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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

YELLOW IS THE NEW ORANGE by Michael Speaks p.8

RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

DANCING WITH SECOND ORDER EFFECTS

THE AESTHETICS OF A TRANSFORMATION

by

by

by

Michelle Provoost and Wouter Vanstiphout

Rory Hyde

René Boer and Mark Minkjan

V&A London

Crimson Architectural Historians p.106

1 PAPER

Failed Architecture

p.302

p.352

2 ACTION

3 FALL

4 FUTURE

p.18-85

p.120-187

p.316-331

p.372-385

journals

journals

journals

journals

2000–2008

2009–2015

2016–2017

2018–2036

p.86-105

p.188-301

p.332-351

PROJECTS

PROJECTS

PROJECTS

PROJECTS

# 01–09

# 10–52

# 53–61

# 62–67

p.12

p.114

THINKING ON YOUR FEET

WE VALUE DEVALUATION

p.306

PERMANENT TEMPORALITY

p.362

p.414

WHO WILL BUY THE CITY?

INCOMPLETE & UNFINISHED

by Elma van Boxel and Kristian Koreman

p.420

PROJECT OVERVIEW project credits p.422 crowdfunders p.430 about the authors p.438 colophon p.440

p.386-413


YELLOW IS THE NEW * ORANGE Michael Speaks


i n t r oduc t ion

During the winter of 2000, Elma van Boxel and Kristian Koreman left the comforts of Arnhem to set up house and shop in an abandoned, dilapidated, post-war commercial building near Rotterdam Central Station. Soon these two architecture school graduates would become ZUS and the building would become the launchpad for a series of projects that promised to transform not only ZUS’s immediate urban environs but also the very nature of their practice. The story of this transformation, of ZUS, and of the SCHIEBLOCK, is told here in four episodes—Paper, Action, Fall, Future—and takes place over a period of eighteen of the most tumultuous years in recent memory.

Each episode delineates a chapter in the life of ZUS and the SCHIEBLOCK, lived in mutual interdependence and in response to the rapidly changing, globalizing world that was their larger context. First came ideas, then action, then failure, then speculation. But, of course, to delineate each of these four episodes as distinct chapters in the life story of this practice and building is inaccurate if not misleading. Though the story is clearly a linear one, there is no natural progression of ideas that lead to action that leads to failure that results in speculation: ideas for ZUS were always a kind of speculation, which was, of course, also a kind of action; failure came not in a period where things seemed to fall apart, but every day (as did success), and was always preceded and followed by speculation, failure, and more ideas;

the SCHIEBLOCK was always a protection from the world (both the comforts of Arnhem and the discomforts of Rotterdam) and at the same time a vehicle to activate and change the neighborhood, the city, and indeed, ZUS itself.

Along the way ZUS refused to decide: Between engaging and refusing the real estate marketplace; instead they engaged by becoming conversant in the ways of real estate and finance. ZUS also refused to decide between becoming developers and being architects; instead they were able to “make city” because they learned to ask the more fundamental political, economic and cultural questions behind the architecture questions. Indeed, paradoxically, it was precisely Elma

9


Lessons from the Test Site #1

THINKING ON YOUR FEET

question statements 5th IABR, silkscreen print, design by 75B

Architects and urban planners are trained to think ahead, make plans, and project into the future. Thoughts and ideas lead to schemes and designs. Feasible plans are executed. They change reality and determine the use of space. This is how doing follows thinking. But often, thoughts and ideas are overtaken by reality. After a planning process that takes years, it can transpire that the users have changed, the market has swung, and the political tide has turned. Well-thoughtout plans then no longer match realities. How can architecture and urban planning adapt to such changes? How can we increase the learning capacity of the design process? Instead of positioning thinking before doing, can we involve doing in thinking? 13


ONNECTED

spectacle on the traffic circle, photo: Fred Ernst

2009 – 2015

journals


journals

2009 – 2015

2014

Green spaces alone do not make a park; so we think about adding functions. We try establishing a boxing school under the Luchtsingel in order to give the boys who hang out on the streets all day something else to do. Unfortunately, after half a year of study we can’t come to an agreement with the people who would run it. Luckily, there is a friendly theater company, Wunderbaum, who are looking for a location for a new performance called “The House”. The idea for the performance is to tour Europe with a house on a trailer and to create in-situ performances in different situations and with different walk-ons. With Wunderbaum, we develop a design for three pavilions, one of which has a folding stage, with the other two functioning as a bar and a pancake house. They

construction of the Pompenburg Park, photo: Ossip van Duivenbode

We draw a simple grid of plots over the Pompenburg plot and imagine that a horticultural survival of the fittest shall emerge. Maybe certain plots will be developing like a jungle, whereas others strictly cultivated. Since we have a limited budget for the park, we have to make intelligent use of the neighborhood’s willingness to help improve this place. To prevent the idea of participation meaning everyone does something for the sake of it, we ask the choreographers, Gianluca Fratantonio and Raoul de Jong, to help guide the planting of the Pompenburg Park. In yellow, red, and blue teams, the different activities intermingle in an orchestrated game. The wheelbarrows make the rounds, those with hoes pull furrows, and the planting team goes step by step through the beds. With a team of over fifty helpers, we are ready within a day. Now we have to wait for everything to grow.

Pompenburg is the ultimate backside of a backside.

performance The House by Wunderbaum

On the original location of the Hofplein stands a little plot called Pompenburg, but in recent years it has become nothing more than a wasteland with all kinds of godforsaken goings-on. It is the ultimate backside of a backside. The Centrum borough considers this strip along the railroad to be at the periphery of their responsibility, and the Shell complex, with its many vague corners and parking garage exit, adds little to this area. Our plan for the City Initiative also invests in Pompenburg, aiming to make it a park where children can play, and people can enjoy a sandwich.

175


opening of Pompenburg Park

journal

2014

under construction

This forgotten part of the city is finally coming back to life.

Luchtsingel almost finished, photo: Opperclaes

It has been a no-go area in the city for fifteen years, and although it may be a little safer now, there is still a lot of vandalism and graffiti.

176

travel with the stage pavilion from Paris to Scandinavia and return to Pompenburg Park in the summer and stage highlights from their travels. This forgotten part of the city is finally coming back to life. The Luchtsingel splits above the park, with the separate arms leading to the Central Station, the Hofbogen, and the Hoogkwartier. Directly above the spot where the Hofplein originally stood, the Luchtsingel forms a circular section, echoing the nearby busy traffic circle that became the Hofplein’s new location after the war. The Luchtsingel’s circular section connects to the segment passing over the railroad. Since the area’s land owners have agreed to a ten-year user agreement, it means that the Luchtsingel can only run over their land for the duration of this period. It is only the owner of one of the former Shell buildings has difficulty with this plan. The problem is that the owner of the building has gone bankrupt and they have forfeited their property as collateral to the bank. A wooden bridge passing over this property is not in the bank’s interests because it adds further risk to their portfolio. However, the bridge has already been built on both sides of this building, leaving a space that exerts a physical pressure for the Luchtsingel’s completion because it is abundantly clear who is hindering its finalization. After two meetings with a large real estate investment bank at their head office in Utrecht, they finally approve the construction of the last part of the Luchtsingel. The City Initiative assigns us to make a thorough management and maintenance plan because the area still has a long way to go. It has been a no-go area in the city for fifteen years, and although it may be a little safer now, there is still a lot of vandalism and graffiti. If we manage this part of the project in a way that is similar to much of the city’s management, we shall lose some of the involvement that people have invested in the Luchtsingel. Therefore we propose appointing a “bridge mayor” who will be responsible for developing the management plan. Controlling the right steps forward at every stage of this process will provide opportunities for improving the area. We use street art as a measure to counter the graffiti. Together with the street artists and curators of Opperclaes, we select the poem “Mi have a dream” by Ramsey Nasr, which we had already used for an artwork for the Test Site Rotterdam. From the Delftse Passage to Station Hofplein, extracts from the poem—scattered on adjacent walls and streets and the sides of the Luchtsingel—form a one-kilometer-long artwork. The work adds a distinctive textual layer to the bridge’s wooden structure and, along with the works of street art in the area, forms part of a large outdoor exhibition.


journal

Together with the stakeholders of Schieblock Inc., we make a counter-proposal. Firstly, we explain that after the renovation, it will take at least two years to achieve the current level of occupancy. The speculative gains the property would receive post renovation would not outweigh the lost income that such a refurbishment entails. As such, we propose that all tenants can remain and the rent is frozen for the next ten years. If the rent increases, we shall leave the building, probably taking many of the other tenants with us. The next meeting will require some hard bargaining; we know that we are somehow condemned to each other. We eventually reach a deal with a reduced building fee and a fixed rent for all tenants for the next ten years. Using an old-fashioned quill pen and ink, we sign a contract to ensure this area shall escape the harsh principles of gentrification.

“Your business plan for the Schieblock has been successful, so I’m considering taking it over.”

signing the extension contract of Schieblock with LSI

SCHIEBLOCK 2.0 Things are looking inauspicious for the area’s owner, LSI Investments. A newspaper article reports that for several years, LSI has been unable to pay the lease on the land that they have sold to the municipality. Also, despite the down­ sizing of the area’s building plans, realizing a feasible project remains unachievable. Concurrent to all this, we are talking to LSI about the future of the Schieblock; the lack of building plans makes it clear that it will not be leveled anytime soon. “Your business plan for the Schieblock has been successful, so I’m considering taking it over,” the owner begins. He takes a book from his desk drawer and shows us what the building will look like with new lobbies and interiors and a reception area. “Then,” he continues, “I want to build it like this.” “But,” we interrupt, “that means everyone will have to leave the building.” “Not necessarily. Those who can afford it can return.” We leave the meeting astonished by the fallacy that one can refurbish such a building and then ask the tenants back under such conditions.

Mi have een droom poem painted on the Luchtsingel

2014

Using an oldfashioned quill pen and ink, we sign a contract to ensure this area shall escape the harsh principles of gentrification.

177


topview of Luchtsingel traffic circle, photo: Ossip van Duivenbode


2012

THE DAKAKKER

PROJECT #28

The Schieblock’s roof is a green oasis. A carefully devised system of drainage mats, grains, and garden soil paired with the overcapacity of the concrete support construction makes it possible to grow an impressive range of crops in Rotterdam’s city center. As well as being testing ground for urban agriculture experiments, the Dakakker (Roof Field) fulfills an educational and recreational role. The menus of three local restaurants inform the Dakakker’s varied planting scheme. The edible flowers are a hit. The locally produced honey is also a great success, resulting in more beehives.

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227

sunflowers in the sky

Dakakker planting

PROJECT #28

crops on the roof


Dakakker, photo: Ossip van Duivenbode


lko

m

lko

m

XIA

PROJECT #35

We

We

246

XIA


2013

THE NEW FOREST – WUNDERBAUM To activate the roof of Hofplein Station in anticipation of the Luchtpark Hofbogen, performances of dance or music are regularly organized. Wunderbaum theater collective presented a project called “The New Forest” about the creation of a new society. The decor consists of three circular grandstand segments that can be configured to form both an intimate and closed arena as well as a theater that is open to the city. The design takes elements from classical anatomical theatre as well as from Greek open-air theatres, carved from the rocks, thus referring to careful scientific analysis and the cradle of democracy. During the performance, the stage, with the audience, slowly opens, drawing the Rotterdam skyline into the play’s scenery, just as the Greek landscape would have been used two thousand years ago. The idea of a centrally organized democracy is blown open, and a new vision of the next political system is created.

lko

m

lko

m

XIA

PROJECT #35

We

the

ar e

na

op

en

s

a t ow

r ds

the

ci t

y

We

XIA

247


The New Forest by Wunderbaum, photo: Ossip van Duivenbode


PROJECT #44

PHASE 6: The circular section joins the Lucht­singel’s three destinations: Stationskwartier, Hoogkwartier, and Hofbogen. It is where the original Hofplein stood before the war when these three neighborhoods were seamlessly connected. The Hofplein was later relocated nearby as a huge traffic circle. This section echoes the traffic circle but is instead for pedestrians.

PHASE 5: Part of the Luchtsingel goes over a road that crosses under the railroad. Until recently, this underpass and the road under the low viaduct on the Schiekade were this area’s only decent connections to the north.

PHASE 7: Here the Luchtsingel connects to the old city center, descending to the former Delftsepoort, where outlying areas once accessed the city.

PHASE 7

PHASE 5 PHASE 6

PHASE 9 PHASE 9: The final part connects the Luchtsingel with the Luchtpark on the Hofbogen. The ultimate dream is that this will lead to transforming the two-kilometer former railroad viaduct into an elevated park. 266


2014

PROJECT #44

LUCHTSINGEL PHASE 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

PHASE 8

PHASE 8: A bank takes ownership of the adjacent Shell building due to the former owner’s bankruptcy. The bank initially denies permission for a temporary wooden bridge to pass over its property. Since the Luchtsingel already approaches from two directions, leaving a conspicuous gap next to the building, this puts pressure on the bank to finally give their permission.

267


The center and the north of the city, separated since the 1980s, are now connected again.


aerial view of Luchtsingel, photo: Ossip van Duivenbode


Lessons from the Test Site #3

PERMANENT TEMPORALITY

question statements 5th IABR, silkscreen print, design by 75B

Cities have a dynamic nature. Yet architecture and urban planning continue to focus on inscribing ideas into static blueprints. The desire to manage all risks beforehand is stronger than the confidence in the power of direction during the process. Yet it is more the rule than the exception that the context for which designs and plans are made will end up being completely different than originally intended. A master plan, a principal instrument that ignores the complexity and dynamics of reality, is often used. As well as being about reorganizing spatially, urbanism and architecture are also about redesigning a social, economic, and cultural ecosystem. Just like other living systems, the urban system forms itself over time. Therefore, the ability to deal with unforeseen events and uncertainty is an important strength. Sustainable urban development is made possible by leaving things open instead of pinning them down—not instant urban development, but incremental and adaptive urban development. This creates a city of permanent temporality, a city that permanently develops through temporary interventions. 307


BEYOND THE BLUEPR INT When comparing an urb an map from about a hundred years ago to an average master plan from the present, you see that litt le has changed. We still try to capture the cit y and its long-term develop ment in a static blueprint, a two-dimensio nal drawing with a legend containing an ave rage of fifteen elements. The legend of the Basisplan Rotterdam (1946), by Va n Traa, for the cit y’s postwar reconstr uct ion includes no more than ten colors. They fol low modernist principles: red for housing, ora nge for work, blue for public functions, gra y for infrastructure, and green for public spa ce. In the 2007 urban plan for the Rotterdam Central District, we still see a map with only a few items showing the desired functions. Ne ither of these maps ever really came to life, not as a plan nor as a projected urban reality . The maps represent a static two-dimensio nal idea of reality that is unable to accommo date change. The functions are allocated to places where other functions are already acc ommodated at the time of delivery. The pla ns also fall short as a vision of urban reality . In the Basisplan Rotter­dam, it is the separa tion of functions that cuts off all forms of vibrancy. In the urban plan for the Rotte rdam Central District, the area’s vit ality has no t been allocated a place. In its abstract ion, the drawing is so far removed from reality tha t it is unable to get off the paper.

Basisplan Rotterdam 1946 , Van Traa

How can a spatial str uct ure, which we need to plan a general outline for the cit y, provide space for new insights, initiatives, and other agendas? How can the tim e factor be more than the phasing of a pla n and add a dimension with which space can gradually acquire meaning?

Maxwan Central District 2007, Urban plan for Rotterdam

308


JANE LOVES ROBERT A century after the rise of modernism, spatial planning is still dealing with the same dichotomy. On the one hand, there is the civic initiative, the bottom-up movement, asserting itself. On the other, there is the need to make significant top-down efforts to address major issues such as housing and climate transition. This challenge can be traced back to two prominent figures in architectural history: Jane Jacobs and Robert Moses. In 1960s New York, a fierce battle raged between them. Jacobs was an activist who advocated thinking at eye level, choosing the perspective of the local economy, the street—thinking from the bottom. Moses, however, was an author­ itarian bureaucrat who saw the city as large-scale infrastructure. Highways and housing projects would pull the city out of disrepair, and historic neighborhoods and their residents had to give way. Moses envisioned infrastructure, districts, and landscapes. Jacobs recognized a succession of unique places and a lively economy. Both were correct. A city cannot only be realized from the bottom up by the articulate citizen and for the short term. But a city cannot be realized exclusively from the top down by bureaucracy and for the long term either. It is a question of the mutual alignment of these forces for unique places and moments in time. A well-balanced plan can bring these worlds together. The time factor is still often regarded as a technical and generally valid element. And this is where things go wrong. Planning always varies, insights change, and the economy remains unstable, as does politics. Paper is patient and unchangeable, but time passes by. Actors come and go, and over time circumstances and ideas change. This is the

paradox of permanence and temporality. They look like opposite vectors, each with their own dynamics, but in fact, they form each other’s extension. There is no temporality without permanence and vice versa. Nothing is as permanent as temporality. Large developments are not possible without small developments beforehand, and small projects cannot exist without a larger whole. The combination of both is a pre­requisite for sustainable development. But now that the challenges in areas such as housing construction and energy transition are so extensive and evident, the government is no longer able to outline the broad thrust of the issue. Or no longer has the mandate to do so. At the same time, we see a market that cannot provide shortterm answers. The City of Permanent Temporality sets out a different approach to time, space, and actors. The factor of time prevents us from falling into classic bottom and top thinking and plans getting caught between long and short-term approaches. The City of Permanent Temporality introduces a new kind of praxis, a focused thinking-on-yourfeet—which adapts to the moment and is site-­specific—in the midst of a globalizing reality. But how do we put this into practice?

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journal

To our great surprise, all parties react positively within a few weeks.

elevator door in the gallery

mockup of gallery sign

pink is the new black

midnight model making for the V&A exhibition

We project the most important political statements on the wall, to confront our interlocutors with their viewpoints and to encourage discussion.

376

2018

After years of distant dialogue, we send our invite directly to the political world. To our great surprise, all parties react positively within a few weeks, despite the forthcoming municipal elections and consequently overfull diaries. We make a tight schedule and invite every party for a two-hour slot. As well as highlighting the area’s vitality, we want to listen to the motives of the various political parties. To properly prepare, we examine all the election programs to discover which political statements can apply to the developments in the Delftsehof. The statements range from the very general, “we advocate more green spaces in the city center,” to the specific, “keep the area between Delftsestraat and Schiestraat [Schieblock and surroundings] as a ‘Rotterdam Creative District.’” During the conversations, we project the most important statements on the wall, to confront our interlocutors with their viewpoints and to encourage discussion. The night before the first planned visit, there is still work to be done in the gallery. People wearing protective masks spray the last models in the correct color, the animations are prepared, and the space is cleaned. The next morning we receive the first councilors. The gallery’s sliding doors open and we are in the street lobby, packed with posters from the various political parties as well as a survey of all the relevant statements made in the media from the past ten years. This survey shows that discussions about the area’s future have hardly progressed. We take the council members to a fullsize replica of the Schieblock Tower’s elevator door. “This is the elevator of the Schieblock Tower, an ultimately mixeduse building with public functions at the lower level, then offices for emerging entrepreneurs, and on top of this is the Dak­akker, with UV-light equipped greenhouses. Above this, there are family apartments, a nursery, a playground, and a school. On the open floors spread over the tower, there are even more opportunities for public functions. Continuing upwards, at an altitude of 50 to 100 meters, we find DIY lofts with extra high ceilings, where you can develop your own accommodation. From here you have a view over the New Delftsehof and the Culture Wall.” We go through the elevator doors and suddenly find ourselves in a new world. Large projections show the neigh­borhood in its past: the businesses, the prostitution, and the many nightspots and entertainment venues. Various scale models are scattered throughout the space. The museum spotlights give the room an air of expectation. In the middle of the space are four chairs, where we ask visiting councilors to be seated. Today we are sitting with a prominent member of populist political party Leefbaar Rotterdam (Livable Rotterdam). He’d previously opined to the media that the whole area was ripe


for demolition. Despite a bad night’s sleep, it is the conversation we’ve been looking forward to the most. Between us is a coffee table with a 1:4000 scale model of the overall district. The different projections indicate how the area has changed and what is meaningful for the context: “The entire area is, in fact, an exercise in transformation. Even the gleaming towers of the former Nationale Nederlanden insurance company have been emptied, and it is now being redeveloped as a multi-tenant building.” The conversation goes well until we get to the Schieblock, and the councilor starts to rant: “But you sit here in front row seats for just a pittance, and of course this can’t continue. You are a hindrance to the whole development. Artists and the like can find places in cheaper parts of the city.” Fortunately, there is also a model that depicts the whole of Rotterdam. We show it to him and, along with the projections, demonstrate how big the differences are between the north and south sides of the river Maas. In the north, living is usually more expensive with better access to public transport, cultural activities, and high-quality green spaces. In the south, income levels are alarmingly lower. The north, where Rotterdam Central District is situated, has fewer and fewer affordable workplaces. Relocating such spaces would be a disadvantage because it means that the center becomes monotonous and a form of segregation takes place. The councilor remains skeptical until we make it clear that we have also invested 1.5 million euros in helping to transform the Schieblock into a promising incubator instead of leaving it to the wrecking ball. “There are currently about 150 young companies in the area, and that means something for the city and for the future,” we insist. The councilor’s expression changes and seems to show a suggestion of sympathy. We walk over to a large model that visualizes our future dreams. “I think it’s important that all the losses incurred in this area are also recouped here. The 52 million that has gone up in smoke here shouldn’t be a burden on the people of Rotterdam South,” the councilor argues. We very much agree with him. “That’s why we conceived of a tower here that will earn back a large portion of that 52 million,” we assert. We gesture towards a wooden colossus that depicts a large diversity of living and working places. “This is the Schieblock Tower. As you can see, we have removed a large part of the current Schieblock building to attach a tower to it. In doing so, we make it clear that our interests are not just about keeping the Schieblock in its current shape. The renewed facade connects the Schieblock and the tower.” We notice that the direct link between space and economy intrigues the councilor. “In our first rough calculations, the

We go through the elevator door and suddenly find ourselves in a new world.

intense discussions with city council members on the opportunities and threats for the district

2018

politicians in front of their statement about the future of the area

journal

377


2018

SCHIEBLOCKTOREN

PROJECT #65

Rotterdam has many high-rises and, given the current demand for housing in the city center and the growth the city as a whole is experiencing, the Schiekadeblok shouldn’t get left behind. It is crucial that new construction is concentrated in the highest feasible building volumes in order to avoid, as much as possible, the dispersion of new buildings throughout the whole the area. This is precisely what the Schieblocktoren (Schieblock Tower) does. It houses mixed functions: office space at the bottom, a varied residential use in the upper floors, and functions in between that support both offices and residences. The tower replaces a part of the old Schieblock and does so in a historically logical way: it substitutes an extension, stitching old and new together using the original staircase. Furthermore, the column and façade grids of the tower are based on structural rhythms found in the original post-war office block.

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401

PROJECT #65


PROJECT #66

2018

CULTURE WALL The cultural wall clusters hospitality and cultural institutions and offers room for growth not possible in the area’s current configuration by concentrating the noise and visitor impact in one building. The building volume also protects the rear space and buildings against nuisance and the risks associated with the adjacent train tracks, such as the transport of hazardous substances. Because of its flat honeycomb form, the structure functions on both sides as a vast showcase for the building’s different uses.

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405

PROJECT #66


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PROJECT #67


2018

THE INDEPENDENT SCHOOL FOR THE CITY

banner hanging on the facade

PROJECT #67

In one of architect Hugh Maaskant’s seminal buildings at Delftseplein 39, the Independent School for the City was founded together with Crimson Architectural Historians. Over the last two decades, it has become clear that architecture education is frequently ill-suited to the dynamics of reality. While students are increasingly being trained in a particular specialism, in actual fact there are increasing demands for integrality. The Independent School offers a post-graduate year in which students get to know the city’s complexity through studio teaching, seminars, and workshops. Then there is an internship program to which a series of international architecture offices are affiliated, such as Atelier Bow-Wow, Assemble Studio, and Estudio Cruz. ZUS provides this program’s Rotterdam component.

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Lessons from the Test Site #5

INCOMPLETE AND UNFINISHED Epilogue

question statements 5th IABR, silkscreen print, design by 75B

Working on the existing city means continuing a tradition. We can criticize, adapt, improve, and sometimes choose to do nothing. Intervening in a persisting and lived-through part of city is like sculpting a big lump of stone. Little by little, it becomes visible what it should be or what the stone always wanted to be. But the city is more than stone. There are people to consider. They develop activities and thus mold the spatial structure. New insights into how we want to live, work, spend leisure time, and move around are driving forward a process of constant adaptation. It has no end. Sometimes the function adds to the place, but location often adapts to use. The porosity of the urban structure determines how a space can adjust and take on new forms of occupation. 415


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Martijn Leontien Milan Mauro Elin (TIJN) HOUT VAN TIEN IK BEN GELUKKIG! MARTIJN DE GROOT - Spijkenisse IK BEN GELUKKIG! MARTIJN DE GROOT - Spijkenisse IK BEN GELUKKIG! MARTIJN DE GROOT - Spijkenisse IK BEN GELUKKIG! MARTIJN DE GROOT - Spijkenisse IK BEN GELUKKIG! MARTIJN DE GROOT - Spijkenisse Duif <3 Gans Martijn Groenewegen martijn ♥ odette Mrtjn Kk Kim is lief! www.TwistingSpokes.com Voor Suzanne K♥ - L&W quattordiciluglio ∞ Aad & Cora de Jong ∞ ERNST GONLAG ♥ J&M 22/10/2011 ♥ Claudia Marcon Adriano Venudo Boris Huis in ‘t Veld WUNDERBAUM Matthijs & Marloes Nina Valentien Quinten Valentien hieradverteren.nl Martijn & Matthijs Maurits & Johanne MCW Studio’s MCW Studio’s MCW Studio’s MCW Studio’s MCW Studio’s QUINTEN BAIDJOE 12-05-2000 DAMIAN BAIDJOE 23-03-2002 Sailes Meena Quinten Damian Joost ♥ Jolande ♥ Joes Martin & Mei Grafische Praktijken Grafische Praktijken Mike Ramfis Willem Meindert :D Pebbles,Manon & Melvin Menno ♥ Vivian M.d.B. Menno Kattenwinkel Menno ♥ Jorieke Merce De Miguel I Capdevila Hildo & Merel I1 Lor1 +_+ Merel Richter -_+ [^_-] [+_+] [+_-] MMR (*_*) (*_-) Mike en Astrid Donna,Kayleigh,Liam en Callum Michalis Bourgazas Michel + Ann-Charlotte


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Geschwister Spetter <3 Natalie & Alex 18-5-12 Lang leve de brug! Cheesecake Company Ton Los 52 HAMMIE *b*e*n*i*t*a* als sterrenstof VAN MIJ André Mol Hans Lans 50 André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André Sandbergen Tineke Oskam André & Rebecca Gebod 11: heb elkaar lief. * Angela * Britt * Cindy * goed op weg Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management Rotterdam School of Management ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** ***** ANN MAES DESIGN ***** Willem Witteveen Philips LAC Eindhoven kraakmakend.nl kraakmakend.nl kraakmakend.nl kraakmakend.nl kraakmakend.nl Hugo Schoemaker Architectuur Schakels EUR 2010-2011 W A L M A L O Alfred ♥ Anne Alfred ♥ Anne Alfred ♥ Anne Alfred ♥ Anne Alfred ♥ Anne Pietie W. & Yvonne T.

Edith Pieper Beatrijs Tolk en Jos Looise School Psychologische Praktijk Dickie 50 jaar jong Kijk ook omhoog! K&B PAPA 60!Edmee,Jur,Bien 2d vastgoed Thelma van der Hulst 23-06-1993 SUZANNE VAN DER HULST 05-12-1995 2d vastgoed 2d vastgoed ARIANE VAN DER HULST-VAN DIE 24-02-1965 BEN VAN DER HULST 05-11-1962 2d vastgoed BEN VAN DER HULST 05-11-1963 2d vastgoed Spring niet. Vers Beton. BEN VAN DER HULST 05-11-1964 BEN VAN DER HULST 05-11-1965 Spring niet. Vers Beton. BEN VAN DER HULST 05-11-1962 Spring niet. Vers Beton. Spring niet. Vers Beton. Iza 2EMW Spring niet. Vers Beton. www.NulEuroHosting.nl PAKHUIS DE ZWIJGER PAKHUIS DE ZWIJGER De Liefste Gabbertjes. bitdifferent.nl PAKHUIS DE ZWIJGER PAKHUIS DE ZWIJGER bitdifferent.nl bitdifferent.nl PAKHUIS DE ZWIJGER bitdifferent.nl EGGE Public Relations Lia Dekker bitdifferent.nl RiJoLaBoRi Joost de Graaf Eline de Graaf Cunera van den Boorn Bob van Hasselt K.E.E.T. najaar 2011 Rubbish Wolf - S&B Elisabeth&Laurens Elise ft. Floris bootcamp tony John Lucca 24-06-2011 Ray/Eliza Zwankhuizen Puk Apie & Spruitje move rotterdam Ellen Lemson Boudewijn van der Sar Breukers van den Berg Ellen Prins/Pim Boom Dirkse/Huijnink De Prinses op de erwt elly ramirez-pruijn Dirkse/Huijnink Dirkse/Huijnink www.elsfrigge.nl www.elsfrigge.nl Dirkse/Huijnink Dirkse/Huijnink www.elsfrigge.nl architectuur pr reis event? via-bk.nl www.elsfrigge.nl 60 jaar Peter Bartelse pluk de lach Brendan ♥ Andrea 60 jaar Peter Bartelse Mama, we love you! 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ABOUT THE AUTHORS ELMA VAN BOXEL & KRISTIAN KOREMAN Elma van Boxel and Kristian Koreman are the founding partners of ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles]. Since 2001, ZUS practices architecture, urban planning, and landscape design, pushing the boundaries between these different domains. Elma van Boxel studied Landscape Architecture at Larenstein University, Architecture at Greenwich University, and Architecture and Urbanism at the Academy for Architecture in Rotterdam. Kristian Koreman studied Landscape Architecture at Larenstein University and Philosophy at the Erasmus University. Van Boxel and Koreman lead ZUS and regularly teach and lecture at universities worldwide. In 2012 they curated for the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam and were the first lab team members for the BMW Guggenheim Lab, New York. They are Visiting Professors at the Syracuse University School of Architecture, New York. The duo regularly publishes critical articles, letters, and books, including Re-public Towards a New Spatial Politics (2007), 101 Streets – The Implosion of the Public Domain (2014), and this book, The City of Permanent Temporality (2018). The work of ZUS / Van Boxel and Koreman has been widely exhibited, including the Guggenheim, New York, the Venice Biennale, the V&A, London, and the Istanbul Modern, and they had their first retrospective at Museo d’Antioquia in Medellín, Colombia. Their unsolicited advice and interdisciplinary work led to several prizes: the 2007 Maaskant Prize for Young Architects, Architect of the Year in 2012, the Urban Intervention Award Berlin. They were finalists for the European Prize for Public Space in 2016, and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe Award in 2017.

MICHAEL SPEAKS Michael Speaks, Ph.D., is Dean of the School of Architecture and Professor of Architecture at Syracuse University. Speaks was Dean of the College of Design and Professor of Architecture at the University of Kentucky from 2008 to 2013. Former Director of the Graduate Program at the Southern California Institute of Architecture in Los Angeles, Speaks has taught in the graphic design department at the Yale School of Art, and in the architecture schools at Harvard University, Columbia University, The University of Michigan, UCLA, Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, CA, and the Berlage Institute and TU Delft, in the Netherlands. Speaks was founding editor of the cultural journal Polygraph, and former Senior editor at Any in New York, where he also edited the book series, “Writing Architecture,” published by MIT Press. In addition, he served for many years on the editorial advisory board of a+u in Japan, and as a contributing editor for Architectural Record. RORY HYDE Rory Hyde is a designer, curator and writer based in London. His work is focused on new forms of design practice for the public good, and redefining the role of the designer today. He is currently Curator of Contemporary Architecture and Urbanism at the Victoria and Albert Museum, where he curated the exhibition “All of This Belongs to You” (2015) and is co-curator of “The Future Starts Here” (2018), a major exhibition on the future of design. He is part of the team behind “Rapid Response Collecting”, an innovative curatorial project which has been featured widely in the media. His first book, Future Practice: Conversations from the Edge of Architecture (Routledge 2012), was awarded the Australian Institute of Architects prize for architecture in the media. His forthcoming book How to Make the Next City has been awarded a grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, and is due out in 2019. Hyde is also Adjunct Senior Research Fellow at the University of Melbourne; and a Design Advocate for the Mayor of London. MICHELLE PROVOOST Michelle Provoost is a founding partner of Crimson Architectural Historians (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) and director of the Inter­national New Town Institute (INTI). She works as author, curator and consultant in the field of contemporary urban planning and modern(ist) architecture. From 1997-2007 she was a staff member of WiMBY!, an urban regeneration project in Rotterdam-Hoogvliet, realizing housing, parks, schools and exhibitions. In 2003 she wrote her PhD Hugh Maaskant. Architect of Progress on the influential modernist Rotterdam architect Hugh Maaskant.

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From 2008 she has been the director of the International New Town Institute, a non profit think-and-do-tank engaged in research and design projects for new cities, mainly in the fastest urbanizing areas of the world. In 2018 Crimson will launch the Independent School for the City, a one-year, non-accredited postgraduate course for urbanists in the broadest sense of the word. WOUTER VANSTIPHOUT Wouter Vanstiphout is an architectural historian, founding partner of Crimson Architectural Historians (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) and professor of Design as Politics at the Delft University of Technology. From 1997-2007 he was a staff member of WiMBY!, an urban regeneration project in Rotterdam-Hoogvliet, realizing housing, parks, schools and exhibitions. In 2014 he was the curator of the British Pavilion at the Venice Architecture Biennale together with Sam Jacob. His forthcoming book on the relationship between urban riots and town planning will be published by Verso books under the title Damn the Master’s Plan. In 2018 Crimson will launch the Independent School for the City, a one-year, non-accredited postgraduate course for urbanists in the broadest sense of the word. RENÉ BOER René Boer works as a curator, critic and researcher in the fields of architecture, urbanism, heritage and art. He is part of the Amsterdam-based Non-fiction collective, managing editor at Failed Architecture and affiliated with various urban social movements. The research project “Architecture of Appropriation”, which he developed in collaboration with Het Nieuwe Instituut, has been shown in exhibitions in Rotterdam and São Paulo, and will soon be published. Currently, he is setting up an international training program on “grounded urbanism” in collaboration with CLUSTER (Cairo, Egypt), which will take place in both Amsterdam/ Rotterdam and Cairo for the first time in 2019. His research on the “smooth city” further delves into the aesthetics of urban inequality today. MARK MINKJAN Mark Minkjan is an urban and architectural geographer and Editor-in-Chief at Failed Architecture. He is also part of Non-fiction, office for cultural innovation, and has written for numerous publications, including VICE and The Guardian. In 2016, Mark received a talent grant from the Dutch Creative Industries Fund to develop new forms of architecture criticism. Later that year he received the Geert Bekaert Award for architecture criticism. He teaches at Amsterdam’s Academy of Architecture.


COLOPHON ZUS [ZONES URBAINES SENSIBLES] Joan Almekinders, Leonie Ammerlaan, Maialen Andiarena Villaverde, Sophie Anuth, Kinga Bachem, Sam de Baere, Loukas Bakas, Estelle Barriol, Esther Batenburg, Violette Baudet, Jip Beljon, Anne Bell, Gianluca Berardi, Paul van den Berg, Thomas van den Berghe, Andrea Bit, Anne Berkers, Pierre Berthelomeau, Jitske Blom, Veronika Bonora, Alba Calvo Balcells, Desmond Chang, Duncan Chang, Erica Chladová, Carmela Dacchille, Antea Divić, Jan van Duppen, Kim Eun Chung, Jenny Eun Hyung, Martina Germanà, Sarah van der Giesen, Polle van Gijzel, Carmen Gomez Herrera, Danielle Gunnewijk, Steven Hagen, Ignaz Hameetman, Jos Hartman, Xuwei He, Jason Hilgefort, Anne-Wil Hop, Joseph Hughes, Jens Jorritsma, Menno Kattenwinkel, Carlijn Kingma, Christine Kjølhede Larsen, Lysander Klinkenberg, Michael Koller, Patrycja Komada, Zuzana Kopacikova, Lukas Kropp, Piotr Kruk, Pauliene Kruithof, Marin Kulas, Fiona Kydd, Javier Leyba, Hai Lin, Eva Lindsay, Eva Lindeman, Lucia Longoni, Sonja Luesing, Monty de Luna, Pablo Magan Uceda, Naomi Maki, Danny van Muijden, Miguel Nicque, Kelly Noordzij, Maria Daria Oancea, Anna Odulinska, Eric Oh, Reineke Otten, Odilon Ottinger, Marco Pala, Na Ra Park, Cathelijne Pastors, Tim Peeters, Francesca Pelizzaro, Nadia Pepels, Eleanor Peres, Clement Perisse, Simone Pizzagalli, Jolanda van der Ploeg, Robert van der Pol, Francesca Rango, Chantana Reemst, Cristina Rodriguez Alvarez, Michael Rogers, Negar Sanaan Bensi, Tania Sanjurjo, Adam Scales, Thorsten Schneider, Jouke Ratio Sieswerda, Denis Simonis, Izabela Słodka, Alexandra Sonnemans, David Sonntag, Daniel Springer, Thomas Steigenga, Marijn Struik, Lotte Suijker, Paul Swagerman, Evan Taurins, Liviu Teodorescu, Jan Willem Terlouw, Mira Tesselaar, Catinca Tilea, Niels Timmer, Sarah Trap, Nicky Vafaee, Willem van de Ven, Anja Verdonk, Chantal Verhoeven, Andrea Verni, Bas van der Vinne, Oliviero Vitali, Linda van der Vleuten, Christopher de Vries, Marc de Vrij, Richard van der Wal, Anushka Wardenaar, Emily Wettstein, Maciej Wieczorkowski, Patty van Winden, Vincent Wittenberg, Willem Wopereis, Eleftheria Xerou, Gabriela Yordanova

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AUTHORS Elma van Boxel Kristian Koreman GUEST AUTHORS René Boer Rory Hyde Mark Minkjan Michelle Provoost Michael Speaks Wouter Vanstiphout EDITING Catja Edens Cassandra Wilkins Tim Peeters TRANSLATION Jason Coburn Rosie Heinrich GRAPHIC DESIGN 75B ART DIRECTION Paul Swagerman ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS Andrea Bit, Andrea Verni, David Sonntag, Gianluca Berardi, Gabriela Chuecos, Gabriela Yordanova, Izabela Słodka, Eric Oh, Marco Pala, Tim Peeters, Paul Swagerman PHOTOGRAPHERS Blommers / Schumm, Rubén Dario Kleimeer, Ossip van Duivenbode, Fred Ernst, Marc Goodwin, Denis Guzzo, Walter Herfst, Maarten Laupman, Reineke Otten, Inga Powilleit, Marco de Swart, Aad Hoogendoorn, Antim Wijnaendts Van Resandt, Opperclaes, Cameron Blaylock, Robin Utrecht (front cover), ZUS LITHOGRAPHY AND PRINTING Drukkerij die Keure, Bruges PAPER Wibalin Natural, Magno Volume PUBLISHER nai010, Marcel Witvoet

© ZUS / nai010 publishers, Rotterdam, 2019 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For works of visual artists affiliated with a CISAC-organization the copyrights have been settled with Pictoright in Amsterdam. © 2019, c/o Pictoright Amsterdam Although every effort was made to find the copyright holders for the illustrations used, it has not been possible to trace them all. Interested parties are requested to contact nai010 publishers, Mauritsweg 23, 3012 JR Rotterdam, the Netherlands. nai010 publishers is an internationally orientated publisher specialized in developing, producing and distributing books in the fields of architecture, urbanism, art and design. www.nai010.com nai010 books are available internationally at selected bookstores and from the following distribution partners: North, Central and South America Artbook | D.A.P., New York, USA, dap@dapinc.com Rest of the world Idea Books, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, idea@ideabooks.nl For general questions, please contact nai010 publishers directly at sales@nai010.com or visit our website www.nai010.com for further information. Printed and bound in Belgium NUR 648 BISAC ARC000000, ARC015000, ARC010000

City of Permanent Temporality is also available as: City of Permanent Temporality e-book (PDF) ISBN 978-94-6208-479-7 ISBN 978-94-6208-220-5 With kind support of


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City of Permanent Temporality  

From a period of severe crisis and extreme megalomania, a unique piece of city has emerged in Rotterdam. Using unconventional strategies and...

City of Permanent Temporality  

From a period of severe crisis and extreme megalomania, a unique piece of city has emerged in Rotterdam. Using unconventional strategies and...

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