image of 3D rendering of final product. Source: Mr. Trevor Donegal

Page | 97


Chapter 8: Conclusion From the research on other industries and international construction companies, and observing how low income residents create architecture from reusable materials, it is evident how useful alternative materials can be in the world of contemporary architecture, It is hoped that the ‘stigma’ attached to the notion that reusable materials is meant only for poor people is dismantled. The responses from both study groups (West Kingston and Saint Andrew) were compared. The responses from the Saint Andrew group spoke mainly of environmental benefits and cost in construction, while the group from West Kingston highlighted the economic factors, particularly high cost in purchasing materials. A female from Red Hills stated that reusing materials may have both environmental and economical implications; however this method is more affordable than purchasing raw materials and can cut down on waste if implemented properly. She also stated that she has seen results where both residential and commercial projects have used recycled materials. Another respondent, a male from New Kingston, commented on the importance of reusing materials in architecture. He stated that it would reduce construction costs, protect the environment and allow architects and designers to become creative in the reuse of materials in their projects. The comments from West Kingston, as mentioned earlier, were based on purchase costs. A male from Allman Town stated that it is affordable and cheaper in cost, since he is able to obtain pieces of board from his neighbour and use them on his walls and floor easily.

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Another male respondent from Arnett Gardens stated that using old materials require the same amount of work and effort as using new materials; however the only difference between them is lower cost. After interviewing the survey groups and reading through the information gathered, what has one learnt from them? That recycling is a very important step in preserving the limited resources we have left on this earth. In order for future generations to enjoy what the earth has to offer and respect it. Today, we must take steps now to minimize the amount of waste produced, from all industries. The construction industry is no different. Everyone agrees that reusing material waste can bring many benefits environmentally and economically. However, with any new venture or proposal, there are many reservations and doubts. Many were concerned with the start-up costs and were doubtful that the outcome from reusing materials may be positive. Nevertheless, there is no doubt about the benefits that could be derived. The surveys paint a picture of the issues relating to recycling and financial considerations. These considerations include: •

Whether it is efficient to recycle construction wastes considering the cost, time and energy necessary

•

Poor economic climate in addition to unemployment may result in reluctance in starting a new venture

•

Insufficient time, money and effort for training and organising people in the methods of handling old materials

The data demonstrates that there is a need for programmes and policies in both the construction and environment sectors, whereby recycling of materials in construction can become a profitable Page | 99


commodity. The programmes can provide efficient sources of information to general public, but most importantly to the residents in lower income communities, where they would profit more through purchasing materials at cheaper price. This would include: •

A public education program coordinated by public and environmental organizations.

Environmental management education programmes for the construction industry where reduction, reuse and recycle of waste materials are emphasized.

A solid waste management program for construction sites including initiatives to reduce the amount of waste that requires disposal after construction.

A manageable and organized plan will not only provide jobs, but financial savings for both groups surveyed (i.e. lower and upper classes) and enhance the creativity of professionals in the industry. John Hart, an environmental author, writes about the benefits of recycling to cities: Well-designed environmental policies can help a city government save money, extend resources, solve problems, and make friends. 41 (Hart 1992) The environmental and construction specialists have propounded the benefits of reusing material waste in the field of architecture from the economic, social and environmental as follows: •

Economic Benefit: Reuse eliminates exorbitant waste disposal fees and allows consumers to obtain raw materials at a fraction of their original cost.

Social Benefit: Reuse provides donating businesses with tax benefits and reduced disposal fees.

Environmental Benefit: Reuse reduces the quantity of materials dumped in landfills thereby lessening damage to the environment.

41

John Hart, ‘Saving Cities, Saving Money’, Sausalito California, (Resource Renewal Institute: 1992) pg. 3

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However, in order to realise the social benefit changes in environmental and waste management policies and legislation would be required. It is reasonable to argue that some of those responses may not be applicable in the Caribbean context. It is known that Jamaica lacks the technical and financial resources to sufficiently manage waste. This problem is further aggravated by the lack of a comprehensive and integrated waste management policy. Jamaica is significantly smaller than first world countries and therefore, the amount of waste produced especially from the construction company is unparalleled to the waste produced in America or European countries. However based on Waste Characterisation Study by NSWMA, there has been a 50 per cent increase in the per capita generation of solid waste in the last 5 years alone, moving from 1 kg to 1.5 42 kg. Therefore, in the future, the magnitude of wastes produced per capita could potentially equal that in the United States and other developed countries. It is also argued that the current economic status of the country cannot support the procedure of recycling materials. This is however a short-sighted argument as the cost especially from an environmental standpoint will be greater in the long run. Our society does produce waste, and due to the globalization in the construction industry, a percentage of the waste produced are hazardous materials with serious consequences, therefore leading to the degradation of soil content in landfills. One of the major challenges is related to the complexities brought about by the different types and nature of wastes with which the country has to contend. Therefore, to minimize the influence of such materials on the environment, the industry should set out procedures into using only local materials which are recyclable in Jamaica as well as have reusing properties for new buildings. This is the responsibility of the architects, contractors and

42

Waste Characterisation Study at the Riverton Landfill, National Solid Waste Management Authority, 2006. www. pioj.gov.jm/Portals/0/Sustainable.../Management_of_Wastes.pdf

Page | 101


other professionals in the industry. This would result in the proper management and utilisation of construction material wastes. The economic benefits are the end cost of purchase and construction building costs, despite the initial expensive cost of collection and disposal process. In addition, recycling construction wastes can provide training and employment to people interested in working for recycling in construction industry. The benefit to society extends beyond people of both classes understanding the aesthetic value of using them, but also allowing those with limited financial means to purchase and reusable materials without having ‘to scavenge’ for waste – a typical informal activity by low-income communities. This activity, although viewed by many as ‘poor man’s’ activity, can also provide economic and environmental benefits. This is where education becomes key as one respondent replied: The organizations in Jamaica, particularly from the construction industry can work in collaboration with environmental groups in developing a manual for professionals who are interested in understanding recycling on job sites.

Page | 102


Based on the results from the group of architects, it shows that 62% of the group have tried to identify which material wastes can be saved and sold on site. However, architects have used them in two ways: reusing them on-site or giving them to their employees. Although, both are credible uses, a manual should be developed to guide professionals in greater depth of the following: •

How recycling works in overall project management: contractors, quantity surveyors and architects can manage the sorting out of materials from demolished structures. Workers would be assigned a specific type of material waste e.g. metal, zinc, plywood boards, etc. to ensure that the quality will not be downgraded by contaminated materials.

How to counter the concerns of those who object to job site recycling on the basis of cost, complexity, unreliability, or other factors: this is can be resolved through on-site training: workers would be taught how to categorize and sort different types of materials and safety measures to observe. The training required does not have to be extensive, time consuming or complicated, nevertheless it is important that each worker working on sites and handling reusable materials receive some training.

Provide the information to understand and address those objections: This is where knowledge and training comes into play. In the US, LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) offers certification to architects or other design professionals to become accredited for their knowledge of the LEED rating system. Therefore, certified professionals are able to measure the sustainability of buildings. 43

Lay the foundation for successful recycling from any new construction, renovation or demolition project: Any laws or rules introduced by the government through the National

43

Wikipedia contributors, Definition of LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design

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Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA) and with the assistance of nongovernmental organisations such as Jamaica Environment Trust (JET) which governs the proper disposal of construction material waste and encouraging the use of reusable materials and recycling with possible tax benefits. The manual would consist of a master waste management plan setting out the steps for successful planning of construction recycling. The Guide for Recycling Construction and Demolition Wastes by the Boston Society of Architects describes the strategy taken in formulating their manual: ...lays out the start-to-finish strategy for job site recycling. It is prepared directly from the drawings and specifications for the job, and a good plan will closely follow these documents. 44 Therefore the manual could: •

Estimate types and quantities of construction wastes generated during each phase of the job: from design to construction stage, professionals would determine the various types of material wastes: wood, metal or concrete.

Identify how each waste will be managed and marketed: This may include such things as unscrewing ballasts from fluorescent light fixtures, or information on the extra care to be taken to prevent damage to wood flooring during removal. This is where waste identification, managing and marketing come into play. Each material would be catalogued from the start to end of projects showing the method of separation and marketing strategy.

Provide an estimate of the overall job recycling rate.

44

This statement was based on the Management Plan formulated by the collaboration of Boston Institute of Architect and Boston Environmental Organization

Page | 104


Lay out plans for training, meetings, and other communication related to job-site waste management.

Samuel Mockbee, former architect of Rural Studio, and a champion of use of recycled materials once said: “Architects should challenge the status quo into making responsible environmental changes.” 45 (Dean and Hursley 2002) The idea of reusable material in the contemporary world of architecture can serve a distinct purpose in the construction industry. Therefore, through limiting the wide range of choice of materials, this action in turn could prevent the large amount of construction waste ending up in landfills, but more importantly, bring a distinct texture and locality to the architectural quality in Jamaica.

45

Andrea Oppenheimer Dean, Timothy Hursley, Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architectural Decency, (Princeton Architectural Press: 2002) pg. 1

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Chapter 9: Bibliography "Acceptance Policies." Second Use. January 2010. http://www.seconduse.com/policies (accessed April 30, 2010). Bittle, Joel. "Home Construction’s Dirty Secret: 8,000 lbs of Waste Per 2,000 Square Foot House." Green Building Elements. January 8, 2009. http://greenbuildingelements.com/2009/01/08/home-constructions-dirty-secret-8000-lbs-ofwaste-per-2000-square-foot-house/ (accessed March 11, 2010). Buchanan, Peter. Ten Shades of Green: Architecture and the Natural World. New York: The Architectural League of New York, 2005. Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer, and Timothy Hursley. Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of Decency . New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002. Deeble, Stephen. "A Review of Construction Industry Waste." The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Post Graduate Distance Learning Studies- Environmental Impact Assessment. June 14, 1998. http://users.aber.ac.uk/zwk/distlearn/virtlib/projects/deeble/deeble.html (accessed February 12, 2010). Farrando, Jordi, and Russell Keune. UIA Accord on Recommended International Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice. Gaithersburg, Maryland: Balmar Solutions in Print, December 2006. Giannelli, Natalie, and Daniel Hoornweg. "Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility." Managing municipal solid waste in Latin America and the Caribbean. October 2007. www.ppiaf.org/documents/gridlines/28lacsw.pdf (accessed February 19, 2010).

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Halliday, Sandy. Sustainable Construction. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, January 23, 2008. Hart, John. Saving Cities Saving Money. California: Resource Renewal Institute, 1992. Jaffe, Rivke. The Caribbean City. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 2007. Jamaica Gleaner. "Build on a Budget." June 21, 2010: D1. Jamaica Information Service. "Ban on Scrap Metal Trade." April 26, 2010. Lennon, Mark. Recycling Construction and Demolition Wastes:A Guide for Architects and Contractors. Guide, Boston: The Institution Recycling Network, April 2005. McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle. New York: North Point Press, 2002. Strasser, Susan. Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1999. Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth. Solid Waste Management: Critical Issues for Developing Countries. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press, University of the West Indies, 1998. Thompson, Shelly-Ann. "One man's trash ‌Scrap-metal trade proves good business in Jamaica." Jamaica Gleaner, November 06, 2007. Tzonis, Alexander, Liane Lefaivre, and Bruno Stagno. Tropical Architecture: Critical Regionalism in the Age of Globalization. UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2001. Voorthuis, Jacob. "J C T V @ h o m e." Songs of Poverty & the picturesque: Shantytowns in Kingston. 1996. http://www.voorthuis.net/Caribbean/Poverty.htm#_ftnref10 (accessed September 15, 2009). Page | 107


Wastes - Resource Conservation - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle - Construction & Demolition Materials. November 19, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/rrr/imr/cdm/ (accessed March 10, 2010).

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APPENDIX

Page | 109


QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSIST IN MY THESIS ON REUSABLE MATERIALS IN INNER CITY COMMUNITIES

CONTACT: Naita Chamberlain at 990-3389 or keitsnc@gmail.com for any further information or comment.

This voluntary survey is being conducted for my dissertation for Masters Degree at the Caribbean School of Architecture. Although participants will not be remunerated in any way, the information gathered will assist greatly in determining the use of reusable materials in inner city communities and how it is perceived by the public. This is being done to encourage an understanding of these materials used in the architecture and it is can foster more applicable future explorations for design professionals. Please select the most appropriate checkbox for each.

For Communities in West Kingston GENERAL INFORMATION:

(Please indicated location here e.g. Constant Spring, Norbrook)

1. Sex [ ] Male [ ] Female 2. Age [ ] Under 10 yrs old [ ] 35-50 yrs old

[ ] 10-18 yrs old

[ ] 18-25 yrs old

[ ] 25-35 yrs old

[ ] 50-65 yrs old

[ ] 65-80 yrs old

[ ] Over 80 yrs old

3. How long have you been living at the location? [ ] Under 5 yrs [ ] 5-10 yrs

[ ] 10-15 yrs

4. Are you in the construction industry?

[ ] Yes

[ ] 15-20 yrs

[ ] over 20 yrs [ ] Just visiting

[ ] No

[ ] Sometimes

5. How long have you been in the construction industry? [ ] Under 5 yrs [ ] 5-10 yrs

[ ] 10-15 yrs

[ ] Over 15 yrs 6. Did you have previous training at an institution? [ ] Yes

[ ] No

If yes, state where and the name of course 7. Have you done construction in this community or outside this community? & briefly describe your work experience in construction.

Page | 110


8. Tick where you have used any form of reused waste materials into any of the following: a. Walls b. Floors c. Roof d. Doors e. Windows f. Gates & fences g. Plumbing Fixtures

[ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] Yes

[ ] No [ ] No [ ] No [ ] No [ ] No [ ] No [ ] No

9. Has any of your work called for reuse of materials or recycled materials for whatever reason? [ ] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Sometimes

If yes, state your reasons for using reused materials [ ] They are affordable and cheap [ ] They are attractive [ ] They are available easily [ ] They can be transported to final site easily and in shorter time [ ] No other choice 10. How much of your previous work uses reused construction and forms of waste? [ ] 10-25% [ ] 25-50% [ ] 50-75% [ ] 75-100% 11. Were the reused materials from the area or from other locations...? [ ] The area [ ] Other Locations If from other locations, state the location 12. Do you think it is important to reuse materials in buildings? [ ] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Sometimes

If yes, state your reasons: If no, state your reasons: 13. Can using old materials help in enhancing the quality of life in communities? [ ] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Sometimes

14. Would you have used new material instead of reused if the price was not so expensive? [ ] Yes

[ ] No If yes, state your reason If no, state your reason Page | 111


QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSIST IN MY THESIS ON REUSABLE MATERIALS IN INNER CITY COMMUNITIES CONTACT: Naita Chamberlain at 990-3389 or keitsnc@gmail.com for any further information or comment.

This voluntary survey is being conducted for my dissertation for Masters Degree at the Caribbean School of Architecture. Although participants will not be remunerated in any way, the information gathered will assist greatly in determining the use of reusable materials in inner city communities and how it is perceived by the public. This is being done to encourage an understanding of these materials used in the architecture and it is can foster more applicable future explorations for design professionals. Please select the most appropriate checkbox for each. NOTE: C & D means Construction and Demolition For Residents in St. Andrew GENERAL INFORMATION:

(Please indicated location here e.g. Constant Spring, Norbrook)

1. Sex [ ] Male

[ ] Female

2. Age [ ] Under 10 yrs old

[ ] 10-18 yrs old

[ ] 18-25 yrs old

[ ] 25-35 yrs old

[ ] 50-65 yrs old

[ ] 65-80 yrs old

[ ] Over 80 yrs old

[ ] 35-50 yrs old

3. Education Level Attain: [ ] None [ ] University

[ ] Basic/Prep

[ ] PhD. /Masters

4. Employment Status: [ ] Self-employed 5. Housing status: 6. Occupancy:

[ ] Resident

[ ] Rent

[ ] Secondary

[ ] Other (please state) [ ] Employed

[ ] Visitor

[ ] Owner

[ ] Primary

[ ] Unemployed

[ ] Student

[ ] Other (please state)

[ ] Other (please state)

7. How long have you been living at the location? [ ] Under 5 yrs [ ] 5-10 yrs

[ ] 10-15 yrs

[ ] 15-20 yrs

[ ] over 20 yrs [ ] Just visiting

8. What do you think about recycling?

9. Would you be interested in reusing material wastes if you were doing a renovation in your households? [ ] Yes

[ ] No [ ] Sometimes

If yes, state your reason:

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10. On a scale of 1-5, (where 1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=average, 4=good, 5=very good), how would you rate the following C&D material wastes as useful in new construction? a. Broken Concrete b. Old Bricks c. Tiles (Broken or Old) d. Ceramics e. Timber/Plywood panels f. Glass (Bottles, blocks) g. Plastics (bottles/Plexiglas) h. Scrap Metals (zinc sheets, aluminium and steel) i. Wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards j. Bathroom Fixtures k. Gypsum (plaster boards) l. Cabinets and cupboards (kitchen fixtures) m. Light fixtures n. Railings n. Metal Grilles

1 [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

2 [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

3 [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

4 [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

5 [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

11. How often would you use old zinc in your house? [ ] Never

[ ] Hardly ever

[ ] Sometimes

[ ] Always

12. Do you consider zinc as a suitable material for buildings? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes If yes, select your reasons: a. It is an attractive material b. It is versatile c. It can be used for anything in buildings d. It is affordable

[] [] [] []

If no, select your reasons: a. It is too cheap b. It is unattractive c. It is unavailable in hardware stores d. It is unresourceful

[] [] [] []

13. Do you consider scrap metal as a suitable material for buildings? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes If yes, select your reasons: a. It is an attractive material b. It is versatile c. It can be used for anything in buildings d. It is affordable

[] [] [] []

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If no, select your reasons: a. It is too cheap b. It is unattractive c. It is unavailable in hardware stores d. It is unresourceful

[] [] [] []

14. Do you consider plywood sheets as a suitable material for buildings? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes If yes, select your reasons: a. It is an attractive material b. It is versatile c. It can be used for anything in buildings d. It is affordable

[] [] [] []

If no, select your reasons: a. It is too cheap b. It is unattractive c. It is unavailable in hardware stores d. It is unresourceful

[] [] [] []

15. Do you consider salvaged wood as a suitable material for buildings? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes If yes, select your reasons: a. It is an attractive material b. It is versatile c. It can be used for anything in buildings d. It is affordable

[] [] [] []

If no, select your reasons: a. It is too cheap b. It is unattractive c. It is unavailable in hardware stores d. It is unresourceful

[] [] [] []

16. Do you consider glass bottles as a suitable material for buildings? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes If yes, select your reasons: a. It is an attractive material b. It is versatile c. It can be used for anything in buildings d. It is affordable

[] [] [] []

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If no, select your reasons: a. It is too cheap b. It is unattractive c. It is unavailable in hardware stores d. It is unresourceful

[] [] [] []

17. Do you consider old tires as a suitable material for buildings? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes If yes, select your reasons a. It is an attractive material b. It is versatile c. It can be used for anything in buildings d. It is affordable

[] [] [] []

If no, select your reasons a. It is too cheap b. It is unattractive c. It is unavailable in hardware stores d. It is unresourceful

[] [] [] []

18. It is important to use C &D wastes into architecture (both in commercial and residential) [ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Undecided

[ ] Agree

[ ] strongly agree

If you agree, state your reasons:

If you disagree, state your reasons:

19. Designing with C & D wastes help in enhancing the quality of life [ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Undecided

[ ] Agree

[ ] strongly agree

If you agree, state your reasons:

If you disagree, state your reasons:

END OF SURVEY

THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR TIME.

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QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSIST IN MY THESIS ON REUSABLE MATERIALS IN INNER CITY COMMUNITIES CONTACT: Naita Chamberlain at 990-3389 or keitsnc@gmail.com for any further information or comment.

This voluntary survey is being conducted for my dissertation for Masters Degree at the Caribbean School of Architecture. Although participants will not be remunerated in any way, the information gathered will assist greatly in determining the use of reusable materials in inner city communities and how it is perceived by the public. This is being done to encourage an understanding of these materials used in the architecture and it is can foster more applicable future explorations for design professionals. Please select the most appropriate checkbox for each. NOTE: C & D means Construction and Demolition

For Architects and Contractors GENERAL INFORMATION:

(Please indicated name and location of employment here)

1. Sex:

[ ] Male

[ ] Female

2. Age:

[ ] 18-25 yrs old

[ ] 25-35 yrs old

[ ] 35-50 yrs old

[ ] 50-65 yrs old

[ ] 65-80 yrs old

[ ] Over 80 yrs old

3. How long have you been working at the location? [ ] Under 5 yrs

[ ] 5-10 yrs

[ ] 10-15 yrs

[ ] 15-20 yrs

[ ] over 20 yrs

4. What do you think about reusing materials into new construction?

5. How often do you use recycled construction and other waste into new architecture? [ ] Never

[ ] Hardly ever

[ ] Sometimes

[ ] Always

If you choose always, describe the approach towards using C&D wastes into new architecture

6. Select the types of material wastes you have reused in new construction: a. Concrete b. Bricks c. Timber/Plywood d. Scrap Metals e. Plastics f. Shingles g. Glass h. Gypsum based materials

[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] Page | 116


i. Tiles [] j. Ceramics [] k. Asphalt [] l. Wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards [ ] m. Cabinets and cupboards [] n. Bathroom fixtures [] o. Railings [] p. Light fixtures [] 7. Select where you apply reused materials in new construction: a. Walls [ ] Yes [ ] No b. Floors [ ] Yes [ ] No c. Roof [ ] Yes [ ] No d. Doors [ ] Yes [ ] No e. Windows [ ] Yes [ ] No f. Gates [ ] Yes [ ] No g. Plumbing Fixtures [ ] Yes [ ] No 8. During construction projects, do you identify material that can be salvaged for resale/construction? [ ] Yes

[ ] No

[ ] Sometimes

If yes, select how the collection is managed in the following: a. Reuse it on-site b. Sell it from the job site c. Give it to employees or neighbours d. Donate them to non-profit organizations

[] [] [] []

9. It is important to reuse C &D materials in the construction industry? [ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Undecided

[ ] Agree

[ ] strongly agree

If you agree, select the following reasons: a. Reduce the cost of new construction by not having to purchase new materials [ ] b. Reduce the disposal cost of existing demolished materials by selling as is where is or have others strip and take [] If you disagree, state your reasons: 10. Designing with C & D wastes help in enhancing the quality of life [ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Undecided

[ ] Agree

[ ] strongly agree

If you agree, state your reasons:

If you disagree, state your reasons: Page | 117

Dissertation: Reusable Materials of the Inner City Communities  

Final year post graduate thesis on reusing secondhand materials. The objective is to explore the mechanism of construction waste by low inco...